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OVERVIEW OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or commercially. The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those businesses, which practice the act of being hospitable; those businesses which are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests. A. Characteristics of Hospitality Industry a. b. c. d. e. Inseparability Perishability Labor-intensive Repetitive Intangibility
B. Components of Hospitality Industry a. Lodging Operations -such as hotels, resorts, motels etc. b. Transportation/ Travel Services -such as taxi, train, and cruise ships, etc. c. Food and Beverage Operations -such as restaurants, bars, etc. d. Retail Stores -such as souvenir shops, etc. e. Activities -such as recreations, festivals, etc. C. Brief History on the Development of Lodging Industry
• Can be traced back to the civilizations of Sumeria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient
Greece, Rome and Biblical Times.
• Two possible explanations why people in ancient times felt required to be
hospitable: they felt that hospitality to strangers were necessary to their religious well-being and having superstitious belief.
• The more logical in our modern thinking explains that providing
hospitality was a result of a “give and take” philosophy.
• The need for a place to stay away from home is as old as the first nomadic
traveler. Trading between two cultures created the need for groups of people to travel often-great distances. 1
• Along these trade routes, certain stopping points became favored out of
necessity. These stopping points became known as junction points that grew into trading centers and eventually evolved into cities.
• Journey segment is the maximum reasonable distance traveled in one day
along trade and caravan routes. At these journey segments, lodging facilities became a need. They were called relay houses in China, khans in Persia, and tabernas in Rome.
• Innovations began to emerge as the history of lodging unfolds. At some
point, innkeepers began to incorporate food and beverage service in their operations.
• Another development was the Roman network of roads that crisscrossed
Europe and parts of Asia and Africa. These roads provided fast and safe routes for travelers.
• The concept of hospitality was changed in 1282 in Florence, Italy. The
innkeepers created a guild or associations that formed hospitality into business.
• The industrial revolution of the mid-1700s created new modes of
transportation that further changed the way people traveled.
The emergence of railroads and later the automobile played large roles in lodging’s history because both dramatically increased the lengths of journey segments for a traveler. As the evolution of lodging continued, new facilities began to emerge as an option for travelers. The wealthy and landed aristocracy of the world began to view the many spare rooms in their castles and estates as sources of revenue. The best example of this can be traced back to the English and colonial inns of the 1700s. The significant difference between the two was that colonial inns offered rooms to anyone who could afford to pay, whereas English inns were most often reserved for the aristocracy. Another difference between the two was that English inns rented out individual sleeping rooms, whereas colonial inns regularly offered large rooms with several beds inside. This meant that English inns could offer 2
private guest rooms, whereas colonial inns were better suited for communal accommodations. • • • The word hotel is the Anglicized version of the French hotel garni, which translates into “large, furnished mansion”. The first lodging facility that can be directly considered a precursor of the modern hotel was the 73 rooms City Hotel built in New York in 1794. It is a significant milestone in the evolution of lodging because its sole purpose was to house guests. All the previous inns were homes first and lodging facilities second. In 1829, Tremont House was built in Boston. This property was another milestone in the early revolution of hotels. It was considered as the first five-star hotel. Highly trained staff, French Cuisine, and luxurious appointed rooms combined to give guests the finest hotel experience available ever to that point in time. Amenities offered by the Tremont House include in-room water pitchers and free soap that was considered revolutionary.
D. Classification of Hotels 1. According to Size: a. Small Scale (under 150 rooms) b. Medium Scale (150 to 299 rooms) c. Large Scale (300 and above) 2. According to Target Market: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Commercial Hotels Airport Hotels Suite Hotels Residential Hotels Resort Hotels Bed and Breakfast Hotels Time-Share and Condominium Casino Hotels Conference Centers Convention Hotels Alternative Lodging Properties
c. Economy / Limited Service 4. e. d. d. According to Location a. Deluxe First Class Standard Economy 7. Owner-operated Owner-managed Independent Franchised Management-contract 5. b. According to Levels of Service / Price a. e. d. Medium-Range Service c. c. b. World-Class Service b. b. c. Business Travel Pleasure Travel Group Travel Buying Influences 6. d. b. Reasons for Traveling a. According to Quality Ranking a. According to Type of Ownership and Affiliation a.3. c. Center City Suburban Resort Airport Highway 4 .
E. Hotel Organization Mission Statement Defines the unique purpose that sets one hotel or Hotel Company apart from others. It expresses the underlying philosophy that gives meaning and direction to hotel policies. A hotel’s mission statement should address the interests of three diverse groups: guests, management, and employees. Objectives Are those ends an organization must achieve to effectively carry out its mission. An objective is more specific than a mission; it calls for levels of achievement, which can be observed and measured. Goals Define the purpose of a department or division; they direct the actions of managers and employees and the functions of the department or division towards fulfilling the hotel’s mission. Strategies Are the methods a department or division plans to use to achieve its goals. Organizational Chart A schematic representation of the relationships between positions within the organization. It shows where each position fits in the overall organization as well as where divisions of responsibility and lines of authority lie. Solid lines on the chart indicate direct-line accountability. Dotted lines indicate relationships that involve a high degree of cooperation and communication, but not direct reporting relationship.
F. Classification of Functional Areas: 1. Revenue vs. Support Centers a. Revenue Centers - those that sells goods or services to guests, thereby generating revenue for the hotel (front office, food and beverage outlets, room service and retail stores). b. Support Centers - these do not generate direct revenue, but provide important backing for the hotel’s revenue centers (housekeeping, accounting, engineering and maintenance, and human resources division). 2. Front-of-the-house vs. Back-of-the-house a. Front-of-the-house - areas that involves guest and employee interaction (front office, restaurants, and lounges). b. Back-of-the-house - areas where interaction between guests and employees is less common (housekeeping, engineering and maintenance, accounting, and human resources). G. Hotel Divisions:
• • • • • • • •
Food and Beverage Division Sales and Marketing Division Accounting Division Engineering and Maintenance Security Division Human Resource Division Rooms Division • Front Office • Housekeeping Other Divisions: • Retail Outlets • Recreation • Casino
Housekeeping – refers to the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and order in a house or a lodging establishment. Efficient managed housekeeping department ensure the cleanliness, maintenance, and aesthetic appeal of lodging properties. The housekeeping department not only prepares, on a timely basis, clean guestrooms for arriving guests, it also cleans and maintains everything in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as the day it opened for business. Housekeeper – one who is responsible for administering housekeeping maintenance, insuring that everything is on order and that all occupants are made comfortable, safe and protected from disease-causing bacteria. A. Types of Housekeeping: 1. Domestic Housekeeping – refers to housekeeping maintenance in a house. Areas covered by domestic housekeeping: bedroom, living room, entertainment room, kitchen, comfort room and others that consist of a convenient house. 2. Institutional Housekeeping – applies to housekeeping maintenance in commercial lodging establishments like hotels, resorts, inns, and apartels. Institutional Housekeeping usually covers the following areas: 1. Guest rooms 2. Hallways and corridors 3. Lobby 4. Public rooms and restaurants 5. Offices 6. Stairways 7. Windows 8. Stores and concessionaire shops 9. Grounds 10. Linen and Laundry area B. Scope of Housekeeping Maintenance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guestroom maintenance. Maintenance of public areas. Maintenance of linen and laundry service. Washing, issuance, repair and inventory of employee’s uniform. Installation, cleaning and maintenance of fixtures and facilities.
which gives a feeling of security and reassurance to guests. 2. D. 5. 12. fabrics and furnishings. 2. 8 . Keeping all corridors clean. clean and inviting. etc. Objectives of Housekeeping Department: 1. 11. Keeping all office areas neat. 14. 3. 10. 3. To protect and maintain the original beauty of the building finishes. 18. Training of its personnel. and free from obstruction. Coordinating pest control services. 9. Securing and keeping accurate records on lost and found items. Cleaning light fixtures and using right wattages. Major Responsibilities of Housekeeping Department: 1. 15. Furnishing adequate supplies of linens. 16. C. 8. Main Functions of the Housekeeping Department: 1. 17.6. Provision of special services like baby-sitting. Being alert to safety hazards and eliminating the condition. Disposing of trash neatly and safely. To provide a clean. which fulfill health law requirements and furnishing protection for the guests. 2. Maintaining of guestrooms on a high standard of cleanliness. Promoting business for the hotel through courteous service to the guest. Properly using and maintaining all equipment needed. safe and comfortable environment. Controlling expenses to assist the hotel in operating profitably. Reporting any repairs needed and seeing that these repairs are made as promptly as possible. Providing records that are necessary for efficient operation. safe. cleaning aids and printed materials. 5. 6. 13. Practicing sanitation methods. polishing shoes. Making sure that services and employees areas are kept clean and orderly. 4. To extend friendly and courteous service to all guests and to all staff members of the hotel. Requisition and control of necessary supplies and equipment. 4. To operate with a conscious and cooperative effort towards the company. 3. To train staff members of the hotel in housekeeping services. Cleaning and maintenance. 6. which could cause injury to the guest. 4. To conform to sanitation requirements of health laws. uniforms. Practicing cleaning methods that help retain the original beauty of the hotel. E. Paperwork. 7. Keeping all public areas clean and inviting.
Favorable Worker’s Behavior: Enthusiastic Caring Flexible Sensitive Encouraging Positive Open Non-Judgmental Communicator Team Player Innovative Dependable Fair Organized Patient Facilitator Respectful Adaptable Ethical Takes Charge Pro-Active Assertive Self-Motivated Service-Oriented Meticulous Not Superstitious Does not Discuss Controversial and Issues Willing to Accept Challenges Credible Does Not Take Personally Tactful Creative Ability to Make Quick Decisions Ability to Influence Diplomatic Ability to Work Under Pressure 9 .
• HOUSEKEEPING ORGANIZATIONAL CHART For Large Establishments: Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager Roomskeeping Supervisor Roomboy Public Area Supervisor Houseman/ Utility/Maintenance Pest Control Technician Gardener/ Grounds Maintenance Linen & Laundry Supervisor Linen Attendant Chambermaid Laundry Attendant Mini-Bar Attendant Valet Runner Steam Presser/ St Ironer • For Smaller Establishments: Housekeeping Supervisor Assistant Housekeeping Supervisor Room Attendant or Roomboy and Chambermaid Houseman and Powder Girl Linen and Laundry Attendant Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew 10 .III.
Formulates goals and targets as well as plans and strategies geared towards goal attainment. Determines the operational requirements of his/her department and coordinates with the Purchasing Department for the procurement for the said items. Take corrective action for any problem affecting the operation in his department attends to customer complaints coordinates with department concerned for remedial action. 5. Organizational Functions 1. Regularly conducts spot checks and routine inspection to ensure that housekeeping standards are complied with. A. Organizes the flow of housekeeping operations: • Identifies tasks to be done and distributes them to his staff • Review/upgrades job description and job procedures • Reviews/upgrades operational policies as needed 2. Executive Housekeeper or Housekeeping Manager Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining a smooth and efficient flow of operations in the Housekeeping Department. 11 . 6. Analyze variances against targets and deviations from standards and take corrective action. Delegates side duties to subordinates. C. Conducts job orientation and training of housekeeping personnel.Distribution of Housekeeping Responsibilities: Housekeeping tasks are distributed to housekeeping personnel who are designated to perform the following functions and responsibilities: I. 4. sees to it that housekeeping maintenance is carried out in accordance with prescribed standards and policies. 3. Leading and Directing Functions 1. Calls for and presides over operations meetings with supervisors to discuss and resolve operational problems. B. 2. Prepares and submits operations budgets and monitors consumption against budget. Planning and Problem-Solving Functions: 1. 2.
Conducts routine inspection to check the quality of room make up. solicits feedback and attends to customer needs. II. E. Checks customer satisfaction. 9. initiates requisition as needed. Coordinates closely with Front Office on room status and room bookings as well as changes in room assignments and reservations. ensures conformity to prescribed Roomskeeping standards and policies. 5. Prepares and submits reports required by management such as critical incidents reports. 3. Coordinates with the Facilities and Maintenance Section on matters requiring repair or trouble shooting of equipment and room facilities. Boost employee morale and motivation through the effective use of motivational techniques. Maintains par stock requirements. budget variance report. makes sure that the rooms are installed with standard room 12 . Coordinates periodic inventory of housekeeping items and supplies. conducts corrective interview as needed. Evaluates subordinates performance and conducts appraisal interview’ 4. Sees to it that house rules and housekeeping policies are carried out by the respective units under him. Performs other related functions as maybe assigned by superior. inventory report and other documents. 3. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Handles guest complaints and takes corrective action. installation of mini-bar and other room amenities. Controlling Function 1. storage and maintenance. Enforces disciplinary action against erring employees. Provides supervision and coaching to section heads. 2. takes appropriate action against excessive consumption. 6. Rooms Maintenance Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls rooms keeping activities including room make up. 8. 2. 5. 4. Controls and monitors expenses against the budget.3. looks after their proper use. Looks after the wear and tear of equipment. D. keeps track of losses and breakdown of equipment. Guest Relations 1. 7.
checks the quality of cleaning and maintenance and ensures that the area is free of safety hazards. 9. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action. coaches and supervises room boys and chambermaids. 8. Regularly checks the condition and maintenance of housekeeping equipment. III. Checks order in all areas and makes sure that fixtures and furnitures are installed in the right location. 11. 13 . storage and maintenance of linen and cleaning equipments as well as housekeeping tools and supplies. 12. 4. Initiates and supervises the weekly inventory of room supplies and other Housekeeping items entrusted to his unit. 10. with Maintenance Unit regarding requests for repairs or maintenance. storage. Checks and maintains par stock. Trains. 13. Also checks if there is anything that needs repair or corrective action. 3. 6. Conducts regular inspection of the different public areas. 3. Looks after the proper use.amenities and that the area is free of safety hazards. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. 2. and maintenance of cleaning equipment as well as housekeeping tools and supplies. Personally attends to VIP guests and their requirements. Coordinates with Front Office regarding changes in room status and bookings. 7. Monitors and supervises the proper use. Head Houseman or Public Area Supervisor Basic Function: Directs and controls all activities concerning public area maintenance and ensures conformity to prescribed housekeeping standards and policies. prepares and distributes room status report to Front Desk and to room attendants. Initiates service request for defective items. conducts appraisal interview. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Have them cleaned regularly. 5. Inquiries and requests. Maintain quality housekeeping in all public areas paying special attention to cleanliness. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. orderliness and safety in all covered areas. Sees to it that his superior is informed of all unusual incidents and accidents in his area of responsibility. Attends to guest complaints. 4. 2. Checks rooms status during room check. Makes requisition whenever needed. Attends to the performance evaluation of his subordinates.
Reports and surrenders all lost and found items to supervisor. IV. • Checks the condition of all guestroom facilities and fixtures and reports any defect to supervisor for corrective action. Checks and maintains par stock requirements. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 2. 14 . Reports all unusual incidents and complaints of house guests. 5. 6. Performs turn-down service if scheduled for the second shift. 9. 8. Evaluates the performance of his subordinates and conducts appraisal interview. • Looks after the orderly make-up of the room. Reports to management all unusual incidents and accidents in the public areas. Checks equipment regularly for their condition. and supervises his staff. • Changes/ empties waste baskets or garbage cans. 11. Looks after the proper use. fixtures following standard cleaning procedures. Makes requisition to replenish supplies. carpets. 10. Roomboy. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. 3. 7. 4. Reports damages to supervisor for corrective action. bed and the bathroom. Have then cleaned regularly and repaired when out of order. unauthorized entry of suspicious persons in guestrooms as well as guests who are sick or in critical condition. • Sanitizes toilets and bathrooms using sanitizing chemicals. Trains. Chambermaid. maintenance and storage of cleaning equipment. Looks after the maintenance of cleanliness. • Collects all used/ soiled linen and replenishes them with fresh ones. 7. or Room Attendant Basic Function: Attends to the maintenance and upkeep of all guestrooms and service areas assigned to him/ her. Assists in the inventory of guestroom supplies and linens. Attends to the needs and additional requests of house guests. • Installs and replenishes standard room amenities in their appropriate location. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. orderliness and sanitation in his assigned guestrooms: • Clean walls. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of cleaning supplies and other housekeeping items allocated to his unit. 6. coaches.5. safety hazards and items needing repair or replacement.
from different floors/guest areas. 11. Conducts fumigation of assigned guestrooms as needed. Takes note of salable and non-salable items to have a more accurate basis for requisition and ordering of stocks. Checks sales records from time to time to determine accuracy of records. inventory – taking. occupied and check-out rooms. Assists in the promotion of mini bar items. 15 . 12. 10. Coordinates also with other staff like Bell Service in collecting bills of guests and hotel skipper. replenishing. Prepares and submits daily accomplishment and consumption report to his/ her supervisor. Mini Bar Runner/ Mini Bar Attendant Basic Function: Responsible for performing mini – bar installation. Checks and collects mini0bar receipts in all guestrooms.8. 2. 14. Maintains par stock of mini bar items. Conduct mini-bar inventory.. 16. stocking. informs supervisor of slow moving and non-moving items. cans. Determines availability and non-availability of mini-bars stocks and updates accordingly the individual receipts distributed in guestrooms. 9. 9. 5. 6. 8. Records mini bar consumption per room and prepares a sales report. Coordinates with Front Office Cashiers for the billing of late charges. 7. and guestrooms. 3. V. inventories and billing. Cleans and dusts mini-bar bottles in vacant guestrooms. 10. listing. 11. initiates requisition to replenish used stocks. Monitors sales and movement of stocks. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his or her supervisor. Promptly prepares billing of mini-bar consumption giving priority to rooms occupied by guests who are about to check out within the day. etc. 15. Collects empty or consumed mini-bar bottles. requisitioning and other related functions. Assists in the inventory of stocks in housekeeping stockroom as well as in all vacant. 4. Assists his supervisor in conducting room check. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. pantries. Explores to the incoming attendant all un-replenishment minibars in guestrooms to make sure that all scheduled replenishments for the day will be accomplished as scheduled. 13.
urinals. condition and arrangement of fixtures in his area of responsibility. b. Collects and disposes garbage and litters. exhaust and glass panels. Prepares daily accomplishment report and submits them to supervisor. 9. g.17.. 16 . Polishes/ dusts of all fixtures. Returns spoiled stocks before the end of each month and submits report to supervisor or the Cost Control section. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior. sees to it that they are clean and properly installed. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. busted bulbs. 5. VI. 18. Double checks the expiration dates of items for prompt replenishment. etc. clogged floor drain. f. Sweeps/ scrubs/ polishes floors and walls. and toilet bowls. Performs other duties as may be assigned. Cleans and sanitizes public comfort rooms under his area. Houseman Basic Function: Responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of cleanliness and orderliness in public areas assigned to him. defective sinks. 10. c. 6. 20. soap. storage and maintenance. 7. 8. Cleans and sanitizes all areas assigned to him following standard cleaning procedures: a. defective locks. Cleans ceilings. ceiling leaks. e. Secures cleaning supplies. d. etc. Vacuums/shampoos carpets and upholstered furniture. torn carpets. Reports guest complaints to his supervisor as well as suspicious objects or persons. Conducts fumigation in the absence of a pest control technician. Coordinates closely with Front Office regarding rooms on cash-basis to be able to pull out mini-bar stocks and also to obtain the check-out list for each day. Changes/ cleans ashtrays. following standard cleaning procedures. 3. 19. 2. toilet tissues. turns-over to him all lost-andfound articles. Reports all noted damages and out-of-order facilities in his area of responsibility including defective cleaning equipment. cracks on walls. Replenishes guest supplies in public comfort rooms like paper towels. 4. Disinfects toilet bowls. materials and equipment and looks after their proper use. Checks the location.
Performs daily sweeping and cleaning of grounds following standard cleaning procedures. Maintains the landscape. soap. Powder Girl Basic Function: Responsible for the cleaning. Assists in the issuance of linens if available. checks for leaking faucets. Regularly checks trash and empties garbage bins from time to time. 5. scouts for new ornamental plants. 2. etc. insures that everything is in order. defective tiles. paper towels. Maintains a par stock of cleaning supplies and makes requisition to replenish stocks. • Scrubs. Checks the condition of fixtures and toilet facilities. Assists in other cleaning or housekeeping job when not loaded.. weed out dried leaves. 17 . etc. • Polish chrome and metal fixtures like faucets. 8.VII. Regularly cleans ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms following standard cleaning procedures: • Disinfects toilet bowls. 4. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. shower. • Dispose garbage. Gardener and Grounds Maintenance Crew Basic Function: Responsible for maintaining the grounds including the plants and landscape. Retouches the cleaning of comfort rooms from time to time. 6. wipe dry floor and wall tiles. 5. VIII. and reports any defect to her supervisor. Looks after the care of plants. wash and dry garbage bins 3. prunes leaves. • Fumigate the area as needed. Replenish toilet amenities like toilet paper. 3. Performs cultivation of plants through planting and other techniques. Maintains supplies for plants and grounds maintenance and makes requisition to replenish stocks. 7. cleans. etc. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. 9. care and maintenance of ladies comfort rooms and locker rooms. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. 2. 4. apply fertilizer.
7. 5. Checks possible sources and causes of the proliferation of pests and insects. 18 . IX. motorpool and other related areas. May perform side duties like maintenance of cleanliness of the pool area. fountains. Duties and Responsibilities: 1. Performs fumigation in accordance with prescribed procedures. makes report and recommendations to remedy the situation. Searches for areas where pests and insects proliferate and perform the necessary fumigation. 2. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. 6. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior.6. 3. Pest Control Technician Basic Function: attends to the prevention and control of pests through preventive and corrective techniques. Looks for patches or holes and other entry points of insects and takes corrective action. 4. façade. gardens. Maintains stocks for pest control and looks after their safekeeping.
6. a chemical that could cause burns on contact with the skin is an acute hazard. dust ruffles.the use of a damp (not wet) mop for spot cleaning of spills and overall cleaning of light dirt from floors. Buffing .the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a high-speed (350+ rpm) floor machine to achieve an extremely high gloss (wet look) surface. Bed and Bath Linen . Involves moving heavy furniture. Chronic Hazard .something that could cause harm over along period. Bedding . a chemical that could cause cancer or organ damage with repeated use over a long period. bath towels.items such as sheets. 19 . This technique is not intended to remove heavily embedded dirt or old floor finish. 3.something that could cause immediate harm. pillow quilts. 8. mattress pads. HOUSEKEEPING TERMINOLOGIES Acute Hazard . Burnishing . Damp Mopping . shams.IV.intensive or specialized cleaning undertaken in guestrooms or public areas. and bed spreads. turning mattresses. 9. for example. and that at no extra cost. hand towels. Deep Cleaning . Amenity . Daily Work Assignment Sheet .all bed linens such as sheets and pillowcases. washcloths.the act of polishing the surface of a floor with a low-speed (175-350 rpm) floor machine. 5. and other cleaning functions 2. 10.a document that geographically defines physical areas of a facility and assigns responsibility for cleaning among the various departments of a hotel or hospitality organization. comforters. 7. and cloth bath mats. high dusting. 4. vacuuming draperies and curtains. coverlets.a service or item offered to guests or placed in guestrooms for convenience and comfort. and all blankets. Area Responsibility Plan. usually developed from the division of work document. 1. Often conducted according to a special schedule or on a special project basis. pillowcases. 11.form that indicates special work tasks required for a given day and are assigned to a specific worker. For example.
Double – Locked . Emergency Key . 20 .an occupied room for which the guest has refused housekeeping service by locking the room from the inside with a dead bolt. Equal to the weight of the face fibers in one square yard of a carpet. Floor Par . and cloth hangers. Guest Essentials . 20. Finishes come in waxbased or polymer types. Face Weight .a key which opens all guestroom doors.yarns which form the pile of the carpet. razors. Face Fibers .guest supplies that guests would normally be expected to use up or take away upon departure. 21.not normally performed in the day-to-day servicing of a guestroom.the measure of a carpet’s pile.guest supplies not normally found in a guestroom but available upon request. Early Makeup . Examples include stationery. ironing boards.guest supplies that are essential in guestrooms but that the guest would not normally be expected to use up or remove upon departure. or must be. Finish .a liquid applied to floors that dries to a protective coating and enhances the appearance of the floor. Double-locked rooms cannot be accessed by room attendant using a standard pass key. 12. Dilution Ratio . 18. 22. 15.the quantity of each type of linen that is required to out-fit all rooms serviced from a particular floor linen closet. toilet tissue and soap. Examples include hair dryers.comparison of the amount of water that is. Synonymously with general cleaning. ice buckets.a room status term indicating that the guest has reserved an early check-in time or has requested his/her room to be cleaned as soon as possible. For example. 14. a 20:1 dilution ratio means 20 parts water to a 1 part cleaning agent. Guest signs a receipt and specify a time that the item may be picked up by the housekeeping department. Guest Loan Items . and irons. Examples include water glasses. 17. 13. added to a specific cleaning agent that is recommended for a specific cleaning task. 19. Guest Expendables . even when they are double-locked. 16.
etc. ceramic tile. 32.any published company-wide rule for which violation can result in immediate discharge. Guest Supplies . 27. 28. Typically located on the top shelf of the room attendant’s cart. marble. 21 . and transporting cleaning supplies. Guestroom Key. but also the least resilient.a portable container for storing. razors roll-away bed or baby crib.the total number of each type of linen that is needed to outfit all guestrooms one time. 30. Hand Caddy . Housekeeper’s Report .OSHA’s regulation requiring all employers to inform employees about possible hazards related to chemicals they use on the job. room status reports.23. Linen Room . and/or on-change. Specifies what rooms are ready for occupancy.floors made from natural stone or clay. Compilation of all results obtained from afternoon room checks conducted on the entire guestroom. 29.supplies specifically needed because guests are staying in a hotel. such as for extra towels. assembles and organizes cleaning supplies. and other natural stone. and checks out at the end of his/her shift. Housekeeping Status Report . hair dryers. House Rule . Also referred to as one par of linen.area in a hospitality operation which is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. 25. Guest Request . receives room assignments. These floors are among the most durable of all floor surfaces.a report prepared by the housekeeping department which indicates the current housekeeping status of each room. Types of hard floors include concrete. 31. This is the area where the employee typically reports to work. and terrazzo. HAZCOMM Standard (Hazard Communication Standard) . Hard Floor . based on a physical check. 24. House Setup . occupied by guests.any special request not normally included in the regular servicing of a guestroom.a key which opens a single guestroom door if it is not double-locked.a report made daily to the front desk by the housekeeping department and signed by a manager indicating the correct status of all guestrooms. holding. and keys. 26. 33.
22 . 35. pH Scale . and work order initiation. It can be made from a number of natural and synthetic materials. Preventive maintenance consists of inspection. Pile . 39. 41. 37. 36. flaring. Maintenance Work Request Form .a three-part document used for repairs. a pH of 7 is neutral. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) .a scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance to the scale. Preventive Maintenance . Maintenance Checklist . Pile Distortion .a broad set of rules that projects workers in all trades and professions from a variety of unsafe working conditions. pilling.34.a form containing information about a chemical that is supplied by the chemical’s manufacturer.a layer of material placed under carpet to increase resiliency. acids have values of less than 7 to 0. 42. Master Key .a key which opens all guestroom doors which are not double-locked. Mitering .document used as a guide in the performance of a maintenance inspection. Padding .the surface of a carpet. minor corrections. Occupancy Report . The results are sometimes referred to as “square corners” or “hospital corners”. 40.a report prepared each night by a front desk agent which lists rooms occupied that night and indicates those guests expected to check out the following day. consists of fibers or yarns that form raised loops that can be cut or sheared. Form allows for the control and processing of work and the recording of man-hours and materials involved in the repairs performed. is transmitted to the engineering department. or matting caused by heavy traffic or improper cleaning methods.a systematic approach to maintenance in which situations are identified and corrected on a regular basis to control costs and keep larger problems from occurring. 44. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) . 43. and alkalies have values of more than 7 to 14. 45.a method for contouring a sheet or blanket to fit the corner of a mattress in a smooth and neat manner. 38.face fiber condition such as twisting.
56. Room Status Discrepancy . 52. 50.a detailed process in which guestrooms are systematically checked for cleanliness and maintenance needs. Room Attendant’s Cart . and wood. cleaning guestrooms. Resilient Floors . Routine Maintenance – activities related to the general upkeep of the property that occur on a regular (daily or weekly) basis. Room Inspection . These activities occur outside of a formal work order system and include such tasks as sweeping carpets. scrub. Generated daily through a two-way communication between housekeeping and the front desk. 54. rubber.the part of the carpet to which face fibers are attached and which holds these fibers in place.floor care equipment that accommodates both brushes and pads to perform such carpet cleaning tasks as dry foaming cleaning.activities related to the upkeep of the property that are initiated through a formal work order or similar document. On hard floors. rotary spin pad cleaning.the part of a carpet that is laminated to the primary backing to provide additional stability and more secure installation. 53.46. 51. Primary Backing . 23 . linen. or bonnet and brush shampoos. etc. wheeled vehicle used by room attendants for transporting cleaning supplies.a type of floor that reduces noise and is considered easier to stand or walk on. Secondary Backing . and equipment needed to fulfill a block of cleaning assignments. 47. 49. and require relatively minimal training or skills to perform. linoleum.a report which allows the housekeeping department to identify the occupancy condition of the property’s rooms. washing floor. these machines can be used to buff. Scheduled Maintenance .a situation in which the housekeeping department’s description of a room status differs from the room status information at the front desk.a lightweight. Rotary Floor Machine . mist pad cleaning. and refinish. 48. Spray Buffing . Types of resilient floors include vinyl. Room Status Report . 55. burnish.the application of a finish solution while polishing a floor’s surface to retouch worn spots and to restore a glossy look to the floor’s surface. strip. asphalt.
V. tools and equipment will help the hospitality provider an utmost service to its guests and therefore attaining its goal and objectives.a special service provided by the housekeeping department which a room attendant enters the guestroom in the early evening to restock supplies. tidy the room. All housekeeping tasks need the use of the right tool for the right job. and its sanitation as well. Cleaning supplies and small cleaning equipment items are part of the nonrecycled inventory in the housekeeping department. CLEANING SUPPLIES. The executive housekeeper must work with all members of the housekeeping department to ensure the correct use of cleaning materials and adherence to cost-control procedures. and turn down the guest bed. CHEMICALS AND EQUIPMENT Good housekeeping requires high standard of cleanliness or the absence of dirt. TOOLS. Familiarization on the following cleaning supplies. Controlling inventories of all cleaning supplies and ensuring their effective use is an important responsibility of the executive housekeeper.57. These supplies are consumed or used up in the course of routine housekeeping operations. Turndown Service . Cleaning Material: Uses and characteristics when 24 . or the absences of disease-causing organisms like bacteria.
stainless steel.” Stainless steel buckets are the most expensive. but more expensive. Wringers are made out of either Wringers • 25 . making them permanently “grungy. The second row will have fine. The front row will have heavy-duty bristles designed to remove stubborn. Round buckets track in a straight line when pushing them down hallways while oval buckets tend to wander. sideways and downward. but they scratch.Brooms: Soft Broom Stick Broom Push Broom Corn Broom Mop Buckets • purchasing: • The role of a broom is to remove large particles of soil from hard and resilient floors. and dirt builds up in the scratches. Mop wringers squeeze in one or two directions. Many good push brooms have a steel brush hood that allows the operator to change worn brushes. For washing and rinsing a two-bucket system saves valuable labor costs. Good push brooms will have two rows of bristles. large particles of dirt and debris. Plastic buckets do not rust and they are the most inexpensive to make. split tip. Well-designed buckets have threeinch casters and rubber bumpers to protect furniture and walls. Mop buckets range in size from 16 quarts up to 50 quarts. Downward wringers are better. and structural foamed plastic. Buckets are made out of three basic materials galvanized steel. The best have no seams. bristles designed to remove fine particles of dirt and debris. The most popular sizes are 26 quarts and 35 quarts.
Wringers can be purchased by size or in a “one-size fits all” size. but it wears out much faster than the metal wringers. Dust mops should be treated at the end of the job. Dust mops range in size from 12-inch to 60-inch widths. are more durable. Rayon/ cotton blends are an excellent compromises. or a rayon/cotton blend.” Wet Mops • Mop heads can be made of cotton. not the beginning. Dust mops can be made of cotton or synthetic yarns. Daily dusting helps to protect the floor’s finish by removing small abrasive particles that erode the finish. Wash wet mops after each use and do not apply bleach to the mop. rayon.steel or plastic. Cotton mops are normally treated with chemicals that attract and hold particles. Plastic is less expensive. Wet mops can be purchased in a variety of colors for color-coding purposes. Dust mops are meant to be used daily to remove dust and small particles of soil from the floor. Choose mops that are loop-end rather than cut-end. and do not lint. bleach will speed the disintegration of the fibers. Rayon is best for the application of floor finishes. • Dust Mops • 26 . All quality mops have a tailband that helps the mop to spread evenly and retain its shape. Cotton is the best for scrubbing and is the most economical material. Oil treatments should be avoided because they can strain stone and wood floors. Loop-end mops hold liquids better. in order to allow the treated mop to dry.
Pads are made from either natural or synthetic fibers. The housekeeper’s cart is a most Squeegees: Floor Squeegee Window Squeegee • • Pads. Used for stocking cleaning supplies and chemicals so as to make cleaning easier and faster. metal. Floor machine brushes are used to shampoo carpets. Floor machines and burnishes use floor pads. Disposable mops last for approximately 100. Handles are available in 54-inch. Floor pads have a universal color code so that users can tell at a glance if they are using the right pad for a particular application. and plastic and come with a variety of features. Bonnets are made of yarn and are intended to be used on a floor machine to spray clean carpets. Bonnets and Brushes • Housekeeper’s Cart • • 27 . The fibers are synthetic. Quick change clamps are one welcome options. Mop Handles • Mop handles can be made from wood.000 square feet. from telescoping handles that enable a worker to clean a third story exterior window without the aid of scaffolding or a ladder. 60-inch. Used to remove excessive water from the surface and corners. bonnets. to U-joints that allow a worker to squeegee a window at an angle. It also speeds up the drying process.Synthetic yarns do not need to be treated and may be the best alterative in many instances. Floor squeegees have a much heavier rubber than window variety. Window squeegees come with a number of attractive features. and brushes. and 63-inch lengths.
These bumpers should not leave unsightly marks if they come in contact with walls. strip floor finishes. There should be a bumper guard that surrounds the cart that will protect the corridor walls and door casings. 18. Vacuum • Single-Disk Floor Machine • 28 .) Since the cart is large and may be heavily loaded. This machine can scrub floors. it must be maneuverable and capable of being pushed by some one weighing less than 100 pounds. The solution lies in quality caster and ball-bearing wheels. polish floors.• • • significant piece of equipment. Used to eliminate loose dirt and dust particles from carpet surface. storage for a maid’s vacuum. and a top that is partitioned for small items. There should be one cart for each section of rooms. and shampoo carpets. facilities to handle soiled linen sacks and rubbish sacks that are detachable. These cart must be large enough to carry all of the supplies that the section housekeeper might readily be expected to use in the workday (repeated trips to the main or satellite linen room for two extra sheets or three more glasses is distracting and will decrease work efficiency. Machines are available in 17. upholstered furniture and even hard surfaces. Carts should have three deep shelves. spray buff floors. Quality housekeeper’s carts are maneuverable with fixed wheels at one end and castered wheels at the opposite end. sand wood floors.
500 rpm. but they operate between 350 rpm and 2. A large machine will cover an area faster. A single-dish floor machine will operate between 175 rpm to 350 rpm. They were developed to polish the new harder floor finishes that had been recently introduced into the market.• • Burnishers or Ultra-High-Speed Buffers • • • • • • 19. the pad of a UHS buffer does not rest entirely upon the floor. Propane models are noisy. 20 and 21-inch models. Many models have caster wheels in the front of the machine to distribute the weight. These machines will accommodate pads. UHS buffers operate in a straight line. Another piece of equipment used by the section housekeeping aide is some sort of conveyor whereby rubbish and other materials may be moved from various sections of the hotel to a disposal area. When selecting a standard singledish scrubber. Trash-Handling Equipment • 29 . There are battery and propane models that enable the operator to cover vast areas without the need for troublesome electric cords. brushes. they create noxious fumes. while traditional scrubbers operate from side to side. do not select too small a scrubber. Unlike single-disk floor machines. Only the front part of the pad comes into contact with the floor. and bonnets. and they present a possible fire hazard. thus reducing labor costs. the rest of the weight is distributed to the wheels. Resembles like a single-disk floor machine.
leather and imitation leather surfaces. wickerwork. etc. For polishing metal surfaces like bathroom fixtures. Used with mops for cleaning floors. For cleaning toilet bowls. For dusting wooden and painted parts of the area. For brushing away dusts from rough surfaces such as rattan. It is designed to dry foam shampoo the carpets. Color coded pads that is used to scrub (green) and clean painted surfaces. Used to underline garbage containers so that wet garbage does not penetrate into the corners or surfaces. walls and other parts of the building. To polish wood surfaces. marbles. Also used for cleaning tiles. just press the handle and push towards the dirt to vacuum sweep the carpet. mirrors. Used for drying bathroom walls and floor tiles after they are cleaned. For cleaning fine surfaces.Carpet Sweeper • Carpet Extractor • Scouring Pads • Dusting Cloths • • Used to pick-up dirt and particles from the carpet. and porcelain (white). It removes dirt that sticks to or penetrates into the carpet layers. a situation that causes odor and proliferation of bacteria. For picking up dirt and cigarette buffs on ashtrays. Cleaning Towel Polishing Cloths • • • Hand Brushes Toilet Bowl Brush Tongs • • • Trash Bags Sponges Buckets • • • Wood Polish/ Furniture Cleaners and Polishes 30 .
To be used only for removing cement or plastic remains from floors.• • Insecticides • • • Normally wax or oil-based products that contain antistatic compounds. ink. Formulated to remove grease. Used to remove foul odor in guestrooms. Methylated Spirit Deodorizers / Air Freshener Carpet Stain Remover • • Disinfectant Metal Cleaners and Polishes Lacquer or Paint Thinner Muriatic Acid • • • • • Wax Stripper • • Degreaser 31 . loosen and strip off tough old waxes. etc. oil. For stain or spot removal on carpets. sink. carbon. This is not advisable for toilet bowls since it is very strong and it can damage the tiles. soils. and other areas that are most vulnerable to bacterial contamination. which serves to replenish the moisture that is lost from the wood. The best polishes contain lemon oil. urinals. For polishing all glass surfaces such as mirrors. For polishing brush copper and metal surfaces. Formulated to break up. Dilution will depend on the thickness of cement or plastic remains. Used to remove lacquer or paint from hard surfaces. For fumigation to eliminate insects/pests. dirt. mildews. comfort rooms or any area with foul odor. Used to disinfect toilet bowls. windows.
Alkalies in all-purpose cleaners typically have a pH between 8 and 9. wood and resilient floors. They also have disinfecting powers. Emulsion Wax • A buffable wax used for resilient floors like vinyl. Solvents are made from pine oils.5. or oil. kerosene. and rubber tile and for concrete floors and marble. tar. Used to remove mineral deposits Polymer Sealer • • • • • • Solvent Wax Paste Wax Drain Cleaners Detergents All-Purpose Cleaners Abrasive Cleaners • Solvent Cleaners • • Alkalies • • • Delimers • 32 . Used to clean surfaces that are badly soiled by grease. a quartz dust that can scratch glass). Alkalies in cleaning agents boost the cleaning ability of detergents.and waxes. For polishing stone floors. A multi-purpose agent designed for several different cleaning tasks depending upon the dilution ratio applied. Normally contain a detergent combined with bleach and an abrasive (usually silica. To expedite draining of clogs. Used to remove soil from a surface through a chemical action. linoleum. A kerosene base wax used for wooden floors. A non-buffable wax that is highly recommended for wooden floors. and alcohols.
Furnitures and fixtures are properly dusted. and/or discolor surfaces. corner-to-corner. cabinets and storage areas are also kept clean. top to bottom. scale. VI. Closets. Floors are vacuumed. 33 .that can dull. Cleanliness • • • • • • STANDARDS OF IDEAL HOUSEKEEPING All areas are immaculately clean. including surfaces. Grounds are free of liters and dirt. Windows and glass panels are dusted and polished. polished or shampooed when necessary. 1. doorknobs and metal fixtures are polished with the right metal polishing chemical.
linen are mitred and wrinkle free. Building is provided with all required safety facilities like ventilated fire exits. safety standards prescribed for building maintenance by the government are strictly enforced. 5. cutleries. are sanitized with sanitizing detergents to protect guests from possible bacterial contamination. Beds are made up properly. 3. Orderliness • • • • Facilities and fixtures are properly arranged and installed in appropriate location. All items for personal use of guest and which come in contact with the body like linen. Eye Appeal • • • • Ambiance is soothing to the eyes. etc. luminous safety signs. Sanitation • • • • • The whole area is free from all sources of bacterial contamination such as undisposed garbage and left-over. Area is protected from pest infestation. Wall decors and TV sets are posted at eye level. function rooms and public areas are free from any safety hazards like open electrical outlet. Guests’ Comfort • • • Rooms are properly ventilated and lighted. emergency alarm. stagnant water. There are sufficient amenities for the comfort of guests like linen. No eyesore can be found in guest-contact areas. damaged tiles. fire extinguishers/hoses. 6. Guests are not disturbed by noise and other forms of distractions. Wet garbage is properly underlined with plastic. Room amenities are properly installed in appropriate location. 34 . etc.2. covered and disposed regularly. Suitable interior design is provided for. not dim or dull.. etc. slippery floors. etc. Linens are neatly folded.. Safety • • The rooms. drinking glass. 4. regularly fumigated to eliminate pests. Glasses and water jug that are installed in guestrooms are covered. glasses. etc. dangling wires. toiletries. there is proper blending of colors. broken chairs.
intoxicated pones. are given the necessary assistance and support by the Housekeeping staff. Staff do out of their way to render extra service to guests. Regular cleaning and check-up of equipment is undertaken. Customer feedback and concerns are logged down and discussed for corrective action during meetings. 7. Staff exhibit a warm and pleasant disposition in dealing with guests. Consumption of supplies is always monitored and excessive consumption is determined and reported. Supplies and materials are consumed within the limits of the budget. has a well organized safety or emergency procedures and emergency brigade. Customer needs and concerns are anticipated and attended to immediately. The hotel is prepared for any emergency. 35 . documented and accounted for. Customer feedback is solicited to determine guests’ satisfaction. 8. including the use of safety equipment. Guests with special problems like the sick. etc. Staff expresses warm appreciation and gratitude for guest patronage. Effective control measures are designed and enforced to prevent losses and pilferages. Staffs are trained on the proper use and maintenance of equipment. All staff are trained on emergency procedures. All appliances and equipment are regularly checked for any damage and maintained in safe working condition to avoid accidents. All tools and equipment are stored safely in appropriate storage compartments right after use. Guest Relations • • • • • • • • • • Guest requests and concerns are given prompt and proper attention. Inquiries of guests are given accurate and appropriate response. Par stock requirements are always maintained. Materials Control and Preventive Maintenance • • • • • • • • • • • • There is a designated budget for supplies and materials. Losses.• • • • Safety instructions during emergencies are available in all rooms. damages and equipment breakdown are properly reported. Tact and diplomacy is observed in dealing with complaints and difficult situations. given appropriate action. Chemicals are diluted properly and used sparingly. regular requisitions are made. There is regular inventory of supplies and materials. Trained roving guards are available to check movements in guestrooms and to insure the protection of guests.
Floor Finishing Floor finishes are not allowed to build up in corners. baseboards. Water does not run on floors and fixtures.Cleaning Standards: Sweeping All swept floors do not have dust streaks nor does show mark where dirt was picked up. All floors. Cleaning solutions are rinsed quickly and the floor is dried at once. Floor Cleaning Swept or vacuumed. after thorough stripping/ scrubbing are applied with a thin. baseboards. Floors are free of obstructions. Wall Washing Streaks and lap marks are not visible. Corners are vacuumed. Corners and areas difficult to reach are cleaned with soft cloth to remove smudges. behind doors. No dirt left on corners. under carpets or furnitures. Vacuuming All carpeted areas/ upholsteries are kept clean. All spots are removed upon discovery. Stripping and removal of old floor finish is done whenever necessary to avoid yellowing and build-up in corners. Walls are spot free. Cemented or vinyl floor is scrubbed or polished. Dusting All surfaces are dust-free. carpet is shampooed as necessary. or under furniture. free of dust. Mopping Water is used sparingly. smooth and even finish. or underneath furniture. Window Cleaning 36 .
sanitized and dried. door handles and other surfaces. Bowls are clean inside and out. Upholstered chairs are shampooed or vacuumed. Containers are underlined with plastic. Sinks are clean and sanitized with sanitizing chemical. No soap film is allowed to remain on fixtures. Garbage Containers Emptied of trash. all surfaces are free of dirt and spots. Cleaning of Ashtrays Emptied of soil and cigarette butts. Cleaned as often as necessary. Shower curtains are properly brushed and wiped dry. disposed daily. scratches or spots. There is no sign of marks or streaks on walls. Bathroom walls are properly scrubbed. Bathroom supplies are replenished and installed according to standard arrangement. Window glasses do not have smudges or watermarks. garbage. Bathroom and Washroom Cleaning Toilet bowls. Floor is mopped. Bathroom mirror is well polished and wiped dry. Waste Disposal. Mirrors Thoroughly cleaned. and dirt. Dusting/ Cleaning of Furnitures and Fixtures Thoroughly dusted. urinals are sanitized with sanitizing chemicals. washed and wiped dry. fixtures. no visible streaks. wiped dry. free of watermarks and spots. Fixtures are wiped dry to avoid retention of water that causes watermarks. All metal fixtures and hardwares are cleaned and polished with metal polish. doors. free of foul odor. Window frames and channels are free of dust. Refuse is totally removed. 37 . Furnitures have no damages or defects. no marks. Cleaning of Drinking Fountain Kept clean and sanitary. Appliances are properly arranged and installed in their appropriate location. Cleaning Glass Panels.
Plants are watered regularly. scrubbed regularly and dust free. Plant pests are eradicated. Guests expect to sleep. Housekeeping personnel can help meet this guest expectation and. dine. parking spaces. planted to prevent eroding. Grounds Maintenance All walkways. trimmed periodically and as necessary. fumigation is conducted on regular schedule or upon detection of presence of pests in the area. planted areas are clean. Plants (in boxes) are maintained and replaced as needed. Safety 38 . Cemented/concrete pavements are free from spots. meet. VII. fertilized periodically. Ceiling fan and fluorescent are thoroughly dusted. Pool flooring is cleaned. pruned.Ceiling Cleaning Ceiling is free of cobwebs and dirt. Soil is regularly cultivated. make the difference in the property’s safety and security system. free of littered objects. and entertain in a facility that is safe and secure – and are entitled to reasonable care under law. in some cases. SAFETY AND SECURITY Safety and security are two responsibilities of hotel managers. scrubbed as scheduled and whenever necessary to prevent the growth of algae.
A term that pertains to discussing disaster preparedness, fire prevention and protection, protection devices, and conditions that provide for freedom from injury and damage to property. The two hotel departments most likely to have the largest number of accidents and injuries are maintenance and housekeeping. One basis for this frequency is the sheer labor-intensity of these two departments. In many operations, housekeeping and maintenance employ more people than any other department. Another reason lies in the fact that working in housekeeping or maintenance involves physical activities and equipment use – both of which increase the risks of accident and injury. To reduce safety risks, the executive housekeeper must be aware of potential safety hazards and develop procedures to prevent accidents. Safety should be a top priority. Ongoing safety training programs help ensures that safe conditions are maintained in all work areas. To develop programs, management must be aware of the laws that regulate the work environment – and more specifically, how those laws affect housekeeping personnel. Employee Morale and Management Concerns Unsafe working conditions have a negative effect on employee morale. If employees are preoccupied with hazardous conditions in the work place, they will not be able to perform the best of their ability. For most part, it is difficult to motivate employees until unsafe conditions are corrected. One of management’s top concerns should be for the health and welfare of employees. Employees are one of the most important assets a hotel has. If managers want employees to provide quality service, they must treat employees fairly and with respect. Respect for an employee’s right to work in a safe and hazard free environment is a good place to begin. Potentially Hazardous Conditions Accidents and injuries do not have to occur. By following three simple rules, employees can contribute to a safe, accident-free work environment:
Take adequate time Correct unsafe conditions immediately Do it safely the first time
Lifting: Housekeeping tasks often involve lifting heavy objects. Employees may also be required to move furniture in order to complete a thorough cleaning task. Incorrectly lifting heavy objects such as bags, boxes, and containers may result in strained or pulled muscles and back injury. In turn, these injuries can result in loss of work and long-term pain and suffering. Employees can also incur cuts and scratches when lifting items such as trash or dirty linens which contain pointy objects or broken glasses. In all instances, employees should know what conditions to look for and the special precautions to take. Some guidelines for safe moving and lifting:
Inspect the object before lifting. Do not lift any item that you cannot get your arms around or that you cannot see over when carrying. Get help if it is too heavy. Look for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen. Quite often, these items contain pointy objects or broken glass. Exercise special care to avoid injury. When lifting, place one foot near the object and the other slightly back and apart. Keep well balanced. Keep the back and head of your body straight. Because the back muscles are generally weaker than the leg muscles, do not use the back muscle to lift the object. Bend slightly at the knees and hips but do not stoop. Use both hands and grasp the objects using the entire hand. Lift with the leg muscles. Keep the object close to the body. Avoid twisting your body. When setting an object down, do not use your back muscles. Use the leg muscles and follow the procedures used to lift objects. When tucking in sheets, picking up a laundry or cleaning a tub, bend with the knee and not on the back, nor on the waist to prevent back injury. Use your body weight in pushing and pulling the vacuum, not just your arms and shoulder. To avoid slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as you go. Wear the right shoes. Working shoes should be slip resistant, with a closed toe and fit to give you the best comfort. Watch where you are going to prevent slips and fall. Use door stopper and not linens or objects that could cause a slip or fall. Turn on lights and look all sides before entering any room. There may be spills or broken glasses on the floor that need to be cleared.
If a broken glass is found, sweep the floor and place the glass in a container separate from the trash. To push the room attendant’s cart easily, check if it has sticking wheels. Without it, it will be harder to push and could injure the user. Remove sticking thread on the wheels. Be careful with loose screw or sharp edges as they could catch on one’s clothing and cause cuts. When pushing the cart, lean forward into the cart, rely on one’s legs and feel not unto one’s back or across the body. Keep the cart close, use feet and legs and not arms and shoulders. In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or stand it up by alone. It is heavier than you think and can cause accidents. Ask for help. Do not overload laundry cart to make it easier to pull. When reaching for something, especially in the tub, never stand on the edge of a toilet bowl. You might loose your balance and fall.
Ladders: Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or near the ceiling or for such tasks as changing light bulbs. When selecting a ladder for a particular cleaning job, its condition, height and footing should be inspected. Check the ladder for stability and examine crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder is broken or defective, do not use it. Rather, tag the ladder, place it out of service, and report it to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department An aluminum or metal ladder should never be used when working near or on electrical equipment. Ladders with rubber footings should be used on tile floors or in kitchen areas to prevent slipping. In all instances, the floor should be dry and clean. A ladder must be high enough so that an attendant can stand on it and do the job without overreaching. Never stand on the top step of a ladder. If the area cannot be reached while standing on the step below the top step, the ladder is too short for he job. Ladders should be placed so footing is at least one fourth of the ladder length away from the wall. Never place a ladder against window or an uneven surface. Before climbing, test the ladder for stability; it should be well balanced and secure against the wall and floor. Always be sure to face a ladder when climbing and have a clean and dry hands and feet. Do not hold any items or tools that may prevent the use of one or both hands. Mark the area underneath the ladder with caution signs so that guests or employees do not walk under the ladder. Machinery: Employees should be authorized and trained in the use of machinery and equipment before operating such devices. Most equipment, machineries, and power tools come with instructions.
Employees may also be required to wear protective eye goggles or gloves. All protective gear should be worn per instructions. These safety guards should never be removed. When using electrical equipment. Equipment wires and connections should be checked periodically. The malfunction should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or the maintenance department. particularly with such tasks as vacuuming corridors. all tools and equipment should be turned off and stored in the proper place. not all are acceptable for use in a hospitality operation. Equipments should be unplugged by grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from the outlet. Sparks from electrical equipment could start a fire. Never use a piece of equipment or machinery that is not operating correctly. Electrical Equipment: Extra care must be taken when operating electrical equipment. If it is possible and safe to do so. It is also unsafe to operate electrical equipment near flammable liquids. the cord should be kept out of traffic areas such as the center of hallways or cross doorways. If the appliance will be stationary and in use for a lengthy period. There are many types of extension cords.Some employees may need additional training and supervised practice before operating equipment and machinery on the job by themselves. tape the cord to the floor and place caution signs over the taped cord. An appliance should never be unplugged by pulling or yanking the cord. In such situations. Equipment that sparks. smokes. Even one of the most common housekeeping appliances like a vacuum cleaner can be harmful or deadly if operated improperly or in unsafe conditions. or flames should be turned off immediately. Equipment and machineries should never be left unattended while in use. This will loosen the connection between the cord and the plug and cause sparks and shorts. The local fire department can pinpoint which types of cords meet the local fire codes and regulations. keep the cord close to the wall and post caution signs in the work area. Many power tools and other machineries are equipped with protective guards or shields. Extension cords are sometimes required – particularly when an electric outlet is not located near the work areas. the equipment should be unplugged. When not in use. chemicals. Equipment with loose connections or exposed wires should not be used. 42 . An employee should never operate electrical equipment when standing in water or when hands or clothing are wet. Extension cords should be inspected for exposed wire before use just like any other electrical cord. This is not always possible. In no instance should an attendant attempt to restart the equipment. Contact the appropriate supervisor or the maintenance department to have it repaired as soon as possible. or vapors.
Use the right amount of chemicals. when used properly with proper protective gear. skin rashes. Excessive amount may damage surfaces. Cap of bottles/ containers should be tight and the broken nozzles must be replaced to prevent drips. Exposed electrical wire may result in shock. Chemicals: Many housekeeping employees are exposed to dangerous chemicals in their daily work routines. vomiting. kitchens and floors. 43 . A minor spill can be cleaned up. ask the supervisor. If a chemical spills. Outlet and switch covers should be checked to ensure that they are covered properly and not cracked or broken. If not sure of how to clean up a spill. and even death. loose connections and loose plugs. Use only one chemical for its intended purpose. cancer. However. These chemicals are powerful cleaners. Never mix chemicals the result can be potentially deadly like fumes created by mixing bleach with ammonia. Chemicals are used to clean all areas of a lodging property including bathrooms. If any of these conditions are found. Second. misused chemicals can cause serious injury in a short period. Wear personal protective equipment like goggles and hand gloves for protection from spills and splashes. these same helpful chemicals can cause nausea. rather. block the surface. To use the chemical correctly. Be sure the correct chemical goes in a properly labeled container when refilling spray bottles. and. and other fixtures for frayed wires. room attendants should check electric lamps. Handling Chemicals Safely: Read the labels and the material safety data sheet. Some housekeeping situations require employees to handle toxic substances to unstop clogs in toilets and other plumbing fixtures. the room attendant should not attempt to fix them. injury. are relatively harmless. new employees – especially in properties with high employee turnover – need to be trained immediately. potential problems should be reported to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or to the maintenance. Continual training in chemical safety is necessary for two reasons: First.When cleaning guestrooms. blindness. Often the use of such hazardous and toxic chemicals cannot be avoided. Potentially hazardous chemicals are also used to kill insects and rodents. appliances. follow the direction of the label. or even death when touched. when used improperly.
it is noted at the 44 . Investigating security incidents. However. Security Committees: Security committee should consist of key management personnel – including departmental heads. rinse as directed in the material safety data sheet If your eyes are exposed and contaminated by a spill. and pictures are not part of the marketing strategy and are not meant to be taken by guests. these items are provided for the guest’s convenience and are actually a form of advertising used by the hotel. ashtrays. and sewing kit. towels. Supervisors and selected hourly employees can also contribute important security information and add to the committee’s effectiveness. Theft: Guest theft: most hotels assume that guests will take items such as matches. Security Security refers to the freedom from fear. anxiety. Clean contaminated areas. When these items turn up missing. it can add up to a large expense for a hospitality operation. Committee Responsibilities: Development of security handbook and the design of training and awareness programs. employee. rinse it with a clean water and get immediate medical assistance. as well as to the protection and defense against the loss or theft of guest. vandalism. If a chemical spill blocks your skin. For most part. trash bins. To reduce the theft of these items. and company property and prevention of other emergencies. Handle potentially contaminated items as little as possible. Monitoring. analyzing. Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals. bathrobes. some properties keep count of the number of amenities inside the room. Maintaining records on such incidents as theft. shampoo. Maintain open lines of communication with the local police department. When the guest request for additional item. Use proper container for disposal of items. Conducting spot security audits and property inspections. and on-site violence. pens. and suggesting solutions for returning security problems. and doubt involving ourselves.
The room attendant. including a check for any criminal convictions. These entrances should be well-lighted. The employee handbook should spell out the consequences of stealing hotel property. and other hotel property. amenities. Locks on storerooms should be changed periodically to reduce the opportunity of theft. adequately secured. notes how many items are in the room. Also. too. If the items in storage do not match the usage rate. linen. A through background check should be conducted. This may reduce the likelihood of theft since guests have the option of purchasing these items. Employees should be aware of the results of monthly inventories – especially when shortages are discovered. or if too little stock is on the shelves. In addition to keeping records of items in stock. Other helpful ideas to reduce guest theft: Use as few monogrammed items as possible. A manager who takes hotel steaks home to barbeque will not be effective when asking employees not to steal food. Detailed records that note any unusual or unexplained fluctuations should be kept of all items in stock. Management should also detail explicit rules and regulations concerning employee theft. and provided with round-the-clock security. Storerooms should be equipped with automatic closing and locking devices. Good inventory control procedures can also help control theft. Another strategy. check local laws to ensure that the selected screening techniques are not illegal or prohibited. 45 . when cleaning the next day. and leather stationery folders and the like are on sale in their gift shops. The room attendant’s ability to spot missing item may allow the hotel time to charge the guest for items that have been taken. The record should include the name of the room attendant and any other hotel employees who had access to the room.including those from guestrooms. and linens. Keep all storeroom doors locked. bathrobes. having these items on sale helps set a standard price that can be levied against guests for a missing item.front desk. It is a good practice to conduct a monthly inventory of all housekeeping supplies including toilet paper. Secure windows. Before asking any questions or making inquiries. records should be kept of stolen or missing items. Management should designate employee entrances and exits. Managers should screen applicants before making a job offer. Keep storage rooms closed and locked Affix or bolt guestroom items and fixtures to appropriate surfaces. some hotels place items such as towels. it may be an indication of employee theft. Employee theft: it is up to the management to set the standards for reducing employee theft – and to act as a good example.
Search team employees look for objects that are normally not found in an area. ashtrays. it should not be touched or moved. all teams should regroup in a designated area. Avoid using radios.talkies. The employee parking area should not be so close to the building that it allows employees to easily and quickly transfer stolen property to their cars. exit areas. Some bomb devices are sensitive to these sound waves and may go off. In such cases. walkie. Where and how the search is conducted will depend on the way the property received the bomb threat. or beepers. If an employee has permission to remove hotel property. closets. An all-clear sign should be given after all search procedures have been 46 . employee are less likely to know their fellow workers. Information from the caller or letter may give clues on where personnel should search and on what type of bomb or object to look for. and window sills. Management may establish a claim-checking system for bringing items onto the premises and a parcel-pass system for taking items off the premises. Restricting employee parking to a carefully selected area can also help control losses. he/she should be issued a signed permit from the supervisor or an appropriate manager before doing so.Employee entrance may include a security staff office which monitors arriving and departing employees. Searches often include stairways. Bomb Treats: Housekeeping procedures for handling bomb treats should be part of the property’s security manual. trash containers. elevators. If nothing is found after completing the search. It may be helpful to take a flashlight to inspect areas with little light. Housekeeping’s role usually consists of helping in the search for any suspicious objects that could be bombs. identification badges may be required to prevent strangers who pose as employees to gain admittance to the property. Notification is best done face-to-face or over the telephone. If the hotel is large or has a very high turnover rate. Housekeeping personnel have an advantage since their daily routines promote familiarity with many hotel areas. notify the person in charge of the search team or an appropriate supervisor immediately. If a suspicious looking object is found. Keeping the area well-lighted reduces the temptation to steal and also makes the lot safer for employees who leave work after dark. Employees should know what items they may bring onto or remove from the property.
If police respond to such calls. Many hotel fires are fueled by a combination of combustibles. Generally. It is described as a rapid. housekeeping employees should follow procedures to assist in rescue efforts. the employee should respond in a way that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or fear. Quite often. The local police should be notified of all bomb threats. a series of events and conditions that can lead to an accident. persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied by flame. This is because many bomb threats are just that – threats. and property are not under by real threat. In these instances.performed and management is satisfied that the guests. The safety and security manual should include evacuation plans in case a bomb should actually be found or explode on the premises. Some fires may be caused by an accident or mechanical malfunction. If a guest does ask an employee what he/she is doing during a search. these procedures do not include notifying guests until a search is completed. Accident Prevention: An accident can be defined as the result of a series of events and conditions that lead to an unsafe situation resulting in injury and/or property damage. 47 . employees. Fires start for many reasons. However. also called combustion. Mission: “To save lives and property” Fire Behavior: Burning. Fires: Fires are grouped into four classifications based on the different products of combustion. is a simple chemical reaction. the hotel should follow the directions laid out by police personnel. bomb threat emergency procedures should still be followed just in case it is a real emergency. It is very likely that a fire started by Class A combustibles could grow to include Class B and C materials. It should also include provisions for emergency medical services. especially the exothermic oxidation of a combustible substance. guests are not notified when bomb threats are received. Others may be the result of arson. Accident chain.
Never pass the fire to get an extinguisher. Close the door to confine the fire. and physical barriers. Equipment: Included here are apparatus. fatigue. and attitudes. maintenance. get out immediately. Injury: Deals with the actual injury (or property damage) associated with the accident. Human Factors: This includes human and social behaviors. Fire Safety Rules and Principles: When you discover a fire. A “near miss” or “close call” is an accident without injury or physical damage. If you enter a room and your attack with a portable extinguisher fails. keep an escape path open. Never let the fire to get between you and the door. Your knowledge of the situation will aid those responding. fitness. proper application. training (lack of training).Classifications: Environment Human factors Equipment Event Injury Environment: Included here are physical surroundings such as weather. If you must enter a room to combat the fire. surface conditions. Event: The event is the intersection of the foregoing components. A dead-end passageway could trap you. call out your discovery. lighting. Something or someone had to bring those components together in such a way to create the unsafe situation. Fight the fire with the wind or the wind coming from your back. 48 . access. sound the fire alarm and summon help. and serviceability. and equipment limitations.
Never use and direct a solid stream of water on liquid fire as it will cause splashes and make the fire more difficult to handle. Be curious enough to know all the shortest possible ways to escape from a fire zone to a safe place in order not to be trapped. Thus the name fire tetrahedron The Burning Process: The process of burning occurs in clearly defined stages: Ignition Growth Fully developed Decay 49 . Know how to extinguish fire correctly with the use of portable extinguishers and other methods. One of the priorities that should be given due attention is the escape route. Never use foam and water on electrical fire. it became evident that a fourth ingredient was necessary. Rooms filled with thick smoke. Smoke is a visible product of fire that aids to the problem of breathing. efficiently and effectively. Each side represented as essential ingredient for fire: Heat Fuel Oxygen As researched. there will be great possibility of suffocation because oxygen content of the room will be reduced to a minimum. Regular training and drills are very necessary so that each member learns his duties and the order in which they must perform. That fourth element was the actual chemical combustion. When entering an enclosed space. To be successful in firefighting. Raise the fire alarm promptly upon discovery of a fire. Know how to recognize fire hazards and to take the necessary steps to prevent fire. see to it that the space is gas-free and with sufficient oxygen. adequate preparation is very much required. Safe Practices: Smoke only at the designated area. Well-planned actions for every emergency will surely achieve firefighting operations safely. as this will cause electrocution. Fire Triangle and Tetrahedron: The combustion process was once depicted as a triangle with three sides.
other combustibles heat up. Ultimately. and ignite. spreading the chain reaction to other flammables and resulting in an increase in size. liberate flammable gases.Growth Stage: From the point of ignition. fire begins to grow. the fire will begin to diminish in size. Fully Developed Stage: This stage is recognized as the point in which all contents within the perimeter of the fire’s boundaries are burning. 50 . The three modes by which heat transfers its energy from one substance to another are through: Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction: When a hot object transfer its heat. Container size – in a structure. Fuel – size of the fire will naturally depend on the amount of fuel available to burn. A large container would permit dissipation of heat and slow the growth of fire. Modes of Heat Transfer: Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of significant importance to the fire fighter. Starting out as a spark or a small flame. The transfer could be to another object or to another portion of the same object. Insulation – heat that is radiated back into unburned areas will accelerate growth. the fire will extinguish itself when the fuel supply is exhausted. Several factors in the growth of fire: Oxygen supply – the amount of oxygen will have a direct effect on the speed of growth and the size of the fire. Decay Stage: When the point at which all fuel has been consumed is reached. conduction has taken place. the container would be the surrounding walls and obstructions.
zirconium. titanium. is extinguished by cooling the fire. cause it to ignite. Fire produces infrared light waves. or grease-type fuels. the fire collapses due to a lack of oxygen. A particular class of heavy metals. light is produced. When enough of the heat is removed. and if intense enough. Class D type – a less common fire type. thorium. wood. sodium. In this case. which can be identified on the periodic table of the elements and found mostly in the alkali metal group. The application of water cools the fire by absorbing as water is converted to steam. Combustibles such as paper. zinc. Most metals in the group are magnesium. Fire Extinguishment: Class A fire. uranium. heat it up again. In this case. Class B type – are fueled by liquids. rubber and other organic solids including petro-chemical solids (plastics) make up this class. or plastic.Convection: Air that is hotter than its surroundings rises. and with enough concentration. can permit fire to jump from the source to a distant object. alcohol. Radiation: When combustion occurs. rubber. air that is cooler than its surroundings sinks. the application of smothering agent is used to prevent oxygen from getting to the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of fire by removing the oxygen leg of the fire pyramid. cloth. Light travels by way of light waves. gasoline. These light waves range from ultraviolet to infrared. and potassium. 51 . gases. Class C type – are basically fueled by electricity. hafnium. Class B fires. the electricity is actually the heat source that propagates the fire and often communicates to other fuels of the class A or B type to sustain the burning process. Oil. and calcium. the temperature of the fire is lowered below the ignition temperature of the substance and thereby collapses the fire pyramid. Classes of Fire: Class A type – made up of ordinary combustibles such as cellulose. plutonium. will burn. lithium. is fueled by metals. and other liquids are more common types found in this class of fuel.
the mere presence of water will cause a violent reaction. The presence of the letter “C” indicates that the extinguishing agent is non-conductive. is the action taken to break down the fire pyramid and put the fire out. In this case. This class of fire extinguishers does not have a numerical rating. Class D fires. In some cases. Fire extinguisher classification symbols: Classes of fire should be identified primarily to determine the type of fire extinguisher that would be used. Releasing the lever will stop the discharge 52 . the mere presence of air will cause the reaction. How to use fire extinguishers? P – ull the pin This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguisher states the approximate number of square feet of a flammable liquid fire that a nonexpert person can expect to extinguish. There is no picture designator for Class D fire extinguishers. oil. color and letter for flexibility of the user for better recognition. gasoline. The numerical rating for this class of fire extinguishers refer to the amount of water the fire extinguisher holds and the amount of fire it will extinguish. Class C fire extinguishers are suitable for use on electrically energized fires. A – im the base of the flame Point the extinguisher nozzle of hose at the base of the flame S – queeze the lever This discharge the extinguishing agent. Class A fire extinguishers will put out fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood and paper. fueled by electricity. Class B fire extinguishers should be used on fires involving flammable liquids such as grease. In other cases. Class C fires. Class D fire extinguishers are designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in question. electricity. These extinguishers generally have no rating nor are they given a multi-purpose rating for use on other types of fires. Fire extinguisher classification symbols are displayed by shape. releasing heat and brilliant light. Each metal’s characteristics should be evaluated on its own merits. identification and utilization. etc. the removal of fuel. is overcome by removal of the flow of electric current. combustible heavy metals differ somewhat in their reactions under fire.
e. Key Control Proper key control procedures are important for guest security and privacy. Personal Protective Equipment: Helmet Goggles SCBA (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus) Coat and pants Boots Hood Gloves Radio Flashlight PASS Device (Personal Alert Safety System) Pocket tools Four Main Types of Automatic Fire Detectors: Smoke detectors – all fire emits smoke and gases. Key control also protects the property by reducing the possibility of guest and property theft. The smoke detector can therefore be activated before the actual outbreak of a fire.g. affected by heat. often long before open flames are visible. Flame detectors – the flame detector is activated when it is hit by the varying infrared or ultraviolet rays from the flames. The alarm is usually activated when the room temperature rises to about 70oC.S – weep from side to side Moving carefully toward the fire keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the flame and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. 3oC in 20 seconds. Heat detectors (thermal contact) – is. as the name implies. Housekeeping is primarily concerned with four categories of keys: Emergency key Master key Storeroom key Guestroom key 53 . Differential detectors – is activated by an abnormally rapid rise in room temperature.
the executive housekeeper or the front desk may assume this function. he/she should be required to initial or sign the log. Some properties also keep an emergency key off the premises. in a guestroom or in an unsecured area. 54 . The room attendant who signed for the master key is the employee who is responsible for it and should never leave the property. The highest level is the grand master. Guestroom key – are those keys distributed to guests. all housekeeping storage rooms. An inspector may be issued more that one key of this type because he/she may be required to inspect the work of more than one room attendant. These keys should be kept in a secure place. The next level of master key is the section master. Master keys can be used in emergency situations when it is vital for an employee to enter some or all areas of a hotel. This type of key opens a single guestroom and. In large properties. Distribution and use should occur only in emergency situations such as a fire or when a guest or employee is locked in a room and needs immediate assistance. Master keys are separated into three levels of access. If the employee has rooms to clean on more than one floor or area. he/she may need more than one floor key. time and the name of the person who signed for a particular key. The lowest level of master key is the floor key. Every time an employee receives or returns a master key. The person issuing the key should also initial or sign the log for each master key transaction. Employees issued keys should keep the keys on their person at all times. Master keys should never be left on top of a housekeeping cart. the linen room attendant distributes and secures the keys for the room attendants. Master keys are kept at the front desk for such emergency purposes. Generally. in some cases. Most housekeeping personnel do not use emergency keys on a dayto-day basis.Emergency keys – open all doors in the property – even those that guests have double locked. Key Control Procedures: A log can be used to monitor the distribution of master keys. This type of master key opens rooms in one area of a hotel. If the guest has turned the dead bolt. Floor keys typically open the storeroom for that floor – unless the room is specially keyed or is accessed by another master key. wrist bands. Guestroom keys are stored at the front desk when not in use. Master key – also open more than one guestroom. Key belts. This log should include the date. other locked areas such as the pool. At smaller properties. master keys will not open the door. or neck chains are recommended devices for keeping track of master keys. This key opens every hotel room and. An employee should never loan the key to a guest or to another employee. a room attendant is given this key to open the rooms he/she is assigned to clean. many times.
room attendants are instructed to clean around guest objects. Tags may be numbered or used to identify the item. room attendants must be extra careful when removing linens. The log should also have space to record if and when the item was recovered by it owner. the housekeeping department handles the lost and found function. it is up to the management to decide how to dispose of the items properly. A log should be used to record the date. Some hotels even have a policy that forbids room attendants to move guest property. If a guest asks an employee to unlock a room. where the item was found. he/ she should immediately turn it over to the lost and found. In large hotels. room keys should be kept in a secured area – not on top of the cart – until returned to the front desk. Lost and Found: Many times. It is important to ensure that the lost and found policy of the hotel complies with local laws. snoop in dresser drawers or closets. the front desk should be notified immediately. If no lock box is available. If a room attendant finds a room key in the hallway or public area. Room attendants should respect guest property and should not open guest luggage or packages. Many hotels donate unclaimed lost and found items to local charities. Since guests sometimes hide valuables and belongings in pillowcases or between mattresses. Room attendants are also responsible for retrieving guestroom keys if the guest leaves the key in the room. and by whom. time. All lost ad found property should be kept for at least 90 days. Other favorite hiding places for guest valuables include the top of closets and under lamps. In smaller properties. logged. One employee per shift should be assigned to handle the lost and found as part of his/her job. the linen room clerk may handle the lost and found procedures. If items are not claimed after 90 days. and secured after they have been turned over to the lost and found. Guestroom Cleaning: Security in guestroom areas is important to maintain for the safety of the guests and employees. In these instances. Items should be tagged. Lost and found items should be stored in an area that is secure and has limited access. If room 55 . In no instance should lost and found items be left in an unsecured spot such as on top of a room attendant’s cart. the employee should politely explain the hotel’s policy and direct the guest to the front desk.Finally. Many hotels provide key lock boxes on the room attendant’s cart to store guestroom keys. the task may be delegated to the executive housekeeper or front desk personnel. When an employee finds an item left behind by a guest. The key should be returned to the front desk or placed in the lock box. a room attendant should never use a master key to open a room for a guest.
This ensures that the room being cleaned is that the guest’s room. or the front desk: Guns or weapons of any kind Controlled substances or drugs Unauthorized cooking or unsafe electrical appliances Foul odors Unauthorized pets Ill guests Large amounts of cash or valuable jewelry When cleaning. 56 . all windows and sliding glass doors should be locked. A room should never be left unattended with the door open. they should immediately contact their supervisor.attendants notice any of the following while cleaning. This is just one more reason for room attendants to be considerate of guest property and to protect the guest’s room for many possible thefts. After cleaning the room. he/she should lock the door on the way out. This procedure should be followed even if the employee is out of the room for only a few minutes. If a guest wants to enter the room while the attendant is cleaning. Unfortunately. the attendant should politely ask the guest his/her name and ask to see a room key. For most part. the attendant should tell him/her to contact the front desk. The guestroom door should also be checked to see that it is locked. A guest should never be allowed to enter a room just to look around. the room attendant should always keep the door open and the cart rolled in front of the entrance to block access from the outside. an employee who is alert and careful can contribute to the overall guest’s safe and troublefree stay. If the guest does not have a key. security. the attendant should explain that this if the hotel’s policy and is enforced for the guest’s safety and security. Again. guests often point the finger at the room attendant if an item comes up missing from the guestroom. If an employee must leave the room while cleaning.
Maximize room’s revenue by being able to monitor availability of rooms. b. HOUSEKEEPING FORMS REPORTING AND DOCUMENTATION: Housekeeping Room Status Report (167) The housekeeping room status report is used in conjunction with the Front Office Room Status Information to check and confirm the most current status of all hotel guest rooms. The fundamental objectives in verifying actual room status are: a.VIII. To insure adequate guest service. avoid double booking and assigning of out of order rooms. 57 .
they will record their daily accomplishment in their assigned area. Productivity and Consumption Report (105) Preparing and submitting productivity report is part of the routine tasks of room attendants. actual consumption as compared to budget. It will also serve as basis for performance evaluation during the annual performance review. Using a prescribed accomplishment form. With this system. After accomplishing the report. laundry cost. housemen are more inclined to give serious attention to their cleaning assignments because they know that their accomplishments are being monitored. head houseman or head of the unit shall acknowledge – sign the report. Any discrepancy is investigated and corrected by both departments. especially when the house is full. Accomplishment Report (45) After accomplishing cleaning assignments. certifying that the tasks are indeed accomplished as stated in the report. The AM report is most useful in assuring proper room cleaning assignments and cleaning vacant and ready rooms for expected guest arrivals. deficiency in room amenities. Basically. This report should reach the Front desk 58 . the supervisor can monitor room attendant’s productivity and at the same time able to check rooms that have not been made up. These reports shall be submitted to the Housekeeping supervisor who will use the same I monitoring productivity of housemen and for giving constructive feedback on unaccomplished responsibilities. It shall be done at the end of their shift before timing out. so the proper action can be undertaken. it consists of the status of each room as reported from actual inspection and is compiled and sent to the Front Office where it is compared to their own room status information. Losses and Damage Report (168) Used to report losses and damages to room amenities in guestrooms.The report is completed twice each day. The PM report is important in determining exactly which rooms are available for guests checking into the hotel. once in the morning and once in the afternoon. The cost of said losses are billed to the account of guest. housemen assigned in public areas are supposed to prepare and submit an accomplishment and productivity report. Through this report. etc.
etc. Key Endorsement Form (169) For control purposes. aircon. This form shall be accomplished by the supervisor once he receives complaints or reports of defective in guestrooms and in other parts of his assigned area.clerk/Cashier upon check out of guest. If the Engineering section cannot immediately attend to the service request. leaking faucet. The report should be acknowledged-received and signed by the secretary or whoever receives it at the Engineering Office. this form is used to record the turnover and return of keys from one shift to another. If the defect is somewhat serious. If the defect is minor. If possible no guest will be allowed to go out of the hotel until he is cleared of possible losses in the room. Control Form for Borrowed Items (106) Mini-Bar Requisition (109) Mini-Bar Sales Voucher (109) Daily Sales Summary Report (112) Mini-Bar Spoilage Report (113) Mini-Bar Losses and Damages Report (113) Inventory Count Sheet (189) Storeroom Bin Card (190) Stock Inventory Variance Report (191) Laundry Voucher (126) Inspection Checklist (175) Housekeeping Audit Form (179) Stock Requisition and Issuance Form (187) Laundry Department Damage Advice Form (124) 59 . Maintenance Order or Service Request (169) This is accomplished for the purpose of requesting the Engineering or Building Maintenance Unit to do repair or trouble shooting of defective facilities or amenities like TV. the guest is advised to wait. the best action is to transfer the guest to another room. the Requesting supervisor should be informed immediately so that he should take appropriate action. The shift engineer shall assign a technician to check and validate the report and then submit status report to Housekeeping.
and is sold to only one person. good for two persons. According to Number of Beds: 1. 3. 60 . 2. Single room – a room with a single bed.IX. 5. Triple room – a room that can accommodate three people either in one double bed and one roll away bed or two single beds and one roll away bed. Double room – a room occupied by two persons with one double bed. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF GUESTROOMS A. Double-double (also twin double) – a room with two double beds or two queen beds. occupied by two or more persons. Twin room – a room with two single beds.
TV. 2. c. television and other amenities. Junior suite – a room with a bed and a sitting area (usually a small lounge). King room – a room with a king-sized bed. Penthouse suite – a suite usually located on top floor of the property. Hospitality suites (for “hospos” as they are often called) are intended to entertain groups of people. Deluxe – a more luxurious and spacious with amenities of superior quality. Large tables make them conducive for small group meals or meetings. sold a much higher price than standard rooms. 4. Corner suite – a suite that is located in the corner of the hotel building itself.6. 5. 6. Types of Suites: a. designed to accommodate one small family. The rooms themselves may take up the square footage of three or more standard rooms. e. toiletries. Suite – a room with a parlor or living room connected to one or more full sized bedrooms. 3. 8. Standard – a room sold at moderate rate. Connecting room – two or more rooms with entrance doors from the outside door between them through which guests can get through each bedroom without going out of their rooms. b. They may include a kitchen and/or bar area. bed. 7. Studio – a room with a studio bed. Family room – a room with at least one double bed. Economy – a room for an economical rate. 7. Hospitality suite – a suite used for entertaining visitors. It may have two twin beds or two double beds. Intended to be more than a sleeping room. B. serving as function room or a parlor. equipped with standard facilities and amenities like air con. 61 . Adjacent or adjoining rooms – rooms located side by side that do not necessarily have a connecting door. night table etc. Executive suite – a suite designed for a top executive. equipped with luxury amenities. d. separate bed connected to the living room or parlor. usually short of standard facilities like air con. It may also be called an executive room. Quadruple room – a room that can be occupied by four people. It is also called a mini suite. and one or more single beds. layout and facilities: 1. maybe occupied by one or two people or one small family. which can be converted into a bed. with facilities and amenities of superior quality. This suite often takes up the same area that two standard rooms would. There maybe a small. According to price.
It must be the largest room and typically has all the best amenities and services the hotel can offer. It will always carry the highest room rate in the hotel as well. It is approximately 54 inches by 75 inches in size. c. g. extra wide bed. Roll-away bed – a portable bed with or without wheels also called extra bed.f. Joiner – person joining another guest in the same room. b. Type of beds: a. Very Important Person (VVIP) – a highly renowned person who deserves special treatment like dignitaries. etc. Various Types of Guests: a. who warrants a special treatment. d. e. Bedroom Amenities: DND Sign Make Up Sign Closet with at least 6 hangers Beds: Single bed 36” x 75” Double bed 54” x 75” 62 . c. Instead of taking the horizontal square footage of the corner suite. extra wide bed. about 78 inches by 80 inches in size. Single bed – a bed approximately 36 inches by 75 inches. ambassadors. etc. Queen bed – an extra long. Very Important Person (VIP) – a well renowned gust like highranking officials.” This suite is understood to be the best room in the hotel. they take up the vertical area of two rooms. Very. about 60 inches by 80 inches in size. Presidential suite – sometimes called the “Chairman suite” or the “Royal suite.. Free Independent Travelers or Foreign Individual Tourist (FIT)) – tourists or travelers traveling alone not joining any tour group. These suites span two floors or more to create very high ceilings. b. List of Room Amenities: A. King bed – an extra long. d. executives. but this suite is a very effective upgrade. Bi-level suite – also takes up more square footage than standard rooms. Double bed – a bed that can accommodate a couple or two individuals.
ashtray and match on top of the table Floor lamp Service tray with thermo jug filled with cold water. Contains envelope. Bathroom Amenities: Bathroom linen (two towels per room for one set. guest comment survey. directory of hotel services. under the table is a safety and security booklet and bible Guest folder or compendium. stationery. Dresser chair Coffee table and two easy chairs. On top of the table is a telephone. one towel per occupant) Bath towel 25” x 54” 500 gm Hand towel 18” x 33” 150 gm Face towel 13” x 13” 60 gm Bath mat 20” x 30” 450 gm Hair shampoo and conditioner Shower cap Soap (must be sealed) one soap per occupant 63 . Queen bed King bed 60” x 80” 78” x 80” Bed linen Bed skirting or flounch Bed pad Bed sheet Size: allocate an allowance of 20-25 inches over bed size (on all sides). in-house telephone directory. ball pen. post card. room service menu. This depends on the mattress. two covered glasses Side table Room service menu House rules Telephone with in-house telephone directory Safety handbook containing safety tips during emergencies Fire exit directional signs B. Bed cover Pillow with a pillow slip and a pillow case one per occupant two for double and matrimonial beds Shoehorn and shoe cloth Luggage rack Dresser table with vanity mirror and dresser lamp TV set Night table with night table lamp. and small note pad.
Toilet tissue Facial tissue Garbage can. OCC – Occupied HL –Heavy Luggage 64 . Luxury Amenities (for deluxe rooms): Bubble bath gel (if tub is installed) Bath robe Slipper Sewing kit Water heater with two cups and saucer and sachet of coffee. underlined with plastic liner Laundry bag Pressing/ Laundry List Morning kit (small package of toothbrush and toothpaste) Shaving kit (contains shaver and shaving cream) Sanitary bag C. then prepares the housekeeping room status report and endorses it in triplicate copy. one for the linen room and another copy left on the floor for easy mapping. One for the Front desk. Room Status Codes: During room checking. as their reference in assigning rooms. tea. creamer and sugar Hand and body lotion and cologne Body scrub Fruit basket Hair dryer A. the housekeeper checks the status of each room using the following codes.
Vacant MUR – Make Up Room VR – Vacant and Ready X. Cleaned and Inspected LL – Light Luggage NL – No Luggage DL –Double Lock CL – Chain Lock HU – House Use NCI – Newly Checked-In NS – No Show SO – Slept Out BLO – Blocked V . Here too. Preparing to Clean GUESTROOM CLEANING In most properties. the room attendant’s workday begins in the linen room. room status reports. It is here that the employee reports for work. and keys. receives room assignments. The linen room is often considered the headquarters of the housekeeping department. and checks out at the end of his/ her shift. the room attendant 65 .VC – Vacant and Cleaned VD – Vacant and Dirty OR – Occupied and Ready OC – Occupied and Clean OD – Occupied and Dirty CO – Check-out OOO – Out of Order DND – Do Not Disturb V/ O or O/ V – Status unclear LO – lock Out DO – Due Out DNCO – Did not checked out VCI – Vacant.
pillowcases. A room attendant’s cart is generally spacious enough to carry all supplies needed for a half-day’s room assignments. Stocking the cart: Carts are typically stored in the linen room along with the housekeeping supplies. and amenities that are necessary for preparing a guest’s room. The specific amounts of items loaded onto a cart vary according to the types of rooms being cleaned. as it is not to understock. It enables the room attendant to avoid wasting time looking for a cleaning item or making trips back to the linen room for more supplies. In large properties. these tools come in the form of the various cleaning supplies and equipment. In a sense. A well-organized and well-stoked cart is a key to efficiency. all the cleaning supplies for the guestroom and bathroom are positioned in a hand caddy on top of the cart. Items typically found on a room attendant’s cart include: • • • • • • • Clean sheets. the amenities offered by the property. For the professional room attendant. supplies are often centralized in a particular area and issued to room attendants each morning. linens. or stolen in the course of cleaning. the room attendant does not have to bring the entire cart into the room in order to have easy access to supplies. Assembling Supplies: A room attendant requires a special tool to do his/her job. This way. Overstocking increase the risk that some items will be damaged. Most carts have three shelves – the lower two for linen and the top for supplies. of course. and.prepares for the workday by assembling and organizing the supplies that are necessary for cleaning. the room attendant cart could be regarded as a giant tool box stocked with everything necessary to do an effective job. Items conveniently stocked in the hand caddy include: • • • • All-purpose cleaner Spray window and glass cleaner Bowl brush Dusting solution 66 . room accessories. and mattress pads Clean towels and washcloths Clean bath mats Toilet and facial tissue Fresh drinking glasses Soap bars Clean ashtrays and matches In most cases. soiled. It is just as important not to overstock a cart. the size of the cart itself.
The order in which he/she cleans rooms will be determined by the room status report. first observe whether the guest has placed a “Do Not Disturb” sign on the door knob. Room assignments are generally listed according to room number and room status on a standardized form. When approaching a guestroom. It is important to follow certain procedures when entering the guestrooms that show respect for the guest’s privacy. personal items and room keys should not be stored on the cart. For safety and security reasons. respect the guest’s wishes and return 67 . a room attendant will have a sense where he/she should begin cleaning. After reviewing the assignment sheet. Cleaning the Guestroom: General Sequence for Guestroom Cleaning: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 : : : : : : : : : : Enter the guestroom Begin cleaning. A floor or shift supervisor uses information from the room status report to draw up room assignments for housekeeping personnel. the room attendant is ready to begin cleaning guestrooms. Tidy and air out the room. The number of rooms assigned for a room attendant is based upon the property’s work standards for specific types of rooms and cleaning tasks. If either condition exists. be sure to check that the door is not doublelocked from the inside.• • Cloths and sponges Rubber gloves A laundry bag for dirty linens is usually found at one end of the cart and a trash bag at the other. Room Assignments: After assembling supplies. The room attendant uses the room assignment sheet to prioritize the workday and to report the condition of each assigned room at the end of the shift. Strip the bed Make the bed Dust the guestroom Clean the bathroom Vacuum Make the final check Close the door and make sure it is locked Note room status on assignment sheet and proceed to next room Entering the Guestroom: Guestroom cleaning begins the moment the room attendant approaches the guestroom door. A broom and vacuum are also positioned on either end of the cart for easy access. Also.
” If there is still no answer. If the guest does return while you are cleaning. Report these items to your supervisor. In rooms where the guest has checked out. you can be fairly certain that the room is empty and can begin to enter. Next take a good look at the condition of the room. Empty trash and replace any wastebasket liners. When you do finally enter. Beginning Tasks: Most room attendants begin their system of cleaning by airing out and tidying up the guestroom. Note the time on your room status sheet or schedule. If a guest answers. alerts returning guests of your presence. This is done for security purposes to prevent unauthorized persons from entering the room. helps you se what you are doing. doesn’t always guarantee that a guest is not in the room. Also. After entering the room. discreetly close the door. 68 ./her room key. Make note of any damaged or missing items such as linens or wastebaskets. If no answer is heard. explain that you can come back later. make sure it is. Some properties have room attendants set these items neatly in the hallway and call room service for pickup. position your cart in front of the open door with the open section facing the room. and repeat “Housekeeping. Should the guest be awake. the guest may be sleeping or in the bathroom. As you replace the ashtrays. In occupied rooms. and in the case of stayovers. offer to finish your work later.” If the guest does not respond after this third announcement. which may have been left behind. dishes. Draw back the draperies and check the cords and hooks for any damage. blocks the entrance to intruders. wait a moment. by checking his. Doing so serves a triplicate purpose: it gives you easy access to your supplies. Open the windows so the air conditioning and heater to make sure they are working properly and are set according to property standards. straighten any newspapers and magazines. visually scan the room and check the dresser drawers for personal items. Remove or replace dirty ashtrays and glasses. you should leave quietly and close the door. turn on all the lights. knock on the door and announce “Housekeeping. in fact. If this is not the case. just because a guest doesn’t answer. and proceed to the next room. Collect any service trays.later to clean the room. knock again. open the door slightly and repeat “Housekeeping. and allows you to check for light bulbs which need to be replaced. bottles. Never throw out anything in an occupied room unless it is in the wastebasket. Sometimes. If anything of value is gone or if something needs repair. This makes the room more cheerful. excuse yourself. introduce yourself and ask what time would be convenient to clean the room. the guest’s room. or cans that might be scattered around the room. or hand them in to the lost and found depending on the hotel’s policy. If this is the case. notify your supervisor. Always make sure that cigarettes are fully extinguished before dumping them in the appropriate container.” Never use a key to knock since it can damage the surface of the door. However. be sure to replenish matches. Follow your property’s procedures for taking care of these items properly.
Step 11: Turn the second sheet over the top sheet and blanket. Step 13: Tuck in top sheet. 69 . Step 10: Place the top sheet. Step 3: Change the mattress pad if necessary: Lay a fresh pad on the bed Unfold pad right-side up and spread it evenly over the center of the bed Smooth out any wrinkles Step 4: Notify your supervisor if you note stains or damage to the mattress. second sheet and blanket at the lower corners of the bed.Making the Bed: Step 1: Strip the bed Step 2: Check the mattress pad for stains and damage. Step 9: Place the blanket on top of the second sheet about 6 to 8 inches. wrong side up. Step 16: Fold the bedspread down from the head. blanket and top sheet are tucked in neatly along the sides and foot of the bed. leaving enough room to cover the pillows. Make sure the seams and patterns of the spread are straight. two inches over the blanket. Step 5: Center the bottom sheet right side-up on the mattress. second sheet and blanket along the sides of the bed. place the second sheet on the bed. Step 15: Center the bedspread. and then fold the two inches inside the blanket to have a neat look appearance. Step 6: Miter the bottom sheet at the upper corner of the bed. there should be equal amounts of sheet hangover each side of the bed. Step 12: Miter the top sheet. Step 17: Slip the cases over the pillows. Step 7: Miter the bottom sheet at the lower corner of the bed. Step 8: At the head of the bed. Step 14: Make sure the second sheet. Tuck the sheets on the sides.
When finished. Spray glass cleaner on a clean cloth and wipe down the mirror. Dusting: Step 1: Using a cloth sprayed with dusting solution. Step 11: Dust wood or chrome surfaces on chairs. Use spray disinfectant on the mouthpiece and earphone (optional). Work clockwise around the room. Step 12: Clean both sides of the connecting door to an adjoining guestroom. make sure the door is closed and locked. Step 19: Take a moment to check the bed for smoothness both up close and from a distance. Step 4: Dust the windowsill. Open the drawers and dust the inside surfaces. dust items located on walls or high off the floor. Step 6: Dust the nightstand. Step 9: Clean the front of the television set with glass cleaner. Smooth out any wrinkles. Start with the top surface and work your way down the sides to the legs or base. Step 3: Check the windows carefully. if applicable. Step 5: Dust and polish the dresser. Clean with glass cleaner if necessary. Wipe from top down. Check proper operation by picking up the receiver and listening for the dial tone. Step 7: Clean and dust the telephone. Turn on the set to make sure it works properly. beginning with top surface and working your way down to the base and legs. Polish the knobs and remove any smudges around the knob area. and then turn it off. beginning at the top and working your way down the legs.Step 18: Place the pillows at the head of the bed and bring the bedspread over them. 70 . Step 8: Dust the top and sides of the television set and the stand it rests on. Step 2: Dust and polish mirrors. Step 10: Dust any tables. Tuck in the bedspread beneath the pillows.
Check condition of walls as you clean. Clean both sides of the shower curtain or shower door. Remove and clean the drain trap. Remove any smudges on the surfaces. Cleaning the Bathroom: Step 1: Turn on lights and fan. Step 15: Clean both sides of the guestroom door. Scrub the bathtub with all-purpose cleaner. Clean and dust both sides of the closet door. Step 5: Clean the shower area: Check the shower head to make sure it is positioned correctly. Hang clean bath mat over edge of the tub. Clean shower curtain rod or clean the tracks and frame of the shower door. and bath mat. Step 16: Restock the room with guest supplies. Step 14: Wipe down light switches and clean any smudges on surrounding wall area. Wash the tub or shower walls and soap dishes using a damp cloth and all purpose cleaner. Replace any burned out light bulbs. Reposition shower curtain or shower door to the center of the tub. Let it stand while you attend to other cleaning tasks. washcloths. Polish dry to remove water spots. Wipe down the closet rod. Check fan for proper operation. Clean bathtub fixtures. Pay special attention to the bottom where mildew may accumulate. Step 4: Flush the toilet. Step 3: Empty trash and wipe container. Step 6: Clean the vanity and sink area: 71 . Rinse the tub or shower walls and soap dishes with sponge. Step 2: Remove used towels.Step 13: Clean the closet: Dust both the top and underside of the closet shelf. Apply all-purpose cleaner around and under the lip of the bowl. Dust hangers and hooks. Wipe dry.
paying close attention to the surrounding wall area. Replenish guest amenities. Step 10: Clean the floor: Spray bathroom floor and baseboards with all-purpose cleaning solution. Clean the countertop area of the vanity. Flush. Clean both sides of the bathroom door. Visually scan all the areas of the bathroom for areas you may have overlooked. Close the lid. scrub the floor and wipe baseboards. Clean the sink. Wipe down all electrical outlets and light switches. Clean mirror with glass cleaner. Step 7: Clean the toilet: Scrub the insides of the toilet and under the lip with the bowl brush. the tank. Clean sink fixtures. Run some warm water into the sink. Replenish toilet and facial tissue supplies. Turn off the lights and the fan. Using a clean damp cloth. Step 11: Make the final check. Using cleaning solution and a cloth. Polish dry to remove water spots. Starting with the farthest corner and working your way toward the door. Wipe dry all the outside surfaces. spot-clean fingerprints and smudges. Add the correct amount of all-purpose cleaner. Step 8: Clean bathroom walls and fixtures: Dust light fixtures. Wipe and polish towel bars. Vacuuming and Cleaning Baseboards: 72 . Remove drain trap and clean. the lid. Wipe dry the countertop area of the vanity. clean the top of the seat. and the outside of the bowl. Dust all exposed piping. Step 9: Restock bathroom supplies: Replenish the towels.
Remember that your last look is the guest’s first impression. Turndown Service: Step 1: See procedure for entering the guestroom. After reloading your vacuum and cleaning supplies on your cart. Start at one point from one point in the room and trail your eyes in a circular fashion from one corner to the next until you have visually inspected each item. When you are satisfied that the guestroom is neat and thoroughly cleaned. Final Check: The final check is a critical step in guestroom cleaning.” Step 2: Remove any guest items from the bed. Sweep also sides of the room and under furnitures to where vacuum cannot reach. Wipe all exposed area of the baseboard to remove surface dust and dirt. This way the dirt that cannot be reached by the vacuum will be picked up immediately and/or center the dirt so to possibly reach by the vacuum. 73 . you may discover something you overlooked or that was difficult to spot on the first cleaning. Vacuum side to side. behind the door. Make sure that all the furnishings are back in their proper places. substitute “Turndown Service” for “Housekeeping. Begin in the closet area and work your way around the room. Step 4: Vacuum your way back to the door.Step 1: Clean the baseboards. If you detect any unpleasant smells. Look for little things like making sure the lampshades are straight and their seams are turned toward the back. Take care not to bump furnitures or even dragging the vacuum over its cord. and in the closet. turn off the lights. Step 5: Close windows and turn off lights along the way. Step 3: Take the vacuum to the farthest corner in the guestroom. Set neatly aside on the dresser or a chair. and check to see that it is locked. Begin vacuuming. report them to your supervisor. Smell the air for any unusual odors. It makes the difference between just cleaning the room and doing a professional job. By doing so. and proceed to the next room on your schedule. Note the condition and status of the room on your assignment sheet. cover all exposed areas of the carpet you can reach including under tables and chairs. close the door. Step 2: Take a vacuum sweeper or broom to sweep large dirt. take a few moments to give the room a careful look from the guest’s perspective. When announcing your presence. Spray air freshener if needed.
Step 19: Leave the room and close the door. Step 7: Remove and replace dirty glasses. Step 9: Empty the trash and replace wastebasket liners. Step 18: Visually scan the guestroom. 74 . Step 15: Close the drapes. beginning at one point in the room and working your way back to the beginning point. Step 8: Collect any food service trays and dishes. Step 10: Straighten newspapers and magazines. Call room service for pickup. Attend to any turndown task you may have overlooked. Restock with fresh linen. Step 6: Remove and replace dirty ashtrays. For a bed sleeping one guest. Step 12: Straighten and wipe down vanity area. turn down the sheets on one side only. Step 4: Pull back the sheets. Bring this slack part of the spread back over the fold so the fabric faces right side-up. Step 13: Straighten and wipe down tub area if necessary. For beds sleeping two. For a bed sleeping two. Adjust to a low volume. Step 11: Remove dirty linen in bathroom. Dry and polish fixtures. Step 14: Check toilet and facial tissue supply. Replenish if necessary. turn down the sheets on both sides. Step 16: Turn on bedside lamp. Check to be sure it is locked. usually the side near the night stand or phone. Step 5: Place the amenity on the pillow. be sure to leave amenity on both pillows. Set items neatly outside the door.Step 3: Pull back the bedspread so 15 to 18 inches hangs over the foot of the bed. Replenish matches. Step 17: Turn radio to recommended easy listening station. Dry and polish fixtures.
including guest’s laundry and employee uniforms. 75 . LINEN AND LAUNDRY SERVICE The linen and laundry section is responsible for the processing of all requests for laundry service.XI.
. Looks after their preventive maintenance through periodic cleaning and repair when necessary. Checks and maintains par stock requirements.picks ups and delivers guest laundry. classifies and labels laundry items. Distribution of Laundry Responsibilities: Linen and Laundry Supervisor Basic Function: Directs.performs steam pressing. Ensures the proper use. Reports losses and damages and takes corrective action against reckless use of equipment. storage and issuance of linen.sorts. monitors and controls all activities covering linen and laundry service. . . Duties and Responsibilities: Checks quality of laundry service. storage. conducts appraisal interview. Linen Attendant/ Custodian 76 . .does the ironing. . Attends to complaints regarding linen and laundry service. and maintenance of linen and laundry equipment.does mending of guest laundry or employees uniforms.responsible for washing and drying laundry items. coaches and supervises his staff. .does the recording. Sees to it that laundered items are delivered on time. tools and supplies. Initiates and supervises weekly inventory of laundry supplies and other items allocated to his unit. Trains. Conducts performance evaluation of his subordinates. . ensures that laundry standards are complied with and that garments are protected from damages.The laundry section is usually managed by a Laundry Manager or supervisor and is manned with the following personnel: Valet Runner Sorter/ marker Linen attendant Washer Flat Ironer Steam Presser Dry Cleaner-spotter Seamstress . Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by superior. leads. Makes requisition whenever needed.assigned to do dry cleaning and spot removal. Checks equipment regularly for their condition.
checks if they are complete and in good condition. guestroom. stores and issues employees’ uniforms. Delivers processed guests’ laundry making reference to tag number and room number and makes sure these items are delivered on time. supplies as well as guestroom amenities. Valet Runner Basic Function: Responsible for pick up and delivery of laundry items of guests and those for house use. losses. cleaning supplies. Helps in sorting finished laundry items that are ready for delivery. Duties and Responsibilities: Picks up guests’ items for laundry and endorses them to sorter/marker for proper classification. endorses soiled linens to laundry section for laundry. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by superior. cleaning materials. Informs the sorter/marker about the special instructions of guests regarding the latter’s laundry items. Checks laundry items for possible damages and immediately informs guests about it. 77 . breakages and damaged items in the linen room. Performs side duties like mending. Coordinates with the rooms keeping supervisor for the delivery of all processed items when guests are not in their rooms. general supplies and uniforms. ensures that all issued items are properly recorded and accounted for. Duties and Responsibilities: Responsible for the issuance of uniforms as well as guestroom. Also indicates noted damages in the endorsement record. and public area amenities. linens. Responsible for the proper arrangement and storage of linen.Basic Function: Stocks. uniforms and general supplies in the linen room. repair of uniforms and baby-sitting. restaurant and banquet linens. Receives all surrendered linen items. Reports to the Supervisor missing articles. Assists the supervisor in conducting inventories of linen.
straightens edges and smoothly presses wrinkles. Informs the laundry office of his whereabouts in case there is any call for pick up and immediate delivery. Sorts and classifies items according to kind. Performs pressing and ironing. and degree of dirt. counts and classifies them. Duties and Responsibilities: Sorts all items by classification before running them through the machine. Duties and Responsibilities: Receives laundry items of guests from the sorter-marker. Inspects and sorts out stains and damaged linens. Performs other related duties as may be assigned by his/her superior. Reports malfunction of machine to superior. Refers them to supervisor for proper action. Helps in keeping the laundry area clean. Folds duly accomplished items. Flatwork Ironer / Wrangler Basic Function: Performs ironing of linen items in the flatwork machine following the standard procedures. Cleans work areas and machine. Washer (Guest Items) Basic Function: Attends the washing and extracting. 78 . starts and stops machine according to prescribed procedures. drying of all guests laundry and FOC (free of charge) items. Prepares and keeps records of accomplishments. Coordinates with front office/housekeeping regarding information on room changes to avoid wrong delivery. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by supervisor from time to time. Inspects items for damages and stains and reports any damage to the laundry supervisor. color.
Unloads extracted items and forwards them either mangling or pressing section. Duties and Responsibilities: Response for mending and repair of guest garments as well as uniforms and linens for house use. Inspects and sorts dried items and forwards them to the pressing section for pressing or ironing. Performs other duties as may be assigned by his/ her superior. Duties and Responsibilities: Sorts all dirty linens and towels brought into the laundry section. Performs daily cleaning of his area and the machine he is operating. Constantly checks the cleanliness and maintenance of the equipments and reports the defects to his supervisor. Washer (Linens) Basic Function: Attends to the washing. Loads guests items into the washing machine and performs washing according to standard washing procedures. and also linen used for dining and banquet functions. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/her superior. informs sorter or supervisor regarding irremovable stains for the latter to bring it to attention of the guest. bed sheets. napkins and cocktail napkins received from different food outlets. extracting and drying of all housekeeping linens such as towels. Sorts all dirty linens like tablecloths. 79 . Unloads washed items and transfer them to the laundry cart. pillow slips and pillow cases. Loads items into the washing machine and performs washing in accordance with standard washing procedures. etc. Seamstress Basic Function: Performs sewing or mending of guest room linens as well as those used for banquet and food service operations.. Manually cleans with detergent the badly soiled portion of the guests items prior to machine washing. Loads the extracted items to the drying machine for completion.
skirting of guest rooms. indicating therein the recommended method in processing the item. the guest is also notified thru the same notification form. sort and classify them. valet runner or room boy for eh pick-up of the linen. the valet runner or room attendant who picks up the laundry will fill up the guest notification form to notify the guest of noted damage or any discrepancy.). Items for washing are endorsed to washer for processing. the washer shall count and double check items against the laundry list. This notification is brought to the guest by the room boy or bellboy. The guest shall acknowledge receipt of said notification by signing his name. he checks it in the presence of a floor guard or room boy/ supervisor who will be serving as witness for damages or valuables. If the pick-up request is coursed through the laundry clerk. Maintains the cleanliness and condition of the sewing machine. washer should hand wash with care. (color code it with pink tag) – – Hotel has the option to make their own coding system. etc. The laundry list and laundry items are picked up by concerned staff. If the guest is not around. Sequence of Guest Laundry Service: Guest shall fill up the laundry list and may request for pick-up either through the Housekeeping or Laundry office guest phone. If the item is for dry cleaning (color code it with blue tag) If the item is for machine-washing. Upon pick-up of the laundry items. Maintains a stock of sewing kit and looks after their safekeeping. the latter logs down the guest’s instructions for the processing of items and calls the linen attendant. If the item is to be hand washed. If stains or damage are found in the item. Assisting linen attendant in the issuance of guest room linens and banquet linen during peak season. bed cover. the attending staff checks items on the list in front of the guest if he is around. 80 . then place the appropriate tag. through the Front desk or any room supervisor or room attendant. Reports to the supervisor any malfunctioning of the sewing equipment. washing. Mends and repairs torn or damaged curtains. Performs other related duties as maybe assigned by his/ her superior. If the item is not suited for the requested processing method (dry cleaning. Upon receipt of the items.
The processed items will now be delivered to the guest. dresses. the housekeeping supervisor acknowledges by signing in the logbook.e. If the guest is around. If the guest is not around. trousers and related items. (another copy to the front office) notifying him that an attempt to deliver his laundry was made while he is on DND. ironer or presser) for further processing. – The attending staff shall double check each items upon receiving them. a notification is placed in the guest’s room through the door. skirt and long dresses. If the room is on “Do Not Disturb” sign and said item is on special service. Then the bill is presented to him for settlement. it is endorsed to other laundry staff. laundry clerk.After washing the laundry items. collects altogether laundry items of each guest in a garment bag. it is placed inside the pigeon box (if any) according to tag. Undelivered linens brought back to the laundry area to be redelivered upon the arrival of guest. he is asked to sign in the delivery logbook for acknowledgement. Utility presser – for trousers. the washer endorses the finished items to the other laundry staff (i. If the item needs no further processing. If the items is for other forms of processing. prepares a voucher to be attached to the item for billing. Hand ironer – for normal shirts. and takes note of discrepancies in quantity and damaged parts. Summary of the basic wash steps: 81 . If the guest is on cash basis. If the item is ready for delivery. Payment must be made upon delivery of the items. namely: Presser – for blouse. the linen attendant or valet runner sorts them against the laundry list. attaches the laundry list to the bag and endorses it to the presser or linen attendant.
usually after the first rinse step. medium to hot water. – Time: 1 to 3 minutes Suds – involves actual washing step. – Time: 5to 8 minutes Bleach – elimination of stains that could be removed by the detergent. lowwater level and hot water is used. – Time: 5 to 8 minutes Rinse – rids the linen of detergent and soil. Always flush at high-water level and medium-temperature water. medium temperature water. Usually low-water level and hot water is used. Interdictor extract – this process spins soil-laden detergent solution out of linen. – Time: 3 to 7 minutes. Low-water level. Time: 3 to 5 minutes Extract – processing of reducing the moisture content of linen by 50% (100 lbs. This is done using chlorinated bleach added to the wheel. dry weight). – Time: 30 seconds to 2 minutes – 82 . This id performed at low-water level. Usually 3 to 5 steps are utilized at highwater level temperature usually dripping with subsequent rinses. – Time: 1 to 12 minutes Break – performed before the suds step. where detergent is added to the wheel. A high-speed is used. – Time: 1 to 3 minutes Sour and soft step – is the final conditioning of the linen using fabric softener and sour (wild acid). Flush – the linen is wet to dissolve water-soluble soil and to reduce soil load in the following suds steps. This process reduces the required number of deep-water rinses. with a highly-alkaline-break product is added to break loose soils. linen will retail 50 lbs water after extraction.
b. They are extremely tiring to those who must stand on them for any length of time. If the floor then becomes wet. the hardness of these types of floors is also a major drawback. but the mortar between the bricks can deteriorate rapidly if it is not properly maintained. e. Since an unglazed brick is very porous. Unglazed bricks are highly porous material. a. making for a very slippery surface. Brick floors are normally left in their natural unglazed state and color. Another caution is not to use bricks where there may be grease spills. the surface of the brick will have this oil and water mixture. FLOOR TYPES AND THEIR CARE A. Deteriorating mortar and loose bricks can quickly become a serious hazard for slip-fall accidents. Dents are not a problem with these types of floors. but they can be sealed and finished for some interior applications. c.XII. spilled grease and oil will be absorbed into the brick and will be very hard to remove. Types of Hard Floors (Non-resilient Floors): a. d. Brick Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles Concrete Stone Floors Terrazzo Brick Brick is not commonly used as a flooring material for interiors. 83 . and they provide a highly durable. However. fairly slip-resistant floor. Their hardness ensures their durability. except to convey a rustic theme. Hard Floors (Non-resilient floors) Flooring materials that do not “give” to any degree underfoot.
Also. However. when mopping. The color of terra cotta is traditionally a reddish-brown. resemble bricks because they are left in their natural color. Cleaning procedures might include dust mopping. not for its attractiveness or its resiliency. ceramic and terra cotta tiles are made from clay that s fired in a kiln. c. b. damp mopping. Concrete The concrete floor is employed for its utility. creating a surface that is almost totally impervious to soil and liquids. The best approach to cleaning a brick floor is to vacuum it with a brush and. A concrete floor is composed of cement. Scrubbing should be done with brushes and the water should be picked up with a wet/ dry vacuum. Ceramic tile also appears on walls and countertops. Cotton mop heads should not be used on tiles that contain slip-resistant surfaces. and light scrubbing when needed. If the bricks are the speciallymade type of slip-resistant brick. typically six inches square. to which is water is added to initiate a chemical reaction that changes the ingredients into a stone like material. because these surfaces will quickly shred a traditional mop head. Ceramic tile comes in a multitude of colors and can have either a matte or glossy surface. use a bristle brush in combination with a wet/dry vacuum. rocks. they will cause cotton mop heads to fray. unglazed bricks tend to become very dusty. One variety of terra cotta is often used in kitchen floor application because it is marked with a rough surface that makes it slip resistant in greasy conditions. ceramic tile differs from brick in that a coating is applied to one side of the tile and the tile is then fired in a kiln. Terra cotta tiles. Cleaning Procedures: The tiles must be cleaned frequently to remove dust and grit that could damage the glaze on the tile. Care must be taken when selecting ceramic tile because certain solid colors will show dirt quite easily. and sand. and they do not have the glaze coat that is commonly applied to ceramic tile. Ceramic and Terra Cotta Tiles Like brick. as well as on interior and exterior floors.Cleaning Procedures: Brick floors create special problems in cleaning. Cleaning Procedures: 84 .
Acids and moisture can have disastrous effects on natural stone. Natural stone flooring may look impervious to the elements. e. serpentine. A pH neutral detergent is recommended to clean all natural stone floors. but even the acid from spilled orange juice can have a deleterious effect on stone floors. cracking. Oils and grease can permanently stain untreated stone floors because these floors are extremely porous. travertine. A final rinse of clean water should be applied and then immediately picked up with a mop or a wet/ dry vacuum. causing pitting. What destroys most terrazzo is not use. and spalling. All natural stone products share certain properties that must be taken into consideration by the professional housekeeper to ensure the proper care of this type of flooring. the dust mops should be free of all oilbased dusting compounds. Highly alkaline cleaners as well as acidic compounds will damage stone floors. but it is decidedly not as resistant to damage as it looks. Cleaning Procedures: 85 . a terrazzo floor will hold its original luster and will last indefinitely. creating a variety of colorful and attractive floors. and especially unsealed concrete. but improper maintenance. is so porous. granite. Some acids are present naturally in the stone. and other abrasives that are tracked onto a stone floor will quickly mar the floor’s finish. With proper care. and sandstone. Cleaning Procedures: To prevent the staining of stone floors. Since concrete. When mopping stone floors do not let water or chemicals remain on the floor. slate. sand. The chips used in terrazzo floor can differ both in sizes and color. Stone Floors Common types of natural stone flooring includes marbles. to a damp mopping. an immediate effort must be made to clean up spilled liquids before they are absorbed into the concrete and cause unsightly stains. Dusting should be carried out on a daily basis because grit.The cleaning procedures that may be used on a concrete floor range from a daily dust mopping. d. Terrazzo A terrazzo floor is a mosaic flooring composed of Portland cement that has been embedded with marble and/or granite chips. to heavy scrubbing to remove grease and soils. These floors need to have moisture-permeable sealers applied so moisture and acids do not build up under the sealer and destroy the floor’s surface.
b. particularly when the ambient temperature is above 80 0 Fahrenheit. Asphalt Tile Cork Linoleum Rubber Vinyl Wood Carpet Asphalt Tile Asphalt tile is one of the lowest-cost resilient floor coverings available. d. and scrubbing will maintain and preserve the asphalt floor. Always rinse a freshly scrubbed floor and do not allow water or cleaners to remain on the floor surface. When selecting detergents and cleaners for terrazzo floors. stay away from acid cleaners. It will. When dented. abrasives and scrubbing powders. They are called resilient because they are elastic and buoyant underfoot. a. become brittle when exposed to prolonged periods of low temperature and will also dent when heavy objects are present on its surface. Steel wool should not be used on the surface of a terrazzo because the steel wool may put rust stains on the marble chips. a resilient floor will eventually rebound wholly or partially to its origin form.Terrazzo should be dusted daily to remove harmful grit and sand that can wear down the surface. e. They are also non porous. Resilient Floors Resilient floors have various degrees of “give” to their surfaces. Asphalt tile is also fire resistant. it is one of the most mar resistant of all floorings in regard to cigarette burns. One important item to remember. wet mopping is to never let water stand 86 . Cleaning Procedures: Dust mopping. Once oil or grease penetrates a terrazzo floor. g. damp mopping. and preparations that have an alkalinity above pH 10. Types of Resilient Floors: a. however. f. and it is quite durable under most normal conditions. in fact. it is virtually impossible to remove. B. c. but dust mops should not be treated with oil dressings because oil is the archenemy of a terrazzo floor.
Another limitation is that it is not durable. Next to cork and rubber. Harsh abrasives and scouring powders should be avoided and water or detergent solutions should not be left in contact with the floor for any length of time. The linoleum would absorb water and would then soften. resins. sand. Linoleum was quite durable. and gravel tracked on to a cork floor will severely shorten its life span. embedded cork. causing it to lose its abrasion resistance and become more susceptible to indentation. padded carpeting. the use of vinyl has replaced linoleum. Contemporary cork tiles for floors usually have a top layer of clear vinyl applied to them. and of course. One reason is that cork is susceptible to staining because it is one of the most porous of all floor coverings. The negative aspects of linoleum was that it is highly susceptible to water. was resistant to oil and grease. The cork is ground into large granules. Finally. Cork rivals ceramic tiles in cost and does not have nearly the useful life of ceramic tile. Linoleum In modern buildings. linoleum floors can still be found in older facilities. and pressed into sheets. it is highly susceptible to abrasion. Even high humidity would have a negative effect upon this material. but on occasion. When the floor is mopped. 87 . Cinders. b. it should be allowed to dry completely before foot traffic is allowed upon it. such as solid vinyl flooring. it is expensive. The flooring can also be dry mopped using a pH neutral cleaner. and do not shrink. Its properties included in a remarkable degree of resiliency. mixed with synthetic resins.for any length of time on an asphalt tile floor. Standing water will attack the adhesive cement and will cause tiles to curl and loosen. which are then cut into tiles. and wood flour with pigments pressed on a backing. c. Linoleum was composed of oxidized linseed oil. This vinyl layer protects the cork from staining and wear. Cleaning Procedures: Frequent dusting is essential to the preservation of linoleum. Linoleum was once so pervasive that many still use the term linoleum to indicate any continuous flooring material. Cork Tile Cork tile is made from the outer bark of cork oak trees grown in Spain and Portugal. Cork tiles traditionally have had limited application in industrial or institutional settings. linoleum is considered to have the greatest degree of resiliency.
Cleaning solvents such as naphtha and turpentine should never be used on a rubber floor. and laminated vinyl flooring. Vinyl asbestos tiles are no longer made and have been removed from numerous commercial and residential settings because the asbestos in the tile is a known carcinogen. oils. Rubber tiles often have knobs n the surface or will have a tread pattern to improve traction. Rubber floors are nonporous. vinyl composition tiles contain mineral fillers such as asphalt and pigments. solvents. and ozone in the air. Daily dust mopping and an occasional damp mopping are all that is needed to maintain the floor. homogeneous or flexible vinyl tiles. The low initial cost may be deceiving. It is practically unaffected by moisture.d. ultraviolet light. In addition to the vinyl resins. vinyl composition tiles. The major varieties include vinyl asbestos tiles. When attacked by these components. 88 . Some laminated floorings are only guaranteed for three years with moderate use. and chemical solvents. Homogeneous vinyl tiles may either be flexible or solid. Rubber tiles are cured or vulcanized by the application of heat. Vinyl Floors There are several types of vinyl floorings and tiles. The cost of laminated vinyl flooring will vary in proportion to the thickness of the top vinyl wear layer. however. Improper cleaning of vinyl asbestos tile can release deadly asbestos fibers into the air and present a very real health hazard. Rubber flooring is susceptible to alkalines. the floor will have to be replaced. a rubber floor will often become tacky and soft. such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Rubber floors are fairly easy to maintain. it is best to use pH neutral detergents whenever possible. e. oils. especially if liquids are frequently spilled on the surface. grease. One major advantage is that they are quite resilient and will remain resilient over a considerable temperature range. It will then become brittle and begin to crack and powder. waterproof surfaces. Rubber Floors All modern rubber floors are made from synthetic rubber. for once the top wear layer is worn through. Laminated vinyl flooring is less expensive to manufacture than vinyl composition or homogeneous vinyl floors. Cleaning Procedures: Highly alkaline cleaning solution should be avoided. and it has become the preferred standard for resilient tile flooring.
maple. Water is one of the most deleterious substances to a wood floor. and of course. most wood floors made today receive factory applied finish. Dusting. a light damp mopping is all that is necessary to maintain a wood floor on a daily basis. precautions should be taken to protect the floor from furniture legs that may dent the flooring. birch. The oil from the mop head may darken or stain the floor. vacuuming. f. Unfinished wood floors will quickly deteriorate under even light use. beech. Modern vinyl is unaffected by alkaline detergents. but pH neutral detergents are recommended over heavy alkaline products. as wood is an extremely porous material. and. the bane of wood floors.Cleaning Procedures: Modern homogeneous vinyl needs only to be dusted and damp mopped to restore its luster. on limited occasion. abrasions caused by normal foot traffic. Wood floors are particularly susceptible to metal or hard plastic rollers and to those small metal domes that are often found on the legs of office furnitures Cleaning Procedures: Preventive maintenance is the key to attractive and durable wood floors. hardwood floors are extremely durable if they are properly finished and maintained. Daily dusting to remove sand and grit is extremely important to the care of vinyl because most types will scratch under heavy foot traffic. while too little humidity will cause wood floors to shrink and crack. hickory. Tung oil and carnuba wax are then applied to seal the wood. Too much moisture will cause a wood floor to warp. In some instances the wood is heated to open the pores of the wood. One of the best prevention techniques is to use walk-off mats at exterior entrances and use rugs and carpet runners in high-traffic areas. Wood Floors There is nothing quite as attractive as the warmth and richness of wood floors. but other popular woods include ash. Since there is a degree of resiliency in even the hardest of hardwood floors. Most hardwood floors are made from oak. consequently. In addition to its attractiveness. splintering of the wood fibers. buffing. Some tiles are specially treated with a scratch resistant seat that is applied at the factory. teak. but do not use an oily dust mop on wood floor. g. Wood floors should be dusted. Carpet Floors 89 . and walnut. it should not be used to clean most wood floors. moisture. Unfinished woods are susceptible to dirt lodging in the grains. To help forestall damage.
Face weight. the better the carpet. c. it provides an additional source of insulation. Most carpets have a double backing. the better the carpet. Height of the pile. and it is the most resilient of all floor coverings. Pile Primary Backing Secondary Backing Padding 90 .Carpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around the edge of a carpet. a. b. rugs can be used to equalize wear and help prevent tracking onto other floor coverings. d. Carpet prevents slipping. it has acoustical properties that can effectively lower noise levels. the greater the density of pile. b. the carpet is of an inferior quality. the higher the quality. In areas where there is heavy foot traffic. One common test of density is to bend a piece of carpet. is the weight of the carpet’s surface fibers in ounces or grams per square yard. are often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. Rugs. The fibers can either be synthetic or natural in composition. Amount of twist the pile fibers have receives. on the other hand. The greater the face weight. it secures the tufts of pile and gives additional strength and stability to the carpet. Backing The backing is on the underside of the carpet. A layer of latex adhesive is sandwiched between the two layers to seal the pile tufts to the primary backing. Test of Pile Quality: a. the tighter the twist. Carpet Components: a. Pile density. Carpet with greater pile density hold their shape longer and are more resistant to dirt and stains. c. d. Carpet offers a number of benefits over hard and resilient flooring materials. which is a major benefit to individuals who must remain on their feet for extended periods. a primary backing to which the yarn is attached and an outer backing called the secondary backing. Pile Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily touch. and if the backing can readily be seen. longer fibers are better than shorter fibers. b.
c. deaden sound.Types of Backing: a. Tufted carpet – produced by forcing needles. b. It is used mainly in indoor-outdoor carpets. Flocked carpets – are produced by electrostatically embedding short carpet fibers into a backing. Foam rubber b. threaded with pile yarn. and the stitching yarns. Carpet squares or tiles – 18 square inches. Knitted carpets – are produced by a method that uses a specialized knitting machine with different sets of needles to loop together the pile. Jute. c. Weaved – is the traditional way of making carpet on a loom. Carpet runners – 2 feet to 9 feet in width. Foam rubber. Carpet Construction: a. e. but can be ordered up to 15 feet in width. Carpet Maintenance: a. and extend the life of the carpet by serving as a “shock absorber. through the primary backing (usually polypropylene) to form tufts. backing. c. Broadloom carpets – 12 feet in width. d. Natural materials such as jute and hair blends. a synthetic thermoplastic resin.” Types of Padding: a. Urethane foam c. producing a velvety-look cut pile surface. add comfort. c. a natural fiber imported from India and Bangladesh. Sizes of Carpets: a. Inspection and Prevention 91 . Needle punched carpets – are produced by a manufacturing method that punches the fibers into a structural backing and then compresses the fibers into a felt-like fabric. b. Polypropylene. b. Padding Padding can be placed under carpet to provide extra insulation.
Pile distortion 92 . which should occur on a continual basis. Prevention includes the use of mats to absorb dirt and spills around food preparation areas and the use of grates. Spot Cleaning a. Spot Cleaning Spot and spills call for immediate action. c. sticky residues and the dry particulates that have become stuck to them. bonnet cleaning. Four Restorative Carpet Cleaning Systems: a. causing the pile to wear prematurely. Interim Cleaning Method c. many substances can permanently stain a carpet. which are far easier to remove if they are treated before they have a chance to set. Restorative Cleaning Methods: Interim cleaning methods do not remove the gummy. Interim Cleaning Method: Interim cleaning methods include carpet sweeping. Interim carpet care is absolutely necessary to remove gritty soil and spots before these elements become embedded in the carpet. c. Carpets need to be inspected for spills and stains. and spot stain removal. Carpet Problems: a. Restorative Cleaning Method d. vacuuming. Inspection and Prevention: The most frequent activity. track-off mats. Water extraction Dry foam Dry powder Rotary shampoo d. and carpet runners to absorb dirt and grit and control wear at entrances and in high-foot-traffic locations. especially one that is made of nylon or wool. If allowed to set. b. b. d.b. Deep cleaning methods must be employed to restore the carpet to a near original condition.
Improper cleaning or spot removal can actually do more damage than some permanent stains. e. Improper cleaning methods can also cause pile distortion. but all carpets should be kept dry and/or treated with an antibacterial to prevent the problem. c. Shedding / Pilling: 93 . wear. Pile Distortion: A general term for a number of problems with the carpet’s face fibers. pilled. and rotting. Shading: Shading occurs when the pile in a carpet is brushed in two different directions so that dark and light areas appear. Fading: Every carpet will fade with time. crushed. cleaning. but will probably not eliminate it. Mildew: Mildew forms when moisture allows molds in the carpet to grow. f. d. Sunlight. Premature fading may occur if the carpet is improperly cleaned. Shading is normal feature of almost all carpets/Vacuuming or pile lifting the carpet in one direction can help to reduce a shading problem. Mildew can cause staining. c. Shading Fading Wicking Mildew Shedding / pilling a. Wicking: Wicking (sometimes called browning) occurs when the backing of the carpet becomes wet and the face yarns draw or wick the moisture and color of the backing to the surface of the carpet. and natural aging can combine to accelerate color loss. e. f.b. b. or flared and matted. Natural fibers are especially prone to mildew. Wicking can often be prevented by promptly attending to spills and by following proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet. odor. d. Always pretests carpets before using aggressive spot-removal techniques. Pile distortion occurs when the carpet receives heavy foot or equipment traffic. Proper cleaning procedures that avoid over wetting the carpet can help prevent mildew from forming. Fibers can become twisted.
rather. with some foliage protruding between the petals. Shedding will eventually top. Coarser textures will appear to have more visual weight so they will be best used at the focal point. This contrast may be in the form of flower sizes. e. d. The focal point is the area of an arrangement that will draw the most attention and will direct the eye of a viewer to a specific location within the design. The purpose of the focal flowers is to draw visually all elements of the design to a single location. Emphasis Balance Proportion and Scale Rhythm Harmony Unity a. b. Flowers with unique shapes also attract attention. or shapes. Balance: 94 . least-open flowers are placed at the perimeter of the arrangement and the large. Pilling. The Principles of Design: a. Generally. should never be crowded to form a tightened mass of blossoms. An accent will exist whenever contrast is present in a design. Emphasis can mostly easily be achieved in a design when the smallest.Short pieces of face fibers are often trapped in the carpet when it is manufactured. using varying degrees of flower and foliage textures within an arrangement may create another striking contrast. often the result of cleaning can be removed by heavy vacuuming or by gently cutting loose fibers from the carpet with scissors. with less vibrant tones or tints used as the flowers approach the perimeter of the design. Emphasis: Emphasis is achieved in a floral design by creating an accented area or a focal point. fully developed flowers are located at the focal point. The most striking contrast in a design is created by use of brightly colored flowers at the center of interest. c. it will not be necessary to allow individual blooms to touch each other. As the new carpet is walked upon. THE PRINCIPLES AND ELEMENTS OF FLORAL DESIGN A. The contrast in texture or color will place the emphasis at the lip of the container. textures. colors. frequent vacuuming will prevent the carpet from looking littered. An accessory such as ribbons or bow is often used by retail florists to create emphasis in bouquets and corsages. In the meantime. f. these pieces work themselves to the surface of the carpet and can make a new carpet look littered and unkempt. the center of interest. they should appear loose and natural. however. b. The flowers.
Flowers are arranged from the back of the container toward the front and sides. Balance is maintained by grading flowers by color. Many floral design styles are arranged with asymmetrical balance. color. plant material should be at least one and one-half to two times the height of the vase. Depth and visual balance are created in the design when the rear flower stems tip backward slightly. and color density must be considered in this type of balance. and shape. A visual line is left uncompleted with the void balanced by flowers to create the curved line of the design. The absence of flowers in these areas adds interests and proportion within the design. Proportion in an arrangement is accomplished by scaling flowers toward the focal point. distance from the focal point. Mechanical balance is achieved when the container is the proper size and weight for the size of flowers being used with it. flat containers. texture. The size relationship of flower stems. size and spacing. texture. This gives the arrangement a feeling of depth and support. A formal balance is created when the focal point is centered in the container. as each flower is placed closer to the front of the arrangement. The design should have the flowers distributed properly so that the containers will support them. Flowers are placed at the same heights within the design will fight for equal attention. and the focal flower is placed well in front of the lip of the container. This is accomplished by the convergence of lines at the focal point. The flowers are then graduated in size by the placement of increasingly larger flowers in the arrangement until the center of interest is reached. The flower and foliage stems should appear to arise from a single central location in the container. Good proportion in an arrangement is created by establishing a pleasing scale relationship of the flowers to the container. This gives the appearance of a more natural design and allows the arranger more originality in his or her work. A symmetrical design will appear to be the same on each side of a vertical centerline. c. This means that the smallest buds are placed farthest from the visual center of the design. Flower heights are gradually lowered. An arrangement may be composed of symmetrical or asymmetrical balance. Spaces without flowers are purposely left to allow each bloom to be viewed singly. Proportion and Scale: A floral arrangement appears best when all the component flowers are related in size. the height of an 95 . For low. An arrangement should possess both mechanical and visual balance. The scale of a design is dictated by the size of arrangement and its relationship to its surroundings. A generally accepted rule of floral design states that for a tall container.A well-designed arrangement will appear to be stable and self-supporting. The use of negative spaces or voids within the arrangement is equally as important as sizes of flowers in creating a pleasing proportion.
the intensity or tone of the color is graded to be more subdued. the viewer is attracted gently from the top of the arrangement along the curving elements of line or texture or color through to its focal point. or flower shapes. When flowers having the same color. or form are placed at opposing points away from the focal point. and on to the other side of the design. textures. 96 . Rhythm may be achieved in several ways – through opposition. repetition. the center of interest. This could be interpreted to mean that the idea or theme of the design has been successfully created. Balance and proportion are easily maintained in a tall. A horizontal style design will have its primary axis running along its width. In order for harmony to be achieved all the component parts of the design must be in an appealing relationship. A transition in color and texture or the gradation of scaled flower sizes can also be used to create motion in a design. the center of interest is emphasized. From the center to the outer edges of the arrangement. Motion is created most easily in a design having a curved line. This radiation from a single point will create an emphasis at the center of interest and will provide a visual movement as well. e. This rule is not ironclad and may be altered provided that good proportion in the design is maintained. colors. through the focal area. Harmony: When an arrangement possesses harmony. d. A similar use of texture-quality transition will be effective in creating motion within the design that leads the eye to the center of interest in the arrangement. all the design parts will fit together into a pleasing composition of flower shapes. The darkest or brightest color may be placed at the focal point. Rhythm: Rhythm is the apparent flow of lines. The height of this type of design would be drastically reduced from the designated rules. The repetition of the same flower types throughout an arrangement ties all the parts into a single unit. An arrangement that would exceed these height limitations would be one where very visually lightweight foliage and flowers are used. or transition. When flowers are placed with their stems originating at the focal point. they will appear to radiate from the center of the design. These opposing flowers create a balance in the design that naturally leads the eye from one point. Here. texture. textures.arrangement is at least one and one-half to two times the width. delicate-appealing design. and sizes. The viewer will see the entire design through a repeated use of the same colors. This eye movement is the result of the visual motion within the design. textures. or colors that expresses a feeling of motion rather than confusion in an arrangement.
colors. Unity: Unity is created when all the design parts blend together without a noticeable separation. The Elements of Design: a. Line Form Texture Pattern Color Space a. b. c. The line establishes the skeleton of the design particularly when linear flowers or foliages are used. Basically it involves the sense of touch. B. and textures throughout the design. c. A horizontal line is more relaxing or informal. This quality of texture may be expressed either as a physical or a visual characteristic of the plant material. so is used most often for table arrangements. f. This helps to pull the components together with the focal point as the center of interest. the viewer of the design will feel a lack of unity. Flower and foliage shapes add a visual quality that is important in developing harmony. Pattern: 97 . the way something feels. d. all elements must visually blend together. Line: Line in a flower arrangement is the visual path the eye travel as it passes through the arrangement. creating rhythm and establishing a focal point. Form is also expressed by the geometric shape that creates the outline of the design. d. This element produces the underlying framework of the arrangement that holds the composition together. A curved line adds gentleness or gracefulness and gives the impression of motion. and roughness. A vertical line gives the arrangement an appearance of strength. Unity is best achieved by repeating related flower types. e.f. foliages and containers used in flower arrangements have various shapes or forms. When one color or type of flower is used only at the perimeter of the arrangement and another at the center. Texture: Texture refers to such tactile or surface qualities of flowers and foliage as smoothness glossiness. Although each flower or area of the arrangement may be distinctive. which is then experienced visually. b. Form: The flowers.
oriental. a container is usually of less importance than plant material. Usually we regard it as emptiness without limits or definition. The pattern of a design and that of the individual materials influence each other. since the distribution of lines and forms can proceed either logically or in a disjointed way that disrupts unity. can. A container must be sturdy enough to balance the weight and breadth of a quantity of material.Pattern applies to the contour of a composition and the grouping of materials within it. Decoratively a container may be of little interest or it may make a positive contribution through color. jar or crate. open. or if we cut out sections in a solid and leave them open. Patterns are different kinds – intricate. In a design. 98 . In any case. Arrangement and container must be in proportion. it encompasses more than a vases and bowls. or naturalistic. Pattern is monotonous if placements are uniform and forms unvaried. Factors in the Selection of Containers: In flower arrangement. bold. regular. and be related in color but not so intense or varied in hue. because color commands the most attention. . Color: Probably the most important factor in the compatibility of materials is their color. then space assumes shape. Except in modern design where it may be featured. dense. or texture. a container should share the characteristics of a design. an integral part of it. as traditional. it must have an opening adequate for a number of stems and a quantity of flowers and foliage as well as enough water to sustain them. Pattern relates to continuity. As the first requirement is to hold materials. Thus two factors – size and decorative qualities – determine the suitability of a container to a design. the container neither so large that it overpowers the arrangement nor so small that the design dwarfs the vase. but it will be confused if assorted flowers are randomly spotted causing the eye to jump about. highly glazed or patterned that it competes. f. Space: It is difficult to think of space as a positive element of design. form. and often accounts for success or failure. a container transcends its practical purpose and becomes an artistic component of design. and irregular. causes the strongest reaction. if we mark off space or enclose it. The pattern of the materials often identifies the style. box. a container has connotation beyond the dictionary definition of “a thing that contains”. e. be equally formal or casual. In floral work. modern.
and style of a container should be in keeping with the setting or mood of an occasion.Compatibility also depends on similarity of style and shape. In collecting containers. naturalistic. container and design correspondingly traditional. texture. modern. 99 . be guided also by the dimensions and shape of the area and furniture that will be use for their display and for the type of arrangements to make. the same air of gaiety or restraint. The color. or oriental. and have the same degree of elegance or informality.
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