Chapter: 3

Sufis of NWFP
Anything that exists in this universe has an identity, which imparts meaning to its existence. Unlike the other provinces of Pakistan, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) derives its name neither from its main inhabitants nor from its landscape, but from its strategically important position as a frontier 1. The North West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) has a unique place in the history of Pakistan Movement.2 History and politics of NWFP enthral many scholars3. The area under NWFP had been taken by the British from the Sikh Darbaras a consequence of their victory in the second Anglo-Sikh war of 1849 and had been brought under the administration of Punjab province4. But first time British came into direct contact with these areas of NWFP was in 1808 due to the fear of French invasion through Persia and Afghanistan, and they sent a mission to Afghan Amir5. On 9 November 1901, Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India separated the Frontier Region from Punjab and created a new province of NWFP. The newly created Frontier province, consisting of the districts of Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan and the political agencies of Malakand, Khyber, Kuram, North Waziristan and South Waziristan, was placed under the charge of Chief Commissioner and agent to the Governor General, appointed and directly responsible to Government of India6. In the beginning of the twentieth century marked the inclusion of political realization in the frontier. Some educated young blood took its first formal manifestation in 1912 and the formation of Provincial Muslim League took place at Peshawar7. The people of frontier shared the angst and annoyance of the other provinces and vigorously

Shamila Aroge “North-West Frontier Province: History and Politics, [Review of Book North-West Frontier Province: History and Politics, Islamabad: National Institute of History and Cultural Research, 2007 by Sayed Waqar Ali Shah] Pakistan Journal of History and Culture, Islamabad: Department of History Quaid-i-Azam University Vol.XXXII, No.1 (2011)p.181. 2 Arif khatak “Pir Sahib Manki Seyed Amin-al-Hasanat aur unki syasi jiddo-juhd, [Review of Book Pir Sahib Manki Seyed Amin-al-Hasanat Aur Unki Syasi Jiddo-Juhd, Islababad: Qaumi Idara Baray Tahqiq, Tharikh Wa Saqafat by Syed Waqar Ali Shah] Pakistan Journal of History and Culture, Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Culture Research. XIX (1), 109-118.” (1998, January-June)
3 4

Shamila Aroge (2011) p.181. Syed Waqar Ali Shah, Muslim League in NWFP (Karachi: Royal Book Co. 1989), p.3 5 Erland Janson, India, Pakistan or Pakhtunistan: The National Movements in the North-West Frontier Province, 1937-47 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wikell International, 1981), p.24 6 Syed Waqar Ali Shah, North West Frontier Province: History and Politics (Islamabad: National Institute of History and Culture research, 2007), p.12 7 Arif Khatak (1998, January-June) p. 109-118.

The British thereafter called them ‘red shirts’.1981). “Frontier Speaks (Lohore: Department of Historical Studies. 1990).126 14 Khalid bin Sayeed.145. The official record of the British and Indian Government are occupied of stories of their suffering. 1988). He took an active part in the Civil Disobedient Movement of 1930-34 launched by Congress and later on merged the Khudai Khidmatgar organization with Congress though retaining its separate identity. P. 29-30. In April 1932. . After the first Provincial election under the Government of India Act 1935. Thereby. 9 10 Muhammad Yonus. Thereafter.9 His disciples used to wear uniforms. Ethnicity. Sir Ralph Griffith. retaliation and revenge and devoted themselves to the service of humanity10. Tharikh wa Saqafat. as a social movement. Sir Abdul Qayum Khan was able to form a coalition government but some months later he was succeeded by Dr. Nationalism. 1999).131. dyed with brick dust.87. Politics in Pakistan: The Nature and Direction of Chang. 12 Shah (1990). the frontier Province became a Governor Province. was made the first Governor of NWFP on April 18. 1932 13. p.8 Khudai Kitmadgar was founded on 1 April 1921.participated in Kilafat and Hijrat and non-cooperation movements earnestly. the then Chief Commissioner of NWFP. Khan Sahib. who named it Anjuman-i-Islahul. he exhorted his followers to renounce violence. p.p. popularly known as Bacha Khan (Badshah Khan). and the Pakhtuns: The Independence Movement in India’s North-West Frontier Province(Durham: Carolina Academic Press. 1937-47 (Karachi: Oxford University Press. Deeply influenced by Gandhi’s philosophy Bacha Khan attended the Lahore Session of the Congress and endorsed the Congress’ program of complete independence. 1980). with the passage of time it assumed a definitive political character.152. 12 Under the new scheme. The method employed by Ghaffar Khan reflected a strong Gandhian influence and orientation. the Khudai Khidmatgars and the Congress worked together till the partition11. ( New York: Praeger Publishers.Afghania (the association for the reformation of the Afghan). It increased the popularity of his organization to an all-India level. by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890-1988). pp. 13 Stephen Alan Rittenberg. brother of Abdul Ghaffar Khan14 The NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) was a Muslim majority Province but the frontier Congress was dominant there and the Provincial Muslim League had no role in the 8 Sayed Waqar Ali Shah “Pir Sahib Manki Seyed Amin-al-Hasanat Aur Unki Syasi Jiddo-Juhd” (Islamabad: Qaumi Idara Baray Tahqiq. Punjab University. Although the organization aimed primarily at countering social evils and forging unity in the Pukhtoon ranks. Islam and Nationalism: Muslim Politics in the North-West Frontier Province. Ethnicity. 11 Sayed Wiqar Ali Shah. p.

January-June) Muhammad Iqbal Chawla. P. Role of Ulama and Mashaikh in Freedom Movement (October 5. 1980. 17 18 Sayeed. The Congress influence amongst the Pakhtun population lay in its roots in the Red Shirt movement which emphasized Pakhtun ethnicity and was steadfastly anti-British in its policy16. and his brother. 2012). Secondly. is among those luminaries who made great contribution towards successful journey of Pakistan Movement18.. who played a predominant role. * Muhammad Amin-ul-Hasanat known as Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif was the son the of Abdur Rauf son the of Abdul Haq son the of Abdul Wahab son the of Zia-uddin son the of Muhammad Yusaf son the of Yaseen Khan son the of Zaini son the of Bathi son the of Ano son the of Barkwiat son the of Tori son the of Turman son the of Karlan son the of Muhammad Rajjal son the of Muhammad Khadim son the of Muhammad Ismail son the of Muhammad Jaafar son the of Muhammad Baqir .5. 2011).political affairs. the British Government had given the Hindu and Sikh minority of 7% in the Assembly a very heavy weightage. Pir Sahib Manki Sharif Syed Mohammad Aminul Hassnat. p. which made feasible by the Congress pronouncement to resign ministries as a protest against India’s participation in the Word War-II. Vol.6. (1998.R. The Congress leaders.S.15 The Congress Ministry had been in power in the NWFP since 1937. without who the Muslim League would not have been able to win the plebiscite in frontier? Their was no uncertainty that religious leader like the Pir of Manki Sharif with his followers of more than two millions could take recognition for having injection into the Muslim League a new spiritual and political passion17. Then a question arises. The non-Muslim population also controlled the main business activities of the province and always supported the Congress party. But the Congress soon dislodged the League government as it was not strong enough and Dr. 48. A sever set back to the League. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. broadly known as Pir of Manki Sharif.6. when Jinnah visited the frontier on October 1936. 1. but he failed to make his mark. Sardar Aurangzeb Khan formed a coalition government. which as a result had acquired over 24% of the seats (12 of 50). In 1943. Its hold on the province was attributed to numerous factors. Dr. Khan Sahib. Muhammad Amin-ul-Hasanat bin Abdur Rauf known as 'Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif’ * 15 16 Khattak.P. SANA AKRAM. No. had been in active politics from 1930 onwards and had organized their party long before the Muslim League appeared on the scene. Khan Sahib once again formed government in the province. Mountbatten and the NWFP Referendum: Revisited (J.

Frontier of Faith: Islam in the Indo Afghan Borderland (New York: Columbia University Press.21 From 1945 onward Pir of Manki Sharif supported the cause of Pakistan and was deeply involved in Muslim League organizations from his base in Nowshera.22After and Milagros few days of simla conference Pir sahib called his trusted Mashaikh son the of Imam Zainul Abidin son the of Imam Hussain son the of Hazrat Ali R.A (Zaman. 2007). 22 Sana Haroon. 19 20 Shah. He was not interested in politics in the beginning due to his engagement in spiritual guide of his disciples but at the same time he closely observed the changing political conditions of the sub-continent. The Pir’smost significant organization of Tribal Areas political activity in support of the League was to rally Shinwari tribesmen to stage a demonstration against Nehru when the latter toured the Tribal Areas in 1946. socio-political arena. In 38 years of short life he had great recognition in the Sub-continent in spiritual. 174-75. . religious. 1990. Pir Sahib occupied his family ancestral ‘Gaddi’ only when he was twelve due to his father Pir Abdul Rauf demise in 1934. 1987). 1990. Pir of Manki Sharif received his early education comprising mainly of religion based 21 Shah.storyofPakistan. http://www.20 Conference of Ulema and Mashaikh After the failure of Simla Conference like other Muslim Pir Sahib also realized that Hindu-Muslim unity in the subcontinent is impossible and he realized the fact that the Ulema and Mashaikh should now supported the Muslim League.and Fateh Referendum who born in 1922 in a notorious saintly religious family six years before the Nehru Report and the death of his grandfather Abdul Haq Thani (Second). He inherited a large number of followers and his influence was particularly strong in the Pakhtun-belt spread all over the frontier Province19. He brought many of his murids into the League as political activists and supporters and encouraged Mian Gul Abdul Wadud ( Wali-eSwat) to support Jinnah’s campaign.

Consequently. Maulana Shaista Gul (Mathy Maulana Sahib) etc. For this purpose Pir sahib sent a delegation who toured to every nook and corner of India consisted on Maulana Shaista Gul and Maulana Masleh-ud-din. Pirs and Mashaikh. So there is no other substitute. Jamil Uddin Ahmad. p. Notable amongst them were Syed Jama’at Ali shahKhattak etc. all the trusted Mashaikh articulated their trust in Pir Sahib and it was decided to hold a conference of the Ulemas.97. 86.24 On the second day of the conference on 14th October in his speech Pir Sahib said: “The aim of this gathering is to comprehend that on the one hand we have to get liberate of the British and on the other to get rid of Hindu’s Government by opposing the Congress. Pirs and Mashaikh participated the three days Ulemas and Mashaikh Conference at Pir Manki Sharif.1970). Maulana Masleh-ud-din. 1945 as cited Shah. 20. Every Muslim should struggle for the creation of Pakistan where they could live with honour and Syed Abdullah Shah of Hazara. except to join the Muslim League. According to Mir Ahmad on 13th October. Notable amongst them were Syed Jama’at Ali shah. Pirs and Mashaikh. at Manki Sharif and discussed the Jinnah massage and local political matter with them in detailed. all the trusted Mashaikh articulated their trust in Pir Sahib and it was decided to hold a conference of the Ulemas. Muslim Freedom Movement (Lahore: United Publishers. 1945 five hundred Ulemas.23 Consequently. Currently Muslim League headed by Jinnah is the only political party which can effectively oppose the Congress. Pirs and Mashaikh participated the three days Ulemas and Mashaikh Conference at Pir Manki Sharif. So unity among the Muslim is the greatest need of the day. because is the only party struggling for the glory of Islam and dignity of the Muslim”25 23 24 Zaman. Hasanat. According to Mir Ahmad on 13th October. 1945 five hundred Ulemas. 25 . Notable amongst them were Syed Jama’at Ali shah participated the three days Ulemas and Mashaikh Conference at Pir Manki Sharif. For this purpose Pir sahib sent a delegation who toured to every nook and corner of India consisted on Maulana Shaista Gul and Maulana Masleh-ud-din. p.

Quaid arrived in Peshawar on Sunday. regards your preliminary question of Pakistan being established in settled. Shah. 1990. Israj and towheeda. Jinnah’s Visit Pir Sahib: Quaid-i-Azam visited NWFP thrice in his life span..401.I am greatly thankful you for the powerful support which you have been pleased to give to the All India Muslim League…. 1945 Pir Sahib sent one of his closed associate named Qazi Abdul Hakim Khattak to Quaid-e-Azam to apprise him of his decision .Formation of jamiat ul Asifia: The conference recommended the formation of a party known as Jamiat-ul-Asifa. So Pir of Manki Sharif determined to support the Muslim League on the condition that Sharia (Islamic Law) would be enforced in Pakistan as the law of the land. 1990. Therefore. On November 18. For the first time. 29Jinnah responded quickly by sending a letter on November 18. November 18). The aim of this party was to underpin the demand for the establishment of Pakistan to the principles of the Quran and Sunnah. there need be no apprehension that the Constitution Making Body which will composed of overwhelming majority of Muslims can be ever establish any constitution for Pakistan other than one based on Islamic ideals. nor can the government of Pakistan when comes into being act contrary to Islamic ideals and principles”(Jinnah. the 18th of October 1936 and stayed for a week from 18th to the 26 27 28 29 Shah. it will not be the Muslim League that will frame the constitution of Pakistan but inhabitants of Pakistan in which 75% will be the Musalmans and therefore you will understand that it will be a Muslim government and it will be for the people of Pakistan to frame the constitution under which the Pakistan government will come into being and function.27 Throughout the country. 1945. . So Pir Jama’at Ali shah was elected its president and Pir Sahib of Golrah Sharif its Vice president while Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif became its convener 26.. the Ulemas and Mashaikh encouraged the aim and objectives of Jamiat-ul-Asifa by sending letters of appreciation. 1945: “. 28 During that time a literary communication was started between Pir of Manki Sharif and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

p. Pir Sahib of Manki Sharif. Islamia College. On November 24. November 20). Muhammad Ali Jinnah went to Pir of Manki Sharif along with Liaqat Ali Khan. 1991) p.Toheeda Begum. 1976). 1945. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah once went to Saydan-Pur (Sirinagar) to meet Pir Syed Jama’at Ali Shah who knew about the potentialities of Pir of Manki. 35 Dr. 36 Siraj and Towheeda p. In a letter to pir sabih of manki sharif Jinnah stated that: “I am reaching Peshawar on the 20th at attend the Frontier Conference and I am looking forward to meer you personally and have the pleasure and the honour of a talk with you”35 Jinnah adopted a very effective strategy to counter Frontier Congress and Abdul After the arrival of Quaid-e-Azam in Peshawar.112-120 33 Badi-uz-Zaman. 34 Israj Khan. and on my way I shall be glad to go to Manki Sharif. Awliya-a. Vol. “tassawwaf. 31 Ibid 32 Aziz Javed. consequently.36 30 Muhammad Anwar Khan. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Pir Amin-ul-Hasanat of Manki Sharif (Abasin Journal of Social Sciences. Mardan.399.4 No 2). Mian Muhammad Shah of Pabbi.Manki Sharif aur Tehrik-i-Pakistan (Manki Sharif: pirzada nabi Ameen. I propose to start from here at 11:00 am and break my journey and spend at least half-an-hour with you and have the pleasure of meeting you” (Jinnah. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar and Abdul Qayum Khan.402. For the second time Quaid visited Frontier province from 22nd to 27th November.html (retrieved on 25-01-2012). . Quaid-i-Azam Aur Sarhad . Edward College Peshawar and Manki Sharif32. published on http://m-ajinnah.blogspot. Fida Muhammad Khan and other prominent Provincial League members on the proposed date and time. Abd ur Rasheed.1945 and stayed at house of Khan Bahadar31 and addressed the rallies at Landi kotal.1936. (Peshawar: Idara Tasneef-o-Taleef. He advised Muhammad Ali Jinnah to meet Pir of Manki Sharif 33 because in his opinion he was the only religious personality in the frontier Province who could help him to counter the Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Bach Khan) political dominance 34. pp. Khan Samin Khan. 4 Pir Sahib invited him to Manki Sharif to which he agreed in these words: “I am going to Mardan on 24th November. 1945.24th of October at the Mundiberi residence of Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan 30. “Quaid-i-Azam Visit to Peshawar 1936”. wazir Unpublished MA dissertation (1984-1986) available at Central Library university of Peshawar.256.

so there will be nothing but only Quranic principles will be our Constitution. only after the endorsement by its President will present the Bill to the constituent Assembly for further proceedings.113.73. (n. that the demand for Pakistan has became the final providence of the Muslim and if not today then within ten years.let me clear that Muslim believes in one God. Regarding legislation I will say that when you elect your 37 38 Ahmad. • Member of the Muslim League will present each and every stipulate of the Jamiatul-Asifa in the Assembly and will try for its acceptance Concerning the question that what type of Constitution Pakistan will be? Jinnah responded and delivered a speech that “. some prominent Ulemas from all over India. I can see the Muslims glorious future and they will achieve Pakistan. one Prophet. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar.. large number cohorts of Pir Sahib and other people of the province who were standing both sides on the road and decorated the six kilometer distance from Nowshera to Pir Manki Sharif with Green flags and streamers and chanting the slogans Allah-o-Akber. Now. Holy Quran and Islamic principles are the Constitution which we inherited from our Holy Prophet (PBUH) thirteen centuries before.37 On the way to Pir Manki Sharif Jinnah said to Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar who accompanied with him in his car “I do not be acquainted with. Jinnah and other League leaders were then conducted to a Hall where the Ulemas and Mashaikh were waiting for them. Quaid-e-Azam Zindabad.39 Following are the term and conditions in provincial Legislative Assembly on which Jinnah and Ulemas and Mahaikh were agreed: • • Every law in Pakistan will be in consistency with Islamic Sharia and not repugnant to Quran and Sunnah. p. 39 Shah (1990).d)). “Azadi ki KIahani Mari Zubanni” (Karachi: Tahir News Agency. I am going to die like a happy and successful person”38. whether Pakistan will establish during my life or not but now I see. Main Abdul Karim one the follower of Pir Sahib placed the draft of an accord before Jinnah for approval. Jinnah was happy to saw the comeback of Pir Sahib. He reached there at 11:45 am to Pir Manki Sharif.Jinnah was passionately welcomed by Pir Sahib. In order to achieve our goal you should vote in favour of Muslim League candidates. . Pir Manki Sharif Zindabad . Each Bill which concern with Islamic Sharia will be presented to the President of Jamiat-ul-Asifa to check. 1987 p.

. 41 After this Pir Sahib became a strong enthusiast of All-India Muslim League and its manifesto. He exhorted the Muslim to vote for the creation of Pakistan and for Islam.42 The 1946 elections: After the end of World War II in 1945. Jinnah gave a written document to Pir Sahib on his demand that after the creation of Pakistan only Islamic System will be established. 1978).representatives to the Parliament they make laws in the conformity of the Quran and Sunnah…If concreted efforts are made by all the achievement of Pakistan is not difficult. We had hoped that the All India Muslim League would extend their full support to our election campaign but we have been sadly disappointed as nothing has been done in this respect44” Pir Sahib wholeheartedly supported the League in election campaign. Provincial Elections were held on February 14. the Viceroy would set upan Executive Council that would have the support of the main Indian political parties 43. after which a constitution. 44 45 Shah 1990. “Quaid-e-Azam Aur Sarhad” (Lahore: Department of Research and Compilation of Pakistan. 41 Shah (1990).” (Jinnah. .. p. He wrote a letter to Jinnah on January 16. November 24)40 After concluded his speech. 1946 to apprehensively apprize him about situation in the Province and made certain suggestion for his consideration. He announced that after the elections. 1937-47.148 . The provincial League faced great contender in shape of Frontier Congress with its mighty organizations. 1945. P. Pakistan or Pakhtunistan: The National Movements in the North-West Frontier Province. the Viceroy Lord Wavell announced that the Central and Provincial Legislature elections would be held in the winter of 1945-6. 1946. Pir Sahib did not accept his nomination as a League candidate in 1946 election.145. At that time there was internal rift within Muslim League in NWFP. following the Simla Conference. p. propaganda machinery and finances. Due to that the League won only 17 seats out 38 in the frontier province45 40 Aziz Javed. Shah 1990. 42 Zaman (1984-1986). India. He apprehensively predicted that the prospects of the League victory in the Province were not bright due to inner differences surrounded by the League members In this letter he indicated further as: “I had decided to join the Muslim League and work for the victory of League candidates in the coming election in order to make Pakistan a reality. 43 Erland Janson.making body would be set up. Under these circumstances.35.

Elections were held between 26 January and 14 February on the same franchise qualifications as were laid down for 1937 election. 1946 are shown in table 3. several other parties.407. Compilation and Translation. Ed. So the political insight and earlier forecast of Pir Sahib about the fate frontier League proved the same as he predicted. if her needs to be built on my bones. my bones are present. The results of all constituencies were announced by 18 February 1946. Detail of results of the elections to the NWFP Legislative Assembly. Ishtiaq Hussain Quraishi. took part in the elections. 1946 Party Congress Muslim league Jamiat-ul-ulema Akali Dal Total Total Muslim Rural 1 8 1 3 2 3 3 Muslim Urban 1 2 3 General Rural 6 6 General Urban 3 3 Sikh 2 1 3 LandHolder 2 2 30 17 2 1 50 In addition to the Congress and the Muslim League. p.46 The main losses of the Frontier League were due to the Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan considerable influence47. or in all 30 out of 50 seats.Ulema and the Sikh Party the Akali Dal.1999). University of Karachi. the Ahrars.1 Table 3. I am present. 48 Israj and Towheeda. “the Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent 610-1947: A Brief Historical analysis. the Jamiat-ul. but almost all leading candidates belonged either to the Congress or the Muslim League.2nd (Karachi: Bureau of Composition. and if Quaid-e-Azam demands 46 47 Janson. I am ready to sacrifice my life for cause of Pakistan’s establishment. If Pakistan comes into existence at the cost of my blood. 150-151.48 “…the demand for Pakistan is now the final destiny of Indian Muslims and they are to sacrifice each and very thing for it sake.pg77. P.1: Results of the elections to the NWFP Legislative Assembly. If one side he stressed on restructuring of Provincial League on other hand he slightly inclined to crush the frontier Congress hegemony. The Congress won an absolute majority. . the Khaksars.

Khawaja Nizamuddin of Tonsa Sharif. Ibid 51 Ibid. He visited along with other prominent Ulemas and Mashaikh not only the frontier but the whole of India. 1946 when All India Sunni Conference was held at Banaras. 1946 at Bombay and passed a resolution in favour of Direct Action and fixed August 16. I will offer myself to them…”(Hasanat). Pir Syed Jama’at Ali Shah. Sardar Shaukat Hayat and many others set up a Mashaikh Committee and passionately supported the Pakistan Resolution 50. pp.408. 1984-1984). 49 50 Ibid. p. On the occasion Pir Sahib put forward some suggestions which were also supported by Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar. Pir Sahib discussed the Cabinet Proposal with League leaders and sent Arbab Abdul Ghafoor Khan and Abdullah Shah to Delhi to notify Liaqat Ali Khan with situation in the Province (Zaman. During his speech in the conference Pir Sahib said “Quaid-e-Azam has guaranteed me that Islamic Sharia will be the law of the land. and stressed out. 49 After that conference. . the Congress accepted the Constitutional part of the plan but refused to join the Interim Government. During the conference Pir of Manki Sharif. an Action Committee was setup.51 After rejecting the Cabinet Mission Plan. Pir Sahib was invited to it from NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) through Maulana Naeem-uddin Muradabadi and Maulana Muhammad Umar Naeemi. On June 26. On April 27. Makhdoom Raza Shah of Multan. then we will counteract him. the League abandoned its Constitutional means and All India Muslim League Council on July 27-29. 52 Qureshi. He supported stalwartly the two nation theory. 1999. Beside he appreciated the role of Jinnah and said that he is the attributed leader of the Indian Muslims and we the Muslim of frontier are standing by to give every thing for the sake of Pakistan. 53 Shah 1990. At this the viceroy appointed a caretaker government consisting of officials and Congress and did not appeal the League to form the government. 1946 the British government sent a three member known as Cabinet Mission in order to determine the political and constitutional deadlock between Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League.such like sacrifices.408-409. the Hindus and British to accept the Lahore Resolution/Pakistan Resolution. In order to make strong Direct Action campaign in NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). A number of meetings of Pakistan Conferences were under supervision of Pir Sahib. if he deceived me and the Muslim. Pir Sahib was appointed its President. In March 24. Under his leadership Provincial League observed Direct Action Day peacefully53. as we are working with him today”(Hasanat). Pir Sahib warned the people in the ambiguous propaganda of Bach Khan against Pakistan. Pir Sahib became an undeviating member of All India Muslim League Working Committee and declared working regularly for the League. 1946 as the Direct Action Day 52.

organized meetings in which he criticized the Nehru Government.IX.410.12/4/6 Vol. Khan under the leadership of Pir Sahib in which thousands of Mahsud. On day of Nehru arrival. also affirmed 54 55 Police Special Branch Peshawar. Wazir and Bhittannis tribesmen expressed complete faith over the leadership of Jinnah. p132.173.[PSBP] File No. . Hangu and adjacent areas of Peshawar where an affirmative comeback was received to the cause 59. under the leadership of Pir Sahib. Khaksar and Congress renewed into the League 56.12/7/6.p. They visited the big villages and towns of Nowshera.In September 1946. to November 12. October 30. Muhammad Ali Jinnah at moment sent a letter and appreciated Pir Sahib commendable services in these words as: “…I was very pleased to read in the Newspaper that you have now been working for the Muslim League…I sure you have already realized that there is a very great struggle in front of us to achieve our goal. Sawabi. GO BACK NEHRU and in a meeting at Chowk Yadgar Peshawar a resolution was passed against Nehru’s visit and declared that “the visit of Nehru to the Frontier was undertaken in order to vivisected the Muslim”57. p. Kohat. 59 Israj and Toheeda.182 58 Khwaja Razi Haider. 1946 Jawahar Lal Nehru planed a visit to the frontier.42.” (Jinnah. Due to the persuading speeches of the Pir Sahib most of the cohorts of Ahrar. called upon the Muslims to organize himself for Jihad if the order acknowledged from League High Command in order to accomplish Pakistan for the Muslim54.. “Quaid-i-Azam Khatoth Kay Ainay Main” (Karachi: Nafees Academy. In October 11. On November 18.35. I. Mean while Pir Sahib along with other prominent Ulemas and League leaders scheduled a fifteen days tour from October 29. thousand of followers of Pir Sahib and members of the League created stuff resistance chanting GO BACK NEHRU. just before the Nehru’s arrival. On October 16. 56 Shah 1990. 1946 he announced in a meeting at Peshawar “I am ready to gun down the viceroy and the Governor on the receipt of order from Muslim League High Command”55.)58. p. During this tour Pir Sahib get together with Faqir of Ipi (Haji Mirza Ali Khan) a well known freedom fighter and legend of the tribal belt of Waziristan. Vol. Pir Sahib toured the tribal areas and stressed on the tribal leaders to come together under the banner of the League. 1946 in the frontier settled areas. Pakistan Conference was held at D.1985). Mardan. 1946. 57 ([PSBP] file No. Ibid.p..

The news of Pir Sahib detention had created great resentment in the League and disciple circles and thousands of his companions offered himself for arrest. Pir Sahib actively participated in the movement and in a meeting resolution was passed under the titled “March to Freedom” and condemned the government’s tricks61.The Partition Plan was announced by the last viceroy Lord Mountbatten on June 03.p. 63 Israj and Toheeda. After some she came to know that her husband had supported killers of her late husband. The frontier government arrested him in Provincial Muslim League office at Peshawar and the shifted from Peshawar to Haripur Jail 62. 1947 in the Province against the Frontier government*. Khan Sahib and used as contrivance the Basanthi Case: a Sikh widow from Hazara converted to Islam and married to Muhammad Zaman. . Jinnah announced a Referendum Committee 60 * Khyber Mail. He advised to his companions to be remained vigorous and uphold perfect discipline in the curiosity of Muslim League63. November 29. At first took religious then a political tune. 1990). Refrendum in NWFP On 2 June. 61 Zaman. 1947. of Dr. 64 Jaswant Singh. 1946. 62 Khyber Mail. Oxford University Press. On Jinnah query concerning about the forthcoming referendum he assured Jinnah that the Pakhtun country would come into Pakistan certainly. same as the case of Islam Bibi (a Hindu Ramkori) happened in 1936 at Bannu (Shah. So she refused to live with a killer. In this plan there was a provision for referendum in NWFP.his support for the creation of Pakistan60. Pir Sahib was released on June 04. 1947 the Provincial League decided to challenge the Govt. In February.411. March 28. (Karachi: Ameena Saiyid. Civil Disobedience Movement In Civil Disobedience Movement started on February 20. 1947. he made an impassioned plea to the people to vote in favour of Pakistan in the imminent referendum. 1947 Mountbatten presented his famous plan later known as 3rdJune Plan before the principal Indian leaders. On June 18.2010). Jinnah: was determined in Plan that in NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) a referendum will be held to determined whether it will join the present Constituent Assembly (India) or the new Legislation of Pakistan 64. 1984-4986. Jinnah called him to Delhi to attend the Council meeting of All India Muslim League held on June 09 and 10. 1947.

Pakistan. 69 Khalid Bin Sayeed. and lasted the polling till to June 17 peacefully. The League could not have won the referendum in frontier without the involvement of the Pir Sahib and the accorded by the Ulema like Maulana Shabir Ahmad Usmani and Abdul Sattar Ghazi etc69. educated the illiterates in casting their votes and the importance of their votes 67. 67 Israj and Toheeda. 1947 and the Pakhtuns of settled areas in adequate number voted in favour of joining Pakistan against acceding to India. 68 Ibid. Sana Haroon p.for NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and chosen Pir Sahib to supervise the referendum activities . p87.p. 65 66 Israj and Toheeda. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan had a gathering about imminent referendum with Jinnah but nothing come out of it.412. contrivance town and spread the League mission of referendum. Jinnah congratulated and appreciated his efforts through out the movement.68 After result announcement. (Oxford University Press. The referendum held on scheduled dated on June 6. 1947. Muslim League campaign was on Pakistan issue while Congress continued to campaign for Pakhtunistan and against Pakistan and referendum66. held in frontier in 1947. which determined the accession of the NWFP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) to Pakistan. Pir Sahib visited every village of the province. He has been rightly called Fath-e-Referendum. Pir Sahib rendered a fundamental task in securing thumping triumph for the Muslim League in the Referendum. Besides Ibrahim Ismail Chandrigar Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan and Syed Wajid Ali Shah were appointed to assist him in backing65. p.1978). pp. Pir Sahib from Lahore left for Delhi and meet with Jinnah on July 24. .174. 412. 412-13. The final results were announced in Delhi on July 20. Ghaffar Khan tried his best to remove Pir of Manki from the support of Muslim League and Jinnah but failed to persuade him. The Formative Phase.

Maulana Faiz-ul-Hasan Sharanpuri and Mufti Muhammad Abdullah at Lahore.107. . His father named him Jamaat Ali72. These excellent qualities were further refined by learned and accomplished teachers through especial and dedicated attention. 74 Ishfaq Ali.Ameer-Millat (RA)” (Karachi. Kakul. Knowledge and Virtue: By birth. He entered the discipleship of Shah Fazal-ur-Rehman Ganj Muradabadi from whom he received mystical education75. p. p.108. “ Seerat-e. “The Saints of Punjab” (Rawalpindi. 72 Syed Akhtar Hussain Shah & Muhammad Tahir Farooqi.Syed Muhammad Saeed.p. 75 M. gentle right-mindedness and exceptional intuition. During his childhood Syed Jamaat Ali Shah did’t show any inclination towards games and sports and used to remain away from the children of his age. This town was established by one of the ancestors of Syed Jamaat Ali. Wahid Press. The Caravan Book House. Pap Board. Syed Jamaat Ali Shah was born at Ali Ali Pur Saydan at dawn on Friday. “A Comprenhensive Book of Pakistan Studies” (Lahore. 70 Lt Col Syed Ishfaq Ali. Ameer-e-Millat was a subtle genius and was endowed with such superb characteristics as mild.Ameer-millat Syed Jamaat Ali Shah Lasani (1860-1939) Syed Jamaat Ali Shah was a resident of Ali Pur Sharif. one of the town of District Sialkot. 1424hijra). AEC PMA. When he finish his basic education and reached the threshold of adulthood he to venture forth from Alipur to meet the ‘Waliullahs’ of Allah 74. August 1860 71. 2000). 73 Ibid.p.73 He received his early education in Quran and religion from an eminent religious scholar Maulana Abdur Rasheed. 1994).46. Initially it was named as Saeed Pur but later it was renamed as Ali Pur70. Ikram Rabbani. Once when he joined children in a game a majzoob appeared on the scene and told him that he was not sent to the world to play games.181. 71 Ibid. p.107. He received further education from Maulana Ghulam Qadir Bhervi.

his good deeds are not acceptable and on the day of judgment he will be brought up with Pharoah and Nimrud78. and that of Imam Hajar Asqalani in all-inclusive memorizing. . Namaz stops one from foul deeds. In mysticism it is the first and the final step. p. he gradually kept on achieving latent and spiritual advancements. One should be gentle in his speech. Ishfaq Ali.Alongside mastering various intellectual and traditional sciences. Namaz is the food of the soul. He didn’t want to be conspicuous in the company of men and as such used to avoid smokers.on the day of the judgment men will be questioned about it.a) used to study any new movement in India with great insight .10. he rivalled the competency of Imam Zahbi in learning. Anjuman-e-Khuddam-e-Sufia. He would say that a person who recites ‘Darood Sharif’ should avoid it79.Sufia” (Karachi. He used to say that the five time prayer should be offered on time. Indeed. In that era. The nation honored him with the title of Amir e Millat (Leader of the Muslim Community).He established many religious organizations & institutions to promote Shari'a of beloved Prophet saws.He supported the Lahore Resolution of 1940 and awakened Muslims to work for the success of Pakistan Movement . 2011). “Anwar-e. When he returned he was laden with spiritual blessings. Some of those organizations such as Anjuman Khudam as-Sufiya and Anjuman Islamia are still functioning. it is the ultimate end of the monin. 78 ibid. Syed jamaat Ali Shah was very modest person. Syed Jamaat Ali strictly observed the Shariat and expected his followers also to observe it fully77.he confronted Sikhs and British during Shaheed Ganj Movement . he was conspicuous for his eloquence par excellence and was unrivalled in dazzling displays of public speaking76 In 1323 A. A person who doesn’t offer prayers cannot aspire to become a waliullah rather he will be denied the fragrance of paradise and will be thrown out of rank and file of muslims.H Hazrat syed Jamaat Ali went for Haj.108. He worked tirelessly to make Quid e Azam's mission successful. Pir Sahib 76 77 Afzal Hussain Shah.109. To make Muslims aware of importance and sanctity of mosques. He wanted Indian Muslims to understand their Islamic identity. Hazrat Amir e Millat Pir Jama'at Ali Shah Sahib (r.He challenged the Hindus during Shudi Movement and stopped their conversion of Muslims to Hinduism. 79 Ibid. He would fight anti-Muslim movements with great courage without fear of then British Government. (Shariat e Mustafvi). p. It provides contentment to the heart and is the companion in the grave and the day of reckoning.

and wells. Muslim University. Anjuman Islamia. he started the publication of the monthly Anwarus Sufia from Lahore. which was an enormous amount in those days. In 1916. Majlis-e-Ittihad-e-Millat. Anjuman Khuddamus Sufia. Central Muslim Association. Lahore. Anjuman Khuddamul Muslimeen. Hind. He was the patron of a number of religious and national institutions. and the Pakistan Movement. Anjuman Hizbul Ahnaf.told his disciples (Mureeds) to take part in Pakistan Movement in whatsoever capacity they can. Jam’iyat-e-‘Ulama-eHind (Sunni Conference). Lahore. but not limited to. which was eventually completed in 1920. Lucknow. Lahore. All-India Sunni Conference. Nadwatul ‘Ulama. In addition. Tehrik-e-Khilafat Conference. The total cost came to around six lacs of rupees. etc. Hind. Mysore. In March 1901. Amritsar. caravanserais. Anjuman Ta’limul Qur’an. Religious And National Service: As far as religion is concerned. Sialkot. he inaugurated the construction of Masjid-e-Noor at Alipur Sayyidan. Fitna-e-Mirza’iyat. Bangalore. including Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam. Anjuman Islamia. Ghazi Ilm Din Shaheed Case. He paid particular attention to the publication of literature on mysticism. Tehrik-e-Sarda Act. Tehrik-e-Masjid Shaheed Gunj. Makkah Mukarramah. Aligarh. In addition. Anjuman Nomania. Madrasa Saulatia. Lahore. He led them all dynamically and served them energetically. otherwise he will not offer their funeral prayers ( Namaz e Janaza). he founded the Anjuman Khuddamus Sufia. . he presided over many conferences and conventions. Hazrat Qibla-e-Alam’s services are inestimable. religious academies. Madrasa Naqshbandia. Tehrik-e-Fitna-e-Irtidad. He funded and was instrumental in the erection of scores of mosques. including. Kasur.

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