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Course No. M-1037

Credit: 1 PDH

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis by Gordan Feric, PE

Course Category: Engineers Course Level: Intermediate Credit: 1 Hour

‐‐ i ‐‐

have high operating flexibility. gas turbine has become the premier propulsion generation system.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Introduction Over the years. with low emissions. Gas turbines are compact. Gas turbines require relatively low capital investment. easy to operate and come in sizes ranging from several hundred kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts. ‐‐ ii ‐‐ . Gas turbines can help provide reliable propulsion to meet the future demand using both high and low heat content fuels. high thermal efficiency and can be used for various industrial applications. lightweight.

................................................................................15 Governing Equations ..............................................................10 Case Study C ..................................................................................................................18 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 ‐‐ 1 ‐‐ ...................................................................13 Assumptions ..................................................................................................................................16 Input Data ..........................................................7 Case Study B .........................................................................................................................................................2 Analysis ............................................................................................................................2 Case Study A ............................Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Table of Contents Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application ......................................................................................17 Results .........................................................................................................................................................................

specific heat has a constant value. The gas turbine shaft rotation drives an electric generator and a compressor for the working fluid.pv = RT. Then air enters a gas turbine where an adiabatic expansion occurs. Combustion of a fuel in air is usually used to produce the needed temperatures and pressures in the gas turbine. Many gas turbines also use a heat exchanger called a recouperator to impart turbine exhaust heat into the combustor's air/fuel mixture. At a constant pressure. only air is considered as the working fluid behaving as a perfect gas -. Gas turbines produce high quality heat that can be used to generate steam for combined heat and power and combined-cycle applications. A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses a high temperature. significantly enhancing efficiency. High temperature air exits the combustor at point 3. It should be mentioned that air at point 1 enters the compressor and the cycle is repeated. ‐‐ 2 ‐‐ . combustion takes place (fuel is added to the combustor and the air temperature raises) and/or heat gets added to air. high pressure gas as the working fluid. Expansion of the high temperature. along line 1-2 by a compressor and it enters a combustor. Analysis In the presented Brayton Cycle analysis. Figure 1 presents a Brayton Cycle schematic layout. Air is compressed. Ideal gas state equation is valid -. high pressure working fluid takes place in the gas turbine. used in the gas turbine combustor. adiabatically. Air exits the gas turbine at point 4. producing power. which is why gas turbines are often referred to as combustion turbines.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application This section provides a Brayton Cycle analysis when the working fluid is air. air.

‐‐ 3 ‐‐ .Brayton Cycle Schematic Layout Figure 2 presents a Brayton Cycle temperature vs entropy diagram.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 1 .

Propulsion is provided by the difference of gas turbine expansion minus the compressor power requirements: ‐‐ 4 ‐‐ . it describes a closed Brayton Cycle -.this would require a heat exchanger after point 4 where the working fluid would be cooled down to point 1 and the cycle repeats. Therefore.Brayton Cycle Temperature vs Entropy Diagram In order to keep the scope of thrust analysis simple.exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (p1 = p4). It should be pointed out that this material deals with the open Brayton Cycle. air exiting turbine expands to the atmospheric conditions . the T s diagram is presented as a closed Brayton Cycle to allow easier understanding and derivation of the Brayton Cycle thermal efficiency -.s diagram is presented. The gas turbine and compressor are connected by shaft so the considerable amount of work done on the gas turbine is used to power the compressor.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 2 . The way how the T .heat addition and heat rejection.

(cp(T4 .Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Thrust = vm where Thrust .s diagram that the work done on the gas turbine is greater than the work necessary to power the compressor -.isentropic expansion efficiency [/] w . T2S. 2S. 2. T2. 4S and 4 [K] m . T3.s diagram diverge by going to the right side (entropy wise).T2) where η .T2)) or η = 1 .wc)/qh = (qh .T1))/(cp(T3 . 3.compression specific power input [kJ/kg] W .specific external work (specific net power output) [kJ/kg] wt .working fluid mass flow rate [kg/s] It can be noticed from the T .isentropic compression efficiency [/] ηe .constant pressure lines in the T .specific heat at constant pressure [kJ/kg*K] T1.temperature values at points 1. T4 .ql)/qh or η = 1 .T1)/(T3 .T4) .working fluid velocity [m/s] cp . The thermal cycle efficiency can be given as a function of specific external work (specific net power output) and heat added to the working fluid as follows: η = w/qh = (wt .T1)))1/2 v .expansion specific power output [kJ/kg] wc .(T2 .(T4 .ql/qh = 1 . T4S.thermal efficiency [/] ηc .external work (net power output) [kW] ‐‐ 5 ‐‐ .propulsion force [N] v = (2cp((T3 .

T4S) T4 = T3 . 4S and 4 [K] ηc = (T2S .temperature values at points 1.T1) T2 = T1 + (T2S .for air ϰ = 1.T4)/(T3 .heat rejected from the working fluid [kJ/kg] cp . 2.T4S)ηe In this Brayton Cycle ideal vs real operation analysis. three different case studies are presented . 2S.expansion power output [kW] Wc . p2. T2. 3 and 4 [atm] T1. T4S.4 [/] p1.specific heat at constant pressure [kJ/kg*K] cv . ‐‐ 6 ‐‐ .Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Wt .T1)/ηc ηe = (T3 . 2. T3.specific heat at constant volume [kJ/kg*K] m .A. B and C.T1)/(T2 . T4 .compression ratio [/] For isentropic compression and expansion: T2S/T1 = (p2/p1)(ϰ-1)/ϰ T3/T4S = (p3/p4)(ϰ-1)/ϰ Knowing that p3/p4 = p2/p1 rp = p2/p1 where ϰ = cp/cv .pressure values at points 1.compression power input [kW] qh .working fluid mass flow rate [kg/s] rp . 3.heat added to the working fluid [kJ/kg] ql . p3.(T3 . p4 . T2S.

two general performance trends are considered. while Figure 5 presents the results of the second trend.Brayton Cycle Efficiency Here. First. impact of the gas turbine inlet temperature and compression ratio on the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output and second. Figure 3 presents the Brayton Cycle efficiency as a function of the compression ratio and isentropic compression efficiency. impact of the working fluid mass flow rate on the Brayton Cycle propulsion output. It should be noted that the inlet conditions are standard ambient conditions: temperature of 298 [K] and absolute pressure of 1 [atm]. Figure 4 presents the results of the first performance trend. compression is both ideal and real.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Case Study A In this Brayton Cycle analysis. Figure 3 . ‐‐ 7 ‐‐ . while expansion is only ideal.

Brayton Cycle Specific Propulsion Output ‐‐ 8 ‐‐ .Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 4 .

The increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. Furthermore. ‐‐ 9 ‐‐ . one can notice that the Brayton Cycle efficiency increases with an increase in the compression ratio. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle propulsion output increases with an increase in the working fluid mass flow rate. the increase is greater for the higher compression ratio.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 5 .Brayton Cycle Propulsion Output For a fixed isentropic compression efficiency. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output increases with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature.

Figure 6 presents the Brayton Cycle efficiency as a function of the compression ratio and isentropic expansion efficiency. impact of the gas turbine inlet temperature and compression ratio on the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output and second. It should be noted that the inlet conditions are standard ambient conditions: temperature of 298 [K] and absolute pressure of 1 [atm]. First. while expansion is both ideal and real. compression is ideal. ‐‐ 10 ‐‐ . Figure 7 presents the results of the first performance trend. Figure 6 .Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Case Study B In this Brayton Cycle analysis. two general performance trends are considered. impact of the working fluid mass flow rate on the Brayton Cycle propulsion output.Brayton Cycle Efficiency Here. while Figure 8 presents the results of the second trend.

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 7 .Brayton Cycle Specific Propulsion Output ‐‐ 11 ‐‐ .

one can notice that the Brayton Cycle efficiency increases with an increase in the compression ratio. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output increases with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle propulsion output increases with an increase in the working fluid mass flow rate.Brayton Cycle Propulsion Output For a fixed isentropic expansion efficiency. The increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. the increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. Furthermore.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 8 . ‐‐ 12 ‐‐ .

Figure 10 presents the results of the first performance trend.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Case Study C In this Brayton Cycle analysis. ‐‐ 13 ‐‐ . while Figure 11 presents the results of the second trend. two general performance trends are considered.Brayton Cycle Efficiency Here. Figure 9 . Figure 9 presents the Brayton Cycle efficiency as a function of the compression ratio and both ideal and real compression and expansion efficiency. compression and expansion are both ideal and real. First. It should be noted that the inlet conditions are standard ambient conditions: temperature of 298 [K] and absolute pressure of 1 [atm]. impact of the working fluid mass flow rate on the Brayton Cycle propulsion output. impact of the gas turbine inlet temperature and compression ratio on the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output and second.

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 10 .Brayton Cycle Specific Propulsion Output ‐‐ 14 ‐‐ .

specific heat has a constant value. Assumptions Compression and expansion processes are reversible and adiabatic – isentropic. The increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output increases with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Figure 11 . Air behaves as a perfect gas -.pv = RT. ‐‐ 15 ‐‐ . Furthermore. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle propulsion output increases with an increase in the working fluid mass flow rate. Ideal gas state equation is valid -. the increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. One can notice that the Brayton Cycle efficiency increases with an increase in the compression ratio. The working fluid has the same composition throughout the cycle.Brayton Cycle Propulsion Output For a fixed isentropic compression and expansion efficiency.

ql)/qh η = 1 .T1)m η = w/qh = (wt .T1))m qh = cp(T4 .T2) v2/2 = cp((T3 .T1)))1/2 Thrust = vm ‐‐ 16 ‐‐ .T4S)ηe ϰ = cp/cv pv = RT w = qh .T2) .T4S) T4 = T3 .T1)/(T3 .T2) .T1) Qh = cp(T4 .T1)/ηc ηe = (T3 .(T3 .Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Governing Equations T2S/T1 = (p2/p1)(ϰ-1/)ϰ p2/p1 = (T2S/T1)ϰ/(ϰ-1) T3/T4S = (p3/p4)(ϰ-1/)ϰ p3/p4 = (T3/T4S)ϰ/(ϰ-1) ηc = (T2S .wc)/qh = (qh .cp(T4 .T1) T2 = T1 + (T2S .T2) .(T4 .T4)/(T3 .T1)/(T2 .(T4 .cp(T4 .T2) .q l w = cp(T3 .T1)) v = (2cp((T3 .(T4 .T1) W = (cp(T3 .

100 and 150 [kg/s] ƞc = 0. 0.95 and 1 [/] ‐‐ 17 ‐‐ .9. 0.85. 0.95 and 1 [/] ƞe = 0.200 and 1.500 [K] p3 = 15 [atm] cp = 1.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Input Data T1 = 298 [K] p1 = 1 [atm] T3 = 900.for air ϰ = 1. 1.004 [kJ/kg*K] ϰ = cp/cv .4 [/] m = 50. 0.85.9.

16 58.43 45.22 47.53 56.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Results Brayton Cycle Efficiency vs Isentropic Compression Efficiency Brayton Cycle Efficiency [%] Isentropic Compression Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Compression Ratio [/] 5 10 15 20 25 36.43 46.67 34.87 52.39 60.38 55.88 51.33 55.96 48.33 53.200 774 750 723 691 1.85 57.500 961 942 921 895 ‐‐ 18 ‐‐ .49 Specific Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Compression Efficiency for a few Gas Turbine Inlet Values Specific Propulsion Output [N/kg/s] Isentropic Compression Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 900 524 488 445 390 Gas Turbine Inlet Temperature [K] 1.32 57.00 53.30 35.92 36.72 50.

3 2 138.22 44.87 49.92 34.21 46.11 47.68 57.200 1.23 31.1 7 141.17 48.06 44.500 ‐‐ 19 ‐‐ .14 44.41 39.33 60.86 48.32 40.19 Specific Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Expansion Efficiency for a few Gas Turbine Inlet Values Specific Propulsion Output [N/kg/s] Isentropic Expansion Efficiency [%] 900 Gas Turbine Inlet Temperature [K] 1.73 41.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Compression Efficiency for a few Mass Flow Rates Propulsion Output [kN] Isentropic Compression Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Mass Flow Rate [kg/s] 50 100 150 48.03 92.50 53.18 42.0 9 134.75 89.41 36.16 54.10 94.53 52.51 144.13 46.2 7 Brayton Cycle Efficiency vs Isentropic Expansion Efficiency Brayton Cycle Efficiency [%] Isentropic Expansion Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Compression Ratio [/] 5 10 15 20 25 36.05 96.55 28.

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis 100 95 90 85 524 475 421 359 774 731 685 636 961 918 873 825 Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Expansion Efficiency for a few Mass Flow Rates Propulsion Output [kN] Isentropic Expansion Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Mass Flow Rate [kg/s] 50 100 150 48.26 41.6 9 130.24 82.7 3 Brayton Cycle Efficiency vs Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency Brayton Cycle Efficiency [%] Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Compression Ratio [/] 5 10 15 20 25 36.63 87.48 144.05 41.88 43.9 0 123.11 45.92 33.04 57.59 30.05 96.87 48.82 35.95 53.79 43.89 91.46 38.19 26.53 50.50 35.65 48.42 ‐‐ 20 ‐‐ .55 35.61 60.16 52.34 32.22 43.1 7 137.67 44.

69 144.34 74.1 6 112.90 89.11 44.05 96.7 1 124.0 4 ‐‐ 21 ‐‐ .78 37.200 1.39 82.1 7 134.Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Specific Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency for a few Gas Turbine Inlet Values Specific Propulsion Output [N/kg/s] Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Gas Turbine Inlet Temperature [K] 900 1.80 41.500 524 436 318 79 774 706 627 531 961 898 828 747 Propulsion Output vs Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency for a few Mass Flow Rates Propulsion Output [kN] Isentropic Compression and Expansion Efficiency [%] 100 95 90 85 Mass Flow Rate [kg/s] 50 100 150 48.

Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) Ideal vs Real Operation for Propulsion Application Analysis Conclusions The Brayton Cycle efficiency depends on the compression ratio. The Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output increases with an increase in the gas turbine inlet temperature. The Brayton Cycle efficiency increases with the compression ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature and the Brayton Cycle efficiency decreases as the isentropic compression and expansion efficiency decrease. The Brayton Cycle propulsion output decreases as the isentropic compression and expansion efficiency decrease. gas turbine inlet temperature and isentropic compression and expansion efficiency. the increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. ‐‐ 22 ‐‐ . The Brayton Cycle specific propulsion output decreases as the isentropic compression and expansion efficiency decrease. Furthermore. The increase is greater for the higher compression ratio. The Brayton Cycle propulsion output increases with an increase in the working fluid mass flow rate.

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