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The Cell Cycle

Biology 1 CP
(Spring ’08)
 The Cell Cycle describes the life of a
eukaryotic cell
 they have a nucleus
 Life of a eukaryotic cell is shown in a
 Cell Cycle  a repeating sequence of
cellular growth and division.
Stages of the Cell Cycle
 Consists of 5 stages
 Three of the stages together are called
 These include G1, , S, & G2
1. G1 (First growth phase)
 Cell
grows rapidly
 Occupies major portion of the cell’s life

2. S (Synthesis phase)
 DNA is copied
 Each chromosome consists of two chromatids
attached at the centromere.
3. G2 (Second Growth Phase)
 Preparations are made for the nucleus to
 Microtubules are assembled
 (hollow protein fibers -- move chromosomes
during mitosis)
The other 2 phases
4. Mitosis – the process during cell division
in which the nucleus of a cell is divided
into two nuclei.
(Makes an identical copy of another cell)
5. Cytokinesis – “…” in which the cytoplasm
How do cells know when to divide?

 Cells have “Checkpoints”

 “red light, green light”
 1. Cell growth checkpoint (G1):
 If conditions are good, moves on to S phase
 If conditions are not favorable, the cell cycle
will stop.
2. DNA Synthesis (G2) checkpoint
 DNA replication checked by repair enzymes
 If passed, the proteins help trigger mitosis.

3. Mitosis checkpoint
- If passed, then moves on to G1 phase.