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Appendix II - It AND Wt FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF

CROSS-SECTIONAL SHAPES OF MEMBERS IN TORSION


No
1

Cross-sectional shape

It

R 4
2

Wt

d 4

R 3

32

Remarks

max

d 3

occurs on circumference

16

(D4 d 4 )

(D4 d 4 )

32

16 D

a 3b 3
a2 + b2
n 3b 3
n 2 +1

ab 2
2

max
occurs on circumference

nb 2
2

n 3 (bo4 b14 )
n2 + 1

n(bo4 b14 )
2bo

2
4
ds
t ( s )

2t min

We denote by
a
= n 1
b

We denote by
ao a1
= = n 1
bo b1

- the area bounded by

the center line of the wall


cross section;
max occurs where t is
minimum (t = tmin)
We admit that

2r 3t

2r 2t

t << r
max = const.

2b 2 h 2
b h
+
t1 t 2

249

2bht min

max occurs where t is


minimum (t = tmin)
tmin = min (t1, t2)

Appendix II (continued)
No

Cross-sectional
shape

It

Wt

Remarks

0,296R4

0,348R3

= 0 - at corners

max - at the diameter midpoint

max - at sides midpoint

0,0216a

a
20

0,141a

1
0

max - at sides midpoint


= 0 at corners

0,208a

max - at sides midpoint

1,04a4=
= 0,108b4

1
1

Khb

1
2

1
3
14

h/
b
k
k1
k2

0,977a3=0,188b3

max - at sides midpoint


= 0 at corners

K1hb

1,0

1,5

2,0

3,0

4,0

8,0

10,0

0,141
0,208
1,0

0,196
0,231
0,859

0,229
0,246
0,796

0,263
0,267
0,753

0,281
0,282
0,745

0,298
0,299
0,743

0,307
0,307
0,743

0,31
0,31
0,74

t
0
h

1 3
ht
3

1 2
ht
3

t << h

1h
[t ( s )]3 ds

30

It

t max << h

t max

249

0,33
0,33
0,33

Appendix II (continued)
No

Cross-sectional
shape

It

Wt

Remarks

2
rt 3
3

2
rt 2
3

t << h

hi ti3

It

15

16

Profile

L
0,99

c1

17
r/D
c1
c2
18

19

R 4
2

= c1

0
1
0,5

t max

D 4

[
1,12
c2

32

0,05
0,98
0,52

d 4
32

0,01D 4 0,17 dD 3

249

T
1,12

R 3

0,1
0,93
0,52

= c2

0,2
0,78
0,49

I
1,31

1,17

D 3
16

0,3
0,59
0,42

0,4 0,5
0,40 0,24
0,33 0,24