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Men de l’ s T heo r y

(Ch . 8-2 )
 People used to think that we are a blend
of characteristics.
 Ex. Tall + Short = Medium
 IT DOESN’T WORK THAT WAY!!!
 During fertilization, the offspring receives
one factor (one copy of a gene) for each
trait.
 1 copy from each parent
 We call these factors genes.
Me ndel’s Hyp othese s

1 – For each inherited trait, an individual


has two copies of the gene – one from
each parent.
2 – There are alternate versions of genes.
- these alternate versions are known
as alleles. Ex. TT tt Tt
3 – When two different alleles occur
together, one may be completely
expressed while the other may not even
appear.
 The alleles that are expressed are
Dominant (T).
 The allele not expressed when the
dominant allele is present is called
Recessive (t).
4 – Each gamete (sex cell) contributes one
allele.
Me ndel’s F in din gs

 When two alleles of a gene are the same


in an individual, they are called
homozygous.
Ex. A plant with PP is homozygous for
flower color.
 When two alleles of a gene are different,
they are called heterozygous.
Ex. A plant with Pp is heterozygous for
flower color.
 How could you describe this set of
alleles?
TT
 Answer  Homozygous Dominant

 How could you describe this set?


tt
 Answer  Homozygous Recessive
 The set of alleles of an individual is
called a genotype.
 The physical appearance expressed by
the alleles is called the phenotype.
Laws of He re dity

1. Law of Segregation
 Two alleles of a trait segregate
(separate) when gametes are formed.
2 – Law of Independent Assortment
 Alleles of different genes separate
independently of one another during
gamete formation.
Ex. Alleles for plant height don’t affect
alleles for flower color.