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The tested switchboard, complying l i with ith IEC 60439 60439-1 1
IEC standards are based on the consensus and knowledge find among the best experts in the world.
They provide minimum requirements and test procedures for safe and reliable installation allowing g a high g availability of the electrical energy
To inform the end-user on the state of his installation. To protect the switchboard user against the main risk of accidents (direct contact protection.What is a switchboard used for ? To gather and protect the control and protective devices together with electrical and mechanical connections against external influences. indirect contact protection and fire risk). To evolve with the activity Installations monitoring and control Protection for individuals Electrical power distribution 3 .
installation Safety Reliability Availability Maintenability 4 .The LV electrical switchboard has t be to b safe f and d available il bl It is a question of balance between: y the needs of safety and availability y the constraints of reliability and maintenability of the installation.
IEC 60439 series L Low-voltage lt switchgear it h and d controlgear t l assemblies One general standard : y IEC 60439-1 type-tested assemblies (TTA) and partially type-tested assemblies (PTTA) Four related standards: y y y y IEC 60439 -2 busbar trunking systems (busways) IEC 60439 -3 distribution boards (<250A. unskill people) IEC 60439 -4 assemblies for construction sites (ACSs) IEC 60439 -5 cable distribution cabinets (CDCs) 5 .
complying l i with ith IEC 60439 60439-1 1 .What about the main features? The tested switchboard.
from the typical ASSEMBLY verified to be in accordance with this standard. what about the scope? Scope : Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assembly TTA or PTTA. y Definition : A combination of one or more low-voltage switching devices together with associated control. y TTA : type-tested assemblies conforming to an established type or system without deviations likely to significantly influence the performance. etc. containing both type-tested and non type-tested arrangements provided that the latter are derived (e. regulating equipment. measuring signalling. by calculation) from type type-tested tested arrangements which have complied with the relevant tests.IEC 60439-1. assembly. PTTA : partially type-tested assemblies. A full range of representative configurations have been tested. signalling protective. Some limited configurations may be tested.g. control measuring. PTTA whose rated voltage is ≤ 1000 Vac or 1500 Vdc. completely assembled under the responsibility of the manufacturer with all the internal electrical and mechanical interconnections and structural parts Either a TTA or a PTTA equipment meeting IEC 60439 afford the same quality level 7 ..
.) ) . forms...construction requirements (IP..) y precise test procedures IEC 60439-1: one worldwide standard for all the professionals f of f switchboards.. IK. Reliability Availability Conformity to IEC 60439 provides an insurance on switchboard realization quality Maintenability 8 .The IEC 60439-1 standard gives general rules for switchboards construction Safety Meeting IEC 60439-1 requirements means : y a minimum level of safety y for p people p and equipment q p y to include the low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies for the power distribution and control y precise requirements for .service conditions (temperature (temperature.
g metallic or plastic) method of mounting (fixed or removable) measures of p protection of persons p form of internal separation (to be detailed. dead front. agreement between customer and manufacturer) types of electrical connections of functional units (to be detailed.outdoor) conditions of installation with respect to mobility (stationary . busway) place of installation (indoor .movable) degree of protection (for outdoor IP≥ 3X) type of enclosure (e. agreement between customer and manufacturer) 9 .Classification according to IEC 60439-1 external design (open-type. enclosed.
comprising all the electrical and mechanical elements that contribute to the fulfilment of the same function Incoming Functional u ct o a u unit t Outgoing Auxiliary Example : drawer in a Motor Control Centre switchboard . 10 .IEC 60439-1 : Functional unit Definition : Part of an assembly.
connecting terminals separated from each other and separated from busbars. 3 and 4 introduce additional partitioning within the switchboard y y Form 2: partitioning of busbars Form 3a and 3b: . Following forms 2.functional units separated from each other and separated from the busbars . electrical switchboard of the form 1 type is acceptable. y However this is no longer true without a front plate or other equivalent mean.IEC 60439-1 proposes different type V. y 11 . no particular partitioning is needed.connecting terminals separated from busbars Form 4a and 4b: .functional units separated from each other and separated from the busbars . Forms of secured forms adapted to each situation In most installations. The user shall not access to living parts.
Maintenance people should not be in a dangerous situation. Danger in one part should not expand to other parts e. a screw or a part tool falls in another p 3.g.IEC 60439-1 The forms of internal separation Form 1 Form 2a Form 3a Form 4a Form 2b Form 3b Form 4b 1. e. an arc in one part should not influence other parts 12 .g. Maintenance in one part should not create a dangerous situation in another part e. parts not under maintenance should not create dangerous situation in parts under maintenance 2.g.
Electrical connections for functional units B T Types of f electrical l t i l connections ti of f functional f ti l units it (FU) y F = Fixed y y D = Disconnectable W = Withdrawable Identification y connections are codified with these 3 letters referring to : y 1st : main incoming circuit y 2nd : main outgoing circuit y 3rd: auxiliary circuits 13 .
What about test procedure ? The tested switchboard. complying l i with ith IEC 60439 60439-1 1 .
15 .The tests of standard IEC 60439-1 B They guarantee that the switchboard complies with the necessary standard requirement There are two type of tests: 7 type tests are performed by the manufacturer on one or several configurations: y n°1 temperature rise limits y n n°2 2 dielectric properties y n°3 short-circuit withstand y n°4 protective circuit effectiveness y n°5 clearances and creepage distances y n°6 mechanical operation p y n°7 degree of protection. 3 routine tests are performed by the panelbuilder on each particular switchboard: p y n°8 general inspection y n°9 insulation/dielectric test y n°10 protection measures.
…). or in a manufacturer laboratory. connection system…. 16 . The tests are conducted either in approved laboratories (Asefa. equipped with switchgear and assemblied and installed according to industrial standards. The 7 type tests are carried out on the most difficult and unfavourable system configurations. The assembled and cabled switchboards are made up of their usual components.The 7 type tests performed f by the manufacturer The aim of these tests is to confirm the switchboard characteristics. Kema. Lcie.
Test n°1 (8-2-1): temperature rise limits Test performed by the manufacturer Guarantees the safety and reliability of the switchboard. after a delay allowing a stabilized temperature. by avoiding problems such as: y connection damages y reduction in insulation performances y risk of burn for maintenance operators y electronic components damages y faulty operation of the devices: inopportune release. when each circuit is used at its rated power and when the complete switchboard is loaded with an appropriate diversity factor Result to be obtain y y temperature rise shall not exceed what the different equipment can withstand the temperature of accessible surfaces has to be checked 17 . How to proceed: y to measure the temperature of each equipment.
to avoid problems such as: y electrical arc generation y insulation performance decreasing y connection damages Withstand impulse voltage test and an ac test are performed 18 .Test n°2 (8-2-2): dielectric properties Test performed by the manufacturer Guarantees G arantees the s switchboard itchboard safet safety and reliabilit reliability.
5 < Ipk ≤ 17 20 < Ipk ≤ 40 42 < Ipk ≤ 105 110 < Ipk 19 .. Withstanding the short-circuit currents is: y to avoid danger (rupture and projections of components.Test n°3 (8-2-3): short-circuit withstand Test performed by the manufacturer This test simulates an incident which could occur on site.5 Ipk 75 8.7 2 2.5 1..1 2.) y it also means the installation can be quickly put back into operation after the incident.. Relationship between peak current (Ipk) and short-circuit current (Icw): Ipk = Icw x n RMS value of short-circuit current kA eff/1s (Icw) I ≤5 Icw 5 < Icw ≤ 10 10 < Icw ≤ 20 20 < Icw ≤ 50 50 < Icw n 15 1. arc generation and propagation outside the switchboard.2 Ipk (kA) I k ≤ 7.
Test n°4 (8-2-4): effectiveness of the protective circuit Test performed by the manufacturer The effectiveness of the protective circuit is verified by two tests: y resistance measurement of the connection between the exposed conductive parts and the protective circuits y short-circuit short circuit withstand performed between the protective conductor and the nearest phase conductor. 20 .
14 21 . Creepage distance control: shortest distance along the surface of an insulating material between two conductive parts.Test n°5 (8-2-5): clearance and creepage distances Test performed by the manufacturer Clearance control: shortest distance between two conductive parts.
guaranteeing the longevity of the various mechanisms. 22 . The standard requires 50 operating cycles.Test n°6 (8-2-6): mechanical operation Test performed by the manufacturer Endurance of material.
(IP IEC 60529) Test performed by the manufacturer The tests carried out define the capacity of an equipped switchboard to: y protect persons against contact with live parts y protect t t equipment i t against i t penetration t ti of f solid lid objects bj t and liquids 1st digit: g y protection of persons y protection against solids.5 mm y D: protect against access of a tool Ø 0. 2nd digit: protection against liquids. 23 . Example: IPxxB.1 mm. Additional letter (optional): protection of persons against contact with live parts: y A: protect againts access of the back of the hand y B: protect against access of fingers Ø 12 mm y C: protect against access of a tool Ø 2. the 2 IP digits are replaced by x. IP Note: in case of only protection of persons is needed.Test n°7 (8-2-7): degree of protection (IP.
24 . 3 routine tests performed by the panelbuilder: y n°8 general inspection y n°9 insulation/dielectric test y n°10 protection measures.The 3 tests performed by the panelbuilder These 3 routine tests can be easily and rapidly performed by the panelbuilder: y overall inspection according to the mounting instructions and technical documents (right device ratings. tightening torques) y insulation checking by a dielectric test y checking of protective measures and of the electrical continuity of the protective circuits circuits. They complete the 7 manufacturer type tests and guarantee professionnalism and responsability of panelbuilder.
. especially screwed and bolted connections. C Check of p proper p laying y g of conductors and cables and proper mounting of device.. Check of connections adequate contact. interlocks. effectiveness.Test n°8 (8-3-1): general inspection Test performed by the panelbuilder Check of mechanical actuating elements.. 25 .
Test n°9 (8-3-4): insulation resistance/(8-3-2): dielectric test Test performed by the panelbuilder No arc flash-over or insulator p perforation must be observed between the live parts each other and between the live parts and the conductive structural parts. 26 .
Test n°10 (8-3-3): protective measures Test performed by the panelbuilder Checking of protective measures and of the electrical continuity of the protective circuits for metallic assemblies. bli 27 .
complying l i with ith IEC 60439 60439-1 1 .What about the benefits? The tested switchboard.
following the standard y increase efficiency. easy to show conformity Manufacturer: y products tested in real configurations y detailed instructions for fautless construction.The benefits from IEC 60439-1 IEC 60439-1 provides minimum requirements and test procedures for safe and reliable installation allowing a high availability of the electrical energy Specifiers/consultants: y the certainty to prescribe a switchboard which ensures the level of safety required by the user Panel builder / Installer: Panel-builder y confidence in products and swichboards systems. 29 .
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