Mitosis & Cytokinesis
What are spindles and centrioles?
Spindles – structures made of centrioles and additional microtubule fibers.
Helps to move chromosomes apart during mitosis.
G2 phase – centriole pair is replicated Each centriole is made of 9 triplets of mictrotubules arranged in a circle.
Structure of a Microtubule
Microtubules are made of protein fibers.
Separating Chromatids by attaching Spindle Fibers Two sets of microtubules extend outward toward opposite poles. Microtubules attach to centromeres and poles.
Chromatids in each chromosome can be separated.
*Just like fishing; microtubules are like fishing line, reeling in chromatids.
How do chromatids separate?
“Reeling” occurs because of spindle fibers are broken down, bit by bit. As the fibers become shorter, the chromatids that they are pulling move closer and closer to the poles. Chromosomes separated from each other are called chromatids.
When chromatids finally arrive, each pole has one complete set of chromosomes.
What are the Stages of Mitosis?
2. 3. 4. 5.
Biologists tend to divide mitosis into four stages: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Chromosomes coil up and become visible Nuclear envelope dissolves and spindle forms.
Chromosomes move to the center of the cell. Spindle fibers link the chromatids of each chromosome to opposite poles.
Centromeres divide 2 chromosomes move toward opposite poles as spindle fibers shorten.
A nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole. Chromosomes uncoil and the spindle dissolves.
(As mitosis ends, cytokinesis begins) Cytoplasm is divided in half Cell membrane grows to enclose each cell Cell pinched in half by protein threads (in animal cells). In plant cells, a cell plate is formed by fusing of the Golgi Apparatus.