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Week 15 Notes
An Overview of the Timber Framing Code AS1684
.6.the bracing tables given in the standard are limited to a 16 m wide building and 35degree roof pitch.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 An Overview of the Timber Framing Code AS1684 SECTION 1 SCOPE SCOPE AND AND GENERAL GENERAL FWPRDC FWPRDC AS AS1684 1684 SECTION SECTION11--SCOPE SCOPE& & 11 Scope This Standard specifies requirements for building practice and the selection. thereby minimizing the risk of creating an environment which might adversely affect the ultimate performance of the structure. Limitations Generally the limitations given in AS 1684 apply because of the limits of the design information given in AS 1684. bracing and connections. This Standard also provides building practice and procedures. placement and fixing of the various structural elements used in the construction of timber-framed Class 1 and Class 10 Buildings as defined by the Building Code of Australia and within the limitations given in Clause 1. loadings and other parameters applicable to those classes of building are within the limitations of this Standard. which assist in the correct specification and design of timber members. e. This Standard may also be applicable to the design and construction of other classes of buildings where the design criteria. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 2 of 15 2/06/2009 .g.
Post Lintel trimmer In-fill wall framing does not support the roof but is required to resist wind loads. for a pole frame building.SCOPE & 12 ‘Conventional timber framed buildings’ may also include post and beam. the pole size and footing requirements if these poles are used as cantilevered bracing poles. depending on the design.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 The information contained in this Standard is provided specifically for conventional timber-framed buildings and is applicable to single-and two-storey construction built within the limits or parameters given in Clauses 1.g.1. FWPRDC AS 1684 SECTION 1 . e. however. Post & Beam Post Post Post Bracing can be timber.2 to 1.10 and Figure 1.SCOPE & 13 Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 3 of 15 2/06/2009 . some components of such buildings may fall outside the scope of AS 1684. metal or sheet. Conventional Frame Timber or metal bracing Lintel Sheet bracing Common stud Nogging Lintel trimmer Wall intersection Bottom plate Top plate Jamb stud Jack studs Sill trimmer FWPRDC AS 1684 SECTION 1 .6.6. and pole frame buildings. Beam is designed as a lintel supporting the roof.
All other height restrictions given in AS 4055 such as the 6 m to the eaves and the 2.5m to the ridge given in AS 4055 shall apply to this Standard.SCOPE & 19 Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 4 of 15 2/06/2009 . These restrictions are only relevant to the bracing and tie-down force tables given in AS 4055.2 Wind Classification TABLE 1. Where the wind classification is determined from AS 4055.7 m wall height will not apply to AS 1684. If AS 1170.1.2 shall not be more than 5% greater than the ultimate limit state wind speed given in Table 1.6. The ultimate limit state design gust wind speed determined from AS 1170. the maximum building height limitation of 8. Note: Town planning generally limits the height of most domestic buildings.1 for the corresponding wind classification adopted.1 Non-cyclonic MAXIMUM DESIGN GUST WIND SPEED Wind classification regions A and B N1 N2 N3 N4 Maximum design gust wind speed (m/s) Permissible stress method ( Vp ) 28 (W28N) 33 (W33N) 41 (W41N) 50 (W50N) Serviceability limit state (V s ) 26 26 32 39 Ultimate limit state (V u ) 34 40 50 61 FWPRDC AS 1684 SECTION 1 . NOTE:.2 is used to determine the maximum design gust wind speed.2 is used to determine the wind classification there is no building height restriction. a wind classification shall be adopted in accordance with Table 1.Wind Loads for Housing (the simplified wind classification standard) or AS 1170.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Wind Classification Either AS 4055 . Where AS 1170. 1.2 SAA Loading code Part 2 – Wind loads shall be used to determine the wind classification necessary for the use of this Standard.
1 (b) Plan FWPRDC AS 1684 SECTION 1 . There is no major limitation on the shape of buildings. L-shaped or a combination of essentially rectangular elements including splayed-end and boomerang-shaped buildings. 0 m ma x.0 m ma x . 1. This building is considered to be ‘two storeys of timber framing’.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Plan Building shapes shall be essentially rectangular.0 ax . W 1 6 . 16 W m m .SCOPE & 22 Number of Stories The maximum number of storeys of timber framing shall not exceed two. square. FIGURE 1.3 Plan W 1 6.6. Exceptions may include dome shaped buildings. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 5 of 15 2/06/2009 .
16. Pitching Point of garage roof.0 m max. Pitching Point of main roof. Pitching Point of main roof.Section 8. excluding eaves. 16.0 m max. Pitching Point of main roof. Pitching Point of verandah or patio roof. NOTE: The geometric limits of the span tables often will limit the width. For wind classifications N3. C2 & C3 spacing of bracing elements is determined by Table 8. 16. This limitation on width only limits the distance between the ‘pitching points’ of the roof.0 m max. Pitching Point of main roof. Spacing of Bracing The spacing of bracing elements. Roof Pitch The maximum roof pitch shall be 35° (70:100).e. shall not exceed 9000 mm.20 . not gable or skillion ends. Wall Height The maximum wall height shall be 3000 mm (floor to ceiling) as measured at common external walls.0 m max. i. Pitching Point of main roof. measured at right angles to elements. Garage Main house Verandah or Patio Main house Main house 16.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Width The maximum width of building shall be 16000 mm.0 m max. 16. C1. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 6 of 15 2/06/2009 . N4.
intermediate beams. Building Masses Building masses appropriate for the member being designed shall be determined prior to selecting and designing from the Span Tables in the Supplements. the maximum mass assumed by the table is 40 kg per square metre for a Sheet roof and 90 kg per square metre for a Tile roof.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Roof Types Roof construction shall be hip. the ‘supported materials’ will include the weight of the roofing material. intermediate beams. STRUTTING/ HANGING BEAMS roof mass will be a choice of Sheet or Tile Roof A 12 kg/m2 ceiling mass has been allowed for in the design of CEILING JOIST & HANGING BEAMS For rafters or purlins. gable. For the design of the RAFTER roof mass will be:weight of roofing material + weight of roof battens + sarking & insulation Roof Batten STRUTS Sheet or Tile roof Ridge board Collar tie For the design of the UNDERPURLIN. roof mass will be:_ weight of roofing material + weight of roof battens + sarking & insulation (The weight of rafters is accounted for in the design) STRUTTING BEAMS. other than ‘rafters. roof battens. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 7 of 15 2/06/2009 . sarking and/or insulation plus ceiling battens and ceiling sheeting for a cathedral roof. trussed or pitched or in any combination of these. For the design of most timber members. cathedral. ridge beams and underpurlins’ for pitched and cathedral roofs. the appropriate roof masses (weight) for various members will need to calculated using Appendix B of AS 1684. For rafters or purlins. purlins. Where a table asks for an input of ‘Tile Roof’ or ‘Sheet Roof’. selecting a Sheet roof or a Tile roof will be all that is required to ‘determine the appropriate building mass’. for pitched and cathedral roofs. skillion. ridge beams and underpurlins.
4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Roof Batten Ceiling Lining (may be on top of rafters) For the design of the RAFTER roof mass will be:weight of roofing material + weight of roof battens + weight of ceiling lining & ceiling battens if used + sarking & insulation For the design of the RIDGE BEAM roof mass will be:weight of roofing material + weight of roof battens + weight of ceiling lining & ceiling battens if used + sarking & insulation (The weight of rafters is accounted for in the design) Design Criteria The basis of the design used in the preparation of this Standard is AS 1684. The design dead. live. loads. with appropriate allowances for the distribution of concentrated or localized loads over a number of members where relevant.1. Assumptions used for forces. bracing and connection details have been accommodated in the design. the appropriate wind classification (e.1 and AS 1720. were taken into account in the member computations. The member sizes.g. N2) together with the stress grade shall be established prior to selecting the appropriate supplement to obtain timber member sizes.1. The effects of snow loads up to 0.2 kPa on member sizes. bracing and connection details are suitable for construction (including timber-framed brick veneer) of design category H1 and H2 domestic structures in accordance with AS 1170. All pressures. Forces on Buildings The design of framing members may be influenced by the wind forces that act on the specific members.2 and AS 4055. AS 1170. forces and capacities given in this Standard are based on limit state design.4 Earthquake loads. When using Span Tables in the Supplements. and wind loadings recommended in AS 1170. load combinations and serviceability requirements of Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 8 of 15 2/06/2009 .
• Wind Loads .) Wind Internal pressure Suction DEAD LOAD (structure) (a) Gravity loads (b) Uplift wind loads NOTE: For clarity. Figure 1.SCOPE & 47 Forces on buildings produce different effects on a structure. earthquake and snow loads are not shown (see Clause 1. his Standard takes account of these.the forces arising from the weight of the building components themselves.the forces arising from . thunderstorms & tropical cyclones. Figure 1.7 ). Each effect shall be considered individually and be resisted.1. RACKING forces are resisted by BRACING Racking (walls deform) Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 9 of 15 2/06/2009 . furniture etc. Suction (uplift) Construction loads (people. The main forces acting on buildings are: • Dead Loads . materials) DEAD LOAD (structure) LIVE LOADS (people.the forces arising from the weight of persons using the building and moveable furniture.2 indicates forces applied to timber-framed buildings that shall be considered. • Live Loads .gales. FIGURE 1.2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS FWPRDC AS 1684 SECTION 1 .4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 framing members are given in AS 1684.3 summarizes some of these actions.
Uplift (connection failure) Because wind forces are generally the most critical for structural members. these forces are resolved into: • • horizontal forces on the walls and roofs uplift forces (or downward forces) on the ceiling and roof Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 10 of 15 2/06/2009 . For the purpose of design. Overturning (rotation) SLIDING (Shear Forces) is resisted by TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Sliding (tendency to slide) UPLIFT is resisted by TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS. engineering design for houses is centred around wind forces.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 OVERTURNING is resisted by TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS.
Other members supporting roof or floor loads where the load occurs directly over the support or is within 1.3. such as roof beams. the limitations imposed regarding the support of point loads and the use of offsets and cantilevers are specified in Section 4. hanging & strutting beams. NOTES: 1 This load path in many cases cannot be maintained in a completely vertical path.5 D max.5 D Support The 1. Roof or floor load This member designed as not supporting load This member can be designed as not supporting load if the cantilever is no more than 1. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 11 of 15 2/06/2009 . where applicable.2. relying on structural members that transfer loads horizontally. be transferred through the timber frame to the footings by the most direct route. wall and floor loads shall.4 and 1. In a timber frame. 2 Floor members designed as ‘supporting floor load only’ may support a loadbearing wall (walls supporting roof loads) where the loadbearing wall occurs directly over a support or is within 1.5).3).5 times the depth of the member is measured between the support member and the side of the point load D Support Offset 1. loads are frequently taken to the foundations through horizontal members designed to transfer these loads.1.5 times the depth of the floor member from the support (see also to Clause 4.3.3 and Clause 4. floor joist and bearers. 3.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Load Paths Offsets and Cantilevers Roof loads and ceiling. lintels.5 x D Roof or floor load D Cantilever 1. For floor framing. Offset or cantilevered floor framing supporting loadbearing walls may also be used (see Figures 1.5 times the depth of the member from the support do not require to be designed for that load.
4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 As these horizontal members concentrate the loads at their ends. e. 35 x 70 etc. 45 70 (wall plates. Girder Truss etc.). The jamb studs will also Lintel need to be designed to carry this extra load as well as the structure that supports these jamb studs. that this member is designed accordingly. battens. The main direction of load on a top plate is vertical therefore the size is given with the dimension in this direction first. joists etc. care must be taken to ensure that. Durability Structural timber used in accordance with this Standard shall have the level of durability appropriate for the relevant climate and expected service life and conditions including exposure to insect attack or to moisture which could cause decay. 90 x 35. 70 x Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 12 of 15 2/06/2009 . is vertical therefore the size is given with the dimension in this direction first. rafter. This lintel needs to be designed for this point load.g. lintel.g. e. e.therefore the size is given with the dimension in this direction first. etc.g. roof beam etc. 190 x 45 The main direction of load on a roof batten is vertical therefore the size is given with the dimension in this direction first. floor joist.g. 90 35 mm (studs.g. e. 35 x 70 Length Depth (width) Breadth (thickness) Depth Depth Breadth Breadth Although the main direction of load on a stud is vertical the next most significant load on the stud is wind load .) The main direction of load on a bearer. 25 x 50.6). Dimensions Dimensions throughout this Standard are stated by nominating the depth (the dimension that carries the load) of the member first followed by its breadth (see Figure 1. Strutting Beam. creating a point load on Top plate and Lintel Top plate An example of this is where a strutting beam or girder truss is supported by a lintel. if these concentrated loads are in turn supported by another horizontal member. e.
MGP12). Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 13 of 15 45 mm 2/06/2009 . combined strutting/hanging beams. framing members shall bear on to their supporting element. Reduced bearing area shall only be used where additional fixings are provided to give equivalent support to the members. the equivalent bearing area shall not be less than that required above. Note: The timber stress grade is usually designated alphanumerically (e. lintels.g. 70 mm 70 mm 45 mm Bearing area = 70mm x 45mm 2 = 3150 mm2 Bearing area = 70mm x 45mm 2 = 3150 mm2 Stress Grade All structural timber used in conjunction with this Standard shall be stress graded in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard. All structural timber to be used in conjunction with this Standard shall be identified in respect of stress grade. F17. a minimum of 30 mm at their ends or 60 mm at the continuous part of the member. In all other cases.2. counter beams. by their full breadth (thickness). Where the bearing area is achieved using a non-rectangular area such as a splayed joint. combined counter/strutting beams and veranda beams) shall be as given in the Notes to the Span Tables of the Supplements.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Bearing The minimum bearing for specific framing members (bearers. strutting beams. hanging beams. Stress grades covered by Span Tables in the Supplements to this Standard are given in Table 1. as appropriate.
there are no relevant Australian Standards applicable to the design. F11* F8 F8 Span Tables in the Supplements for these grades and species are not available. lateral restraint. When designing and using engineered products. Carribean. Check local timber suppliers regarding availability of timber stress grades.) Douglas fir (Oregon) (unseasoned) Spruce pine fir (SPF) (seasoned) Hemfir (seasoned) * Most common stress grades available F5 F8. laminated veneer lumber and nail-plate-joined timber may be used where their design is in accordance with AS 1720. slash. hoop. F14 F17 F14 F5. MGP10. mechanically or proof stress graded may be used in accordance with this Standard at the stress grade branded thereon. F11*. pinaster pines etc. F7 F5 F5 Other stress grades available F7 F17 F22*. In such cases. NOTE: In some situations. the use of these products in accordance with this Standard is subject to the approval of the regulatory authority and the recommendations of the specific manufacturer who may require provisions additional to those contained in this Standard. the specific manufactures span tables and installation information should always be used.SCOPE & FWPRDC 70 Engineered Timber Products Fabricated components such as roof trusses.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 TABLE 1. blocking. MGP12 F5. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 14 of 15 2/06/2009 . and the like. F27 F4*. I-beams.2 STRESS GRADES Species or species group Cypress (unseasoned) Hardwood (unseasoned) Hardwood (seasoned) Hardwood (seasoned Western Australia) Seasoned softwood (radiata. These may include but are not restricted to additional support. NOTES: 1 2 Timber that has been visually. F8. manufacture or use of engineered timber products. AS 1684 SECTION 1 . MGP15 F8*. be sure that the correct span tables and installation information is used. Span tables and installation information will generally vary between manufactures so if products are substituted. F11. F7. glued-laminated timber members.1 and their manufacture and use complies with the relevant Australian Standards.
The wind classification is the primary reference used throughout this Standard. Guidelines for Design using this Standard Prior to using this Standard. allowance should be made for shrinkage. Seasoned timber All stress grades 0 mm. These tolerances are to allow for the wear and movement of saw and/or planning blades during manufacture. 4 mm. The flow chart shown in Figure 1. NOTE: The recommended procedure for designing the structural timber framework is to firstly determine the preliminary location and extent of bracing and tie-down and then the basic frame layout in relation to the floor plan and the proposed method of frame construction.4010A – Introduction to Timber Framing Code AS1684 Size Tolerances When using the Span Tables of the Supplements.7 provides guidance. the design gust wind speed and corresponding wind classification shall be determined and shall include consideration of terrain category building height and topographic and shielding effects (see Clause 1.6). which may have occurred since milling. Bracing and tie-down requirements should also be considered when determining the basic frame layout to ensure any necessary or additional framing members are correctly positioned. The stress grading rules for timber also allow for a positive tolerance of +3 mm for all unseasoned timber and +2 mm for seasoned timber. or by considering the floor framing through to the roof framing. NOTE: When checking unseasoned timber dimensions on-site. Individual member sizes are determined by selecting the roof framing timbers and then systematically working through the remainder of the framework to the footings. Prepared by Trevor Mullins Page 15 of 15 2/06/2009 . the following maximum undersize tolerances on timber sizes shall be permitted: Unseasoned timber Up to and including F7 F8 and above 3 mm.