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GEOMETRY

1.
PROPERTY - I

Similarity
PROPERTIES OF AREAS OF TRIANGLES

The ratio of areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of the product of their bases and corresponding heights. In ABC, P seg AD is the height and A seg BC is the base. In PQR, seg PS is the height and seg QR is the base.

A (ABC) BC  AD  A (PQR)  QR  PS

B

D

C

S

Q

R

To learn the next property, we have to first understand the meaning of Triangles with equal heights .
In theorems and problems we will come across three situations where two or more triangles have equal heights.

1.

In the adjoining figure, seg AD and seg PS are the heights of ABC and PQR respectively. If AD = PS then ABC and PQR are said to have equal heights.
B

A

P

D A

C

S P

Q l

R

2.

In the adjoining figure, line l || line m  ABC and PQR lie between the same two parallel lines l and m, they are said to have equal heights.
B

D

C

Q

S

R

m

3.

In the adjoining figure, ABD, ADC and ABC have common vertex A and their bases BD, DC and BC lie on the same line BC.

A

B E Also seg AE  line BC.  seg AE is the height of ABD, ADC and ABC.  These three triangles have same height.
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

D

C

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PROPERTY - II
The ratio of areas of two triangles having equal heights, is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases. 1. In the adjoining figure, ABC and PQR lie between the same two parallel lines l and m.   2. Their heights are equal. A (ABC) BC  A (PQR) QR
B C Q R m A P l

In the adjoining figure, ABD, ADC and ABC have common vertex A, and their bases BD, CD and BC lie on the same line BC. Hence they have equal heights. Considering two triangles at a time we get the following results.

A

A (ABD) BD (i) A (ADC)  CD

A (ABD) BD (ii) A (ABC)  BC

A (ADC) DC (iii) A (ABC)  BC

B

D

C

PROPERTY - III
The ratio of areas of two triangles having equal bases, is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights. D C In the adjoining figure, ABC and ABD have the same base AB. A (ABC) CP  A (ABD)  DQ A P B Q

PROPERTY - IV
Areas of two triangles having equal bases and equal heights, are equal. In the adjoining figure, A ABD and ACD have common vertex A and their bases BD and CD lie on the same line BC.  Their heights are equal. Also, D is the midpoint of seg BC. D C B  BD = CD.  Their bases are equal.  A (ABD) = A (ACD) 2
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EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) In the adjoining figure, E seg BE  seg AB and seg BA  seg AD. If BE = 6 and AD = 9 (1 mark) A (ABE) find A (ABD)
B

Sol.  

A (ABE) BE A (ABD) = AD A (ABE) 6 A (ABD) = 9 A (ABE) 2 A (ABD) = 3

A

D

[Triangles with common base]

EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) 2. In the adjoining figure, seg SP  side YK and seg YT  seg SK. If SP = 6, YK = 13, YT = 5 and TK = 12 then find : A (SYK) : A (YTK). (2 marks)
S T

P

Y

K

Sol.

A ( SYK) YK  SP = A (YTK) TK  YT

[ The ratio of the areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of the products of their bases and corresponding heights ]

 

A ( SYK) 13  6 = A (YTK) 12  5
A ( SYK) 13 A (YTK) = 10

[Given]

EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) 3. In the adjoining figure, RP : PK = 3 : 2 then find the values of : (i) A (TRP) : A (TPK) (ii) A (TRK) : A (TPK) (iii) A (TRP) : A (TRK) (3 marks)
T

Sol.    

RP PK Let RP RK RK RK

3 = [Given] 2 the common multiple be x = 3x and PK = 2x = RP + PK [ R - P - K] = 3x + 2x = 5x

R

P

K

TRP, TPK and TRK have a common vertex T and their bases RP, PK and RK lie on the same line RK  Their heights are equal
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

3

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(i)  

A A A A

(TRP) RP (TPK) = PK (TRP) 3x (TPK) = 2x

[Triangles having equal heights]

A (TRP) 3 A (TPK) = 2
(iii)  

Similarly, A ( TRK) RK (ii) A (TPK) = PK A ( TRK) 5x  A (TPK) = 2x 

A (TRP) RP A ( TRK) = RK

A (TRP) 3x = A ( TRK) 5x
A (TRP) 3 A ( TRK) = 5

A ( TRK) 5 = A (TPK) 2

EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) 4. Sol. The ratio of the areas of two triangles with the common base is 6 : 5. Height of the larger triangle is 9 cm. Then find the corresponding height of the smaller triangle. (2 marks) Let the areas of the larger and the smaller triangle be A1 and A2 respectively. Let their heights be h1 and h2 respectively. A1 6 [Given] A2 = 5 and h1 = 9 cm The two triangles have a common base [Given] A1 h1  A = h [Triangles with common base] 2 2 9 6  = h 5 2  h2 =  h2  h2

59 6 15 = 2 = 7.5

 The corresponding height of the smaller triangle is 7.5 cm. EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) 5. In the adjoining figure, seg PR  seg BC, seg AS  seg BC and seg QT  seg BC. Find the following ratios : A (ABC) A (ABS) (i) A (PBC) (ii) A (ASC)
A

P

Q S T C

A (PRC) A (BPR) (iii) A (BQT) (iv) A (CQT)
Sol. (i)

(3 marks) B

R

A (ABC) AS A (PBC) = PR
=

[Triangles with common base] [Triangles having equal heights]
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

A (ABS) (ii) A ( ASC)
4

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A (PRC) RC  PR (iii) A (BQT) = BT  QT
Similarly, A (BPR) BR  PR (iv) A (CQT) = CT  QT

[ The ratio of the areas of two triangles equal to the ratio of the products of their bases and corresponding heights ]

EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 5) 6. In the adjoining figure, seg DH  seg EF and seg GK  seg EF. If DH = 12 cm, GK = 20 cm and A ( DEF) = 300 cm2 then find (i) EF (ii) A (GEF) (iii) A (DFGE). (3 marks) 1 E (i) Area of triangle = × base × height 2 1  A (DEF) = × EF × DH 2 1  300 = × EF × 12 2  300 = EF × 6 300  EF = 6  (ii)    (iii)  EF = 50 cm
D

Sol.

H

K

F

G

A (DEF) DH A (GEF) = GK 300 12 = A (GEF) 20
A (GEF) =

[Triangles with common base]

300  20 12

A (GEF) = 500 cm2 A (DFGE) = A (DEF) + A (GEF) = 300 + 500 A (DFGE) = 800 cm2 EXERCISE - 1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 6) [Area addition property]

7.

In the adjoining figure, seg ST || side QR Find the following ratios : (i)

P T

A (PST) A (PST) A (QST) (ii) (iii) A (QST) A (RST) A (RST) (3 marks)

S

Sol.

PST and QST have a common vertex T Q and their bases PS and QS lie on the same line PQ. 

R

A ( PST) PS = A ( QST) QS

[Triangles having equal heights] 5

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(ii) PST and RST have a common vertex S and their bases PT and RT lie on the same line PR. A ( PST) PT  A ( RST) = [Triangles having equal heights] RT (iii)seg ST || side QR [Given] QST and RST lie between the same two parallel lines ST and QR  Their heights are equal Also, they have a common base ST  A (QST) = A (RST) [Areas of two triangles having equal bases and equal heights are equal] A ( QST)  A ( RST) = 1

BASIC PROPORTIONALITY THEOREM (B.P.T.)
Statement : If a line parallel to a side of a triangle intersects other sides in two distinct points, then the line divides those sides in proportion. (4 marks) A Given : In ABC, (i) line DE || side BC (ii) Line DE intersects sides AB and AC E D at points D and E respectively.

AD AE = DB EC Construction : Draw seg BE and seg CD.
To Prove :

B

C

Proof : ADE and BDE have a common vertex E and their bases AD and BD lie on the same line AB.   Their heights are equal

.......(i) [Triangles having equal heights]

 

ADE and CDE have a common vertex D and their bases AE and EC lie on the same line AC. Their heights are equal.

A (ADE) AE = .......(ii) [Triangles having equal heights]  A ( CDE) CE line DE || side BC [Given] BDE and CDE are between the same two parallel lines DE and BC. Their heights are equal. Also, they have same base DE.
A(BDE) = A(CDE) ......(iii)

   6

[ Areas of two triangles having equal bases and equal heights are equal ]

A (ADE) A (ADE) = A (BDE) A (CDE) ......(iv) [From (i), (ii) and (iii)]

[From (i), (ii) and (iv)]
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

11) 1.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. line l || side TR      SQ SP = RQ TP S [Given] [By B.P.9 4.1.3 Q 3.5 L (iii)In LMN. In the adjoining figure.5  1. ML || BC and NL || DC.T. line l || side LN     MQ MP = NQ LP [Given] [By B.P. Find the values of x in the following figures. AB AD (3 marks) [Given] A N L C Proof : In ABC. MT EDUCARE LTD. Then prove that : B M AM AN = .] T l 4.5 x P 1.5 3 x = 1. 12) 6.5 3.] 3 A 5 5 x 65 3 x = 10 x = Y x C (ii) In STR.] 2 P 8 M x Q 3 l N 8 x = 2 3 x = 83 2 x = 12 EXERCISE .3 x = 3.9 x = 4.T. GEOMETRY EXERCISE .9 R x 1.3 = 4.T. Sol.1. B [Given] line l || side BC     AP AY = PB YC 3 6 = l 6 P [By B.P. if line l is parallel to one of the sides of the given triangles : (2 marks) (i) In ABC. seg ML || side BC D S C H O O L S E C TI O N 7 .2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

. P.E .(ii) [By Invertendo] [From (i) and (ii)] CONVERSE OF BASIC PROPORTIONALITY THEOREM Statement : If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio..B and A ...C] ..          BM AM BM  AM AM AB AM AM AB In ADC.. In ABC.. line l intersects sides AB and AC at points F D and E respectively such that D E l AD AE = DB EC To prove : Line l || side BC C B Proof : (Indirect method) Let us suppose that line DE is not parallel to side BC  We can draw a line DF parallel to side BC... line DF || side BC AD AF  = .] [By Componendo] [ A ... such that A-F-C.L .. P. T. seg NL || DN AN DN  AN AN AD AN AN AD AM MB CL AL CL  AL = AL AC = AL AL = AC = side DC CL = AL CL  AL = AL AC = AL AL = AC AN = AD [By B...GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.D and A ...L . DB EC AF AE  = [From (i) and (ii)] FC EC AF  FC AE  EC  = [By componendo] FC EC AC AC  = [ A .P...T.(i) [By Invertendo] [Given] [By B.M .] DB FC AD AE = ..C] .(ii) [Given] But.F .C] FC EC  FC = EC  F and E are not two different points..N ... then the line is parallel to the third side..(i) [By B. A ..  Line DF and line DE coincide  line DE || side BC  line l || side BC 8 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (4 marks) A Given : In ABC... T] [By Componendo] [ A .C.

18 1.6 = FR 2.5 8 F 9 R .5  10 EQ PE 40 = EQ 45 PE 8 = EQ 9 P 4 E 4.. PF = 0. MT 2..4 PF 3  = . QE = 4. (iii)PQ = 1. EDUCARE LTD.56 cm..(ii) FR 2 In PQR.18 = EQ 1. (i)  PE 3.4 cm.3 Q 3.56 R [ P .36 + FR 2... 11) E and F are points on the side PQ and PR respectively of PQR.(ii) FR 9 In PQR.10 cm PF + FR 0.3 PE 3 = EQ 1 P 3.P....6 cm and FR = 2. PF = 3.18 cm. PF = 8 cm and RF = 9 cm.(i) Q PF 8 = .36 2.R] 1.18 + EQ 1.T.E . P 0..5 4  10 PE = 4.] [ P .56 =  FR =  FR = PE + EQ 0.28 – 0..56 – 0.9 = EQ 1.(i) PF 3.Q] 18 0. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . EQ = 1.28 =  EQ =  EQ = PR =  2..6 F 2. PE = 0.. .28 cm.4 R Sol. (ii)    PE 4 = EQ 4..36 cm.3 cm.5 cm..9 E 1. PE PF  [From (i) and (ii)] EQ FR  line EF is not parallel to side QR..F . (ii) PE = 4 cm.20 cm [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B. PE PF = EQ FR  line EF || side QR (iii) PQ =  1.. PR = 2..10  100 EQ S C H O O L S E C TI O N 9 ..28 Q  PE 0. state whether EF || QR. 36 E F 2.9 cm.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (i) PE = 3. For each of the following cases.18  100 PE = 1.1..10 0.

8 + EC 7. (3 marks) A B D Proof :    AB 5. .4 × 10 AD = 4.] PROBLEM SET .2 and AE = 1..4.6.8 5.D .2  EC  EC = = = = = = = = AD + DB 1.4 4.8.8 × 10 AE = 5.8 = EC 5..36 × 100 PF = 2..4  10 1.(ii) PE PF = EQ FR  line EF || side QR [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B.36 = FR 2.E .2 – 1.6 DB DB AC  7.C]    AD 1. AC = 7.(i)    PF 0.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.   PE 18 = EQ 110 PE 9 = EQ 55 ..B] E C [ A . 190) 15..2 × 10 DB AD 14 = DB 42 AD 1 = DB 3 .. AD = 1...4 = DB 4.2 units AE + EC 1..P. Show that DE || BE.T....4 × 10 EC S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..20 × 100 FR PF 36 = FR 220 PF 9 = FR 55 In PQR..6 – 1. D and E are the points on sides AB and AC such that AB = 5.20 0.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 + DB 5.(i) AE 1..4 units [ A .2 1.

(ii) [By B. seg OQ and seg OR respectively P such that AB || PQ and AC || PR..(i) [By B.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. .P.(ii) [By B.T.T..T. points A..P.] [Given] In POR..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..T.P. In the adjoining figure.1..] OB OC = BQ CR  seg BC || side QR [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B..] [Given]  PF PD = FR DO In PQR. seg AB || side PQ [Given]  OB OA = BQ AP Q B A O C R . seg ED || side QO PE PD  = EQ DO In PRO.] EXERCISE . Then show that BC || QR. (3 marks) Proof : In POQ.T.... MT EDUCARE LTD.] PROBLEM SET .P. seg AC || side PR  OA OC = AP CR In OQR. seg DF || seg OR P E D F O (3 marks) [Given] Q R ...(ii) AD AE = DB EC  seg DE || side BC [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B... B and C are on seg OP.P..P...T. 190) 9.(i) [By B... .] PE PF = EQ FR  seg EF || side QR S C H O O L S E C TI O N [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B.] 11 .. Prove that seg EF || side QR. 12) 7... seg ED || seg QO and seg DF || seg OR. GEOMETRY   AE 18 = EC 54 AE 1 = EC 3 In ABC.P.. Proof : In PQO..T. In the adjoining figure. .

Draw seg EC Proof : In AEC.. (iv) and (v)]  DAC  BAD  Ray AD is the bisector of A. CQ CR  = AQ DR  seg QR || side AD  [From (i) and (ii)] [By converse of B. prove that AD is the DC AC bisector of A. (3 marks) B Proof : In ABC...GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET .. 12 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .T. 191) EDUCARE LTD.(iv) .....P..T. PQ || AB and PR || BD are drawn.] . Join EC).P.....P.(i) [By B. BAD  AEC [From (iii)] [By converse of B. A From a point P on BC..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 191) 21..(ii) B D C [Construction] [Isosceles triangle theorem] [Given] BD AB = DC AC  BD AB = DC AE In BEC..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.] AQ BP In BCD. . [Given] seg PQ || side AB CQ CP  = ..T.] PROBLEM SET .(iii) [From (i)] BD AB = DC AE  seg AD ll side EC On transversal AC. such that AE = AC.(ii) [By B... . Two triangles ABC and DBC lie on the same side of the base BC.. if D is a point on BC such that E A Construction : Take a point E on ray BA.. Prove that QR || AD.(v) [Converse of alternate angles test] [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (ii)...... BD AB = . seg PR || side BD [Given] ..] D R P C CP CR = BP DR In ACD..(i) seg AE  seg AC  AEC  ACE . (4 marks) In a ABC.T.. (Hint : Produce BA to E such that AE = AC..P... 19. DAC  ACE On transversal BE.. They Q intersect AC at Q and DC at R..

.A . BAD   AEC ..F and G respectively.. l Q F and lines l. m and n cut the transversal y m in point E. the angle bisector divides the side opposite to (4 marks) the angle in the ratio of the remaining sides. (2 marks) 10 line l || line m || line n [Given] n C T  On transversals p and q.. G R n PQ EF  = QR FG EXAMPLE : p q Sol..D ..] [Construction] [Converse of corresponding angles test] 13 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Proof : In BEC. [By Property of Intercepts made AB RS = by threeparallel lines ] BC ST 8 12  = [Given] 10 ST 12 ×10  ST = 8  ST = 15 units PROPERTY OF AN ANGLE BISECTOR OF A TRIANGLE Statement : In a triangle..(i) DC AE line CE || line AD On transversal BE. GEOMETRY PROPERTY OF INTERCEPTS MADE BY THREE PARALLEL LINES The ratio of the intercepts made on a transversal by three parallel lines is equal to the ratio of the corresponding intercepts made on any other transversal by the same parallel lines.E.(ii) [By B. In the adjoining figure. m and n cut the transversal x E P in points P.. ray AD is the bisector of BAC A such that B .T. B . parallel to line AD and intersecting line BA at point E. line AD || side CE [Construction]   BD AB = .... y x line l || line m || line n and lines l.. line l || line m ||line n.. A R l Lines p and q are transversals. E Given : In ABC. xx To Prove : BD AB = DC AC B C D Construction : Draw a line passing through C.C.P. 8 From given information m B S find ST. Q and R respectively.. MT EDUCARE LTD..

Q ...T . (2 marks) In PQR. BAD  DAC .6 cm Find the value of x and the perimeter of PQR.. ray NQ bisects MNP 14 [Given] S C H O O L S E C TI O N N ×× Sol.. Also. 5.6 cm EXERCISE . ray PT bisects QPR      Q P • • x Sol.6 + 9 + 7  Perimeter of  PQR = 19..(v)  BD = DC AB AC [Converse of alternate angles test] [ ray AD bisects BAC] [From (ii)... M Q P . Ray NQ is the angle bisector MNP of MNP. On transversal AC..2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..5 units In MNP... AEC  ACE  seg AC  seg AE  AC = AE .. (2 marks) Find MN : NP.5. MP = MQ + QP [M .(iii) But..1. (iii) and (iv)] [Converse of Isosceles triangle theorem] [From (i) and (v)] EXERCISE .5 – 2  QP = 3. 12) 5.R]  QR = 4 + 5  QR = 9 cm Perimeter of  PQR = PQ + QR + PR = 3.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.1. DAC ACE . Point Q is on the side MP such that MQ = 2 and MP = 5.P]  5.6 4 x= 7 PR = 7 cm x= [Property of angle bisector of a triangle] QR = QT + TR [ Q .2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 12) 3.. 4 cm T [Given] 5 cm R PQ QT = PR TR 5. Ray PT is the angle bisector of QPR.(iv) In AEC.....5 = 2 + QP  QP = 5...6 4 = x 5 5  5..

In XYZ.. MT EDUCARE LTD.5 2  10 MN = 3. ray YM bisects XYZ    M (2 marks) Sol.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. GEOMETRY      MQ MN = QP NP [Property of angle bisector of a triangle] MN 2 = NP 3. where XY = YZ. Ray YM is the angle bisector X of XYZ.. if QS is the angle bisector of Q then.(i) QR of a triangle ] SR  PQS and  QRS have a common vertex Q and their bases PS and SR lie on the same line PR. 12) 4. In PQR.  Their heights are equal [ The ratio of the areas of A (PQS) PS  A (QRS) = two triangles having equal SR  A (PQS) PQ = A (QRS) QR heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases ] [From (i)] 15 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5  10 NP MN 20 = NP 35 MN 4 = NP 7  MN : NP = 4 : 7 EXERCISE .. [Given] • • XY XM = YZ MZ Y Z [Property of angle bisector of a triangle] [ XY = YZ] XM MZ XM = MZ 1= PROBLEM SET . 190) 16.1. show that P A (PQS) PQ = A (QRS) QR Proof : (3 marks) Q S R In PQR ray QS bisects PQR [Given] [ By property of angle bi sec tor PQ PS  = .. Find the relation between XM and MZ.

then the two triangles C are similar.one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles. ABC  PQR. for correspondence ABC  PQR (i) A  P. B  Q and C  R. If ABC ~ PQR. Because of this if two pairs of corresponding angles of two given triangles are 16 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .A test (A .to .  NOTE  If two triangles are similar. R In fig. then i) their corresponding angles are congruent ii) their corresponding sides are in proportion. B  Q. this statement is written symbolically as ABC ~ PQR. B  Q. we select only three conditions taken in proper order. if. We know that sum of measures of three angles of a triangle is 180º. if (i) their corresponding angles are congruent.A . then i) A  P. C  R and AB BC AC 2 (ii) = = = PQ QR PR 1 Hence ABC and PQR are similar triangles.one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles. 6 C Q • ABC is similar to PQR under ABC  PQR. A  P.to . (ii) their corresponding sides are in proportion.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. But to prove that two triangles are similar.A test) : For a given one . SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES Definition : For a given one . then three pairs of corresponding angles are congruent and three pairs of corresponding sides are in proportion. then the correspondence is known as Similarity and the triangles are said to be Similar Triangles. then ABC ~ PQR A × B P × Q 1. C  R AB BC AC   ii) PQ QR PR TEST OF SIMILARITY When two triangles are similar. A × 4 2 2 P × 1 3 R B • In above figure. if the corresponding angles are congruent. There are 3 tests of similarity : A . These conditions are called Tests of similarity.

A . under the correspondence ABC  PQR.. MT EDUCARE LTD. A In the adjoining figure.S Test : For a given one-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles. 2.S test of similarity.(ii) 10 QR 1 AC 8 = PR 4 AC 2  = . S .. then the two triangles are similar. GEOMETRY congruent then remaining pair is also congruent. and thus the triangles become similar triangles.S . if two sides of one triangle are proportional to the corresponding sides of the other triangle and angles included by them are congruent... 188) 1. 8 B C Q 4 R PROBLEM SET . then the two triangles are similar. A In the adjoining figure. 5 then ABC ~ PQR by S ..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..6 A (i) = PQ 2..A test. under the correspondence P ABC  PQR.. AB BC AC = = PQ QR PR  ABC  PQR S C H O O L S E C TI O N [From (i).. In each of the following figures you find two triangles. S .5 R 3. 10 9 4.6 4 2... This is known as A .5 5 AB BC AC 2 = = = PQ QR PR 1 then ABC ~ PQR by S .A . Indicate whether the triangles are similar.(iii) PR 1 In ABC and PQR. A .(i) PQ 8 1 4.S test of similarity. if three sides of one triangle are proportional to the three corresponding sides of other triangle. P 3 C Q 40º 2.. (ii) and (iii)] [By SSS test of similarity] 17 . Give reasons in support of your answer. 6 AB BC 2 = = PQ QR 40º 1 B and B  Q.3 BC 10 = QR 5 R Q 5 BC 2 C B  = ..A Test : For a given one-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles. if two angles of one triangle are congruent with the corresponding two angles of other triangle.. (2 marks) AB 4. Sol. then the two triangles are similar..S .3 AB 2 P  = .S Test : For a given one-one correspondence between the vertices two triangles.

.5 B 2. [From (i) and (ii)] [Vertically opposite angles] [By SAS test of similarity] [Given] A D 60º ..... (ii) and (iii)] [By SSS test of similarity] S C H O O L S E C TI O N .... AO BO = CO DO  AOB  COD  AOB  COD (iii)m ABC = m ADE = 60º  ABC  ADE In ABC and ADE...(iv) BD In ABD and CBD....GEOMETRY  MT A B 5 3 C O 3 D 5 EDUCARE LTD... AB BD AD = = BC BD CD ABD  CBD A 2... ABC  ADE BAC  DAE  ABC  ADE (iv) AB 24 = PQ 12 AB 2  = ...(i) PQ 1 BC 7 = .....(ii) DO 3 In AOB and COD.5 = BC 2..5 D 2...(i) BC AD 2. (v)     18 AB 2.5 AB = 1 ......(i) [From (i)] [Common angle] B E 60º C [By AA test of similarity] A P 24 25 12 B 7 CQ 13 5 R BC AB AC   [From (i)...(iii) PR 13 In ABC and PQR.(i) CO 3 BO 5 = ...(ii) QR 5 AC 25 = .. (ii) and (iii)] QR PQ PR  ABC is not similar to PQR...5 2.....5 C [Common side] [From (i).5 = CD 2...5 AD = 1 .(ii) CD BD = BD BD = 1 . (ii) AO 5 = .

... GEOMETRY A 52º (vi) In AOB and DOC..1..(i) X XS 3b = RT 2b  3b S XS 3 = . MK MP  TMP ~ MTP [From (i) and (ii)] [Common angle] [By SAS test of similarity] [ P ... Give reason... AOB  DOC [Common angles] mBAO = 52º m CDO = 42º  BAO is not congruent to CDO  AOB is not similar to DOC. PX XS  [From (i) and (ii)] PR RT  PXS is not similar to PRT S C H O O L S E C TI O N 19 . Study the following figures and find out in each case whether the triangles are similar.(ii) MP 1 In MNK and MTP.N] M  MN = 2 + 4 3  MN = 6 units 2 MK = MP + PK [ M .(ii) RT 2 In PXS and PRT.T ...3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.R . MT EDUCARE LTD.X] P MN = MT NMK  MNK (ii) PX  PX  PX = PR + RX = a + 2a = 3a = = PX PR  3a a R 2b T PX PR 3 1 ..K] P T  MK = 3 + 6  MK = 9 units 6 4 MN 6 = MT 2 K N  MN 3 = MT 1 ..P .(i) MK 9 = MP 3  MK 3 = ... 16) 1.. B O C 42º D EXERCISE ... (2 marks) (i) MN = MT + TN [ M .

s.. Using the information given in the adjoining figure........t] [Given] .  B 4m C Q 28 m 20 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 7.....  AB 3...(iii) [From (i).8 = DE 7.a. AB BC AC = = DE EF DF ABC ~ DEF C  F In ABC.6 B 60º AB 1 = DE 2 BC 6 = EF 12 BC 1 = EF 2 3 3 AC = DF 6 3 AC 1 = DF 2 In ABC and DEF...(iv) [By SSS test of similarity] [c..(ii) In DMN and AQR.6 cm 80º R .. (2 marks) P In the adjoining figure. find F.. (ii) and (iii)] ... Find the height of the tower..(i) m N = m R = a ..8 cm F 12 cm E 3 3 cm 6 3 cm Sol. (iii) m M = m Q = 55º ... seg AB and seg PQ A represents the pole and tower respectively and ? 6m seg BC and seg QR represents the shadow cast by them respectively. (3 marks) A 3.(ii)  .....1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.GEOMETRY  MT D 70º EDUCARE LTD.. At the same time a tower casts a shadow 28 m long.. Sol.(i) D  .(v) [Remaining angle] [From (iv) and (v)]     m F = 40º EXERCISE ..1....3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 189) 9... m A = 80º m B = 60º m C = 40º 6 cm C . A vertical pole of a length 6m casts a shadow of 4 m long on the ground. M  Q N  R  DNM ~ AQR A Q 55º a R a [From (i)] 55º M [From (ii)] [By AA test of similarity] N PROBLEM SET . 17) 5.

t. AC [c. seg AB and seg PQ A represents the vertical stick ? and the tower respectively 12 m and seg BC and seg QR represents the shadow cast by them respectively. Find the ratio and (3 marks) hence find the lengths of the remaining sides of PQR. (2 marks) P In the adjoining figure. B 8m C Q 40 m R ABC ~ PQR    AB BC = PQ QR [c. GEOMETRY     Now. P  ? 18 cm R B 12 cm C Q ABC and the AB BC  = = PQ QR 6 12  = = PQ 18 S C H O O L S E C TI O N enlarged PQR are similar. PROBLEM SET . Determine the height of the tower. 189) 10. A 6 cm 8 cm ? A triangle ABC with sides AB = 6 cm. PROBLEM SET . AB BC = PQ QR 6 4 = PQ 28 6  28 PQ = 4 PQ = 42 [c. MT EDUCARE LTD. BC = 12 cm and AC = 8 cm is enlarged to PQR such that its longest side is 18 cm.s.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. At the same time a tower casts the shadow 40 m on the ground. A vertical stick 12 m long casts a shadow 8 m long on the ground.s.] [Given]  The height of the tower is 42 m.s. Sol.] [Given] 12 8 = PQ 40 40 × 12 8  PQ = 60  PQ =  Height of the tower is 60 m.t.s. 188) 2.t. Sol.s.] PR 8 [Given] PR 21 . ABC ~ PQR.s.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

1..t.. 17) 6..3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. [c. AB = 5 units BC = 6 units [Given] AC = 7 units Perimeter of PQR = 360 units [Given]  PQ + QR + PR = 360 ..(i) ABC ~ PQR [Given]      AB BC AC = = PQ QR PR Sol. 3 EXERCISE .(i) EDUCARE LTD. If ABC is similar to PQR then find the sides of PQR.GEOMETRY  MT .s. Triangle ABC has sides of length 5...... 6 and 7 units while  PQR has perimeter of 360 units...(ii) [From (ii)]  PQ = 100 units 6 1 = QR 20 [From (ii)]  QR = 120 units 7 1 = PR 20  PR = 140 units 22 [From (ii)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N .s... PR = 12 cm. (3 marks) In ABC.   6 2 8 = = PQ 3 PR 6 2 = [From (i)] PQ 3 8 PR = 2 3 [From (i)] 63 2  PQ = 9 cm  PQ =  The ratio is 83 2 PR = 12 cm PR = 2 and PQ = 9 cm.] 5 6 7 = = PQ QR PR 567 5 6 7 = = = PQ  QR  PR [By theorem on equal ratios] PQ QR PR 5 6 7 18 = = = PQ QR PR 360 5 6 7 1 = = = PQ QR PR 20 5 1 = PQ 20 [From (i)] .

(i) [D . x 3 seg AB || seg DC [Given] B A  On transversal BD. In the adjoining figure. seg AB  seg AC  ABC  ACB . (2 marks) In ABC.1. C .t. 5 3 – x Using the information given 9 O x 1 –3 – (3 marks) find the value of x. D is any point on AB. BAC  DAE ABC  AED  ABC ~ AED   A E D Sol. S C H O O L S E C TI O N . If AD  BC and EF  AC.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. A .B] In DOC and BOA..B .D .. find AE.s.(i) In ABD and ECF..C. CDB  ABD [Converse of alternate angles test]  CDO  ABO . AB = 12 cm.C ... MT EDUCARE LTD. In the adjoining figure.s. ABC is a right angled at B. B C [Common angle] [ Each is 90º] [By AA test of similarity] [c... GEOMETRY EXERCISE .E] [ each is 90º] [By AA test of similarity] C EXERCISE ...] [Given] AB AC = AE AD 12 18 = AE 6 12 × 6 18 = 4 units =  AE  AE PROBLEM SET . If AD = 6 cm.F . ABD  FCE ADB  EFC  ABD ~ ECF E A F Proof : [Given] D B [Isosceles triangle theorem] [From (i) and B .. 189) 8.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.O . 17) 3. DE  AC. D C AB || DC. prove that ABD ~ ECF.1. CDO  ABO [From (i)] DOC  BOA [Vertically opposite angles]  DOC ~ BOA [By AA test of similarity] 23 Sol.. 16) 2. (2 marks) In ABC and AED.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. E is a point on side CB produced of an isosceles ABC with AB = AC. AC = 18 cm.

1.t. 17) 4.s.] AC BC = DC AC  AC2 = BC × DC  EXERCISE . D is a point on side BC of ABC such that ADC = BAC.O . ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC and its diagonals intersect AO CO = .s.(i) [ A . (3 marks) each other at the point O.s. 13) 8.GEOMETRY  MT = = = = = = = = = = EDUCARE LTD.] OA x –5 3x – 19 (x – 5) (x – 3) x2 – 3x –5x + 15 x2 – 8x + 15 0 0 0 0 0 EXERCISE .] CO DO AO CO =  [By Alternendo] BO DO  24 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..C] In AOB and COD.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.s. A Show that AC2 = BC × DC.1.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..s.             DO BO 3 x–3 3(3x – 19) 9x – 57 9x – 57 2 x – 8x – 9x + 15 +57 x2 – 17x + 72 x2 – 9x – 8x + 72 x (x – 9) – 8 (x – 9) (x – 9) (x – 8) x – 9 = 0 or x – 8 = 0 x = 9 or x = 8 OC [c.t.. Show that BO DO B A Proof : ABCD is a trapezium side AB || side DC [Given] O  On transversal AC.t. BAC  ADC ACB  ACD  ABC ~ DAC [Given] B D [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] [c. BAC  DCA [Converse C of alternate angles test] D  BAO  DCO .. (2 marks)  C Proof : In ABC and DAC..s. BAO  DCO [From (i)] AOB  COD [Vertically opposite angles]  AOB ~ COD [By AA test of similarity] AO BO  = [c.

ADE  ABC DAE  BAC  ADE ~ DABC  AD DE AE = = AB BC AC But....(v) [c.C. ADE  ABC In ADE and ABC.t... seg DE || side BC .s...... GEOMETRY EXERCISE .(iv) [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (iv)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] .  We can draw a line passing through D parallel to side BC intersecting side AC at F such that A .(iii) [From (iii)] ... In ABC.1.(vi) [From (v) and (vi)] (b) line DE || line BC  On transversal AB... Using the basic proportionality theorem. D and E are the midpoints of sides AB E D and AC respectively...F .(ii)   AF =1 [From (i) and (ii)] FC AF = FC F is the midpoint of side AC But.. line DF || side BC   AD AF = DB FC But... 13) 10.. (5 marks) Given : In ABC. AD = DB AD =1 DB .. prove that the line joining the mid points of any two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and A half of it.. To prove : (a) seg DE || sideBC C B 1 (b) DE = BC 2 Proof :(a) Let us assume that seg DE is not parallel to side BC.(i) [By B.P..2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. E is also the midpoint of side AC [Given] But.... MT EDUCARE LTD..s.] [ D is the midpoint of side AB] . AD = 1 AB 2   AD 1 = AB 2 DE 1 = BC 2 1 BC 2  DE = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 25 ....] [ D is the midpoint of side AB]     .. a segment can have one and only midpoint F and E are not different points.T.E ...

.(iv) [c..] [From (ii) and (iv)] PROBLEM SET . Let X be any point on side BC of ABC.(iii) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 25....s...B] ..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.C)  On transversal AB. AFG  ACB . 27 ...t. EC Proof : B C E D (i) DEFG is a square [Given]  DE = EF = GF = DG . MT EDUCARE LTD. TBN  TXM In TBN and TXM.t..s.C] .(i) [Sides of a square]  seg GF || seg DE [Opposite side of a square]  seg GF || seg BC [B . XM and XN are drawn parallel to BA and CA.(i) [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (i)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] . Prove that TX2 = TB . (5 marks) T A M N B X C Proof :          seg AB || seg MX seg NB || seg MX On transversal TX. GEOMETRY  Their heights are equal A (DOE) DO  A (DCE) = DC A (DOE) 5  A (DCE) = 14 [Triangles having equal heights] [From (vi)] PROBLEM SET . A DEFG is a square and BAC = 90º Prove that : F G (ii) AGF ~ EFC (i) AGF ~ DBG (iii) DBG ~ EFC (iv) DE2 = BD ...E ... 192) In the adjoining figure....N . TXN  TCM NTX  MTC TXN  TCM TX TN = TC TM TB TX = TX TC TX2 = TB × TC [Given] [ A . TXN  TCM In TXN and TCM... 190) 18...s..M ...1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. TC.(ii) [Converse of corresponding angles test] On transversal AC. AGF  ABC ..(iii) [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (iii)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] ...D ...(ii) [c. TBN  TXM BTN  XTM TBN  TXM TB TN = TX TM seg NX ll seg AC seg NX ll seg MC On transversal TC....] [Given] [ A ..s.. MN meets produced CB in T.

In AGF and DBG. (4 marks) Proof :  D N O M B    ADB and CDB have a common base BD.C] [ each is 90º] [By AA test of similarity] [From (iii) and A .s.F . 191) S Two poles of height ‘a’ meters and ‘b’ meters are ‘p’ meters apart. p Proof : AB = AT + TB [ A .E .t. ADB and CDB have the same base DB..] [From (i)] .s......t.s. C ..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.D .....T .(i) In ATN and ABR. R a B 28 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .(ii) [c....... C A(ADB) AN = . B .] CM CO A (ADB) AO = [From (i) and (ii)] A (CDB) CO PROBLEM SET ..s. Prove that the height ‘h’ drawn from N b of the point of intersection N of the lines joining the top of each pole to h the foot of the opposite pole is A ab y x T (5 marks) a + b meters... In the adjoining figure.(i) [Triangles with common base] A(CDB) CM In ANO and CMO.G .A] [ Each is 90º] [By AA test of similarity] [From (iv) and (v)] [c. If AC and BD intersect at O A A (ADB) AO then prove that A (CDB) = CO ..B]  AB = (x + y) = p . AFG  FCE GAF  FEC  AGF ~ EFC (iii)  DBG ~ EFC (iv)  . AGF  GBD GAF  BDG  AGF  DBG (ii) In AGF and EFC.s.s.C..B.(v) BD DG = EF EC  EF × DG = BD × EC  DE × DE = BD × EC  DE2 = BD × EC PROBLEM SET .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..t] AB BR 24.(iv) [From (ii) and A . TAN  BAR [Common angle] ATN  ABR [ each is 90º]  ATN  ABR [By AA test of similarity] AT TN  = [c. ANO  CMO [ Each is 90º] AON  COM [Vertically opposite angles] ANO ~ CMO [By AA test of similarity] AN AO = .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 191) 20.

.s. x y h h + + = p p a b x+y  1 1 + = h  a b  p p p ..C . 191) The bisector of interior A K • of ABC meets BC in D...(ii) [Given and from (i)] [Common angle] [ each is 90º] [By AA test of similarity] [c.. AC CE Construction : Draw seg CF || seg AE such that B . F BE CE [Hint : For the bisector of A which B AB BE E D = C ] (5 marks) is exterior of BAC.....F .E] AF CE seg CF || seg AE [Construction]  on transversal AF...(iii) [Given and from (i)]  a + b = h  ab   [From (i)]  a + b 1 = h  ab   ab a+b = h ab h = a + b metres PROBLEM SET .F .. EAC  ACF .s... ray AD bisects BAC [Given] BD AB  = ..T...(iii) [Converse of corresponding angles test]  on transversal AC.A . MT EDUCARE LTD.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.A and B ..K Proof : In ABC.(i) [By property of angle bisector of a triangle] CD AC In ABE...] AF CE BF + AF BC + CE  = [By Componendo] AF CE AB BE  = .. seg CF || side AE [Construction] BF BC  = [By B.(iv) [Converse of alternate angles test] 22. KAE  AFC .(ii) [B .t] ..... S C H O O L S E C TI O N 29 . TBN  ABS BTN  BAS BTN  BAS BT TN = AB AS y h = p b Adding (ii) and (iii)... The bisector of exterior A meets BC produced in E... A × BD CD = • •× Prove that .P. GEOMETRY          x h = p a In BTN and BAS..

A A (ABC) BC2 AB2 P AC2 To Prove : A (PQR) = = = 2 2 2 QR PQ PR Construction : (i) Draw seg AD  side BC. B D CQ S R Q-S-R [ The ratio of the areas of two triangles A (ABC) BC  AD Proof : A (PQR) = QR  PS ..s... ADB   PSQ [Each is a right angle] B  Q [From (ii)]  ADB ~ PSQ [By A-A test of similarity] AD BD AB    ..a..(v) .(vi) A (ABC) BC² AB² AC² A (PQR) = QR² = PQ² = PR² [From (ii) and (vi)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N .(i) is equal to ratio of the products of a base and its corresponding height ] ABC ~ PQR [Given] AB BC AC    ...] PQ QR PR Also........ (iv) and (v)] [From (vi)] [Converse of Isosceles triangle theorem] .....(vi) .] In ADB and PSQ........      But... (4 marks) Given : ABC ~ PQR...t.s.t....(iv) [c.] PS QS PQ AD BC   ...GEOMETRY  MT .. B   Q .s.(iii) [c.(viii) [From (ii) and (vii)] [From (i) and (viii)] [By Alternendo] BD CD = BE CE AREAS OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES Statement : The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of their corresponding sides. KAE  EAC AFC  ACF In AFC..t... B-D-C (ii) Draw seg PS  side QR.(ii) [c...s....s... AFC  ACF AF = AC AB BE = AC CE BD BE = CD CE [ ray AE is the bisector of KAC] [From (iii)..(vii) EDUCARE LTD....(v) [From (ii) and (iv)] PS QR A (ABC) BC AD   A (PQR) = [From (i)] QR PS A (ABC) BC BC   A (PQR) = [From (v)] QR QR   30 A (ABC) BC2 = A (PQR) QR 2 ..

A (DEF) = 64 cm2. 9 64 = = = AB2 (5.6 cm.6)2 [Given] [Taking square roots] 3 8 AB AB AB AB 5. 21) 1. (2 marks) (i) ABC ~ DEF [Given] A (ABC) AB2 = [Areas of similar triangles] A (DEF) DE2      Sol.4 cm.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2)2 EF 2 4 5 EF EF EF 2. GEOMETRY EXERCISE .6 cm then find AB. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 31 . find the ratio of the area of ABC and DEF.6)2 A (ABC) 5.1. (iii)If AB = 2.6 8 = 3 × 0.2 EF 2.4)2 = A (DEF) (1. (ii) If A (ABC) : A (DEF) = 16 : 25. ABC ~ DEF (i) If A (ABC) = 9 cm2.2  5 4 5.1 cm [Given] [Areas of similar triangles] [Given] [Taking square roots] (ii) ABC ~ DEF       A (ABC) BC2 = A (DEF) EF 2 16 25 = = = = (2.76 A (DEF) = 2.6 3  5. BC = 2. DE = 1.75 cm [Given] [Areas of similar triangles] [Given] (iii) ABC ~ DEF      A (ABC) AB2 = A (DEF) DE2 A (ABC) (2.2 cm then find EF.7 = 2. DE = 5.5 2 = 2.56 A (ABC) 576 A (DEF) = 256 A (ABC) 9 A (DEF) = 4  A (ABC) : A (DEF) = 9 : 4. MT EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . Find the area of the deck of the model. 188) EDUCARE LTD.D . 188) 2 4. Find 5 (i) BC (ii) DC (iii) A (ACD) : A (BCA).. If AB = 5 cm. Sol. cm AD = 4 cm and AC = 3 cm.C] ACD  ACB [Common angle]  ACD  BCA [By AA test of similarity] AC DC AD  = = [c. (2 marks) (i) A model of a ship is made in the ratio 1 : 200.75 cm = DC 3  DC  DC  DC 32 4 5 4×3 = 5 12 = 5 = 2.s.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(i) [Given] BC 3 5 3 4 = [From (i)] (i) BC 5 3×5  BC = 4 15  BC = 4 3 cm  BC (ii) = 3. Length of the model is 4 m [Given]  Length of the ship = 4 × 200  Length of the ship = 800 m (ii) Area of the deck of the ship = 160000 m2 Area of the deck of the mod el (length of the mod el)2 Area of the deck of the ship = (length of the ship)2     Area of the deck of the mod el  1  =   160000  200  Area of the deck of the mod el 1 = 160000 40000 1  160000 Area of the deck of the model = 40000 Area of the deck of the model = 4 m2 PROBLEM SET ... 3..4 cm [From (i)] 4c m S C H O O L S E C TI O N . D CAD  ABC [Given and B .0000 m2. D is a point on BC such that ABD = CAD. Calculate the length of the ship. Sol. (ii) The area of the deck of the ship is 16.t] BC AC AB 3 DC 4  = = .s.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. A In the adjoining figure. C (3 marks) B In ACD and BCA.. A model of a ship is made in ratio 1 : 200 (i) The length of the model is 4 m.

GEOMETRY (iii) ACD  BCA A(ACD) AD2 A(BCA) = AB2   [Areas of similar triangles] [Given] A(ACD) 42 A(BCA) = 52 A(ACD) 16 = A(BCA) 25  A(ACD) : A(BCA) = 16 : 25 EXERCISE .B] AB BP – = AB AB 1– 1– BP AB 1 2 = = 1 2 BP AB 2 –1 2 33 BP = AB .1... find AB seg PQ divides ABC into two parts of equal areas [Given]  A (APQ) =  Sol..P .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. (5 marks) area. MT EDUCARE LTD... AQP  ACB . AQP  ACB PAQ  BAC  APQ ~ ABC          S C H O O L S E C TI O N [Given] A Q [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (ii)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] [Areas of similar triangles] [From (i)] [Taking square roots] A (APQ) AP 2 = A (ABC) AB2 1 2 1 2 = = AP 2 AB2 AP AB 1 2 AP = AB AB – BP AB = 1 2 1 2 [ A .. 1 A (ABC) 2 P B  C A (APQ) 1 . If PQ divides ABC into two equal parts means equal in BP .(ii) In APQ and ABC. 21) 5... In ABC.. PQ is a line segment intersecting AB at P and AC at Q such that PQ || BC.(i) A (ABC) = 2 seg PQ || side BC On transversal AC.

(ii) In XYB and ACB.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. XYB  ACB ..GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . (4 marks) seg XY divides ABC in two C parts of equal areas 1  A(XYB) = A(ACB) 2 A (XYB) 1  A (ACB) = ....(i) [Areas of similar triangles] AC2 ABCD is a square [Given] 23..(i) 2 seg XY || side AC On transversal BC. Determine AX : AB. XY || AC and XY divides the triangular region ABC into two equal areas...X . ABCD is a square.. Sol. 17.. XYB  ACB XBY  ABC  XYB ~ ACB A (XYB) XB2  A (ACB) = AB2 1 XB2  = 2 AB2 1 XB  = 2 AB 1 XB  = 2 AB 1 AB – AX  = 2 AB 1 AB AX  – = 2 AB AB 1 AX 1–  = 2 AB   1– 1 2 A X Y B [Given] [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (ii)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] [Areas of similar triangles] [From (i)] [Taking square roots] [ A ..... E 34 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . The BCE on C side BC and ACF on the diagonal AC D are similar to each other.. Then show 1 A (ACF) that A (BCE) = (3 marks) 2 Proof : BCE ~ ACF [Given] A B 2 A (BCE) BC  A (ACF) = .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.B] = = AX AB 2–1 2 AX AB PROBLEM SET . In the adjoining figure. 190) F In the adjoining figure.. 190) EDUCARE LTD.

21) 3. ABC ~ PQR A (ABC) AD2  A (PQR) = PS2 A (ABC) 62  A (PQR) = 2 9 2 A (ABC)  6  A (PQR) =    9 2 A (ABC)  2  A (PQR) =    3 A (ABC) 4  A (PQR) = 9  A (ABC) : A (PQR) = 4 : 9 [Given] [Altitudes of similar triangles] [Given] EXERCISE . Find the ratio of their corresponding heights. A (PQR) = 49 cm2 AD AE To find : (i) (ii) PS PT Sol. seg AD  side BC and seg AE is the median (iii)In PQR. ABC ~ PQR [Given] 2 A (ABC) AD  A (PQR) = [Altitudes of similar triangles] PS2 81 AD2  = [Given] 49 PS2 AD 9  = [Taking square roots] PS 7  AD : PS = 9 : 7 ABC ~ PQR [Given] A (ABC) AE2  A (PQR) = [Medians of similar triangles] PT 2    81 AE2 = 49 PT 2 AE 9 = PT 7 AE : PT = 9 : 7 [Given] [Taking square roots] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 37 .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. What is the ratio of their corresponding medians ? (3 marks) P A  B D E C Q S T R Given :(i) ABC ~ PQR (ii) In ABC. seg PS  side QR and seg PT is the median (iv) A (ABC) = 81cm2. GEOMETRY A (ABC) To find : A (PQR) Sol.1. The areas of two similar triangles are 81 cm2 and 49 cm2 respectively. MT EDUCARE LTD.

.. A Q D BP meets DA produced at Q...A ...] QB AC [ Diagonals of paralle log ram PA PA = bisec t each other ] AC 2AO     PA AC PA AC PA AC PQ QB 1 PA × 2 AO 1 1 = × 2 2 1 = 4 1 = 4 =  PA 1      AO 2   . 189) EDUCARE LTD.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..D] seg QA || side BC PQ PA  = .(iv) [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (iv)] [Common angles] [By AA test of similarity] [Areas of similar triangles] .. PQA  PBC In PQA and PBC....P. PQA  PBC QPA  BPC  PQA ~ PBC   [From (i) and Q . P is a point on the diagonal AC such that PA : AO = 1 : 2.C] S C H O O L S E C TI O N A (PQA) PA 2 = A (PBC) PC 2 2 A (PQA)  PA  =  A (PBC)  PC   PA 1 = AC 4 AC 4 = PA 1 AC + PA 4 +1 = PA 1 PC 5 = PA 1    38 . P In the adjoining figure.A . ABCD is a parallelogram whose diagonals intersect at O.... Sol.. Then find O (i) PQ : QB (ii) A (PQA) : A (PBC) (iii) A (PQA) : A (QBCA) C PA PA 1 PA 1 1 1 B = = × = × = ] (5 marks) [Hint : AC 2AO 2 AO 2 2 4 (i) ABCD is a parallelogram [Given]  seg AD || seg BC .T.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET .(iii) [From (ii) and (iii)]  PQ : QB = 1 : 4 (ii) seg QA || seg BC On transversal PB. [From (i) and Q .D] .......A .(v) [From (iii)] [By Invertendo] [By Componendo] [ P ...(ii) [By B... 6..(i) [By definition] In PBC.

E seg AD. MT EDUCARE LTD..D . seg GE ll side AB [Given] On transversal BC.. GE and GF are drawn parallel to AB and AC respectively.. Then GD : AD = 1 : 3.. G (Hint : Draw the median AD. Sol. seg BE and seg CF are the medians F G G is the centroid of ABC 2 B AG = AD D 3 1 GD = AD [ Centroid of a triangle trisects each 3 AG = 2GD median] C  GD = 1 AG 2 PROBLEM SET . Find A (GEF) : A (ABC)...C] 5.C and B ..D .. 188) A G is the centroid of ABC.  GEC  ABC [Converse of corresponding angles test]  GED  ABD .(i) [E . B E D F C A (GED) : A (ABD) = 1 : 9) (5 marks) Construction : Draw seg AG and let it intersect side BC at point D. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 39 ..(vi) [By Invertendo] [From (v) and (vi)] A (PQA) 1 A (PBC) = 25 A (PQA) 1 A (PBC) = 25 A (PBC) 25 A (PQA) = 1 A (PBC) – A (PQA) 25 – 1 = A (PQA) 1 A (QBCA) 24 = A (PQA) 1  A (PQA) : A (PBC) = 1 : 25 (iii)     [By Invertendo] [By Dividendo] [Area addition property] [By invertendo] A (PQA) 1 A (QBCA) = 24  A (PQA) : A (QBCA) = 1 : 24 CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE : A     In ABC. GEOMETRY    PA 1 = PC 5 2 A (PQA)  1 A (PBC) =   5  .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO...

.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD..(iv)  A (GED) 1 A (ΑΒD) = 9 Similarly we can get..... In GED and ABD GED  ABD GDE  ADB  GED  ABD A (GED) GD2  A (ABD) = AD2 2 A (GED)  GD   A (ABD) =    AD  1 AD But. GEF  ABC GFE  ACB GEF  ABC A (GEF) GE2 = A (ABC) AB2 2 A (GEF)  GE   A (ABC) =   AB  [Given] ...F .C] [From (ii) and E ..C] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..(i) [Converse of corresponding angles test] [Given] [Converse of corresponding angles test] [From (i) and E .(iii)  .F .(ii)    In GED and ABD.D .....C] [By AA test of similarity] [Areas of similar triangles] .(ii) [ Centriod of a triangle trisec ts each median] . GEC  ABC seg GF ll side AC On transversal BC.(iii) [From (ii) and (iii)] .... GED  ABD  GDE  ADB  GED  ABD 40 [From (i) and E ... A (GFD) 1 A (ΑCD) = 9     . GFB  ACB In GEF and ABC. GD = 3 GD 1  = AD 3 2 A (GED)  1 A (ΑΒD) =   3  [From (i)] [Common angle] [By AA test of similarity] [Areas of similar triangles] .......(v) [From (iv) and (v)] [Theorem on equal ratio] [Area addition property] A (GED) A (GFD) 1 = = A (ΑΒD) A (ΑCD) 9 A (GED)  A (GFD) 1 A (ΑΒD) + A (ΑCD) = 9 A (GEF) 1 A (ΑBC) = 9 = 1:9  A (GEF) : A (ABC) ALTERNATIVE METHOD :  seg GE ll side AB On transversal BC........

. In ABC.. if the perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse. then the triangles on either side of the perpendicular are similar to the original triangle and to each other.s.] [ Centriod of a triangle trisec ts each median ] . CD (3 marks) (iii)AC2 = BC . 30) ABD is a triangle in which A = 90º and seg AC  hypotenuse BD.Show that : (i) AB2 = BC .. P In PQR.... the length of perpendicular segment drawn on to the hypotenuse from the opposite vertex.s. GEOMETRY  GE GD = AB AD 1 AD But. is the geometric mean of the length of the segments into which the hypotenuse is divided. CD Proof :(i) In ABD.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. S C H O O L S E C TI O N A B C D 41 .t.(vi) [From (iv) and (v)] [From (iii) and (vi)]    A (GEF) 1 = A (ΑΒC) 9  A (GEF) : A (ABC) = 1 : 9 SIMILARITY IN RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLES In a right angled triangle.... [Given] m BAD = 90º 2. BD (ii) AD2 = BD .. MT EDUCARE LTD.. m PQR = 90º S seg QS  hypotenuse PR  QS² = PS × RS Q R EXERCISE 1..(v) . m ABC = 90º seg BD  hypotenuse AC  ABC ~ ADB ~ BDC B C A D PROPERTY OF GEOMETRIC MEAN In a right angled triangle..(iv) [c.. GD = 3 GD 1 = AD 3 GE 1 = AB 3 2 A (GEF) 1 =   A (ΑΒC) 3 .

6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 36) 2. In BDC. ABCD is a square [Given] Let the sides of the square be x cm In ABC. m PSQ = 90º  PQ 2 = PS2 + QS2  6 2 = 42 + y2  36 = 16 + y2  y2 = 36 – 16  y2 = 20  y = 45  y = 2 5 In PQR.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. Find the side of square whose diagonal is 16 2 cm . Given : ABCD is a square. A AC = 16 2 cm To find : Side of a square x Sol. m QSR = 90º  QR 2 = QS2 + SR2  z 2 = y2 + x 2      z2 = ( 2 5 )2 + (5)2 z2 = 20 + 25 z2 = 45 z = 9×5 6 [Taking square roots] [Given] [Given] [By property of geometric mean] [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] [Taking square roots] z = 3 5 EXERCISE 1. m PQR = 90º seg QS  hypotenuse PR  QS 2 = PS × SR  y2 = 4 × x  ( 2 5 )2 = 4 × x  20 = 4 × x 20  x = 4  x = 5 In QSR. m BDC = 90º  BC2 = BD2 + CD2  z 2 = y2 + 52      z2 = (2 5 )2 + 52 z2 = 20 + 25 z2 = 45 z = 9×5 [By Pythagoras theorem] [Taking square roots] z = 3 5 [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] P 4 S y Q z X R (ii) In PSQ. B m ABC = 90º [Angle of a square] 44 x (2 marks) D 16 2 cm  x x C S C H O O L S E C TI O N .

6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. To prove : AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + AD2 = AC2 + BD2 B Proof : ABCD is a rhombus [Given]  AB = BC = CD = AD . B C 7 cm m ABC = 90º [Given]  AC2 = AB2 + BC2 [By Pythagoras theorem] 2 2 2  AC = (7) + (7)  AC2 = 49 + 49  AC2 = 98  AC = 49  2 [Taking square roots]  AC = 7 2 cm Perimeter of  ABC = AB + BC + AC  = 7 7  7 2 = 14  7 2  Perimeter of  ABC = 7 2   2 cm  EXERCISE 1. Prove that the sum of the squares of the sides of a rhombus is equal to the sum of the squares of its diagonals. Find the perimeter of an isosceles right triangle with each of its (2 marks) congruent sides is 7 cm.... In ABC. MT EDUCARE LTD.(ii) AO =  C 1 AC 2 .5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..... 30) 4. A Given : In ABC.(i) [Sides of a rhombus]  m AOB = 90º . m AOB = 90º  AB2 = AO2 + BO2 S C H O O L S E C TI O N [From (ii)] [By Pythagoras theorem] 45 . 36) 4. GEOMETRY   16 2 = x2 + x2  256 × 2 = 2x2 256  2  x2 = 2  x2 = 256  x = 16  AC 2  = AB2 + BC2 [By Pythagoras theorem] 2 [Taking square roots]  The side of a square is 16 cm.. m ABC = 90º 7 cm AB = BC = 7 cm To find : Perimeter of  ABC Sol... (4 marks) A D Given : (i) ABCD is a rhombus (ii) Diagonals AC and BD O intersect each other at point O...(iv) [Diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular bisectors of each other] 1 BO = BD 2 In AOB... EXERCISE 1.(iii) .

m AMB = 90º [Given] 2 2 2  AB = AM + BM [By Pythagoras theorem]  AB2 = AM2 + (BD – DM)2  AB2 = AM2 + BD2 – 2BD × DM + DM2  AB2 = AM2 + DM2 – 2BD × DM + BD2 2 [ From (i) and D is the midpo int  BC   AB2 = AD2 – BC × DM +   of side BC ]  2  EXERCISE 1..... GEOMETRY     In AEB and AEC.C] EXERCISE 1.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. m AEB = m AEC = 90º hypotenuse AB  hypotenuse AC seg AE  seg AE AEB  AEC seg BE  seg CE . CA = b.c... Let BC = a. AB = c and let ‘p’ be the length of the perpendicular from C on AB. Prove that (i) cp = ab..C] 2 2 2  AC = AM + DM + 2DM × DC + DC2  AC2 = AM2 + DM2 + 2DC × DM + DC2 2 [ From (i) and D is the midpo int  BC  2 2  AC = AD + BC × DM +   of side BC ]  2  5.t.(i) [By Pythagoras theorem] In AMC. m AMD = 90º AD2 = AM2 + DM2 . and AM  BC. 41) A Seg AD is the median of ABC.] [From (iii) and (iv)] [ D ...s.(iv) AB2 – AD2 = (CE + DE) × BD AB2 – AD2 = CD × BD [Given] [Given] [Common side] [By hypotenuse side theorem] [c.E .7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. ABC is a triangle where C = 90º. Prove that : 2  BC  (i) AC2 = AD2 + BC × DM +   2   2 BC   (ii) AB2 = AD2 – BC × DM +  (4 marks) C  2   B M D Proof :(i) In AMD.. MT EDUCARE LTD.(i) A  D p C a B c b  S C H O O L S E C TI O N A (ABC) = 47 .. (ii) In AMB. (ii) Proof : 1 1 1 = 2 + 2 2 p a b (5 marks) Area of a triangle = A (ABC) = 1 × base × height 2 1 × AB × CD 2 1 ×c×p 2 ... m AMC = 90º [Given] 2 2 2  AC = AM + MC [By Pythagoras theorem]  AC2 = AM2 + (DM + DC)2 [ M . 30) 6.D .

.. Find the radius of the circle. Draw seg OA. 1 1 ×c×p = ×a×b 2 2 cp = ab = ab  (ii) cp 1 1  cp = ab 1 1  2 2 = 2 2 c p a b  [By Invertendo] [Squaring both sides] .. seg OL..... seg OB.. The lengths of the sides containing the right angle are 6 cm M 6 cm and 8 cm. 190) C ABC is a right angled triangle with A = 90º....(ii) 1 ×a×b 2 From (i) and (ii) we get. Also..1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(iii) [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] ..  1 × BC × AC 2 .. 8 cm Sol... BC and AC N O touch the circle at points L. 48 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . m ACB = 90º  AB 2 = AC2 + BC2  c 2 = b2 + a2 1 b2  a 2  p2 = a 2 b2   1 b2 a2  p2 = a 2 b 2 a 2 b2 1 1 1 + 2 2 = 2 p a b PROBLEM SET . M and N respectively.... A circle is inscribed in it..(i) [Taking square roots] Let the radius of the circle be r OL = OM = ON = r . A B L seg OC...(iv) [From (iii) and (iv)] 1 c2 = 2 p a 2 b2 In ACB.. In ABC.. seg OM and ON. (4 marks) Construction : Let the sides AB.GEOMETRY  MT A (ABC) = A (ABC) = EDUCARE LTD. m BAC = 90º [Given]  BC2 = AC2 + AB2 [By Pythagoras theorem]  BC2 = 62 + 82  BC 2 = 36 + 64  BC 2 = 100  BC = 10 cm ..(ii) [Radii of the same circle] seg OL  side AB seg OM  side BC [Radius is perpendicular to the tangent] seg ON  side AC 12.

a.(v) [Given]  PR² = AC² [From (iv) and (v)]  PR = AC .(v) A (AOC) = 3r Area of a triangle = Adding (iii)..(iv) . A (BOC) = 5r ....... then the angle opposite to the first side (4 marks) is a right angle and the triangle is right angled triangle.t]  m ABC = m PQR = 90º [From (iii)]  m ABC = 90º S C H O O L S E C TI O N 49 ....... (iv) and (v)] = 12r [Area addition property) = 12r = 12r = 12r = 2  The radius of the circle is 2 cm.....(vi) [Taking square roots] In ABC and PQR.. MT EDUCARE LTD. (iv) and (v). AC² = AB² + BC² ..... [From (ii)] side AB  side PQ [From (i)] side BC  side QR [From (vi)] side AC  side PR  ABC  PQR [SSS test of congruence]  ABC  PQR [c.. GEOMETRY 1 × base × height 2 1  A (AOB) = × AB × OL 2 1  A (AOB) = ×8×r ... ..(iii) 2  A (AOB) = 4r Similarly..(iv) [From (i) and (ii)] But.... CONVERSE OF THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS Statement : In a triangle.. QR = BC and R C Q B m PQR = 90º Proof : QR = BC ..(i) [Construction] PQ = AB . P A Given : In ABC.(ii) In PQR....(iii) [Construction] m PQR = 900  PR² = PQ² + QR² [By Pythagoras theorem]  PR² = AB² + BC² .c..... A (AOB) + A (BOC) + A (AOC) A (ABC) 1 × AB × AC 2 1 ×8×6 2 24 r [From (ii)]      = 4r + 5r + 3r [From (iii).... if the square of one side is equal to the sum of the squares of the remaining two sides.. AC² = AB² + BC² To Prove : m ABC = 90º Construction : Draw PQR such that PQ = AB....

... 40..GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE 1.(ii) 2 2 2  (41) = (9) + (40) [From (i) and (ii)]  The given sides form a right angled triangle. 35.........(i) (11)2 + (60)2 = 121 + 3600 = 3721 .(i) (11)2 + (12)2 = 121 + 144 = 265 . Determine which of them are right (2 marks) angled triangles. 8. (i) Sol.(i) 2 2 (8) + (15) = 64 + 225 = 289 ....(ii)  (17)2 = (8)2 + (15)2 [From (i) and (ii)]  The given sides form a right angled triangle. 12... (iii) Sol...... 37 (37)2 = 1369 .. 20. Sides of triangles are given below. [From (i) and (ii)] [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] (iv) Sol..... [From (i) and (ii)] [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] (vi) Sol. (ii) Sol. 12.. 30 (40)2 = 1600 .(ii) 2 2 2  (40)  (20) + (30)  The given sides do not form a right angled triangle.(ii)  (61)2 = (11)2 + (60)2 [From (i) and (ii)]  The given sides form a right angled triangle.. (v) Sol...... 61 (61)2 = 3721 ....5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(i) (20)2 + (30)2 = 400 + 900 = 1300 ...(ii)  (37)2 = (12)2 + (35)2 [From (i) and (ii)]  The given sides form a right angled triangle.... 17 (17)2 = 289 . 1. 15.... 11. [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] 11...... [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] 9..... [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 50 . 60. 41 (41)2 = 1681 . 30) EDUCARE LTD... 15 (15)2 = 225 .(i) (12)2 + (35)2 = 144 + 1225 = 1369 .(i) 2 2 (9) + (40) = 81 + 1600 = 1681 ....(ii)  (15)2  (11)2 + (12)2  The given sides do not form a right angled triangle.. [By Converse of Pythagoras theorem] 40.

then the side opposite to 300 is half of the hypotenuse and the side opposite to 600 is A 3 times the hypotenuse.(i) [Given] C B In ADB.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 2 45 0 C B EXERCISE 1. GEOMETRY THEOREM OF 300 .. m A = 30º.90º triangle theorem. 30 0 2 In ABC. 2 2 B 60 0 C THEOREM OF 450 . A m A = 45º 45 0 m C = 45º m B = 90º 1  AB = BC = AC. MT EDUCARE LTD.45º .90º then the length of the 1 perpendicular sides are times the hypotenuse. A Given : ABC is an equilateral triangle. m C = 60º and m B = 90º  BC = 1 3 AC and AB = AC. AD =  AD =  AD = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 3 × AB 2 3 ×a 2 [Side opposite to 60º] [From (i)] 3 a units.60º . D a [Given] m ADB = 90º [Angle of an equilateral triangle] m ABD = 60º  m BAD = 30º [Remaining angle]  ADB is a 30º . each side measuring (3 marks) ‘a’ units.. Find the length of the altitude of an equilateral triangle. AB = BC = AC = a seg AD  side BC a a To find : AD Sol.. ABC is an equilateral triangle AB = BC = AC = a . 2 In ABC. 2 51 .60° .90º triangle  By 30º .900 TRIANGLE If the angles of a triangle are 45º .450 . 36) 1.900 TRIANGLE If the angles of a triangle are 300..600 .. 600 and 900.

T seg BA  ray QP and B seg BC  ray QR.Q and Q .. (ii).. PQR = 60º and A ray QT bisects PQR.(iii) In BAQ. Sol.(ii) m PQR = 60º [Given] 1  m PQT = m RQT = × 60º [ Ray QT bisects QR] 2  m PQT = m RQT = 30º .. BC = 8 units ..(iv) Similarly.60º .90º triangle theorem 1  AB = BQ [Side opposite to 30º] 2 1  8 = BQ [From (ii)] 2  BQ = 16 units AQ =  AQ = 3 × BQ 2 [Side opposite to 60º] 3 × 16 2  AQ = 8 3 units ....T]  m ABQ = 60º [Remaining angle]  BAQ is a 30º . Q (4 marks) R C Ray QT is the angle bisector of PQR [Given] B lies on ray QT seg BA  ray QP [Given] seg BC  ray QR  BA = BC [Angle bisector theorem] But. 5....(v)  Perimeter of  ABCQ = AB + BC + QC + AQ = 888 3 8 3 [From (i). m BAQ = 90º [Given] m AQB = 30º [From (iii). (4 marks) Sol.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. 36) EDUCARE LTD.. MN and the perimeter of MNKL... KN..A .... m MLK = 90º [Given] M 45º N L 30º 6 3 K S C H O O L S E C TI O N . In the adjoining figure. QC = 8 3 cm ..(i) [Given]  BA = 8 units .B .. 37) 6.60º .. P In the adjoining figure.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. ML. if LK = 6 3 find MK. (iv) and (v)] = 16  16 3  Perimeter of  ABCQ = 16 1   3  units EXERCISE 1..GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE 1.... 52 In MLK.90º triangle  By 30º . P .. If BC = 8 find the perimeter of ABCQ.

90º triangle theorem.. Find VR.45º . m QSR = 90º m SQR = 45º  m QRS = 45º  QSR is a 45º ...45º ..45º ...60º .. 1 MK = KN = × MN ...(v) [From (i) and (iii)] Perimeter of  MNKL = MN + KN + KL +ML = 12 2  12  6 3  6 [From (ii).. [Given] m MKN = 90º m MNK = 45º [Given] m NMK = 45º [Remaining angle] MKN is a 45º . PQRV is a trapezium in which seg PQ || seg VR.. LK  = 3 MK 2 [Side opposite to 60º] [Given] 6 3 = =  MK  MK 3 × MK 2 6 3 2         3 = 12 units ...  QS = SR P 60º 6 Q 45º Sol..6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (iv) and (v) and given] = 18  12 2  6 3 = 6 32 2   Perimeter of  MNKL  3  units EXERCISE 1.90º triangle. (4 marks) V In QSR.45º ..(ii) In MKN.. T S 4 R [Given] [Given] [Remaining angle] [Congruent sides of 45º .90º triangle By 45º .(iii) 2 1 × MN [From (iii)] MK = 2 1 12 = × MN 2 MN = 12 2 units .(i) 1 ML = × MK [Side opposite to 30º] 2 1 ML = × 12 2 ML = 6 units . In the adjoining figure.. GEOMETRY m MKL = 30º [Given]  m LMK = 60º [Remaining angle]  MLK is a 30º ... 37) 7..60º .  By 30º .(iv) KN = 12 units .90º triangle.90º triangle] 53 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ... MT EDUCARE LTD.90º triangle theorem.. SR = 4 and PQ = 6..

60º . SR = 4 units  QS = 4 units In PQTS.(vi) [V .(v) VT = 3 PV 2 [Side opposite to 60º] [From (v)] .GEOMETRY  MT . AD =  2AD = 3 AB 2 [Side opposite to 60º] 3 AB  4AD2 = 3AB2  3AB2 = 4AD2 54 [Squaring both sides] S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..(ii) [Given] EDUCARE LTD.60º .90º triangle theorem....T .90º triangle..60º .60º .(iv) [Opposite sides of a rectangle and from (ii) and given]      In PTV. m PTV = 90º [Given] [Given] m VPT = 60º m PVT = 30º [Remaining angle] PTV is a 30º ...(i) .. To prove : 3AB2 = 4AD2 Proof : ABC is an equilateral triangle In ADB.S .... But.90º triangle theorem...5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (iii) and (vi)] 3 ×8 2  VT = 4 3 units VR = VT + TS + SR  VT =  VR = 4 3  6  4  VR = 4 3  10  VR = 2 2 3  5 units   EXERCISE 1..R] [From (i).T . 30) 7.. 1 × PV [Side opposite to 30º] PT = 2 1 4 = × PV [From (iv)] 2 PV = 8 units ..S .. By 30º ... m ADB = 90º m ABD = 60º [Given] [Given] [Angle of an B equilateral triangle] [Remaining angle] D C  m BAD = 30º  ADB is a 30º ..90º triangle  By 30º ... Prove that three times the square of any side of an equilateral triangle A (3 marks) is equal to four times the square of an altitude...R] [Given] ..(iii) .. seg PQ || seg TS m T = m S = 90º  PQTS is a rectangle  PQ = TS = 6 units QS = PT = 4 units [Given and V .

.. if the length of one side is 3 AC 2  m A = 60º BC = B 5 3 C EXERCISE 1..60º . In ABC. A In ABC. then the measure of the angle opposite to the side is 60º..90º TRIANGLE THEOREM 3 time 2 the hypotenuse.  By Appollonius theorem. [From (iii)] m B = 90º m C = 30º [From (iv)]  m A = 60º [Remaining angle]  ABC is a 30º . GEOMETRY CONVERSE OF 30º .. 36) 3....(i)        AB2 + BC2 = (18)2 + 18 = 324 + 972 AB2 + BC2 = 1296 AC 2 = AB2 + BC2 ABC is a right angled triangle at point B 1 1 × AC = × 36 2 2 1 × AC = 18 2 1 × AC = AB 2 m C = 30º  3  2 B .90º triangle.60º .90º triangle.(iv) [By converse of 30º . seg AD is a median.. Let us study how to make use of Appollonius theorem in the given figure.. 18 3 cm and 36 cm. 36 cm Proof : AC2 = (36)2 2  AC = 1296 . If the sides of a triangle measure 18 cm.. A m ABC = 90º [Given] 1 AB = AC 10 5 2  m C = 30º Statement : In a right angled triangle. show that it is a 30º .60º . AB = 18 cm... AB² + AC² = 2AD² + 2BD² or C B D AB² + AC² = 2ADB + 2DC² S C H O O L S E C TI O N 55 ...(ii) . MT EDUCARE LTD.(iii) 18 3 cm C [From (i) and (ii)] [Converse of Pythagoras theorem] [ AC = 36] [ AB = 18] . 18 cm AC = 36 cm..90º triangle theorem] In ABC. APPOLLONIUS THEOREM Appollonius theorem is a theorem relating the length of a median of a triangle to the lengths of its sides. BC = 18 3 cm To prove : ABC is a 30º .6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..60º . (3 marks) A Given : In ABC.90º triangle.60º ...

P seg PM is the median [Given]  PQ2 + PR2 = 2PM2 + 2QM2 [By Appollonius theorem] 9  290 = 2 (9)2 + 2QM2 [Given]  290 = 2 (81) + 2QM2 R Q  290 = 162 + 2QM2 M  56 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Sol.. If PM = 9 and PQ2 + PR2 = 290.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (2 marks) In PQR. AP is a median.(i) AB2 + AC2 = 2AQ2 + 2BQ2  122 = 2AQ2 + 2 (5)2  122 = 2AQ2 + 2 (25)  122 = 2AQ2 + 50  2AQ2 = 122 – 50  2AQ2 = 72  AQ2 = 36  AQ = 6 units A Sol. In the adjoining figure. 190) 13. Sol. AB2 + AC2 = 260 then find BC. [Given] B Q C [Given] [By Appollonius theorem] [From (i) and given] [Taking square roots] PROBLEM SET . seg AQ is the median 1  BQ = QC = × BC 2 1  BQ = QC = × 10 2  BQ = QC = 5 units . In PQR. In ABC.GEOMETRY A  MT EXERCISE 1. In ABC.. 40) EDUCARE LTD.. seg PM is the median. seg AP is the median  AB2 + AC2 = 2AP2 + 2BP2  260 = 2 (7)2 + 2BP2  260 = 2 (49) + 2BP2  260 = 98 + 2BP2  260 – 98 = 2BP2  2BP2 = 162 162  BP 2 = 2  BP 2 = 81  BP = 9 units 1 BP = BC 2 1  9 = BC 2  BC = 18 units [Given] B P [By Appollonius theorem] [Given] C [Taking square roots] [ P is the midpoint of seg BC] EXERCISE 1. Find the length of the median (2 marks) on side BC. 41) 2. AB2 + AC2 = 122.7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. BC = 10. If AP = 7.7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Find QR. 1.. (2 marks) In ABC..

PN = ...... (3 marks) P Proof : a         MQ = QR = a [Given] Q is the midpoint of seg MR .. 190) 14.. Adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 11 cm and 17 cm. From the information given in the figure show that PM = PN = 3 a . ABCD is a parallelogram 1 OB = OD = × BD .....1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO...(ii) [Taking square roots] 3a Similarly we can prove. Find the length of the other.7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. If the length of one of its diagonals is 26 cm.(i) M S a Q a R In PMR....(i) 2   [Given] [ Diagonals of paralle log ram bisec t each other] [Given] 1 × 26 2 OB = OD = 13 cm OB = OD = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 57 .(iii) 3a PM = PN = a N  3a [From (ii) and (iii)] EXERCISE 1.. (3 marks) A 11 cm B 17 cm D  O C Sol. a seg PQ is the median [From (i) and by definition] 2 2 2 2 PM + PR = 2PQ + 2MQ [By Appollonius theorem] PM2 + a2 = 2 (a)2 + 2 (a)2 PM2 + a2 = 2a2 + 2a2 PM2 + a2 = 4a2 PM2 = 4a2 – a2 PM2 = 3a2 PM = . MT EDUCARE LTD.. GEOMETRY  290 – 162 = 2QM2  128 = 2QM2 128  QM2 = 2  QM2 = 64  QM = 8 units 1  QM = QR 2 1  8 = QR 2  8 × 2 = QR  QR = 16 units [Taking square roots] [ M is midpoint of side QR] PROBLEM SET ... 41) 3..

seg PT is the median Q [Given] T R  PQ2 + PR2 = 2PT2 + 2QT2 .. EXERCISE 1.. (3 marks) Prove that PR2 = 4PT2 – 3PQ2...7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO...(i) In PQT. T is the mid point of the side QR.. 41) 6.         In ADB.(ii) PR 2 = PQ2 + 4 (PT2 – PQ2) PR 2 = PQ2 + 4PT2 – 4PQ2 PR 2 = 4PT2 – 3PQ2 ALTERNATIVE METHOD : [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] [ T is the midpoint of side QR] [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] [From (i) and (ii)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N ....(ii) [From (i) and (ii)] 2PT2 + 2 (PT2 – PQ2) 2PT2 + 2PT2 – 2PQ2 4PT2 – 2PQ2 – PQ2 4PT2 – 3PQ2         58 In PQR.. PQR = 90º. In the adjoining figure.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. seg AO is the median AB2 + AD2 = 2AO2 + 2OB2 (11)2 + (17)2= 2AO2 + 2 (13)2 121 + 289 = 2AO2 + 2 (169) 410 = 2AO2 + 338 410 – 338 = 2AO2 72 = 2AO2 AO2 = 36 AO = 6 cm 1 AO = × AC 2 [From (i) and by definition] [By Appollonius theorem] [Taking square roots] [ Diagonals of paralle log ram bisec t each other]   1 × AC 2 AC = 12 cm 6 =  Length of other diagonal is 12 cm.... m PQR = 90º PR 2 = PQ2 + QR2 PR 2 = PQ2 + (2QT)2 PR 2 = PQ2 + 4QT2 .... m PQT = 90º PT2 = PQ2 + QT2 QT2 = PT2 – PQ2 . P Proof : In PQR.(i) In PQT. m PQT = 90º  PT2 = PQ2 + QT2  QT2 = PT2 – PQ2  PQ2 + PR2 =  PQ2 + PR2 =  PR 2 =  PR 2 = [By Appollonius theorem] [Given] [By Pythagoras theorem] .

.(ii) A (ABC) = AC Multiplying (i) and (ii). GEOMETRY HOTS PROBLEM (Problems for developing Higher Order Thinking Skill) 1....Q ..Q ..... side BC || side AD... AQ = AC 3  3AQ = AC  3AQ = AQ + QC  3AQ – AQ = QC  2AQ = QC AQ 1  = . AQD  CQB ADQ  CBQ  AQD ~ CQB AQ DQ  = .(ii) QC BQ 1 But..t.(i) [Triangles having equal heights] A (ABQ) = AB ABQ and ABC have a common vertex B and their bases AQ and AC lie on the same line AC Their heights are equal A (ABQ) AQ .. If AQ = AC then 3 1 show that DQ = BQ. In ABCD... (5 marks) 2 Proof : side AD || side BC  On transversal BD ADB  CBD  ADQ  CBQ ..D] [Vertically opposite angles] [From (i)] [By A-A test of similarity] [c.(iii) QC 2 DQ 1  = BQ 2 1  DQ = BQ 2 2.    A (APQ) AP ......s. MT EDUCARE LTD. side AC and side BD intersect in 1 point Q..] [Given] [ A ..C] [From (ii) and (iii)] A Q P B C A (APQ) AP × AQ = A (ABC) AB × AC (2 marks) Construction : Draw seg BQ Proof : APQ and ABQ have a common vertex Q and their bases AP and AB lie on the same line AB.. A line cuts two sides AB and side AC of ABC in points P and Q respectively then show that A Q B C D [Given] [Converse of alternate angles test] [ B . [Triangles having equal heights] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 59 .(i) In AQD and CQB.....s.......

D .. Prove that 9AD2 = 7AB2.(i) [Sides of an equilateral triangle] In AED...C.... m AED = 90º [Construction]  AD² = AE² + DE² . GEOMETRY  AB × DE .E] [From (iv) and Given] [From (i)]           DE = DE = 1 1 AB – BC 2 3 1 1 AB – AB 2 3 3AB  2AB DE = 6 1 DE = AB ... (Hint : Draw AE  BC) (2 marks) Construction :Draw seg AE  side BC.60º .... [Given]  AB = BC = AC . AB × DE DB CD2 × AC = AD × AB × DE A In an equilateral triangle ABC....(ii) DB Multiplying (i) and (ii).. m AEB = 90º [Construction] m ABE = 60º [Angle of an equilateral triangle]  m BAE = 30º [Remaining angle]  AEB is a 30º .. (iii) and (v)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 61 ..E . such that B ....(ii) [By Pythagoras Theorem] In AEB..60º .(iii) ...(iv) [Side opposite to 60º] [Side opposite to 30º] [ B .(v) 6 2 2  3  1   AB  +  AB  AD² =  6   2  3 1 AD² = AB² + AB² 4 36 27 AB² + AB² AD² = 36 28AB² AD² = 36 7 AD² = AB² 9 9AD² = 7AB² [From (ii).  By 30º ..D .90º triangle theorem. AC = CD2 × AC = AD × DB ×  5.... AE = 3 AB 2 1 BE = AB 2 DE = BE – BD ..90º triangle. B D E C Proof : ABC is an equilateral triangle..... MT EDUCARE LTD.. the side BC is trisected at D.

.    PR = 4a 2  b2 b2 4a 2  b4 b2 b4  4a 2 b 2a PR = PR = .(i) [ M is midpoint of side AC] [By Appollonius theorem] [ M is midpoint of side AC] [By Appollonius theorem] ..GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.(iii)   15.... seg MN is the median [ N is the midpoint of side BD] 2 2 2 2 BM + DM = 2MN + 2BN [By Appollonius theorem] 2 2 2 2 2BM + 2DM = 4MN + 4BN [Multiplying throughout by 2] AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = 2BM2 + 2DM2 + 4 × 2BM + 2DM = 4MN 2 2 2 2BM2 + 2DM2 = 4MN2 2BM2 + 2DM2 = 4MN2 AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC2 + 1  + 4×  BD  [ N is the midpoint of side BD] 2  1 + 4 × BD2 4 + BD2 ...(iii) In BMD. AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = 2BM2 + 2CM2 + 2DM2 + 2CM2 AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = 2BM2 + 2DM2 + 4CM2 1  AB + BC + CD + DA = 2BM + 2DM + 4  AC  2  [ M is the midpoint of seg AC] 2 2 2 2 2 2 2         64 1 AC2 4 AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = 2BM2 + 2DM2 + AC2 ..(iv) 2 2 BD + 4MN [From (iii) and (iv)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 2 ...... b [From (ii) and (iii)] b4 + 4a2 ABCD is an quadrilateral M is the midpoint of diagonal AC and N is the midpoint of diagonal BD... Proof : N M  C   In ABC... seg BM is the median AB2 + BC2 = 2BM2 + 2CM2 In ADC..... QN = QN = b4  4a 2 b 2a ... Prove that : AB2 + BC2 + CD2 + DA2 = AC2 + BD2 + D A 4MN 2. seg DM is the median CD2 + DA2 = 2DM2 + 2CM2 B ..(ii)   Adding (i) and (ii)..

S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..5 cm.t.B] [Vertically oppsoite angles] [By AA test of similarity] [c. MT 17.E] [Converse of alternate angles test] [Given] [Vertically opposite angles] [From (ii) and A .L . 3.] [Opposite sides of a parallelogram] [From (iii) and (iv)] [From (i) and E .. EDUCARE LTD...D .. B . In ABC.c.(v) EL ED  DA = BL BC EL BC  BC = BL BC EL 2BC = BL BC EL 2 = BL 1 EL = 2BL MCQ’s 1. What is the ratio of their area ? (a) 2 : 3 (b) 4 : 9 (c) 81 : 16 (d) 16 : 81 The areas of two similar triangles are 18 cm 2 and 32 cm 2 respectively... AEB  CBE ..A] [From (v)]         EL EA = .. AEL  CBL ALE  CLB ELA ~ BLC B [From (i) and E . AD = BC . side DM  side CM DME  CMB DEM  CBM DME  CMB DE = BC ..(i) BL BC ABCD is a parallelogram seg AD || seg BC seg AE || seg BC On transversal BE. Prove that EL = 2BL.(iii) But. GEOMETRY Through the midpoint M of the side CD of parallelogram ABCD.5 cm (c) 15 cm (d) 7. What is the ratio of their corresponding sides ? (a) 3 : 4 (b) 4 : 3 (c) 9 : 16 (d) 16 : 9 65 2.E] [By SAA test of congruence] [c... DEF ~ ABC.E. A L D E M C Proof :     In ELA and BLC.D .] [Given] [By definition] [ A ..s.s.5 cm The sides of two similar triangles are 4 : 9.. What is the perimeter of DEF ? (a) 30 cm (b) 22. AB = 3 cm.(iv) DE = BC = AD ...t.. EF = 4 cm. the line BM is drawn intersecting AC in L and AD produced in E.. BC = 2 cm and AC = 2.(ii) In DME and CMB.M ...s.D .

5 cm In XYZ. What is the length of side NQ ? (a) 6 cm (b) 13.8 cm (b) (d) 20. 13. Q = 90º. ABC is enlarged to PQR such that the largest side is 12. 9. What is the length of side PR ? (a) 8 cm (b) 10 cm (c) 4.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. AB = 10 cm.5 cm (b) 9 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 10 cm In  ABC. 10. Q = 83º.2 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 12. XP 4 = and XQ = 4. then which of the relation is true ? (a) XM = MZ (b) XM  MZ (c) XM > MZ (d) None ABC is an equialteral triangle. What is the type of ABC ? (a) Scalene (b) Isosceles (c) Right angled (d) Equilateral ABC ~ PQR. What is the ratio of A (ABC) to A (ACD) ? (a) 2 : 3 (b) 5 : 2 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 5 : 3 In MNP. 14. 4. AB = 6 cm.P .4 cm 10.8 cm.5 cm (d) 7. What is the length of the median on the longest side ? (a) 12 cm (b) 16 cm (c) 18 cm (d) 20 cm In PQR.5 cm (d) 18 cm In XYZ. A = 47º.5 cm (c) 19. seg NQ  side MP.D . If MQ = 12 cm and PQ = 27 cm. BC = 8 cm.Y and X .Z. DC = 4 cm.Z. PQ || YZ. seg AD  side BC which of the following relations is true ? (a) 2AB2 = 3AD2 (b) 3AB2 = 2AD2 (c) 3AB2 = 4AD2 (d) 4AB2 = 3AD2 In ABC. 7. B . What is the measure of C ? (a) 50º (b) 55º (c) 60º (d) 65º The sides of a triangle are 24 cm. ABC ~ PQR. CA = 10 cm and QR = 6 cm.Q . P = 60º.M . Find PQ ? (a) 12 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 18 cm (d) 5. 6. ray YM is the bisector of XYZ where XY = YZ and X . 32 cm and 40 cm. What is the length of the smallest side of PQR ? (a) 7. N = 90º. X . BC = 8 cm and AC = 6 cm. AB = 6 cm.5 cm. 8. BC = 8 cm and AC = 10 cm. If What is XZ ? (a) 15. 18 3 cm 11. PY 13 66 . PR = 36 cm.6 cm (c) 7. In ABC.C and BD = 6 cm.

then PS2 is . .. 18..5 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) 4..5 In ABC.. (a) 35 m (b) 5 m (c) 25 m (d) 15 m In ABC.... .. A (APC) : A (ABC) = . A 16. SQ = 6.. DC = 2 cm. (a) 3 (c) 12 25.. BC = 8. PR = 20 then QR = . .. MT 15.... (a) 10 (b) 15 (c) 30 (d) 40 A man goes 15 m due east and then 20 m due north. P is a point on side BC such that BP = 4 cm and PC = 7 cm. .. BP = 6. ..... 15.... (a) 20 (b) 10 (c) 5 (d) 16 In the adjoining figure. Y = 90º.. AP = 3... Z = aº.. 21..... His distance from the starting point will be . 3 SR2 (b) 2SR2 (a) 2 (c) 3SR2 (d) 4SR2 In ABC.. (a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 90 67 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 23... . seg RS is the bisector.. .. 30.......... 40... 17. EDUCARE LTD........... (b) (d) 6 B 36 Q C In XYZ.. 15 (c) 9.. BC = 10 then the length of AQ is .. (a) 20.... perpendicular AD from A meets BC at D.. . AB2 + AC2 = 122. line PQ || side BC. of PRQ. 20... If BD = 8 cm. 22... ..... 12.. C = 90......... (a) ABC is isosceles (b) AC = 2AB (c) ABC is equilateral (d) ABC is right angled If PQR is an equilateral triangle such that PS  QR........ 17 In PQR. 24...... (a) 3. AD = 4 cm then ... PS = 8....... AC = 6. then median CD = .... 41 (d) 10... GEOMETRY In ABC.. ............ (a) 11 : 7 (b) 7 : 11 (c) 4 : 7 (d) 7 : 4 The length of the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side is 6 cm is ... 40 (b) 11.... (a) (b) 5 3 3 (c) 2 3 (d) 3 3 Among the following group which of them form the sides of a right angled triangle.... 19.......... X = a + 30º then the value of ‘a’ is .. AQ = 5 then the value of CQ is .

10. 7.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. state all the corresponding congruent angles. if A (APQ) = . Sol. 11. 6. 41 25 m ABC is right angled 10 30 2. PQ 4 ABC ~ APQ [Given] A (ABC) BC2  A (APQ) = [Areas of similar triangles] PQ2 2 BC 1  = [Given] PQ2 4  BC 1 = PQ 2 [Taking square roots] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 68 .t. 22. 20. 12. ABC ~ PQR [Given]  A  P B  Q [c. Find A (ABD) : A (ADC). find . 18. 25.5 cm 18 cm 7 : 11 9. (c) (a) (a) (c) (d) (a) (d) (b) (c) (c) (d) (b) (a) 15 cm 3:4 XM = MZ Right angled 20 cm 7.] C  R 3.s. 24. Sol. 4. D is a point on side BC such that BD = 6 cm and DC = 4 cm. 40. 9. 19. 16.5 cm 3AB2 = 4AD2 50º 18 cm 5:2 20.a. 15. 3. 17. A ABD and ADC have a common vertex A and their bases BD and DC lie on the same line BC  their heights are equal. Sol. A (ABC) BC 1 ABC ~ APQ. In ABC. 23. [Triangles having A (ABD) BD  A (ADC) = equal heights] DC C B A (ABD) 6 4 6 D  A (ADC) = 4 A (ABD) 3  A (ADC) = 2  2. 13. 14. 21. 8.4 cm 3 3 15 m 5 3SR2 6 1 Mark Sums 1. : ANSWERS : 1. 5. (d) (d) (c) (a) (c) (b) (b) (d) (b) (b) (c) (b) 16 : 81 7. A (ABC) : A (ADC) = 3 : 2 For ABC ~ PQR.

[Pr operty of int ercepts made DQ AP = QC by three parallel lines] PB 15 10  = QC 12 15 5  = QC 6 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 69 .5 cm D 15 Q ? C 6. DQ = 15. PB = 12.5 5  = PQ 8 8  12. find the length of seg PQ. Q NP = 40. 12 Find the value of QC. seg AD || seg PQ || seg BC [Given] B On transversals AB and DC. If MN = 25. MT 4.5  Corresponding height of the smaller triangle is 7. Height of the larger triangle is 9 cm. Then find the corresponding height of the smaller triangle. MQ = 12.5. Let the areas of larger and smaller triangle be A1 and A2 respectively. GEOMETRY Sol. 10 seg AD || seg PQ || seg BC P AP = 10. P N × ray NQ bisects MNP [Given] MQ MN  = [Property of angle bisector of a triangle] PQ NP 12. The ratio of the areas of two triangles with the common base is 6 : 5. Let their respective heights be h1 and h2 A1 6 = and h1 = 9 cm [Given] A2 5 The two triangles have common base [Given] A1 h1  A = h [Triangles having equal bases] 2 2 9 6  = h 5 2 59  h2 = 6 15  h2 = 2  h2 = 7. EDUCARE LTD. × In MNP. Sol.5 25  = PQ 40 12.5  PQ = 5  PQ = 8 × 2. In the adjoining figure. In the adjoining figure. Sol. M ray NQ is the bisector of MNP. A ABCD is a trapezium.5  PQ = 20 units 5.

Sol. then the ratio of corresponding altitudes is equal to the ratio of their corresponding sides. what is the length of PS ? Q In QPR.90º triangle  By 30º .  8. S is the midpoint of side QR. In ABC. What is the length of side AB ? In ABC. m QPR = 90º seg PS is the median on hypotenuse QR 1 PS = QR 2 S [Given] P R  [In a right angled triangle.s.C.60º . the length of the median drawn to the hypotenuse is half of the hypotenuse]   10.] If two triangles are similar. State which ratio of sides are equal to ABC ~ PQR AB BC AC = = PQ QR PR [c. B . 1  10 2 PS = 5 cm PS = In ABC. Sol. m C = 30º and AC = 6 cm.5 cm and AC = 4. PQ ABC ~ PQR. Sol. ray AD bisects BAC [Given] AB BD  = [Property of angle bisector of a triangle] AC DC S C H O O L S E C TI O N 11.D . In PQR.90º triangle theorem.s.60º . m A = 60º. Sol. If QR = 10 cm. 70 .5 cm find BD : DC.t. 6  15 5 QC = 18 units QC = AB .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. m P = 90º.   7. 1  AC [Side opposite to 30º] AB = 2 1 6  AB = 2  AB = 3 cm In ABC. ray AD is the bisector of BAC. Sol. 9. m A = 60º [Given] m C = 30º  m B = 90º [Remaining angle]  ABC is a 30º . If AB = 7. then what is relation between their sides and corresponding altitudes ? If two triangles are similar.

60º .5 BD = 4. MT EDUCARE LTD. what is the length of YZ ? In XYZ.5 DC BD 75 = DC 45 BD 5 = DC 3 BD : DC = 5 : 3 B D C A (PQR) = 24 cm2. m X = 90º [Given] m Y = 60º  m Z = 30º [Remaining angle]  XYZ is a 30º . Sol. XZ =    3  YZ 2 3  YZ 2 5 32 [Side opposite to 60º] 5 3 = YZ = 3 YZ = 10 cm 14.5     12. A (ABC) = 36 cm2.60º . Sol. m Y = 60º. If ABC ~ DEF. GEOMETRY A 7.90º triangle theorem. If XZ = 5 3 cm. m X = 90º. Sol.90º triangle  By 30º . What is the length of side PR ? Area of a triangle = A (PQR) = 24 = 1  base  height 2 Q 1 × PR × QS 2 P 8 cm S R 1  PR  8 2 24 = PR × 4 24 PR = 4 PR = 6 m In XYZ. the height QS is 8 cm.5 4. A (DEF) = 64 cm2. 7. what is the ratio of the length of sides BC and EF ? ABC ~ DEF [Given] 2 A (ABC) BC [Areas of similar triangles] A (DEF) = EF 2    36 BC2 = 64 EF 2 BC 6 = EF 8 [Taking square roots] BC 3 = EF 4 71 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .      13.

D = 90º. seg PQ || seg SR. In DEF. If PR = 8 cm.. AB = 3 cm. BC = 5 cm and AC = 4 cm.(i) BC2 = 52  BC2 = 25 .. DEF ~ MNK A (DEF) DE2 = A (MNK) MN2 A (DEF) 52 A (MNK) = 62 A (DEF) 25 A (MNK) = 36 A (DEF) A (MNK) . DE = 5..(ii)  AB2 + AC2 = BC2 [From (i) and (ii)]  ABC is a right angled triangle [By converse of Pythagoras theorem]  The vertex of ABC containing right angle is A. PQRS is a trapezium. 72 . 15.90º triangle 1  EF  DE = 2 1 8 2  DE = 2  DE = 8 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 18. FindA (PSR)..60º . [Given] [Area of similar triangles] [Given] In ABC. F = 45º [Given]  DEF is 45º .45º .90º triangle theorem. Sol. m F = 45º. m Q = 90º. If EF = 8 2 cm. 1 PR [Side opposite to 30º] QR = 2 In DEF. find DE.60º . find QR. 19. m D = 90º.. m R = 60º.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.. E = 45º. A (QSR) = 10 cm [Given]  A (PSR) = 10 cm2 16. A (QSR) = 10 cm2... m P = 30º m R = 60º [Given] m Q = 90º  PQR is a 30º .90º triangle  By 30º . m P = 30º. AB2 + AC2 = 32 + 42  AB2 + AC2 = 9 + 16  AB2 + AC2 = 25 . Sol. In PQR. find the value of    17. MN = 6. If DEF ~ MNK. PQRS is a trapezium [Given] Q P seg PQ || seg PR QSR and PSR lie between the same two parallel lines PQ and SR  their heights are equal and they S R have a common base RS  A (QSR) = A (PSR) [Triangles having equal base and equal height] 2 But.. Sol. State the vertex of the triangle which contains the right angle. m E = 45º. Sol. In PQR. Sol.

     PR 2 = and PQ = 12.s. If ABC ~ DBA and BC × DB = 16.c. Sol.s.] But.t. PQR ~ XYZ [Given]  Q  Y [c.]  But.s. m A = 70º [Given]  m X = 70º 24. m Q = 60º [Given]  m Y = 60º 22. then find m X. Sol.c.c. MT 20. Sol. If PQR XYZ. then find XY. EDUCARE LTD. If ABC ~ DEF and DEF ~ XYZ and m A = 70º.s. Sol. GEOMETRY A (ABC) The height and the base of ABC and PQR are equal. ABC ~ DBA [Given] BC AB  = [c.] XY XZ 12 2 = XY 3 12  3 XY = 2 XY = 6 × 3 XY = 18 units  S C H O O L S E C TI O N 73 . Find A (PQR) .] AB DB 2  AB = BC × DB  AB2 = 16 [Given]  AB = 4 units [Taking square roots] 23. If m Q = 60º then find m Y. find AB.t. ABC ~ DEF [Given] DEF ~ XYZ  ABC ~ XYZ A = X [c. ABC and PQR have equal base and equal height [Given]  A (ABC) = A (PQR) [Triangles with equal base and equal height]  A (ABC) A (PQR) = 1 21. ABC ~ DAC AC BC  = [c.t. Sol.a. XZ 3 PQR ~ XYZ [Given] PQ PR = [c. If ABC ~ DAC and AC = 3.c.t. PQR ~ XYZ.] CD AC  AC2 = BC × CD  32 = BC × CD  BC × CD = 9 25. Sol.t. then find BC × CD.a.

A• • D • • B • C (iii) To draw a perpendicular to a line at a given point on it.3. P R Q  S C H O O L S E C TI O N 129 . Geometric Constructions BASIC CONSTRUCTIONS Construction of various geometrical figures is a very important part of the study of geometry for understanding the concepts learnt in theoretical geometry. A T B  (ii) To draw an angle bisector of a given angle. (i) To draw a perpendicular bisector of a given line segment.

GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. (iv) To draw a perpendicular to a given line from a point outside it. P A B m (v) To draw an angle congruent to a given angle. R m  130 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . L P M N Q R (vi) To draw a line parallel to a given line through a point outside it.

3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 cm B PROBLEM SET .9 cm L 6.9 cm 5. 196) 3. 196) 2.  (2 marks) A 8. Draw an angle of 125º and bisect it. MT 1. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .9 cm.3 cm.2 cm M 131 .6 cm. (2 marks) N (Rough Figure) N 5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2 cm M L S C H O O L S E C TI O N 6. such that LM = 6. P M (2 marks) • • 125º Q R PROBLEM SET .6 cm 4. 196) Draw perpendicular bisector of seg AB of length 8. MN = 4. LN = 5.2 cm. Construct LMN.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 cm 4. EDUCARE LTD.

and draw EM  DF.7 cm 50º Q 50º 5.5 cm. (Rough Figure) F 30º D M 50º 100º 6. F = 30º.7 cm. DE = 6. E = 50º.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . 4. 196) Construct DEF such that.5 cm 50º E 132 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (3 marks) Analysis : In DEF.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. m D + m E + m F = 180º F  m D + 50 + 30 = 180º  m D + 80 = 180º  m D = 180º – 80º 30º  m D = 100º 5. R (2 marks) R (Rough Figure) P 50º P 5. P = Q = 50º. measure the length EM.5 cm E 100º D M 6. Construct PQR such that PQ = 5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.7 cm 50º Q PROBLEM SET . 196) EDUCARE LTD.

Draw a tangent at any point ‘M’ on the circle of radius 2. 3.9 cm M O 2.  M 2 cm P 1. Take any point ‘P’ on the circle Draw ray MP. Let ‘M’ be the centre of the circle. Line ‘ l’ is the required tangent to the circle.3. GEOMETRY TYPE : 1 [A] Constructing tangents to a circle from a point on the circle. EXERCISE . MT EDUCARE LTD. Draw the line ‘ l’ perpendicular to the ray MP at point ‘P’.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (2 marks) (Rough Figure)   O 2.9 cm and centre ‘O’.9 cm M S C H O O L S E C TI O N 133 . Steps of construction : Draw a circle with radius 2 cm. 93) 1. Example : Draw a tangent to a circle of radius 2 cm at a point on it. 2. 4.

93) 3.6 cm P O 2. Draw a tangent at any point R on the circle of radius 3.6 cm P 134 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 93) EDUCARE LTD.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .3. (2 marks)  (Rough Figure)  P 3.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 2. Draw a circle of radius 2.6 cm. (2 marks)  (Rough Figure)  O 2.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 cm R EXERCISE .3.4 cm and centre ‘P’.4 cm R P 3. Draw tangent to the circle from any point on the circle using centre of the circle.

2. Example : Given a circle. Draw a tangent to the circle without using its centre. 3. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .1 cm R O 3. EDUCARE LTD. taking QP as one side and point P as vertex.1 cm and centre O at any point ‘R’ on the circle. Take any point ‘R’ on the alternate arc of arc PXQ other points than P and Q. 197) Draw a tangent to a circle of a radius 3. (2 marks)  (Rough Figure)  O 3. 4.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Draw a ray PN making an angle congruent to QRP. 6. Draw chord PQ. MT 12. 135 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Steps of construction : Draw the required circle. • R Q X N • P M 1. 7. Join QR and RP. The line containing ray PN is the required tangent. 5. Take any point ‘P’ on it.1 cm R TYPE : 1 [B] Constructing tangents to a circle from a point on the circle without using centre. with a point P on it.

3.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.5 cm. Draw a circle of radius 2.3. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) Z • Z • X • 5 cm B• •A •Y X • 5 cm • Y B A 136 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (3 marks) (Rough Figure) R • R • P • 4. Draw tangents at P and Q without using centre. 93) EDUCARE LTD. Draw a circle having radius 3 cm draw a chord XY = 5 cm.5 cm S • Q EXERCISE .5 cm T• •S • Q P • T 4. Draw tangents at point X and Y without using centre. 6. 93) 7.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .7 cm and draw chord PQ of length 4.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

take a point M on it.6 cm. Draw a circle of suitable radius and draw a chord XY of length 4. Draw a tangent to the circle at M without using centre of the circle.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (2 marks) L • (Rough Figure) L • •M N •A N • M A PROBLEM SET . GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . Draw tangents at points X and Y without using centre. (3 marks) Z • (Rough Figure) Z • X • 4.6 cm P S C H O O L S E C TI O N 137 . EDUCARE LTD. MT 13. 197) Draw a circle of radius 3.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 cm. 197) 14.6 cm • Y P X • • Y 4.

(3 marks) 1.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Line PA is the required tangent.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. Example : Draw a tangent to the circle of radius 1. With ‘M’ as a centre and radius MP draw a semicircle .2 cm from the centre.7 cm 1.3. O M Let O be the centre of the circle. 4.7cm from a point at a distance of 5. 5. Point B is at a distance 7. Draw a line joining P and A. Let ‘A’ be the point of intersection of semicircle and the circle. Draw a tangent to the circle from the point B. 2. EXERCISE . P (Rough Figure) 3. TYPE : 2 [A] Constructing tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle.2 cm B 138 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 6.2cm. A Steps of construction : Draw a circle with radius 1.6 cm A A C 7.7 cm. 5.6 cm M 7. 93) 8.2 cm B C 3. 3.2 cm Take a point P such that OP = 5. having radius 3.6 cm and centre ‘C’.2 cm from the centre. Draw perpendicular bisector of seg OP and mark the midpoint of seg OP as ‘M’.

7 M 5.7 cm 5. Measure the length of tangent segment.5 cm A C 3.2 cm P EXERCISE . Point ‘L’ is at a distance 5 cm from the centre ‘M’. A) = 7.5 cm.8 cm.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 cm C B 7.3 cm M 7.2 cm P O 1. 93) 10.3.5 cm A The length of tangent segnment AB is 6. Draw a tangent to the circle with centre O and radius 3. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . EDUCARE LTD.3. 93) Draw a tangent to the circle from the point L with radius 2.7 cm. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) A A cm O 1. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 139 . MT 9. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) B 3.3 cm from a point A such that d (O.

3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. From a point Q which is at a distance 8.3 cm cm 3.9 cm. Draw tangents to the circle with centre P and radius 2.9 8.5 cm C C A cm 3.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . 197) 16.5 7. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) 3.8 cm Q A B 2.8 cm Q B 140 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .9 cm A P cm 2. Construct tangents to the circle from point B with radius 3.3 cm from the centre.8 cm from the centre. Point B is at a distance 7. 15.3 cm B 3.5 B D PROBLEM SET . 197) EDUCARE LTD.9 cm P cm 2.5 cm D A M 7. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) 2.9 M 8.5 cm and centre A.

3.  Construct ABC. The position of circumcentre depends upon the type of a triangle. Draw a circle with centre O and radius OA. Circumcentre can be obtained by drawing perpendicular bisectors of any two sides of a triangle. GEOMETRY TYPE : 3 Constructing circumcircle of triangles 1. BC = 6. 4. 3. the circumcentre lies inside the triangle. m A cm 5 B 4. 1 cm O 6.5 cm and AC = 5 cm. BC = 6. with AB = 4. If the triangle is a right angled triangle. The point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors is called circumcentre and it is equidistant from the vertices of the triangle.1 cm. 2. Draw perpendicular bisectors of any two sides of ABC and let them intersect at point O. the circumcentre lies outside the triangle. Measure the radius of the circle.5 cm C Steps of construction : 1. If the triangle is an acute angled triangle.5 cm and AC = 5 cm. 2.1 cm. Construct circumcircle of ABC. with AB = 4. A circle passing through the vertices of the triangle is called the circumcircle of a triangle. If the triangle is an obtuse angled triangle. 141 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . This circle is the circumcircle of ABC. (i) (ii) (iii) Example : Draw ABC. MT EDUCARE LTD. the circumcentre lies on the midpoint of the hypotenuse.

84) EDUCARE LTD. K = 60º. 1. PM = 5.3. P = 60º.3.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) T T 60º P 5. Construct the circumcircle of KLM in which KM = 7 cm. M = 55º. (3 marks) L (Rough Figure) L K O 60º 7 cm 55º M 60º K 7 cm 55º M 142 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .4 cm. 84) 3.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. M = 70º.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .4 cm 70º M O 60º P 5.4 cm 70º M EXERCISE . Draw the circumcircle of PMT such that.

LEM = 90º and draw its circumcircle.5 cm. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . (3 marks) (Rough Figure) Q Q R 6 cm 40º P O R 6 cm 40º P PROBLEM SET .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3. Construct LEM such that. QPR = 40º. MT 4. LE = 6cm. 84) Construct a right angled triangle PQR where PQ = 6 cm.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. EDUCARE LTD. LM = 7. PRQ = 90º.5 cm 7. 196) 6. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) M M 7.5 cm O E 6 cm L E 6 cm L S C H O O L S E C TI O N 143 . Draw circumcircle of PQR.

. m PQR = 90º 1 QM = PR 2 1 × 13 = 2  QM = 6.. 197) EDUCARE LTD... In PQR.. (4 marks) = 169 ..(i) [Given] .5 cm In PQR... PQ2 + QR2  PR 2  PR 26.5 cm [By definition of median] [Median drawn to the hypotenuse is half of hypotenuse] (Rough Figure) Q P Q M 13 cm R P M 13 cm R Q 144 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. seg QM is the median.(ii) [By Pythagoras theorem] = PR 2 = 169 = 13 1 PR PM = MR = 2 1 × 13 = 2  PM = MR = 6.. 90º. Q = circumcircle of Analysis : PQ2 + QR2 But..GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . PQ2 + QR2 = 169. Draw a PQR.

BAC = 90º. EDUCARE LTD. AC = 12 cm. 197) Construct a circumcircle of ABC such that AB = 5 cm. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) B 5 cm A 12 cm C B 5 cm O A 12 cm C S C H O O L S E C TI O N 145 . GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . MT 25.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

5 cm. cm I 125º 6.5 cm S 146 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . IM = 4.3.5 cm S O M 4 4. cm 125º I 6. I = 125º. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) M 4 4. 2. Construct the circumcircle of SIM in which SI = 6.4 cm.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 84) EDUCARE LTD.

EDUCARE LTD. such that.9 cm. C = 135º. MT 7. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 147 .9 cm C D O E 135º C 7. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) E 135º 20º 7.9 cm 20º D Note : This figure is drawn proportionally and not with given measurements. D = 20º and draw circumcircle. DC = 7. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 196) Construct DCE.

GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. The angle bisectors are concurrent and their point of intersection is equidistant from the sides of the triangle. • 75º • Let ‘I’ be the point of intersection R of these angle bisectors . R = 75º and P = 55º Draw angle bisectors of R and P.3. 3. A circle which touches all the sides of a triangle is called the incircle of the triangle. Example : Construct SRP such that RP = 6 cm. Construct the incircle of RST in which RS = 6 cm. Draw seg IM  side RP. Incentre is obtained by drawing angle bisectors of the triangle. 3. Draw a circle with centre I and radius IM. 2. (3 marks) R (Rough Figure) R 6 cm 6. 2. ST = 7 cm and RT = 6.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. The circle so obtained is the incircle of SRP. The centre of the incircle is called incentre.5 cm S 7 cm T S • • M 7 cm × × T 148 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 84) 5. R = 750 and P = 550.5 cm. 3. 4. TYPE : 4 Constructing incircle of triangles 1. I 55º × M × 6 cm P EXERCISE .5 cm 6 cm O 6. Steps of construction : Draw SRP with RP = 6 cm. S 1.

Construct incircle of SGN such that SG = 6. EDUCARE LTD.G = 50º and draw incircle of SGN.7 cm.3.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.7 cm 50º G S ••70º M 6. GEOMETRY EXERCISE .8 cm O D 65º 5.7 cm × 50º × G S C H O O L S E C TI O N 149 . S = 70º. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) N N O S 70º 6. 84) Construct the incircle of DEF in which DE = DF = 5. 197) 8.8 cm E D × × 65º M 5.8 cm.8 cm F 5. MT 7.8 cm • • E PROBLEM SET . EDF = 65º. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) F 5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. BC = 7 cm and m ABC = 90º (Rough Figure) A A 5 cm B 5 cm O C 7 cm × B × M 7 cm • • C PROBLEM SET . 8.9 cm N 150 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 197) 9. Construct the incircle of SRN.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (3 marks) ABC is the required right angled triangle. R = 95º.9 cm O R •• 95º M × × 5.9 cm.9 cm S R 95º 5. Construct any right angled triangle and draw incircle of that triangle. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) S 4.9 cm N 4. such that RN = 5.3.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .9 cm. RS = 4. 84) EDUCARE LTD. Such that AB = 5 cm.

(3 marks) (Rough Figure) T T 120º D 25º 6. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) U 5 cm U T 120º 7 cm S 5 cm O 120º •• M T × × 7 cm S PROBLEM SET . GEOMETRY EXERCISE .4 cm A O 120º •• D M × 25º × 6.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3. ST = 7 cm. MT 6.4 cm A S C H O O L S E C TI O N 151 . Construct DAT such that DA = 6. EDUCARE LTD. 197) 10. T = 120º.4 cm. TU = 5 cm. A = 25 and draw incircle of DAT. 84) Construct the incircle of STU in which.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. D = 120.

6 cm.3 cm Z Y × × 6. 84) EDUCARE LTD.6 cm O B 6.3 cm Z PROBLEM SET . 197) 11. (3 marks) X •• 6.6 cm cm 6. (3 marks) A ×× (Rough Figure) A 6.3 cm O Y 6.6 6.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 cm 6. Draw the circumcircle and incircle of an equilateral triangle ABC with side 6. 9.6 cm 6. Construct the circumcircle and incircle of an equilateral XYZ with side 6.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 cm C 152 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .6 cm C B • • 6.3 cm (Rough Figure) X 6.3 cm 6.3.3 cm.

GEOMETRY TYPE : 5 To construct an arc having the given segment as its chord and subtending a given angle at any point on the arc. MT EDUCARE LTD. 93) 11. Draw an arc with O as the centre and radius OA.4 cm subtends an AQB of 50º on it. Draw rays AO and BO making an angle of 400 with seg AB on the same side. Q 50 0 O 1000 40 0 A 5. Example : Draw an arc such that seg AB of length 5.3 cm. 2.4 cm.3 cm B O 130º A 25º 6. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) C 65º C 65º A 6. Arc AQB is the required arc. Draw an arc with seg AB = 6.3.4 cm 40 0 B Step of construction : 1. EXERCISE . Draw AQB.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 3. inscribing ACB = 65º. Draw seg AB of length 5. 5.3 cm 25º B S C H O O L S E C TI O N 153 . 4. Take any point Q on the arc.

2 cm M O 80º 50º P 6. Construct an arc PQM such that seg PM of length 6.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2 cm 50º M 154 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Draw an arc such that chord ST = 5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 cm. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) Q 40º Q P 40º 6.6 cm T O 10º 160º 10º S 5. inscribing SVT = 80º.3. 197) 17. (3 marks) (Rough Figure) V 80º V 80º S 5.2 cm subtends an angle of 40º on it. 13.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .6 cm T PROBLEM SET . 93) EDUCARE LTD.

inscribing MPN = 125º.9 cm N M 35º 8. Construct an arc DCV such that seg DV of length 9.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.9 cm 35º N 110º O PROBLEM SET .5 cm V C 135º D 45º 9. GEOMETRY EXERCISE .5 cm 45º V O S C H O O L S E C TI O N 155 . EDUCARE LTD. 93) Draw an arc with seg MN = 8. MT 12.5 cm subtends an angle of 135º on it. (2 marks) (Rough Figure) P 125º M P 125º 8. 197) 18.9 cm. (2 marks) (Rough Figure) D C 135º 9.

Construct LMN such that LM = 6. HR is median. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) H 75º 3.6 cm M EXERCISE .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. HR = 3.2 cm.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 2 cm H 75º H 3.6 cm M m 5c 25º L O 130º 25º D 6. Construct GHI such that GI = 5. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) N 65º m 5c N 65º N L D 6. GHI = 75º. LNM = 65º and ND is median ND = 5 cm. 2 15º G cm O 150º R 5.4 cm 15º R 5.4 cm I G I 156 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .6 cm. 101) 2. EXERCISE .4 cm. angle opposite to the base and median.3.3. 101) 1. TYPE : 6 Constructing triangles with a given base.

3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.5 cm.6 cm. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . 197) 21.1 cm 80º O S C H O O L S E C TI O N 157 . MT 19.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.1 cm.6 cm 5 cm D 7. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) A 50º 5 cm B S O 100º A 50º 40º S D 7. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) E 140º 2.6 cm A 40º B PROBLEM SET . DEF = 140º and median EM = 2. SAB = 50º seg AD is median and AD = 5 cm.5 cm 2. EDUCARE LTD.1 cm F D 50º M 8.5 cm 140º E E D F 50º M 8. Construct DEF such that DF = 8. 197) Construct SAB such that SB = 7.

5 cm B A 100º 3. Construct ABC such that BC = 7. 5 10º A cm 7. ZP = 3. 101) EDUCARE LTD. Construct XYZ such that XY = 9.3.3 cm Z X P 9. BAC = 100º and median AM = 3.8 cm C B C O EXERCISE .5 cm.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. ZP is median.8 cm M 160º 10º M 7.3 cm.8 cm. 101) 4. 3.3. XZY = 115º.5 cm Y X 25º P 9.5 cm 25º Y 130º O 158 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .5 cm. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) Z 115º 3. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) A 100º 3.3 cm Z 115º 3.

4 cm O DR 35º S C H O O L S E C TI O N 159 . angle opposite to the base and an altitude. RST = 55º. (4 marks) E (Rough Figure) 60º 4.2 cm F B 120º D 30º 30º M 6. DEF = 60º. S (4 marks) (Rough Figure) 55º 3.4 cm D E 60º 4. 101) 6.4 cm. Construct DEF such that DF = 6. Construct RST such that RT = 5. EXERCISE .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 101) 5.3.4 cm B 35º 5.2 cm F A EXERCISE . MT EDUCARE LTD.2 cm.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 cm 110º O S D 5. EM  DF and EM = 4.7 cm T 4.3.7 cm.4 cm E M 6.6 cm R S 55º 3. SD = 3. SD  RT.7 cm T A 3.4 cm. GEOMETRY TYPE : 7 Constructing triangles with a given base.

2 cm PROBLEM SET .7 cm C M 160 4 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) A 72º 4 cm L B 6. 197) 22. Construct LAC such that LC = 6. LAC = 72º and altitude AB has length 4 cm.8 cm A 7.8 cm.7 cm.3.7 cm C A 72º 4 cm A N O 144º L 18º B 18º 6.  KLM = 72º. LA  KM. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) L 72º L 72º K 4.2 cm. KA = 4.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE . 101) EDUCARE LTD.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 9. Construct  KLM such that KM = 7.8 cm A 18º M 7.2 cm M O 144º K 18º 4.

7 cm X 40º A 100º O S C H O O L S E C TI O N 161 . GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .9 cm.1 cm X B 1. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) 130º 1.7 cm C V 130º 1.3. Construct CVX such that CX = 9. EDUCARE LTD. MT 20.9 cm K S 7 cm M A EXERCISE . 197) Construct KPM such that KM = 7 cm. CVX = 130º. 101) 8. (4 marks) P (Rough Figure) 2.7 cm.1 cm V D 9.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.9 cm P B 2. VD  CX and V VD = 1. KPM = 90º and length of altitude PS is 2.1 cm.9 cm K S 7 cm M P 2.7 cm C 40º D 9.

2. 101) EDUCARE LTD. 10.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.3 cm.3.3. PM = 1.2 cm 22º A 22º 162 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .3 cm Q P 127º S 37º 1.6 cm.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE . RK is an attitude.6 cm Q 37º A 106º O EXERCISE . RK = 2.4 cm P R 112º 2.6 cm S M 8. PRQ = 112º.4 cm P R K 9. (4 marks) P (Rough Figure) 127º 1.3 cm P B 1.4 cm Q K 136º O 9. PM  SQ.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.  SPQ = 127º. Construct PQR such that PQ = 9.4 cm. 101) 7. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) R 112º 2.2 cm Q B 2.6 cm M 8. Construct  SPQ such that SQ = 8.

(i) [c.3.a. MT EDUCARE LTD. GEOMETRY TYPE : 8 Constructing similar triangles EXERCISE .s. B = 45º and [Given] .]     construct DEF.6 = DE 2  DE = 7.s..] [c.9 cm F 163 .. EF 3 (4 marks) AB BC AC 2 = = = DE EF DF 3 B = E = 45º AB 2 = DE 3 [From (i)]    BC EF = = 2 3 [From (i)] 5. ABC ~ DEF.. In ABC.6 cm.t. 2 cm 45º E S C H O O L S E C TI O N 7. Analysis :ABC ~ DEF  BC 2 : . 105) 1.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.t. BC = 4.6 EF 13.9 cm Information for constructing DEFis complete.2 2 = DE 3 4.2 cm. AB = 5.. (Given triangle) A 45º B 4.. 8 cm 6.8 2 EF 2 3 15.8 cm = EF = 6.s.6 cm C (Required triangle) D 5.

.8 YZ = [From (i)] LN 4 = [From (i)] XZ 3 7. LMN ~ XYZ. cm Y 5.t.1 cm 22.6 4 = XZ 3 = 4 3 18 4  XY = XY = 4.s.5 cm 20. (Given triangle) L 6 7..1 cm Z S C H O O L S E C TI O N 164 ..8 cm. 105) EDUCARE LTD.5 cm 7 5.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .3.8 cm N (Required triangle) X 4.]    LM 4 = . 2. MN = 6.4 = YZ 4  YZ = 5.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. In LMN. XY 3 Analysis : LMN ~ XYZ  LM MN LN 4 = = = XY YZ XZ 3 LM XY 6 XY =    4 3 4 3 [From (i)]    MN 4 = YZ 3 6.6 cm and (4 marks) [Given] . LN = 7.8 = XZ 4  XZ = 5. construct XYZ. LM = 6 cm...7 cm Information for constructing XYZ is complete. 6 cm cm M 6. (i) [c.s.

4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.a.t. ED 5 (4 marks) RH HP RP 4 = = = NE ED ND 5 R = N = 20º P = D = 30º H = E = 130º [c. N = 20º and [Given] ..]   RH 4 = NE 5 RH 4 = 7 5 28 5 = 5. D = 30º. 105) 3.3.s.s. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . RHP ~ NED.6 cm [From (i)  RH = Information for constructing RHP is complete.(i) [c. NE = 7 cm. Analysis :RHP ~ NED  HP 4 = .s.] construct RHP. In NED.. (Given triangle) D 30º 130º N 20º 7 cm E (Required triangle) P 30º R 20º 5...6 cm 130º H S C H O O L S E C TI O N 165 .t.. MT EDUCARE LTD.

9 cm and MA 7 = ’ construct AHE. In AMT.s.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE . cm 6 cm T 40º 40º 5 cm R Y 6 cm D EXERCISE . HY = 7. [From (i)] H (Given triangle) L (Required triangle) 2 7.3 cm. 105) 5..t. In HYD..      RHP ~ NED [Given] LT TR LR 5 = = = .3 cm × H × M A5 • A6 A7 • 166 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . YD = 6 cm.2 6 6 6 36 30 LT =  TR = 6 6 LT = 6  TR = 5 Information for constructing HYD is complete. LR 5 = ’ HD 6 (4 marks) Sol. LTR ~ HYD.a.9 120º A A1 A2 A3 A4 6.(i) [c.2 cm.. AT = 4. MA = 6. 4.3. 105) EDUCARE LTD.s.3.] LT 5 TR 5 = [From (i)]  = HY 6 YD 6 LT 5 TR 5 =  = 7.t. Y = 40º and construct LTR.] HY YD HD 6 T = Y = 40º [c..4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. AMT ~ AHE.s. (4 marks) HA 5 T E cm 4. MAT = 120º.

In SHR.5 cm cm 5.t] [From (i)] AC 3 = . B = 55º. C = 65º and then construct LMN. SR = 5.. Sol..8 cm and SH 3 = . GEOMETRY EXERCISE .(i) [c. EDUCARE LTD. ABC ~ LMN.5 = LM 3  LM = 8. 8 cm H V 4.s. 105) SHR ~ SVU. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 167 . SH = 4.8 cm S S1 × 4. construct SVU. HR = 5.s.5 cm.2 5..3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. ABC ~ LMN     [Given] . LN 5 (4 marks) AB LM AB LM 5.2 cm. AB = 5. 197) 23..1 LM = = = BC AC 3 = = MN LN 5 3 5 3 5 25. 2 R S 5.1 cm.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. MT 6.5 Information for constructing LMN is complete.3. SV 5 U (4 marks) (Rough Figure) U R cm 5.5 cm H × V S2 • S3 S4 • S5 PROBLEM SET . In ABC.

.5 cm 55º M PROBLEM SET . in DEF.(i) [c.. cm 40º Y 6. XYZ ~ DEF [Given] XY YZ XZ 6  = = = .] DE EF DF 5 XY 6 YZ 6  = [From (i)]  = DE 5 EF 5 XY 6 YZ 6  =  = 5.6  YZ = 4.6 cm Z S C H O O L S E C TI O N 168 .1 cm 55º B L 8. (Given triangle) C 65º (Required triangle) N 65º 60º A 5.8 Information for constructing XYZ is complete. E = 40º.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.s.5 cm.t.. XYZ ~ DEF.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. EF = 4 cm and then construct XYZ.5 5 4 5 33 24  xy =  YZ = 5 5  XY = 6. XY 6 = DE 5 (4 marks) [From (i)] (Given triangle) D 5 5. cm 40º E 4 cm F X (Required triangle) 6 6. Ans. DE = 5..s.. 197) 24.

 MT EDUCARE LTD. GEOMETRY HOTS PROBLEM (Problems for developing Higher Order Thinking Skill) 14. ABC = 90º seg BD  hypotenuse AC  ABC ~ ADB [Theorem on similarity of right angled triangle] AB AD  AB2  AB2  AB2  AC AB = AD × AC = 5 × 13 = 65 = [c.s.t.s. (4 marks) Analysis : In ABC.] B (Analytical Figure)  AB = 65 B A 5 cm D 13 cm C A 5 cm D 13 cm C S C H O O L S E C TI O N 169 . To draw seg AB of length 65 without using Pythagoras theorem.

GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 170 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . m CAD = 90º seg AB  hypotenuse CD  AB2 = CB × BD  AB2 = 5 × 13  AB2 = 65  AB = [Property of Geometric mean] 65 [Taking square roots] A (Analytical Figure) C A 5 cm B 13 cm D C 5 cm B 18 cm D Note : This figure is drawn proportionally and not with given measurements. OR Analysis : In CAD.

GEOMETRY Draw segment AB of any length. (4 marks) [Given] [Remaining angle] Analysis : In ABC. then 4 construct a triangle whose sides are times the corresponding sides 7 of ABC. Draw a triangle ABC with side BC = 6 cm. (Analytical Figure) tan CBD  tan 60   3  AD2 = = = = CD BD AD BD C [By definition] [ CD = AD] 60º D B 3 AD BD AD BD2 2 • A [Squaring both sides] = 3BD2 C 60º A D B l 22. m A = 100º m B = 45º  m C = 35º (Rough Figure) A 100º P 45º 35º B Q 6 cm C S C H O O L S E C TI O N 171 . (4 marks) Analysis : In CDB. B = 45º and A = 100º. EDUCARE LTD. Take point D on AB such that AD2 = 3BD2. MT 16.

5 cm 2. (4 marks) (Rough Figure) A 2. B = 60º and altitude AD = 2.5 cm × × C Note : This figure is drawn proportionally and not with given measurements.5 cm. Construct a triangle ABC.5 cm • • I 60º B D M 3.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 172 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5 cm B A 60º D 3. in which BC = 3.5 cm C 2. A 100º P 45º B B1 B2 6 cm • Q 35º • C B3 × B4 B5 B6 B × 7 PBQ is the required triangle 4 whose sides are times the corresponding sides of ABC 7 23.5 cm and draw its incircle and measure its radius.

 MT 24.

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

4 cm

Construct an isosceles triangle whose base is 8 cm and altitude 4 cm. Draw its circumcircle and measure its radius. (4 marks) Analysis : ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC seg AD  side BC 1 BC [Perpendicular drawn to the base, bisects the base] BD = DC = 2 1 (Rough Figure) A ×8 BD = DC = 2 BD = DC = 4  AD = BD = DC = 4 cm A

B 4 cm

D 8 cm

C

B

D 8 cm

C

In PQR, QR = 7.5 cm, QPR = 110º and PQ + PR = 8.3 cm then construct PQR and measure PQR. Construct its circumcircle. (5 marks) Analysis : line l is perpendicular bisector of side TR  PT = PR .......(i) [Perpendicular bisector theorem] QT = 8.3 cm  PQ + PT = 8.3 [Q - P - T]  PQ + PR = 8.3 [From (i)] In PTR, [From (i)] side PT  side PR  PTR  PRT [Isosceles triangle theorem] Let, PTR = PRT = x Now, QPR is an exterior angle of PTR,  QPR = PTR + PRT [Remote interior angles theorem]  110 = x + x (Rough Figure)  110 = 2x P  x = 55 110º  PTR = PRT = 55º  Information to draw RQT is complete. R 25.
Q 7.5 cm

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

173

GEOMETRY

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

(Analytical Figure)

T 55º

P
cm 8. 3

55º

110º

Q

7.5 cm

R

R 55º

l

O
7.5 cm

110º Q P 8.3 cm S

Construct LMN, such that LN = 8 cm and LMN = 80º and LM – MN = 3cm. Construct its circumcircle. (5 marks) Analysis : Line l is a perpendicular bisector of side TN  TM = MN .......(i) [Perpendicular bisector theorem] LM = LT + TM [L - T - M] (Rough Figure)  LM = 3 + MN [From (i)] M  LM – MN = 3 cm In MTN, 80º side MT  side MN [From (i)]  MTN  MNT [Isosceles triangle theorem] Let, MTN = MNT = x L N 8 cm  x + x + M = 180  x + x + 80 = 180  2x = 180 – 80  2x = 100 (Analytical Figure) M  x = 50 80º T m  MTN = MNT = 50º c 3 130º LTN + MTN = 180 N L 8 cm  LTN + 50 = 180  LTN = 180– 50  LTN = 130º Information for drawing LTN is complete. 26. 174
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

N

m 8c O

130º L 3 cm T

80º M

ConstructXYZ such that, YZ = 6.2 cm, Z = 65º and XY – XZ = 2.4 cm and draw incircle of it. (4 marks) Analysis : Line l is a perpendicular bisector of side YW  XY = XW .......(i) [Perpendicular bisector theorem] XW = XZ + ZW [X - Z - W]  XY = XZ + 2.4 [From (i)]  XY – XZ = 2.4 27.
l X •• 65º Y Y 6.2 cm 65º ×
×

(Rough Figure)

X

6.2 cm

Z

Z
cm 2.4

(Analytical Figure)
W X

l

Y

65º

6.2 cm

Z
cm 2.4

W

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

175

GEOMETRY

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

5c m

In RST, RS = 5 cm, RT = 6.8 cm and median RM = 5.3 cm construct a circumcircle of RST. (4 marks) Analysis : In RST extend median RX to point P such that R - X - P and RX = XP also SX = XT (Rough Figure)  PSRT is a parallelogram R Information to constructing parallelogram PSRT is complete and RST can be obtained. 6. 8 Hence draw its circumcircle. c 28.
S S
m 5c
6.8 cm

m 5.3 cm
M

T

R

M 10.6 cm
6.8 cm

R P
cm 6.8

S

M

T

T

(Analytical Figure)
In ABC, BC = 6 cm and median AM = 5.1 cm. G is the centroid of ABC and BGC = 130º. Construct ABC. (4 marks) Analysis : In ABC, G is the centroid on median AM 1 (Rough Figure)  GM = AM [Centroid bisects each median] 3 A 1  GM = × 5.1 = 1.7 cm 3 Also, BGC = 130º and BC = 6 cm Information for constructing BGC is complete. G Position of A can be obtained an line GM. 130º Hence draw ABC. 29.
cm 5.1

P

B A A

M 6 cm

C

1 5. cm
G G

7 1.

B 40º

cm
M 6 cm 40º

C

176

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

 MT 30.

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

Draw a triangle ABC, right angled at B such that, AB = 3 cm and BC = 4 cm. Now construct a triangle similar to ABC, each of whose 7 times the corresponding side of ABC. (4 marks) sides is 5
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(Rough Figure) P
A A 3 cm 3 cm B 4 cm B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 C R 4 cm C R

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MCQ’s
1. What is the point of concurrence of the medians of a triangle called ? (a) Circumcentre (b) Incentre (c) Orthocentre (d) Centroid What is the point of concurrence of the altitudes of a triangle called ? (a) circumcentre (b) incentre (c) orthocentre (d) centroid What is the point of concurrence of the angle bisectors of a triangle called ? (a) circumcentre (b) incentre (c) orthocentre (d) centroid An arc of a circle containing an angle of 70º is to be drawn on the upper side of seg AB. What are the measures of the angles to be drawn at points A and B ? (a) 20º on the upper side of seg AB (b) 70º on the upper side of seg AB (c) 20º on the lower side of seg AB (d) 70º on the lower side of seg AB An arc of a circle containing an angle of 140º is to be drawn on the upper side of seg AB. What are the measures of the angles to be drawn at points A and B. (a) 70º on the upper side of seg AB (b) 50º on the upper side of seg AB (c) 50º on the lower side of seg AB (d) 70º on the lower side of seg AB To find the circumcentre of ABC, we bisect .............. of ABC. (a) side AB (b) all sides (c) any two sides (d) any two angles 177

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GEOMETRY

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EDUCARE LTD.

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To find incentre of a given triangle, we bisect .............. (a) any two angles (b) all sides (c) all angles (d) one side and one angle From a point outside a circle, .................. tangents can be drawn (a) one (b) two (c) at the most two (d) none of these The circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is ................. of the triangle. (a) on one side (b) in the interior (c) in the exterior (d) none of these If the circumcentre lies in the exterior of the triangle, then it is .......... triangle. (a) a right angled (b) an acute angled (c) an isosceles (d) an obtuse angled Tangent drawn from a point M on the circle is perpendicular to the ............. . (a) chord MP (b) diameter MN (c) chord AB (d) radius OP To draw arc of measure 120º on seg AB, we first construct isosceles triangle with base angle of .............. . (a) 30º (b) 60º (c) 90º (d) 120º Three sides of  ABC are given. To construct similar  PQR, at least .................. of PQR must be given. (a) one angle (b) any two angles (c) any one side (d) all sides The circumcentre and incentre of ............... triangle are at the same point. (a) a scalene (b) an isosceles (c) an equilateral (d) an acute angled To construct ABC of base AB = 5 cm and height CP = 6 cm, we draw parallel line at a distance of ................ cm. (a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 11 The sides of  ABC are 6 cm, 8 drawn. What is the radius of the (a) 5 cm (c) 4 cm cm, 10 cm. A circumcentre of  ABC is circumcircle ? (b) 10 cm (d) 24 cm BC, YZ B, Y

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ABC ~ XYZ  ..........  .............. . (a) AB, XY (b) (c) AC, AZ (d)

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To draw a tangent at point be on arc ABC .............. must be given. (a) centre (b) none (c) diameter (d) length of chord AC ABC ~ XYZ and

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m  ABC  m XYZ = ............. .
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 MT EDUCARE LTD.. 17.. Y (c) 1 2. 5.. 11. (a) 5 (b) 13 (c) 12 (d) 18 : ANSWERS : 1.. cm.. 3.. the length of the tangent segment drawn from the point 13 cm from centre O is . 8. (d) Centroid (b) incentre (a) any two angles (b) in the interior (b) diameter MN (c) any one side (c) 6 (d) B. 18. 9. 1 3 O is the centre of a circle with radius 5 cm. 7..  S C H O O L S E C TI O N 179 .. 14. 16. 13. GEOMETRY (a) 1 2 (b) (d) 2 (c) 1 20. 10. 4. 12. 15.. 19. 20. (c) orthocentre (a) 20º on the upper side of seg AB (c) any two sides (b) two (d) an obtuse angled (a) 30º (c) an equilateral (a) 5 cm (a) none (c) 12 (b) 50º on the upper side of seg AB 6.

For ACB. A In ABC. seg BC is the adjacent side. ` Introduction : Trigonometry (i) (ii) (iii) The word TRIGONOMETRY is derived from Greek words Tri meaning three. gona meaning sides and metron meaning measure. These ratios are called Trigonometric ratios . In our syllabus. In ABC.4. For ACB. the three above mentioned sides. For any acute angle. Trigonometry deals with measurements of sides and angles of a triangle. can be arranged two at a time. Thus. the side adjacent to it other than the hypotenuse is called the adjacent side. the side opposite to it is called the opposite side. The side opposite to right angle is called the hypotenuse. A (i) (ii) (iii) B C TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF AN ACUTE IN A RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLE For any acute angle in a right angled triangle. In a right angled triangle. m ABC = 90º seg AC is the hypotenuse. For any acute angle. we restrict our learning to right angled triangles. m ABC = 90º m ACB =  B  C Sine ratio of  Cosine ratio of  Tangent ratio of  Cosecant ratio of  Secant ratio of  = sin  = cos  = tan  = = = Opposite side Hypotenuse Adjacent side Hypotenuse = = AB AC BC AC AB BC AC AB AC BC BC AB S C H O O L S E C TI O N Opposite side Adjacent side = = = = Hypotenuse = cosec  = Opposite side = sec  Hypotenuse = Adjacent side Cotangent ratio of  = cot  Adjacent side = Opposite side 180 . seg AB is the opposite side. in six different ratios.

Vertex O It is called as directed angle. cosec  = 1 sin  1 2. the final position of the ray OA is la a in ray OB. O O The rotation may be in Te r Ini mi tial anticlockwise or clockwise direction. nal ar m A arm B  NOTE  1. sec  = cos  1 3. Measure of standard angle : The amount of rotation of the ray from the initial position to terminal position is the measure of standard angle. B Initial arm A • • • (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Initial arm : The initial position of the ray is called the initial arm. It gives T the direction from ray OA to ray OB. In the above figure OB is the terminal arm. the rotation from rm e the ray OA to ray OB defines an AOB. Vertex : The point of rotation is called the vertex. If the rotation of the initial ray is clockwise then the directed angle is negative. tan  = sin  cos  cos  5. Terminal arm : The final position of the ray after rotation is called terminal arm. MT EDUCARE LTD. • If the rotation of the initial ray is anti-clockwise then the directed angle is positive. cot  = tan  4. Standard angle : In rectangular co-ordinate system a directed angle with its vertex at the origin O and the initial ray along positive X-axis is called Standard Angle or Angle in Standard Position. cot  = sin  TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES (i) sin2  + cos2  = 1 (ii) 1 + tan2  = sec2  (iii) 1 + cot2  = cosec2  `  Angle in Standard position or standard angle : Directed angle : Consider the ray OA and rotate it in anti-clockwise rm direction about O. In the above figure O is the vertex. 181 • S C H O O L S E C TI O N . In the above figure OA is the initial arm. GEOMETRY RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS 1. In the adjoining figure. 2. In directed angle we take the following into consideration : B A Initial arm m r a m Terminal arm l ar nal mi itia r n The amount and the sense e I T of rotation of the initial ray.

sine is negative. where y  0 y cosec  = cot  = x . GEOMETRY EXERCISE . Sol. MT EDUCARE LTD. where y  0 y Signs of trigonometric ratios in different quadrants : If x is positive. O  X X Y We define the trigonometric ratios in terms of co-ordinates of a point P (x. (i) Sol. If y is positive. If y is negative. where x  0 x r .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. where x  0 x (ii) (iv) (v) cos  = x r r . what are the possible angles ? What can you say about this angle ? (1 mark) Y The terminal arm is on negative y-axis. cosine is positive. cosine is negative.4. the possible angles are 270º and – 90º.4. 112) 3. 3) (2 marks) The terminal arm passes through P (4. sine is positive. EXERCISE . y) as follows : (i) (iii) (v) sin  = tan  = sec  = y r y . 116) 1. These angles are called quadrantal angles. 3)  x = 4 and y = 3 r = = = = x2 + y2 (4)2 + (3)2 16 + 9 25  r = 5 units Let the angle be   sin  cos  tan  S C H O O L S E C TI O N = = = y 3 = r 5 cosec  sec  cot  r 5 = y = 3 = x 4 = r 5 y 3 = x 4 r 5 = x 4 x 4 = y = 3 183 . If x is negative. The terminal arm is on negative Y-axis. Find the trigonometric ratios in standard position whose terminal arm passes through the points : (4.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

– 7) The terminal arm passes through P (– 24. = = y = r 3 2 cosec  sec  cot  r = y = = 2 3 x –1 = r 2 3 y = = =– 3 –1 x r –2 = x 1 x –1 = y = 3 (2 marks) (5. – 12) The terminal arm passes through P (5. (– 24. – 12)  x = 5 and y = – 12 r = = = x2 + y2 (5)2 + (–12)2 25 + 144 = 169  r = 13 units 184 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 3 ) The terminal arm passes through P  x = – 1 and y = r = = = = x2 + y2  –1. – 7)  x = – 24 and y = – 7 r = = = (2 marks) x2 + y2 (– 24)2 + (– 7)2 576 + 49 = 625  r = 25 units Let the angle be  y –7 = =  sin  r 25 cos  tan  = = cosec  sec  cot  r – 25 = y = 7 = x – 24 = r 25 r – 25 = x 24 –7 y 7 = – 24 = x 24 x – 24 24 = y = –7 = 7 (2 marks) (iv) Sol. (iii) Sol. (–1 .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 3  3 2  1 2   3 1 3 4  r = 2 units Let the angle be   sin  cos  tan  (ii) Sol.

Sol. – 1)  x = 1 and y = – 1 185 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. –1 y = 2 r 1 x = = 2 r y –1 = = =–1 x 1 = cosec  sec  cot  r 2 = y = = – 2 –1 r 2 = = 2 x 1 x 1 = y = –1 = – 1 = (2 marks) (– 2. If the terminal arm passes through the point (1. –1) making an angle find the value of sec . – 3) The terminal arm passes through P (– 2. be  –12 = 13 5 = 13 –12 = 5 cosec  sec  cot  r –13 = y = 12 r 13 = = x 5 x –5 = y = 12 (2 marks) (1. – 1) The terminal arm passes through P (1. GEOMETRY Let the angle y =  sin  r x cos  = r y tan  = x (v) Sol. (2 marks) The terminal arm passes through point (1. – 3)  x = – 2 and y = – 3 r = = = = x2 + y2 (– 2)2  (– 3)2 49 13  –3 13 –2 13 –3 3 –2 = 2  r = 13 units Let the angle be y  sin  = = r x cos  = = r y tan  = = x cosec  sec  cot  r 13 – = y = = –3 13 r – = = = –2 x x –2 2 = y = –3 = 3 13 3 13 2 PROBLEM SET . 198) 1. – 1)  x = 1 and y = – 1 r = = = = x2 + y2 (1)2 + (–1)2 11 2  r = 2 units Let the angle be   sin  cos  tan  (vi) Sol. MT EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY  MT = = = EDUCARE LTD.(2 marks)  = – 60º sin (– ) = – sin   sin (– 60) = – sin 60  sin (– 60) = – 3 2 sec (– ) = sec   sec (– 60)= sec 60  sec (– 60)= 2 cos (– ) = cos   cos (– 60) = cos 60  cos (– 60) = 1 2 tan (– ) = – tan   tan (– 60)= – tan 60  tan (– 60)= – 3 186 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (ii) Sol. cos . find the value of sin . Find where the angle lies if the terminal arm passes through : (5. (– 3. 116) 2. (0. (– 8. 116) 3. 2) (1 mark) (0. sec  and tan . – 3) Sol. – 7)  x is positive and y is negative  The terminal arm is in IV quadrant. 1) (1 mark) (– 8.  x is negative and y is negative  The terminal arm is in III quadrant. Sol.4. EXERCISE . r  r  r x2  y2 (1)2  (–1)2 11  r = 2 units Let the angle be  sec   sec   sec  = = = r x 2 1 2 EXERCISE . – 7) (1 mark) (5. (i) Sol. If the angle  = – 60º. 2)  x is zero and y = 2  The terminal arm is on positive Y-axis.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4. 1)  x is negative and y is positive  The terminal arm is in II quadrant. – 3) (1 mark) (iv) (– 3. (iii) Sol.

find cos  and cosec .  cosec  = = 5 13 1 sin  1 5 13 13 5 [Given]  2 cosec  = sin2  + cos2  = 1        5     13  + cos2  = 1 25 + cos2  = 1 169 cos2  = 1 – cos2  = cos2  = cos  = sec  = = 25 169 169 – 25 169 144 169 12 13 1 cos  1 12 13 [Taking square roots]  S C H O O L S E C TI O N sec  = 13 12 187 . GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . (3 marks) sin  = Sol. 121) 1. MT EDUCARE LTD.  = – 60º cos (– ) = cos  cos (– 60) = cos 60   (1 mark) 1 2 cosec (– ) = – cosec   cosec (– 60) = – cosec 60 cos (– 60) = – 2 3  cosec (– 60) = EXERCISE . If sin  = 5 . find the value of other 13 trigonometric ratios using identities.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. where  is an acute angle. Sol. 198) 3.4. If the angle  = – 60º.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

cosec . Sol.4. (3 marks) 7 cos  = 25  1  25  sec  =  sec   cos   7   sin2  + cos2  = 1  sin2  = 1 – cos2  2  7 = 1–  25   49 = 1– 625 625 – 49 = 625 576 = 625 24  sin  = [Taking square roots] 25  1  25  cosec  =  co sec   sin   24   sin  cos  = tan  24 25  = tan  7 25 24  tan  = 7  1  7  cot  =  cot   tan   24     is in the fourth quadrant sin . find the other five trigonometric 25 ratios.GEOMETRY  MT tan  = = EDUCARE LTD. cosec  = .2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 116) 4. tan  and cot  are negative – 24 – 25 – 24 –7  sin  = . tan  = and cot  = 25 24 7 24 If cos  = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 188 . 7 and  is in fourth quadrant.  tan  = cot  = = sin  cos  5 13 12 13 5 12 1 tan  1 5 12 12 5  cot  = EXERCISE .

 If cot  = – 7 .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. 3 sin  – 4 cos  = 0  3 sin  = 4 cos  sin  4  cos  = 3       4 3 1 + tan2  = sec 2  2 4 1 +   = sec 2  3 16 1+ = sec 2  9 9  16 = sec 2  9 25 = sec 2  9 5 sec  = 3 tan  = [Taking square roots] 189 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .4.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 24 (3 marks) 7 cot  = – 24  1  24 tan  = –  tan   cot   7   1 + tan2  = sec2  2        24  1 + –  7  576 1+ 49 49  576 49 625 49 = sec2  = sec2  = sec2  = sec2  sec  =    cos  = sin  cos  = tan  sin  = tan  × cos  – 24 7 × sin  = 7 25 sin  = 25 7 7 25  1   cos   sec     – 24 25 EXERCISE . then find the values of tan  . 121) 2. MT EDUCARE LTD. (3 marks) where  is an acute angle. then find the values of sin  and sec . GEOMETRY EXERCISE . 121) 3.  is in IV quadrant. Sol. 3 sin  – 4 cos  = 0. sec  and cosec .4.

. Sol...GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. EXERCISE . then find the value of sec  + cosec  . where  is an acute angle.. (3 marks) tan  = 1 sin   cos  = 1  sin  = cos  .       1 tan  1 = 4 3 3 cot  = 4 1 + cot2  = cosec2  2 3 1 +   = cosec2  4 9 1+ = cosec2  16 16  9 = cosec2  16 25 = cosec2  16 5 cosec  = 4 cot  = [Taking square roots] 4.. 121) sin  + cos  If tan  = 1.(i) 1 + tan2  = sec2   1 + (1)2 = sec2  1 + 1 = sec2    2 = sec2   sec  = [Taking square roots] 2 1 cos  = sec  1  cos  = 2  sin  = cosec  = =   cosec  = 1 2 1 sin  1 1 2 [From (i)] sin   cos  sec   cos ec  = = 2 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 2 190 .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..4.

If sec  = 2 Sol.4. then find the value of 1 + cosec  . where  is in IV quadrant. GEOMETRY = = =  sin   cos  sec   cos ec  = 2 2 2  2 2 22 2 4 1 2 EXERCISE . MT EDUCARE LTD. 3 (3 marks) 2 sec  = 3 1 cos  = sec  1 = 2 3 cos  = 3 2 sin2  + cos2  = 1 2  3 2  sin  +   2   = 1   3  sin2  + = 1 4  3 4 4 – 3  sin2  = 4 1  sin2  = 4 1  sin  = 2 1 cosec  = sin  1 = 1 2 cosec  = 2  is in IV quadrant  cosec  = – 2 1 – (– 2) 1 – cos ec  = 1  (– 2) 1  cos ec  1 2 1 – cos ec   = 1–2 1  cos ec   sin2  = 1 –  [Taking square roots] 1 – cos ec  1  cos ec  = –3 191 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 1 – cosec  . 121) 5.

... 122) 8....3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO...... If 3 tan  = 3 sin .(i)  sin  + cos  = sin2  = = = [From (i)]  sin2  = ... 198) EDUCARE LTD. where   0.(ii)  b 2 2 1 + tan  = sec  sec  =  y  1+    b 2  x =    a 2 [From (i) and (ii)]   192 y2 1+ 2 b x2 = 2 a =1 S C H O O L S E C TI O N x2 y2 – 2 a2 b . 14..GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET ..4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO... find the value of sin2  – cos2 .. y = b tan  x = a sec   (2 marks) x .. Eliminate .(ii) [From (i) and (ii)]  sin2  – cos2  = =  sin2  – cos2  = 2 1 – 3 3 2 –1 3 1 3 EXERCISE ... Sol.4. (i) Sol. (3 marks) 3 tan  sin  3 cos  = 3 sin  = 3 sin  = 3 = = = 3 3 3 9 1 3 1 1 – cos2  1 1– 3 3 –1 3 2 3     2 3 cos  cos  cos2  cos2  2 .(i) a y = b tan  y tan  = . if x = a sec .

..........(i) y = 4 cosec  – 3 cot  ..  3y = 12 cosec  – 9 cot  .(i) y = cos  + 2 sin  ... 4x – 3y = 12 cosec  + 16 cot  – (12 cosec  – 9 cot )  4x – 3y = 12 cosec  + 16 cot  – 12 cosec  + 9 cot   4x – 3y = 25 cot  4x – 3y  cot  = 25 4x – 3y Substituting cot  = in equation (i) 25 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 193 .(ii) Multiplying (i) by 4... y = 4 cosec  – 3 cot  x = 3 cosec  + 4 cot  .. MT (ii) Sol.  4x = 12 cosec  + 16 cot  .(iii) Multiplying (ii) by 3.... x = 3 cosec  + 4 cot .. 2y = 2 cos  + 4 sin  ... sin2  + cos2  = 1    – (x – 2y)   2x  3y    = 1    7 7     2 2 (3 marks) (x – 2y)2 (2x  3y)2  = 1 49 49 Multiplying throughout by 49......(iii) Subtracting (iii) from (i).(iv)  sin  = 7  x  2y  in equation (ii) Substituting sin   – 7   x  2y    y = cos  + 2   7   2  x  2y   y = cos   7 2  x  2y   y+ = cos  7 7y  2  x  2y  = cos   7 7y  2 x  4y = cos   7 2 x  3y cos  =  7 We know..(ii) Multiplying (ii) by 2. (x – 2y)2 + (2x + 3y) = 49 (3 marks) (iii) Sol.... GEOMETRY x = 2 cos  – 3 sin .... y = cos  + 2 sin  x = 2 cos  – 3 sin  . x – 2y = 2 cos  – 3 sin  – (2 cos  + 4 sin )  x – 2y = 2 cos  – 3 sin  – 2 cos  – 4 sin   x – 2y = – 7 sin  – (x – 2y) . EDUCARE LTD..(iv) Subtracting (iv) from (iii)..

(3x + 4y)2 – (4x – 3y)2 = 625 EXERCISE ..4. Sol. 121) (3 marks) 6... 198) 8. (i) 5 2 2 sin x + cos x = 1 (3 marks) 194 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Find the possible value of cos x if cot x + cosec x = 5..... Sol.. cot x + cosec x = 5 cos x 1   sin x sin x = 5 cos x  1  = 5 sin x cos x  1  = sin x .. 8 sin x – cos x = 4  8 sin x – 4 = cos x .. cosec2  – cot2   3x  4y    25   2  4x – 3y  = 3cosec  + 4   25   16x – 12y = 3cosec  + 25 = 3cosec  = 3cosec  = 3cosec  = cosec  = 3x  4y 25 = 1 2  4x – 3y  –  25   = 1 (3x  4y)2 (4x – 3y)2 – = 1 625 625 Multiplying throughout by 625. (i)  sin2 x + cos2 x = 1  sin2 x + (8 sin x – 4)2 = 1 [from (i)  sin2 x + 64 sin2 x – 64 sin x + 16 = 1  sin2 x + 64 sin2 x – 64 sin x + 16 – 1 = 0  65 sin2 x – 64 sin x + 15 = 0 2  64 sin x + sin2 x – 64 sin x + 16 – 1 = 0  65 sin2 x – 64 sin x + 15 = 0 2  65 sin x – 39 sin x – 25 sin x + 15 = 0  13 sin x (5 sin x – 3) – 5 (5 sin x – 3) = 0  (5 sin x – 3) (13 sin x – 5) = 0  5 sin x – 3 = 0 or 13 sin x – 5 = 0  5 sin x = 3 or 13 sin x = 5 3 5  sin x = or sin x = 5 13 PROBLEM SET .GEOMETRY  MT x EDUCARE LTD.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Find the possible values of sin x if 8 sin x – cos x = 4.          x 16x – 12y x– 25 25x – 16x  12y 25 9x  12y 25 3 (3x  4y) 3  25 cosec  We know.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. sin  + b2 sin2  + a2 sin2  – 2ab sin  .. MT EDUCARE LTD... If x = a sin ..(i)  cos ec   sin   x   y = b tan  1 b =  tan  y  b 1   cot    cot  = .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(i) [Squaring both sides] (a sin  – b cos ) = n  (a sin  – b cos )2 = n 2 ..(ii) [Squaring both sides] Adding (i) and (ii).(ii)  ta n   y   We know... GEOMETRY 2               cos x  1     5 + cos2 x = 1 [from (i)] + cos2 x = 1 25 (cos x + 1)2 + 25cos2 x = 25 [Multiplying throughout by 25] cos2 x + 2 cos x + 1 + 25cos2 x – 25 = 0 26cos2 x + 2 cos x – 24 = 0 2 (13 cos2 x + cos x – 12) = 0 13 cos2 x + cos x – 12 = 0 2 13 cos x + 13 cos x – 12 cos x – 12 = 0 13 cos x (cos x + 1) – 12 (cos x + 1) = 0 (cos x + 1) (13 cos x – 12) = 0 cos x + 1 = 0 or 13 cos x – 12 = 0 cos x = – 1 or  13 cos x = 12 12 cos x = – 1 or  cos x = 13 cos x  12 PROBLEM SET .. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 195 .... cos  + b2 cos2  = m2 + n2  a2 cos2  + b2 cos2  + a2 sin2  + b2 sin2  = m2 + n2  cos2  (a2 + b2) + sin2  (a2 + b2) = m2 + n2  (a2 + b2) (cos2  + sin2 ) = m2 + n2  a2 + b2 = m2 + n2 [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] 12. (2 marks) x y Proof : x = a sin  1 a  sin  = x  1  a  cosec  = . y = b tan  then prove that 2 – 2 = 1. (a cos  + b sin )2 + (a sin  – b cos )2 = m2 + n2  a2 cos2  + 2ab cos  ..... 1 + cot2  = cosec 2   cosec2  – cot2  = 1    b  a –     x  y 2 a b2 – 2 2 x y 2 2 = 1 = 1 [From (i) and (ii)] PROBLEM SET ... 198) If a cos  + b sin  = m and a sin  – b cos  = n.. (3 marks) Proof : a cos  + b sin  = m  (a cos  + b sin )2 = m 2 . 198) a2 b2 11.. prove that a2 + b2 = m2 + n2.

4 mn = 4 tan   sin    tan  – sin   = 4 tan2  – sin2  = 4 sin2  – sin2  cos 2   1  2 – 1 = 4 sin   2  cos   2 2 = 4 sin  sec  – 1   = 4 ta n  .sin  – sin2  = 4 tan .(i) 9.sin  ... 198) 10. show that Proof :           196 p2 – 1 = sin . sin  = 4 × sin  × tan  From (i) and (ii)..4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.... (3 marks) p2 + 1 sec  + tan  = p 1 sin   cos  cos  = p 1  sin  = p cos  (1  sin )2 = p2 cos 2  sin2   cos2   1  1  sin  2 2   = p 2 2 1 – sin2    cos   1 – sin    1  sin  2 2 1  sin   1 – sin   = p 1  sin  2 1 – sin  = p 1  sin  + 1 – sin  p2  1 [By Componendo-Dividendo] 1  sin  – 1 + sin  = p2 – 1 2 2 p 1 2 sin  = p2 – 1 1 p2  1 = sin  p2 – 1 p2 – 1 [By Invertendo] p2 + 1 = sin  S C H O O L S E C TI O N .sin  + sin2  – tan2  + 2 tan . If sec  + tan  = p.. m2 – n2 = 4 mn 2 2 1  tan2   sec2     2 2  tan   sec  – 1   . If tan  + sin  = m and tan  – sin  = n.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET .(ii) PROBLEM SET ..sin  + sin2  – [tan2  – 2 tan  sin  + sin2 ] = tan2  + 2 tan  .. 198) EDUCARE LTD.. (4 marks) Proof : tan  + sin  = m tan  – sin  = n m2 – n2 = (tan  + sin )2 – (tan  – sin )2 = tan2  + 2 tan . show that m2 – n2 = 4 mn .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

cosec2  Proof : L.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 121) 7. tan A  tan2 A 1  tan2 A + 2 + tan2 A 1  tan2 A + tan2 A 1  tan2 A + tan2 A 2 = 4 = 4 = 4 = 4–2 = 2 [Squaring both sides] (iii) sec2  + cosec2  = sec2  . MT EDUCARE LTD. If sin  + sin2  = 1.H. Proof : sin  + sin²  = 1 [Given]  sin  = 1 – sin²   sin2  + cos 2  = 1 2    sin  = cos  2 2  1 – sin  = cos    sin2  = cos4  [Squaring both sides]  1 – cos2  = cos4   sin2  + cos 2  = 1   2 2  1 – cos  = sin   (2 marks)  cos²  + cos4  = 1 EXERCISE .H. 1 Proof : tan A + tan A = 2 (2 marks)  1  tan A    tan A    1 1  tan2 A + 2 tan A . show that tan2 A + tan2 A = 2. = sec2  + cosec2  1 1 = cos2   sin2  sin2  + cos 2  = cos 2  . 198) 13.H.S. sin2  = sec2  .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. cosec2  = R. Prove the following : 1 1 (x) If tan A + tan A = 2.  sec2  + cosec2  = sec2  .S. = = = = sec 2   cos ec 2  1  tan2   1  cot 2  tan2   2  cot 2  (tan   cot  )2 1    tan   cot       tan   cot   1  197 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .S.4. prove that cos2  + cos4  = 1. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . sin2  1 = cos2  . cosec2 (viii) Proof : (3 marks)  1 1   sec   cos  . cos ec   sin     [ sin2  + cos2  = 1]  (3 marks) sec2  + cosec2  = tan  + cot  L.

GEOMETRY  MT = tan  + cot  = R.S.S.H. sec   cos     1 cos  = 2  cos   sin  2 sin  = 2 cosec  = R.H.S. =  tan  sec  + 1 + = 2 cosec  sec  + 1 tan  (i) Proof : 1 – cos A 1 + cos A = cosec A – cot A L. = = (3 marks) 1 – cos A 1  cos A 1 – cos A  1 – cos A  1  cos A  1 – cos A  1 – cos A  1 – cos A  2 = = 1 – cos 2 A 2 sin2 A 1 – cos A = sin A 1 cos A = sin A – sin A 198 sin2 A  cos2 A  1    2 2   sin A  1 – cos A   S C H O O L S E C TI O N . EDUCARE LTD.H.  sec2  + cosec2  = tan  + cot  (v) Proof : tan  sec  + 1 + = 2 cosec  sec  + 1 tan  L.S. = = = = = = = (3 marks) tan  sec   1  sec   1 tan  tan2   (sec  + 1)2 (sec   1) tan  tan2   sec 2   2sec   1 (sec   1) tan  sec 2   sec 2   2sec  (sec   1) tan  [ 1 + tan2  = sec2 ] 2sec 2   2sec  (sec   1) tan  2sec  (sec  + 1) (sec   1) tan  2sec  tan   sin  1   tan   cos  .H.

= = = = = x = 1 + 3 sec2 x.tan2x. MT EDUCARE LTD.S. tan2 x [(a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2.H.S. tan2 x + sec2 x .  1 – cos A = cosec A – cot A 1 + cos A  1 cos   .S.  a2 + b2 = (a – b)2 + 2ab] 2 = 1 + 3 sec x. tan2 x + (tan2 x)2] 1 × [(sec2 x)2 + (tan2 x)2 + sec2 x .H. = R. cot    cosec  =  sin  sin    (ii) Proof : cosec x – 1 1  cosec x + 1 sec x + tan x L. tan2 x 199 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .S. 6  sec x – tan6 x = 1 + 3 sec2 x . GEOMETRY = cosec A – cot A = R.H.H. 1 cosec x – 1 = sec x + tan x cosec x + 1 (iv) sec6 x – tan6 Proof : L. = = (4 marks) cos ec x – 1 cos ec x  1  cos ec x – 1  cos ec x  cos ec x  1  cos ec x  cos ec x – 1 2 – 1 – 1 = cos ec 2 x – 1 = = =  cos ec x – 1 2 cot2 x 1  cot2 x  cos ec 2 x    2 2   cot x  cos ec x – 1  = = = = = = =  cos ec x – 1 cot x cos ec x 1 – cot x cot x 1 sin x – tan x cos x sin x 1 – tan x cos x sec x – tan x (sec x – tan x) (sec x  tan x) (sec x  tan x) sec 2 x – tan2 x sec x  tan x 1  tan2 x  sec2 x  1   2 2 sec x  tan x   sec x – tan x  1  R.tan2 x (3 marks) sec6 x – tan6 x (sec2 x)3 – (tan2 x)3 (sec2 x – tan2 x)[(sec2 x)2 + sec2 x .H.S. tan2 x] (sec2 x – tan2 x)2 + 2 sec2 x .

H. cos  1 – tan  sin  – cos  cos2  sin3   L.S. 198) 6. (ix) 1 1 1 1 – = – cosec A – cot A sin A sin A cosec A + cot A 1 1 1 1 i.S.H. = 1 – tan  sin  – cos  cos 2  sin3   sin  – cos  = 1 – sin  cos  cos 2  sin3   sin  – cos  = cos  – sin  cos  cos 3  sin3  = cos  – sin   sin  – cos  (3 marks) = = = = = = 2 cos  1 – tan  cos3  sin3  – cos  – sin  cos  – sin  cos 3  – sin3  cos  – sin  (cos  – sin  ) (cos2  + cos  . sin3  + sin  – cos  = 1 + sin  . sin  + sin2  ) (cos  – sin  ) 2 2 cos  + sin  + sin  . 1 1 1 1 + = + cosec A – cot A cosec A + cot A sin A sin A 1 1 1 1 – = – cosec A – cot A sin A sin A cosec A + cot A PROBLEM SET .S.H. = = 1 1 + cosec A – cot A cosec A + cot A   cosec A + cot A + cosec A – cot A (cosec A – cot A) (cosec A + cot A) 2cosec A = cosec 2 A – cot2 A 1  cot2 A  cos ec 2 A  2 cos ec A   = 2 2 1  cos ec A – cot A  1   = cosec A + cosec A 1 1 = sin A  sin A = R.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. cos  S C H O O L S E C TI O N  200 . cosec A – cot A + cosec A + cot A = sin A + sin A (3 marks) Proof : L.e. cos  1 + sin  .S.H.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. cos  [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] R. Show that : Proof : cos 2  sin3  + = 1 + sin  .

cos ec   sin      = R. 1 – cot  1 – tan  (4 marks) Proof : tan  cot  L. (vi) Prove the following : 1 + sin A 1 + sin A + cos A = cos A 1 + cos A – sin A (3 marks) Proof : 1 – sin2 A = cos2 A  (1 – sin A) (1 + sin A) = cos A . GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. cos  = cos  . cosec .H. sin   cos  . cos   cos2  = cos  . cosec  + 1  1 1   sec   cos  . 121) 7.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. tan  cot  + 1 – cot  1 – tan  = 1 + sec  . cos  cos  .S.S. EXERCISE . MT EDUCARE LTD. cosec . sin  1 1 = cos  × sin   1 = sec  .H. sin  [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] 1 sin  . 198) 4. Show that : tan  cot  + = 1 + sec . cos A S C H O O L S E C TI O N 201 .4. = 1 – cot   1 – tan  cos  cos  sin   = 1 – cos  1 – sin  sin  cos  sin  cos  cos  sin   cos  – sin  = sin  – cos  sin  cos  = sin  sin2  cos2   cos  (sin  – cos  ) sin  (cos  – sin  ) sin2  cos2  = cos  (sin  – cos  ) – sin  (sin  – cos  ) =  sin2  cos 2   1 – sin  – cos   sin    cos   1 sin3  – cos 3   = sin  – cos  cos   sin  sin  – cos   sin2   sin   cos  cos 2  1  = sin  – cos  cos   sin  sin2   sin  . sin  =   1  sin  .

find the value of . 1 + sin  – cos  cos  1  sin   cos  – (1 – sin  ) = 1 – sin  = cos  1  sin  – cos  cos   cos  – (1 – sin  ) = 1 – sin  Dividing the numerator and denominator of R.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 198) 7. Sol.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (3 marks)  3 tan2  – 4 3 tan  + 3 3 tan  – 4 tan   2 3  = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 3 tan  – 4 tan   2 2 3 3 tan  – 3 tan  – tan  + 3 .    1  sin A cos A = cos A 1 – sin A 1  sin A cos A 1  sin A  cos A = = cos A 1 – sin A cos A  1 – sin A 1 + sin A 1 + sin A + cos A = 1 + cos A – sin A cos A [By theorem on equal ratios] tan A tan A + sec A + 1 = (3 marks) sec A – 1 tan A + sec A – 1 Proof : 1 + tan2 A = sec2 A  tan2 A = sec2 A – 1  tan A .    202 3 If 3 tan2  – 4 3 tan  + 3 = 0. PROBLEM SET . by cos  cos  cos  1 + sin  – cos   cos  – 1 + sin  = (1 – sin  ) cos  1 1 + sin  – cos  1 sin   cos  – 1 + sin  = – cos  cos  sin  – cos  + 1 1  sin  + cos  – 1 = sec  – tan  5.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. cos  = (1 – sin ) (1 + sin ) cos  1  sin   = 1 – sin  cos  By theorem on equal ratios. tan A = (sec A – 1) (sec A + 1) tan A sec A  1  = sec A – 1 tan A tan A sec A  1 tan A  sec A  1  sec A – 1 = tan A = sec A – 1  tan A [By theorem on equal ratios] tan A tan A + sec A + 1  = sec A – 1 tan A + sec A – 1 (vii) PROBLEM SET . 198) sin  – cos  + 1 1 Show that : sin  + cos  – 1  =  sec  – tan  (4 marks) Proof : sin2  + cos2  = 1  cos2  = 1 – sin2   cos  .H.S.

For a person standing at a distance of 80 m from a church. (i) Line of vision : The line connecting the eye of the observer and the object is called as the Line of vision. 127) 1. we require to find the height of a tower. MT EDUCARE LTD.4. B on isi V f eo n Li Angle of Elevation Horizontal Line M Horizontal Line M Angle of Depression Lin eo fV isi on B EXERCISE . the angle of elevation of its top is of measure 45º. A BC = 80 m ACB is the angle of elevation m ACB = 45º In right angled ABC. Sol. then MAB is the angle of depression of B with respect to A. tan 60 =   tan   = tan 60 = 60   3 tan  – 1 = 0 3 tan  = 1 1 tan  = 3 1 But. (ii) Angle of Elevation : If A.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. B are two points such that B is at higher level than A and AM is horizontal line through A. We cannot measure them actually. B are two A points such that B is at lower level than A and AM is the horizontal line through A. (3 marks) seg AB represents the church C represents the position of observer. A (iii) Angle of Depression : If A. tree or distance of a ship from the lighthouse or width of the river etc. building. we can find the heights and distances with the help of trigonometric ratios. then MAB is the angle of elevation of B with respect to A. GEOMETRY   3 tan  tan  –  3 – 1 tan  – tan  – 3   = 0 =   3 3 tan  – 1   = 0 = 0  tan  –  3 tan  OR 3 3   But. tan 30 = 3 tan  = tan 30  = 30 ` Heights and Distances: Many times . Find the height of the church. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 203 . AB tan 45º = [By definition] 45º C BC B 80 m AB  1 = 80  AB = 80 m   The height of the church is 80 m.

( 3 = 1. assuming that there is no slack in the string is 69. Calculate the distance covered by the artist in climbing to the top of the pole. The inclination of the string with the ground is 60º. 204 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .4. A circus artist is climbing from the ground along a rope stretched from the top of a vertical pole and tied to a peg at the ground. 12 m ACB is angle made by rope with ground seg AC represents the length of rope 30º B C In right angle ABC. assuming that there is no slack in the string. The string attached to the kite is temporarily tied to the ground.73) (3 marks) seg AB represents the distance of a kite from ground. A AB = 60 m seg AC represents the length of the string m ACB = 60º 60 m In right angled ABC.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. The height of the pole is 12 m and the angle made by the rope with the ground level is 30º.73 AC = 69. PROBLEM SET . (3 marks) A seg AB represents the height of the pole. Find the length of the string. A kite is flying at a height of 60 m above the ground. 6.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. 127) EDUCARE LTD. 199) 19.2 m. seg BC represents the distance of the pole from where the rope is tied to the ground.  sin 30º =   AB AC [By definition] 1 12 = 2 AC AC = 24 m  The distance covered by the artist in climbing the top of the pole is 24 m.  sin 60º =       3 2 AB AC [By definition] B 60º C = 60 AC 120 3 AC = AC = 120 3 3 AC = 40 3 m AC = 40 × 1.2 m  The length of the string.

GEOMETRY EXERCISE .E .  (5 marks) D DB BC [By definition] B 30 m 30º DB = 30 30 DB = 3 DB = 30 3 3 C DB = 10 3 m 205 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . CE [By definition] tan 45º = AE CE  1 = 10  CE = 10 m CD = CE + ED [ C . A tree is broken by the wind.D]  CD = 10 + 30  CD = 40 m Sol. which is 30 metres high. From the top of the first building.4. 127) 3. ( 3 = 1. MT EDUCARE LTD. EXERCISE . The top struck the ground at an angle of 30º and at a distance of 30 m from the root.4.   The height of second building is 40 m. 127) 5. Two buildings are in front of each other on either side of a road of width 10 metres. tan 30º =     1 3 A Sol. 30 m CAE is the angle of elevation m CAE = 45º B D 10 m ABDE is a rectangle AB = DE = 30 m [Opposite sides of rectangle] BD = AE = 10 m In right angled CEA.73) seg AB represents the height of the tree The tree breaks at point D seg AD is the broken part of tree which then takes the position of DC  AD = DC mDCB = 30º BC = 30 m In right angled DBC. the angle of elevation of the top of the second is 45º.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Find the whole height of the tree.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. What is the height of the second building ? (4 marks) C seg AB and seg CD represents the two buildings AB = 30 m seg BD represents the width of the road A 45º E BD = 10 m A represents the position of observer.

A tree 12m high. DB [By definition] sin 60º = DC x 3  = 12 – x 2  3 12 – x  = 2x (5 marks) Sol. cos 30º =          3 2 BC DC 30 DC 30  2 3 30 3  2 3 [By definition] = DC = DC = DC = AD = AB = AB = AB = AB = AB = 20 3 m DC = 20 3 m AD + DB [ A . the tree is broken by the wind ? ( 3 = 1.73 51.B]  AD + x = 12 B  AD = (12 – x) m  DC = (12 – x) m In right angled DBC.D .B] 20 3 + 10 3 30 3 m 30 × 1.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.73) seg AB represents the tree A AB = 12 m The tree breaks at point D seg AD is the broken part of tree which then takes the position of DC D  AD = DC 12 m m DCB = 60º Let DB = x m  AD + DB = AB [ A . At what height from the bottom. PROBLEM SET . 198) 15.D .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.9 m. is broken by the wind in such a way that its top touches the ground and makes an angle 60º with the ground.  60º C  12 3 –    206 3 x = 2x x 2  12 3 3  = 2x  = 12 3 3x x = 12 3 2 3 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .9 m  The height of tree is 51.

 MT EDUCARE LTD. PROBLEM SET . ( 3 = 1.52 m  The height at which the tree is broken from the bottom by the wind is 5..   AB .. When he moves 40 m away from the bank.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(i) 3xm In right angled ADB. AB [By definition] tan 60º = BC AB  = 3 x Sol.73) (5 marks) Let seg AB represents the tree A seg BC represents width of river Let BC = x m C and D represents the initial and final positions of the observer DC = 40 m ACB and ADB are the angles of elevation 30º 60º B m ACB = 60º and m ADB = 30º D C 40 m In right angled ACB..73) – 36 1 = 41.52 – 36 = 5. A person standing on the bank of a river observes that the angle of elevation of the top of a tree standing on the opposite bank is 60º. he finds the angle of elevation to be 30º.(ii) 3 From (i) and (ii) we get. GEOMETRY  DB = 12 3 m 2 3  DB = 2  12 3 2 –  3 3  2 – 3  24 3 – 12 (3)  DB  DB  DB  DB  DB = = = (2)2 –  3 2 24 3 – 36 4–3 24 (1.. 199) 16. 207 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .. Find the height of the tree and the width of the river.52 m. = tan 30º =  1 3 AB DB [By definition] AB = 40  x = 40  x  AB m ....

. EXERCISE . Find the angle made by the wire with the horizontal.E .. AC = 22 m EBDC is a rectangle  EB = CD = 7 m [Opposite sides of rectangle] AB = AE + EB [ A . A wire of length 22 metres tied to the top of the poles. 208 .B] A  18 = AE + 7 22 m  18 – 7 = AE  AE = 11 m 18 m E C In right angled AEC. 127) 4. 90 m EAC is the angle of depression..GEOMETRY  MT = 40  x 3 40 + x 40 40 20 20 m EDUCARE LTD.(i) 2 But.. 7m AE [By definition] sin C = AC D B 11  sin C = 22 1  sin C = .73 = 34.6 m [From (i)]  Height of tree is 34.. AB = 18 m.. Two poles of height 18 metres and 7 metres are erected on the ground.. A represents the position of observer.(ii) sin 30º = 2  sin C = sin 30º  C = 30º Sol.4.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 3x      3x = 3x – x = 2x = x = BC =  AB  AB  AB = 20 3 m = 20 × 1. 127) 2. (4 marks) seg AB and CD represents two poles. EXERCISE . an observer looks at a ship and find the angle of depression to be 60º.. AB = 90 m 60º B C m EAC = 60º S C H O O L S E C TI O N Sol. From the top of a lighthouse. CD = 7 m seg AC represent the length of the wire. 1 .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4. If the height of the lighthouse is 90 metres then find how far is that ship from the lighthouse ? ( 3 = 1.6 m and width of river is 20 m.73) (3 marks) E seg AB represents the lighthouse A 60º C represents the position of ship..   The angle made by the wire with horizontal is 30º..

AB [By definition] tan 60º = BC 90  = 3 BC 90  BC = 3 90 3  BC = 3  BC = 30 3 m  BC = 30 × 1. MT EDUCARE LTD. PROBLEM SET . 199) 17.C .9 m far from the lighthouse. (5 marks) E Sol.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.9 m  The ship is 51.D .C] x = ED + 60 ED = (x – 60)m Also.73  BC = 51. 60 m Let A be the point of observer and let F be the reflection of the cloud B EC = CF Let EC = CF = x m ABCD is a rectangle [By definition] AB = CD = 60 m [Opposite sides of rectangle] EC = ED + DC [E . GEOMETRY EAC  ACB [Converse of alternate angle test]  m ACB = 60º In right angled ABC.F] DF = (60 + x) DF = (x + 60) m In right angled ADE. DF = DC + CF [D . Find the height of the cloud. The angle of elevation of a cloud from a point 60 m above a lake is 30º and the angle of depression of the reflection of cloud in the lake is 60º. ED [By definition] tan 30º = AD 1 x – 60 = 3 AD = 3  x – 60  m D 60 m C  x        x F   AD In right angled ADF. DF tan 60º = AD x + 60  = 3 3 (x – 60) S C H O O L S E C TI O N [By definition] 209 . Let E be the position of the cloud 30º A 60º and let BC represent the surface of the lake.

BD 3 BC = 3 3BC = BD 3BC = BC + CD 3BC – BC = CD 2BC = CD CD BC = 2 3x BC = 2 BC = 1... Assuming that the boat sails at a uniform speed. AB tan 30º = BD 1 AB = 3 BD BD = AB .5 x units [By definition] A E Sol.. 60º A represents the position of observer... determine how much more time it will take to reach the shore. 60º 30º B m EAD = 30º.. Three minutes later the angle of depression of the boat is found to be 60º. PROBLEM SET .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..  3 (x – 60)  3x – 180  3x – x  2x  x  The height of the cloud above the lake is 120 m. EAD and EAC are the angles of depression....(ii) 3 BC = AB In right angled ABD..C .. which is sailing towards the point of the shore immediately beneath him.(i) In right angled ABC. A man on cliff observes a boat at an angle of depression 30º.D] S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (5 marks) D and C are the initial and 30º final positions of the ship.GEOMETRY  MT = = = = = x + 60 x + 60 60 + 180 240 120 EDUCARE LTD.  D               210 [ B .(iii) 3 From (ii) and (iii) we get. AB [By definition] tan 60º = BC AB 3 = BC .. 199) 18... m EAC = 60º C m EAD = m ADB = 30º [By converse of alternate angles test] m EAC = m ACB = 60º The ship took 3 mins to travel from D to C Let the speed of the boat be x units/minute Distance = Speed × Time CD = x × 3 CD = 3x units .

Tom. he again observed it in the south at an angle of 45º. Time = PROBLEM SET . ( 3 = 1. 199) 20.73) (5 marks) C A A and C represents the first and the second position of the bird at north and south respectively. E D seg AB and seg CD represents the height at which the bird is flying. CD [By definition] tan 45º = ED 2000  1 = ED Sol. A bird was flying in a line parallel to the ground from north to south at a height of 2000 metres. 200m seg BD is the distance covered by 45º 30º B bird in 3 mins. MT EDUCARE LTD.D]  2000   3 1 m 1000  3  1 km  [ 1 km = 1000 m] = 2 3  1 km Dis tance Speed = Time 2 3 1  Speed = 3   60 S C H O O L S E C TI O N [ 1 hour = 60 minutes] 211 . standing in the middle of the field.5x = x = 1. Find the speed of the bird in kilometers per hour.   ED BD  BD  BD  BD  BD = 2000 m = BE + ED = 2000 3  2000 = 2000 = [ B .E . After 3 minutes. GEOMETRY Dis tan ce Speed BC = x 1. first he observed the bird in the north at an angle of 30º. AB [By definition] tan 30º = BE 1 2000  = 3 BE  BE = 2000 3 m In right angled CDE.5 × 60 seconds = 90 seconds  The time taken by the ship to reach the shore is 90 seconds.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. AB = CD = 2000 m AEB and CED are the angles of elevation m AEB = 30º and m CED = 45º In right angled ABE.5 minutes = 1.

...S....(ii) B In BDP and CDP..t.(v) Similarly.c.. m BAC = x  m BPC = 2x .  Speed =     Speed Speed Speed Speed = = = = 2   3  1  60  3 40 3  1 40 (1. by 2] BC sin x = 2R [ D is midpoint of seg BC] BC sin A = 2R 2R .73) 109..2 km/hr.. Midpoint of BC is D.]      1 m BPC 2 1 m BPD = m CPD = × 2x [From (ii)] 2 m BPD = m CPD = x . sin B = AC . sin C = AB ..s. P is the circumcentre of an acute angled triangle ABC with cirumradius R. sin A = BC ......GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.. (5 marks) A Proof :  C R P D R Let... 2R .. HOTS PROBLEM (Problems for developing Higher Order Thinking Skill) 18...(iii) In right angled BDP.(vi) 2R .H..   Speed of the bird is 109...(i) . BD sin BPD = BP BD sin x = . Show that the perimeter of ABC is 2R (sin A + sin B + sin C)..(vii) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 212 ....(iv) [From (i)] R 2BD sin x = 2R [Multiplying and dividing the R.2 km/hr..... seg BD  seg CD seg DP  seg DP seg PB  seg DC  BDP  CDP  BPD  CPD  m BPD = m CPD =   [ An angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the angle subtended by it at any point on the remaining part of the circle] [ D is midpoint of side BC] [Common side] [Radii of the same circle] [By SSS test of congruence] [c.73 + 1) 40 (2.

tan  + tan2   1 = p2 + 2p ..S. 21.84 cm   Area of a regular polygon is 48. If sec – tan = P.. Sol.256 2 = 48.. tan   1 – p2 = 2p .S.84 cm2. sin C = BC + AC + AB  2R . MT EDUCARE LTD. (4 marks) L. sin B + 2R . (sin 24 = 0.256 cm2 A B Area of a regular polygon = 15 × 3.(i) 1 + tan2  = sec2   1 + tan2  = (p + tan )2 [From (i)]  1 + tan2  = p2 + 2p .. Sol.  (1 + tan )2 + (1 + cot )2 = (sec  + cosec )2 31. GEOMETRY Adding (v). Prove that (1 + tan )2 + (1 + cot )2 = (sec  + cosec )2.407 4 4  Area of OAB = 3.H. = (1 + tan )2 + (1 + cot )2 = 1 + 2 tan  + tan2  + 1 + 2 cot  + cot2  = 1 + tan2  + 1 + cot2  + 2 tan  + 2 cot  = sec2  + cosec2  + 2 (tan  + cot ) [ 1 + tan2  = sec2 . sec and sin in terms of P.407) (4 marks) A regular polygon having 15 sides is inscribed in a circle 360  Measure of arc () = = 24º 15 Radius (r) = 4 cm 1 2 r sin  Area of OAB = 2 O 1 × 4 × 4 × sin 24 = 2 24º = 8 × 0. (sin A + sin B + sin C) = Perimeter of ABC  Perimeter of ABC = 2R (sin A + sin B + sin C) 20..H. Find the area of regular polygon having 15 sides which is inscribed in a circle of radius 4 cm. (vi) and (vii). sin A + 2R . Sol. 2R . (4 marks) sec  – tan  = p [Given]  sec  = (p + tan ) . Obtain the values of tan. 1 + cot2  = cosec2 ]  sin  cos   = sec2  + cosec2  + 2  cos   sin      sin2  + cos 2    = sec2  + cosec2  + 2   cos  × sin   1 = sec2  + cosec2  + 2 × cos  × sin  [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] = sec2  + cosec2  + 2 × sec  × cosec  = (sec  + cosec )2 = R. tan  1 – p2 = tan   2p 1 – p2 tan  =  2p 1 – p2 Substituting tan  = in (i) 2p 213 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .

= 1 + sin x + cos x + 1 + sin x – cos x = = = 1 + sin x – cos x 2 + 1 + sin x + cos x 2 1 + sin x + cos x 21 + sin x – cos x  2  1   + sin x  – cos x   + 1 + sin x  + cos x    1 + sin x  + cos x   1 + sin x  – cos x   1  sin x 2 1  sin x  2 2 1  sin x   2 cos 2 x – 2 1  sin x  . cos x  cos2 x 2 2 – cos x 2 = 1  2 sin x  sin2 x – cos 2 x 1 – cos x + sin x + 2 sin x sin2 x + cos2 x  1 2 + 4 sin x + 2 sin2 + 2cos 2 x  = 2 2 sin2 x + sin2 x + 2 sin x  sin x  1 – cos  2 + 4 sin x + 2 sin2 x +cos 2 x = 2 sin2 x + 2 sin x 2 + 4sin x + 2 (1) = 2 sin x (sin x + 1) [ sin2 x + cos2 x = 1] 4 + 4sin x = 2 sin x (sin x + 1) 4 (1 + sin x) = 2 sin x (sin x + 1) 2 = sin x = 2 1 + 2 sin x + sin2 x + 2 cos2 x 2 2       x  214 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .S. (4 marks) Proof : 1 + sin x – cos x 1 + sin x + cos x L.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. cos x  cos2 x  1  sin x   2 1  sin x  .H. 1 – p2 2p 2 2p  1– p2  sec  = 2p 2 p 1  sec  = 2p  sec  = p   1  p2 sec  = 2p 1 cos  = sec  2p cos  = 1  p2 sin  cos  = tan  sin  = tan  × cos  1 – p2 2p  sin  = 2p 1  p2 1 – p2 1  p2      sin  = 32. 1 + sin x – cos x 1 + sin x + cos x Prove that 1 + sin x + cos x + 1 + sin x – cos x = 2 cosec x .

            AD = BC = 3600 3 m In right angled ADP. After a flight of 30 secs. A B Let A and B be the first and second position of a jet plane. If the jet plane is flying at a constant height of 3600 3 m. mBPC = 30º P D  AD and BC represent constant height at which the jet plane is flying. GEOMETRY  33. MT EDUCARE LTD. 215 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .C] 3600 + DC = 10800 DC = 10800 – 3600 DC = 7200 m ABCD is a rectangle [By definition] AB = DC = 7200 m [Opposite sides of rectangle] Distance covered in 30 seconds = 7200 m Dis tance Speed = Time AB = 30 sec s 7200 m = 30 sec s 7200 30  = [1 km = 1000 m and 1 hr = 3600 seconds] 1000 3600 7200 3600  = 1000 30 = 864 km /hr..D .S. BC tan 30º = PC 1 3600 3 = 3 PC PC = 3600 × 3 PC = 10800 m [By definition] [By definition]  PD + DC = PC [ P . the angle of elevation changes to 30º.H. Speed of the jet plane is 864 km/hr. – cos x 1 + sin x + cos x + + cos x 1 + sin x – cos x = 2 cosec x The angle of elevation of a jet plane from a point on the ground is 60º. Sol. = = 1 + sin x 1 + sin x 2 cosec x R. find the speed of the (5 marks) jet plane. AD tan 60º = PD 3600 3 3 = PD PD = 3600 m In right angled BCP. P be the point of observer 3600 3 APD and BPC are the angles 60º of elevation 30º C m APD = 60º.

.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. Find the time taken by the car to reach the foot of the tower from this point... Six seconds later.. D and C are the initial and final position of the car..C . EAD and EAC are angles of depression [Converse of alternate angles m EAD = m ADB = 30º test] m EAC = m ACB = 60º The car took 6 sec. A straight highway leads to the foot of tower.(iii) [From (ii) and (iii)] [ B ... tan 30 = AB = AB BD    1 3 = AB BD BD 3 AB = . the angle of depression of the car is found to be 60º.D] [From (i)] 3 BC = BD 3 BD BC + CD CD CD 6x 6x 2 3x Dis tan ce Speed  3BC =  3BC =  3BC – BC =  2BC =  2BC =   BC = BC = Time = = = BC x 3x x = 3 seconds  The time taken by the car to reach the foot of the tower is 3 seconds. A man standing at the top of tower observes a car at an angle of depression of 30º. 216 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Let A be a position of an observer.(ii) 3 BC In right angled ABD. Sol. 34..... to travel from D to C Let the speed of car be x units/seconds E A 30º Distance = speed × time 60º  CD = x × 6  CD = 6x units . (5 marks) Seg AB represents a tower.(i) In right angled ABC tan 60 =   AB BC AB BC [By definition] B 60º C  30º D 3 = .. which is approaching the foot of the tower with uniform speed..

H. = 1  tan2 A    = (1 + cot2 A) (1 + tan2 A) = cosec2 A × sec2 A = 1 1 × 2 sin A cos2 A 1 [ 1 + cot2 A = cosec2 A 1 + tan2 A = sec2 A] = sin2 A 1 – sin2 A   [sin2 A + cos2 A = 1  cos2 A = 1 – sin2 A] 1 = 2 sin A – sin4 A = R. m A = 90º BC2 (6) 2 36 AB 2 AB 2 AB AB Perimeter of ABC = = = = = = AC2 + AB2 (3)2 + AB2 9 + AB2 36 – 9 27 9×3       = 3 3 units = AB + BC +AC = 3 3+6+3 = 3 3+9  Perimeter of ABC = 3  3  3 units  60.S.  218  1  1+   tan2 A    1  1 1+ = 2 2   cot A  sin A – sin4 A  S C H O O L S E C TI O N .S.H.  1  Prove that 1 +  tan2 A    1  1 1+ = .         AC   AC  5× +7×  BC    BC    AC  12   BC   2 = 3 = 3 [From (i) and (ii)]  3  12 ×   BC   2 = 3 = 3 12 × 9 BC2 BC2 BC2 BC 12 × 9 3 = 36 = 6 units = [Taking square roots] [Given) [By Pythagoras theorem] In ABC.GEOMETRY  MT 2 2 EDUCARE LTD. 2 2   cot A  sin A – sin4 A   1  1  cot2 A    (4 marks) Proof :  1  L.

4. 1  sin   1 – sin   8 and  is in III quadrant then what is the value of 1  cos   1 – cos   7 7 8 (a) (b) 8 7 64 49 (c) (d) 49 64 If tan  = If tan  = (a) (c) 5. what is the value of cos2  – sin2  ? 4 (b) (d) –4 25 –7 25 4 25 7 25 6. MT EDUCARE LTD. 3 219 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 8. 3 . For the angle in standard position if the initial arm rotates 300º in anticlockwise direction. GEOMETRY MCQ’s 1. What is the value of (sin2 17º – cos2 73º) ? (a) 1 (b) – 1 1 (c) 0 (d) 3 If x sin (90º – ) cot (90º – ) = cos (90º – ) then what is the value of ‘x’ ? (a) – 1 (b) 1 (c) – 2 (d) 2 If  and (2 – 45º) are acute angles such that sin  = cos (2 – 45º) then what is the value of tan  ? (a) 0 (c) 1 (b) (d) 1 3 7. What is the value of cosec  ? 12 13 (b) (a) 13 12 5 13 (c) (d) 13 5 2. 3. – 15) then what is the value of sin  : 15 –15 (b) (a) 17 17 8 –8 (c) (d) 17 17 If 5 sin  = 12 cos  and ‘’ is an acute angle. then in which quadrant will the terminal arm be (a) I (b) II (c) III (d) IV For the angle in standard position. if the terminal arm passes through the point (8.

. If the wire makes an angle of 30º with the horizontal then what is the length of the wire ? (a) 6 m (b) 8 m (c) 10 m (d) 12 m If ‘5’ and ‘4’ are acute angles such that sin 4 = cos 5 then what is the value of (2 sin 3 – 3 tan 3) ? (a) 1 – 3 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) – 1 sec2  + cosec2  = .. then what is height of the tower ? (a) 50 3 m (b) 100 3 m (c) 100 3 m (d) 50 3 m 11... 13..... The value of 1 – cos  1  cos  is .. 5 (b) (d) – 5 1 5 17........ what is the angle 10..GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.... The tops of two poles of height 20 m and 16 m are connected by a wire. 14. cosec2  12. Which of the following is not a measure of quadrantal angle ? (a) 180º (b) 270º (c) 450º (d) 420º If cot a = 2 and ‘a’ is in IIIrd quadrant. ............ (a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 2 sec  (d) 2 tan  If the terminal arm of an angle passes through the point (0. If the angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a distance of 100 m from its foot is 60º...... (a) on X axis (b) on Y axis rd (c) in 3 quadrant (d) in 4th quadrant S C H O O L S E C TI O N 18. (a) (c) 5 16. 2) then the terminal arm lies .... . ...... (b) (d) sin2  1  cos  1  cos  sin  sin  (a) 1 – cos  1 – cos  (c) sin  15. (sec  + tan ) (sec  – tan ) = .. The ratio of the length of a rod and its shadow is 1 : of elevation of the sun ? (a) 30º (b) 45º (c) 60º (d) 98º 3 ..... 220 . then cosec a is ...... 9... (a) sin2  ... . . cosec  (b) (d) sin  + cos  sec2  . cos2  (c) sec  ........

12. 8. 4. 5. GEOMETRY If the possible angles are 90 and – 270... MT 19. the terminal arm is on the . 10.. then which of following is true.... (d) IV (b) (d) 2.. ... EDUCARE LTD. If one has to walk 500 m to reach the top of the hill then the height of the hill is .. The terminal arm passes through the point (a) (c) 2  –1. . (b) (d) –15 17 49 64 13 12 7 25 (b) 1 (a) 30º (b) 8 m (c) 0 (c) 1 (b) 100 3 m (c) 0 221 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ...... 9... The slope of a hill makes an angle of 60º with the horizontal. (a) negative X axis (b) positive X axis (c) negative Y axis (d) positive Y axis If  and  are complementary angles...... what is the value of sec  ? (b) (d) 3 2 4 3 3 25... 11... 21.. 3  then cos  = . (a) sin  (b) cos  (c) tan  (d) cot  If tan  = (a) (c) 2 3 1 3 24. (b) cos  = cos  (a) sin  = sin  (c) tan  = tan  (d) sec  = cosec  If 3 sec  – 4 cosec  = 0 then tan  = 3 (b) (a) 4 3 (c) (d) 5 .. .. 22.. In the IInd quadrant . 6..... (a) 500 3 m (c) 500 m (b) (d) 250 3 m 250 m 23..... is positive... 5 4 4 3 20.. . 3.... 7...... 3 2 (b) (d) –1 2 1 2 : ANSWERS : 1.......

write the possible values of angles. cosec2  (d) 420º (a) 1 (d) positive Y axis 4 (d) 3 (a) sin  (b) 1 – cos  sin  (b) – 5 (b) on Y axis (d) sec  = cosec  (b) 250 3 m (a) 2 3 –1 2 1 Mark Sums 1. Sol. 13. called ? If the terminal arm of a directed angle lies along the co-ordinate axes. point A lies in the II quadrant. 7.  = – 30º [Given] sin  = sin (– 30) = – sin 30 1 = – 2 1  sin (– 30) = – 2 What is the directed angle. 15. 5. If x--coordinate of point A is negative and y-coordinate is positive. 19. 16. then the terminal arm lies in the first quadrant. 18. If the initial arm rotates 70º in clockwise direction. 3. Sol. For an angle in standard position. (d) sec2  . 23. 20. then its lies between – 360º and – 270º. then it is called a quadrantal angle. For the angle in standard position. If  = – 30º. Sol. 2. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 6. 222 . Sol. 21. find the value of sin . then in which quadrant point A lie ? If x-co-ordinate of point A is negative and y-co-ordinate is positive. If the angle is in I quadrant and initial arm rotates in clockwise direction. 24. if the initial arm rotates 260º in clockwise direction. 22.GEOMETRY  MT 14. Then. then state the quadrant in which the terminal arm lies. Find the value of 3 sin2  3 sin2  + 3 cos2  = = = + 3 cos2 . Sol. if the initial arm rotates 260º in clockwise direction. then in which quadrant will the terminal arm lie ? If the initial arm rotates 70º in clockwise direction then the terminal arm lies in the IV quadrant. 3 (sin2  + cos2 ) 3 (1) 3 [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] 4. whose terminal arm lies along the coordinate axes. Sol. Sol. 17. 25. If the angle is in quadrant I and initial arm rotates in clockwise direction. (c) EDUCARE LTD.

3 then what is the value of cot  ? 4 [Given] [Given] [ cot  = tan (90 – )] 3 4 12. what is the value of tan2  ? sec  = 2 [Given] But. What is the value of (1 + cot2 ) (1 + cos ) (1 – cos ) ? (1 + cot2 ) (1 + cos ) (1 – cos ) = cosec2  (1 – cos2 ) [ 1 + cot2  = cosec2 ] 2 2 = cosec  × sin  [sin2  + cos2  = 1. Sol.  sin2  = 1 – cos2 ] 1  sin2  = 2 sin  = 1 223 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . sec 60 = 2  sec  = sec 60   = 60º 13. what are the possible angles ? If the terminal arm lies on the positive Y-axis. Sol. MT 8. what is value of cosec2  ? 3 sin2  + cos2  = 1 2 1 sin2  +   = 1 3 1 sin2  = 1 – 9 9 – 1 sin2  = 9 8 sin2  = 9 1 cosec2  = sin2  1 2 cosec  = 8 9 9 cosec2  = 8 If the terminal arm lies on the positive y-axis. EDUCARE LTD. then angle made is 90º or – 270º. If sec  = 2. Sol. If cos  =       10. If  +  = 90º and tan  =  +  = 90º 3 tan  = 4 cot  = tan   cot  = 11. Sol. sin 90  sin    what is the value of  ? = 1 [Given] = 1 = sin 90 = 90º 9. Sol. sin  But. GEOMETRY If sin  = 1. 1 . Sol.

GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. what is the value of cot2  ? 5 = sin  cosec  4 5 [Given] 1 = sin  = 1 4 5       cosec  1 + cot2  cot2  cot  2 5 4 = cosec 2  = cosec2  – 1 = 5 =   –1 4 25 –1 = 16 2 cot2  cot2  cot2  = = 25 – 16 16 9 16 15. If sin  = 4 . Sol. Sol. Sol. 1 What is the value of cot2  – sin2  ? = = 1 cot2  – sin2  cot2  – cosec2  –1 [ 1 + cot2  = cosec2   cot2  – cosec2  = – 1] the value of (1 + tan2 ) (1 – sin ) (1 + sin ) ? tan2 ) (1 – sin ) (1 + sin )  (1 – sin2 ) [ 1 + tan2  = sec2 ] 2  × cos  [sin2  + cos2  = 1  cos2  = 1 – sin2 ] 16. If tan  = tan  =   3 . Sol. 14. tan 60 = 3 tan  = tan 60  = 60 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 224 . then  = ? 3 [Given] But. What is (1 + = sec2 = sec2 = = 1  cos2  cos2  1 17.

what is the value of sin4  – cos4  ? 2 1 sin2  – cos2  = [Given] 2 4 4 sin  – cos  (sin2 )2 – (cos2 )2 (sin2  + cos2 ) (sin2  – cos2 ) 1 (sin2  – cos2 ) [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] 2 2 sin  – cos  1 2 If 3 sin  – 4 cos  = 0. If  +  = 90º and cosec  = 2 . then find the value of sec  ?  +  = 90º [Given] [Given] cosec  = 2  sec  = cosec [ sec  = cosec (90 – )]  sec  = 2 23. The terminal arm passes through (3. the possible angles are – 270º and – 360º. Sol. Sol. If it moves in the clockwise direction. 4). Sol. whose terminal arm passes through (3. EDUCARE LTD. If tan  =      21. what is the value of tan  ? 3 sin  – 4 cos  = 0  3 sin  = 4 cos  sin  4  cos  = 3  tan  = 4 3 20. for the angle . what is the value sec  ? tan  = 15 1 + tan2  = sec2  1+  15  2 = sec2  1 + 15 = sec2  sec2  = 16 sec  = 4 [Taking square roots] 22. Sol. 15 . What are the possible angles. GEOMETRY If sin2  – cos2  = = = = = = 19. Find tan . if the terminal arm is in the I quadrant ? If the terminal arm is in the I quadrant and it in the anticlockwise are 0º and 90º. Sol. MT 18. Sol. 4)  x=3 y=4 y tan  = x  tan  = 4 3 225 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 1 .

find the value of sec . sec 30º =   sec  = sec 30º  = 30º  226 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . If the terminal arm passes through the point (1. For the angle in standard position. 1)  x = 1 and y = 1 r    r r r = = = = x2  y2 (1)2  (1)2 11 2 r x 2 1 sec  =   sec  = sec  = 2 3 2 . Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 25. 24. Sol. Sol. tan (– 60) = – tan 60 =  – 3 tan (– 60) = – 3 26. If sec  = sec  = 2 3 But. State the value of tan (– 60). Sol. The terminal arm passes through point (1. if the initial arm rotates 340º in the anticlockwise direction. state the quadrant in which the terminal arm lies. For the standard angle. find the value of  ? [Given] 2 3 27. if the initial arm rotates 340º in the anticlockwise direction then the terminal arm lies in the IV quadrant. 1) making an angle .

slope or gradient of a line describes its steepness or incline. The slope of inclined plane is the ratio of vertical (rise) height and horizontal distance (run). Let l be the line in the XY. 1 [x (y – y3) + x2 (y3 – y1) + x3 (y1 – y2)] 2 1 2 ` Inclination of a line : In the adjoining figure. 2. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 227 . 5. Thus  is called the inclination of a line where 0 <  < 180.plane. Midpoint formula : P    2 2   Area of a triangle : A (ABC) = 3.5. Y B  O A Y Inclination X Inclination of X-axis is zero degree and inclination of Y-axis is 90º. ` Slope of a line : In mathematics.  Section formula for internal division : P   m+n   m+n  mx 2 – nx1 my 2 – ny1  . Vertical height i. Let  be the angle made by the line l with positive direction of X-axis. then tangent of  is called the slope of the line. ` Co-ordinate Geometry Co-ordinate Geometry : Co-ordinate geometry is a branch of mathematics where we follow a algebraic approach to geometry. slope = Horizontal dis tance If the inclination of the line is . Distance formula : AB = (x 2 – x1 )2 + (y 2 – y1 )2  mx 2 + nx1 my 2 + ny1  .e.  Section formula for external division : P   m– n   m– n  x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  . Revision of concepts and formulae studied in Std. IX 1. It is denoted by m. 4. The inclination of a line l is the X smallest positive angle made by it with positive direction of X-axis (anticlockwise). A higher slope value indicates a steeper incline.

Slope of Y-axis is not defined. EXERCISE . Find the slope of the inclination of the line of the following :  = 30º (1 mark) Inclination of the line = 30º  Slope of the line = tan  = tan 30º 1 = 3 1  Slope of the line is 3  = 60º Inclination of the line = 60º  Slope of the line = tan  = tan 60º = 3  Slope of the line is 228 (1 mark) (ii) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT Y A X  O B Y X EDUCARE LTD. 133) 1. Find the slope of line with inclinations : 45º Inclination of the line = 45º  Slope of the line = tan  = tan 45º = 1  Slope of the line is 1 30º Inclination of the line = 30º  Slope of the line = tan  = tan 30º 1 = 3 1  Slope of the line is 3 90º Inclination of the line =  Slope of the line = = = 90º tan  tan 90º Not defined (1 mark) (1 mark) (ii) Sol. (i) Sol.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.  Slope of the line is not defined PROBLEM SET . 200) 1. Slopes of parallel lines are equal.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 3 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5. Slope of a line = tan  = m Slope of X-axis is 0. (1 mark) (iii) Sol. (i) Sol.

y1) and B  (x2. 3)  (x2. – 2)  (x2. y1) Sol. N  (– 3. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line MN = x – x 2 1 = = =  Slope of line MN is –2 – 0 –3 – 4 –2 –7 2 – (– 5) 1–0 25 1 2 7 2 . 1) and B (0. – 1)  (x1. y1) H  (– 1. y1) Sol. B (0. 2)  (x2. – 5) and H (– 1. (i) Sol. 133) 2. – 5)  (x1. C (3. 3) (1 mark) (ii) P (1. 229 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . y1) D  (1. 1)  (x1. D  (– 2. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line CD = x – x 2 1 –3–5 = –2–3 –8 = –5 8 = 5  Slope of line CD is G (– 4. 5) (1 mark) A  (– 2. – 2) (1 mark) G  (– 4. P  (1. GEOMETRY ` Slope of a line passing through two points : Slope of a line passing through two points A  (x1. y2) is y 2 – y1 m= x – x 2 1 EXERCISE . (– 2) – (– 5) = (–1) – (– 4) 8 5 –2  5 –1  4 3 = 3 = 1 = Slope of line GH is 1. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line GH = x – x 2 1 (iii) Sol. Find the slope of the line passing through the following points : A (– 2. 5)  (x2. – 3)  (x2. – 5) and D (1. – 1) and Q (– 2. M (4. 5)  (x1. – 3) (1 mark) (iv) C  (3. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line BD = x – x 2 1 = = =  (v) Sol. 5) and D (– 2. – 2) (1 mark) (vi) M  (4. y1) B  (0. 0)  (x1. y1) Sol. MT EDUCARE LTD. y2) Q  (– 2.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. – 2)  (x2. 0) and N (– 3.5. – 5)  (x1. y2) y 2 – y1 y 2 – y1 Slope of line PQ = x – x Slope of line AB = x – x 2 1 2 1 5 – (–1) = – 2 –1 3 –1 = 0 – (– 2) 5 1 = – 2 –1 2 6 = 2 = –3 = 1 = –2  Slope of line AB is 1  Slope of line PQ is – 2. 7  7 1 = 7 Slope of line BD is 7. 2) (1 mark) B  (0.

4)  (x2. 8)  (x1. 5) is (ii) Sol. 5) and (2. A  (7. 3) and (3. y2) Slope of line AB = = y 2 – y1 x 2 – x1 4–8 3–7 –4 = –4 = 1  Slope of line passing through points (7. (i) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . 5) (2 marks) Let. A  (– 1. 3) Let. 3)  (x1. y2 Slope of line AB = x 2 = = = = 1 . 5)  (x2. 2. 5) and (2. Find the slope of the line passing through the following pairs : (– 1. y1) B  (3. 3)  (x2. 4) is 1. 5)  (x1. 4) Let. B  (2. y1) B  (3. (7. 200) EDUCARE LTD. 3) is (iii) Sol. 3) and (3. 230 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 2 (2 marks) y1 ) y2 ) – y1 – x1 3–5 2 – (– 4) 3–5 24 –2 6 –1 3 –1 3 (2 marks)  Slope of line passing through points (– 4.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. A  (– 4. 8) and (3. (– 4. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line AB = x – x 2 1 = = = = 5–3 3 – (–1) 2 3 1 2 4 1 2  Slope of line passing through points (– 1. 8) and (3.

 (x2. – 7) Let. D  (2. EDUCARE LTD. 9 (2 marks)  Slope of line passing through points (3. y2) y 2 – y1 Slope of line AB = x – x 2 1 = = = (2 marks) –7 – 6 –6–3 –13 –9 13 9 13 . 7) and D (2.  –1. 0). 7). B  (3. A  (3. GEOMETRY (3. 0. A  (0. – 7)  (x2. 3 (vi) Sol. 7) seg AC and seg BD are the diagonals of ABCD 231 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 0). C  (7. 0) Let. B  (7. 6) and (– 6. B (7. y ) 1 1 2 2 Slope of line AB = = = = = y 2 – y1 x 2 – x1 3 –2 3 – 2 – (–1) – 3 –2  1 – 3 –1 3  Slope of line passing through points –1.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 133) 6. C (7. Find the slope of each diagonal. 2 3  and  – 2. A (0. (2 marks) For ABCD. Sol. 0) y2 – Slope of line AB = x – 2 = = 0– – 3 3–0 3 3     3 . – 7) is (v) Sol. 2). y1) B  (– 6. 3   (x . y ) B   – 2. 2 3   (x . 3  Let. 0) is EXERCISE . 3  Slope of line passing through points 0. 2 3 and – 2. 6)  (x1. MT (iv) Sol.     is 3. – 3  (2 marks) y1 ) y2 ) y1 x1  (x1. A   –1. 7) are the vertices of a quadrilateral.5. A  0. – 3  and (3. – 3 and (3. 6) and (– 6. 2).

C  (– 4.5. (3 marks) For ABC. The vertices of a triangle are A (3. 133) 7. A  (3.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. – 4). B  (5. 7). 5). B (5. – 4). Find the slope of each side of the triangle ABC. 5) y 2 – y1 Slope of a line = x – x 2 1 7 – (– 4) Slope of side AB = 5 –3 = =  Slope of side AB Slope of side BC = = = =  Slope of side BC is Slope of side AC = = = =  Slope of side AC is 232 74 2 11 2 11 2 5–7 –4 – 5 –2 –9 2 9 2 9 5 – (– 4) –4 – 3 54 –7 9 –7 –9 7 –9 7 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. 7) and C (– 4. Slope of a line Slope of diagonal  Slope of diagonal Slope of diagonal  Slope of diagonal y 2 – y1 = x – x 2 1 7–0 AC = 7–0 7 = 7 = 1 AC is 1 7–2 BD = 2 – 7 5 = –5 = –1 BD is –1 EXERCISE .

 MT EDUCARE LTD. y3) R  (2.  Points P. B and C are collinear.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 1) y2 – y 1 Slope of line PQ = x 2 – x1 –4 – 3 = 7 – (– 2) –7 = 72 –7 = 9 y3 – y 2 Slope of line QR = x3 – x2 1 – (– 4) = 2–7 1 4 = –5 5 = –5 = –1  Slope of line PQ and slope of line QR are not equal. Q and R are not collinear.5. 8)  (x1. P (– 2. 2) and C (3. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . 2)  (x2. 1) P  (– 2. – 4)  (x2. y2)  (x3. – 4) and R (2. 6) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x – x 2 1 2–8 = –5 – 7 –6 = –12 1 = 2 y3 – y 2 Slope of line BC = x3 – x2 6–2 = 3 – (– 5) 4 = 35 4 = 8 1 = 2  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are equal and point B is a common point for both the lines  Points A. 3)  (x1. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 233 . (3 marks) (ii) Sol. Q (7. 8). 133) 3. y1) Q  (7. y3) C  (3. 3). Using slope concept. (i) Sol. y2)  (x3. B (– 5. 6) (3 marks) A  (7. Check whether the following points are collinear : A (7. y1) B  (– 5.

 Points X. – 3)  (x2. M (1. 3)  (x1. Y and Z are collinear. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line MN = x 2 – x1 –1 – (– 2) = 2 –1 –1  2 = 1 = 1 y3 – y 2 Slope of line NT = x3 – x2 0 – (–1) = 3–2 0 1 = 1 = 1  Slope of line MN and slope of line NT are equal and point N is a common point for both the lines. (iv) Sol. N (2. y2) Z  (2. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line XY = x 2 – x1 –3 – 3 = 8 – (–1) = = (3 marks) –6 8 1 –6 9 –2 = 3 y3 – y 2 Slope of line YZ = x3 – x2 1 – (– 3) = 2–8 1 3 = –6 4 = –6 –2 = 3  Slope of line XY and slope of line YZ are equal and point Y is a common point for both the lines. 0) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 234 . 1) X  (– 1.  Points M. y1)  (x2. 0) (3 marks)  (x1. X (– 1. – 3) and Z (2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.  (1. – 1)  (3. N and T are collinear. 3). M N T – 2). – 2)  (2. y1) Y  (8. (iii) Sol. Y (8. y2)  (x3. 1)  (x3. – 1) and T (3.

B (1. B and D are collinear. 6)  (x3. GEOMETRY A (– 2. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 = (3 marks) 1 – (– 2) 1 – (– 2) 1 2 = 1 2 3 = 3 = 1 y3 – y 2 Slope of line BD = x3 – x2 3 –1 = 3 –1 2 = 2 = 1  Slope of line AB and slope of line BD are equal and point B is a common point for both the lines. (vi) Sol. 1)  (x2. 2) and U (3. – 2) (x1. 1) and D (3. W (– 5. 2)  (x2. – A  B  D  2). y1) W  (– 5. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line VW = x 2 – x1 2–8 = – 5 – (– 7) (3 marks) –6 –5  7 –6 = 2 = –3 y3 – y 2 Slope of line WU = x3 – x2 6–2 = 3 – (– 5) 4 = 35 4 = 8 1 = 2  Slope of line VW and slope of line WU are not equal. V (– 7. EDUCARE LTD.  Points V.  Points A. 6) V  (– 7. 3) (– 2. W and U are not collinear. y2) U  (3. 8)  (x1. y1) (1. = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 235 . y2) (3. MT (v) Sol. 8). 3)  (x3.

– 6)  (x3. A  (– 1. y2) C  (– 2. = 236 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (7. (7. (– 2. 200) EDUCARE LTD. (i) Sol. 4)  (x2.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. – 3) Let. – 3) are not collinear. (3. – 6) Let. – 5). – 5)  (x1. 2). 4). y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 (3 marks) 8 – (– 5) 7–4 85 = 3 13 = 3 y3 – y 2 Slope of line BC = x – x 3 2 –3 – 8 = –2 – 7 –11 = –9 11 = 9  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are not equal. A  (4. 3. (ii) Sol.  The points (4. (4. – 2).  The points (1. – 6) are not collinear. – 3)  (x3. – 5). (3. Check whether points are collinear or not : (– 1. 4) and (5. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 4–2 = 3 – (–1) 2 = 3 1 2 = 4 1 = 2 y3 – y 2 Slope of line BC = x – x 3 2 = = (3 marks) –6 – 4 5–3 –10 2 = –5  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are not equal. y2) C  (5. y1) B  (3. 8). y1) B  (7. 2)  (x1. 8)  (x2. 8) and (– 2.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . (5.

 The points (– 1. GEOMETRY (7. y2) C  (3. MT (iii) Sol. 8). 3) and (4. (9. – 2). (– 1. (9. 0) are not collinear. = (iv) Sol. – 1). – 1). 0) Let. EDUCARE LTD. 0)  (x3. A  (– 1. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 (3 marks) 3 – (–1) 0–7 3 1 = –7 4 = –7 –4 = 7 y3 – y 2 Slope of line BC = x3 – x2 0–3 = 4–0 –3 = 4  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are not equal. – 1)  (x1. (3. (0. 8). 4)  (x3. y2) C  (4. – 2) and (3. (0. – 2)  (x2. y1) B  (9. 4) are collinear. (4. 3). A  (7. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 237 . 8)  (x1. 4) Let.. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 = = = = Slope of line BC = = (3 marks) –2 – 8 9 – (–1) –10 9 1 –10 10 –1 y3 – y 2 x3 – x2 4 – (– 2) 3–9 42 = –6 6 = –6 = –1  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are equal and point B is a common point for both the lines. y1) B  (0. 3)  (x2.  The points (7.

y2) (3 marks)  2 1 . (3. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1  –1 1–    4 1 –0 3 1 1 4 1 3 5 4 1 3 5 3 × 4 1 15 4 S C H O O L S E C TI O N = = = = = 238 . 4) are not collinear. y1)  4 1  .  . 6). y2) 4)  (x3. (+ Let.  The points (0. (3. A  (0. 2. (vi) Sol. (0.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. y1) 0)  (x2.   . –1  1   2 1   0.   4   3   3 4  –1 0. A     (x1. 0).1 B  3    (x2. y3) y2 – y 1 Slope of line AB = x 2 – x1 = = = (3 marks) 0–6 3–0 –6 3 –2 y3 – y 2 x3 – x2 Slope of line BC = = = 4–0 2–3 4 –1 = –4  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are not equal. C  (2. C   3 4   (x3. 1 . Let. + 4) 6)  (x1. B  (3. 0) and (2. (v) Sol. 6).  .

 The points  .5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. If the slope of the line joining points (k. GEOMETRY Slope of line BC = y3 – y 2 x3 – x2 1 –1 4 2 1 – 3 3 –3 4 1 3 = = = = –3 3 × 4 1 –9 4  Slope of line AB and slope of line BC are not equal. MT EDUCARE LTD. y2) Slope of line AB Slope of line AB        = = = = = = = = = 1 then find the 2 (3 marks) 1 2 y 2 – y1 x 2 – x1 5 – (– 3) 4–k 53 4–k 8 4–k 16 16 – 4 12 – 12 [Given] 1 2 1 2 1 2 4–k –k –k k  The value of k is – 12. – 11)  (x2. – 2)  (x1. 1 and  . y1) B  (4. . Let A  (k. 5)  (x2.5. y2) –3 [Given] Slope of line AB = 4 239 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 133) 9. –3 Find x if the slope of line joining (x. – 3) and (4.     3 4 4  3  EXERCISE .  –1  1   2 1 0.  are not collinear. (3 marks) 4 Let. 5) is value of k. Sol. – 3)  (x1. – 11) is . 200) 8. – 2) and (8. A  (x. PROBLEM SET . y1) B  (8.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol.

y2) C  (k.(3 marks) Let. (6. y1) B  (6. k)  (x3. 2)  (x2. Find the value of k if (– 3. B and C are collinear Slope of line AB = Slope of line BC y 2 – y1 y3 – y2  = x 2 – x1 x3 – x2 2 – 11 4–2  = 6 – (– 3) k – 6 –9 2  = 63 k –6 2 –9  = k –6 9 2  –1 = k –6  – (k – 6) = 2  –k+6 = 2  –k = 2–6  –k = –4  k = 4  The value of k is 4 PROBLEM SET . y3)  Points A. 11).5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. y1) 1  . 2) and (k. Sol. 200) 4. y3) 240 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 3  (x . Sol. (3 marks) If (1. 3 and (0.5. EXERCISE . 133) 4.  2   Let. 2)  (x1. 1  . 4) are collinear points. 4)  (x3. y ) B   2 2 2  C  (0.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.GEOMETRY  MT = = = = = = = = = = EDUCARE LTD. Slope of line AB          –3 4 –3 4 –3 4 3 (8 – x) 24 – 3x 3x 3x x x y 2 – y1 x 2 – x1 –11 – (– 2) 8–x –11  2 8–x –9 8– x 9×4 36 24 – 36 – 12 –12 3 –4  The value of x is – 4. A  (1. 11)  (x1. A  (– 3. 2). k) are collinear points find the value of k.

5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. MT EDUCARE LTD. Let. B and C are collinear Slope of line AB = Slope of line BC y 2 – y1 y3 – y2  = x 2 – x1 x3 – x2 1 k – 0–k 3  = 4 1 1 2 – – 5 2 2 5 3k – 1 –k 3  = 3 1 10 10 3k – 1 10 × 10 = – k ×  3 3  3k – 1 = – k  3k + k = 1  4k = 1 1  k = 4 1  The value of k is 4 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 241 .  0 are collinear then find the value  (3 marks) Sol. B and C are collinear Slope of line AB = Slope of line BC y 2 – y1 y3 – y2  = x 2 – x1 x3 – x2  3–2 1 –1 2 1 1 – 2 1 k k =     = = = = k –3 1 0– 2 k –3 –1 2 k–3 1+3 4  The value of k is 4 PROBLEM SET . k   (x . k and  .  2 1 . A    5 3   (x1. y ) C  3 3 5   Points A. 200) 5.  . y ) B  2 2 2  4  . If the points   5 3  2  5 of k.  2 1  1  4 . GEOMETRY  Points A.  . 0  (x . y1) 1  .

A  (– 1. 14). 3). 9). B  (2. 9.5. The points (k. 6) is parallel to the line (3 marks) 6). (2. 14) and (6. – 2) are collinear. – 2)  Points A. 133) 8.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . B and C are collinear Slope of line AB = Slope of line BC          –4 – 3 2–k –7 2–k –7 2–k – 7 (– k – 1) 7k + 7 7k + 2k 9k k k = = = = = = = = = – 2 – (– 4) (– k  1) – 2 –2  4 –k  1 – 2 2 –k – 1 2 (2 – k) 4 – 2k 4–7 –3 –3 9 –1 3  The value of k is –1 . 1) and (– 9. 200) EDUCARE LTD. A  (k. 3). D  (6. find k.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. – 4). Show that the line joining joining (– 2. 9) – y1 – x1 6 –1 = – 9 – (–1) 5 = –9  1 5 = –8  Slope of line AB Slope of line CD = –5 8 9 – 14 = 6 – (– 2) –5 = 62  Slope of line CD 242 = –5 8 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . B  (– 9. C  (– 2. y2 Slope of a line = x 2 Slope of side AB (– 1. 1). (3 marks) Let. 3 EXERCISE . C  (– k + 1. – 4) and (– k + 1. Sol.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Let.

P  (– 2. S  (0. Q  (0. 3) R (2. 3). 3).1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. 1)... S C H O O L S E C TI O N  The points (–2.. GEOMETRY  Slope of line AB and slope of line CD are equal. 1) and (0. MT EDUCARE LTD. 9). (2. Sol. 1).. – 1) are the vertices of a parallelogram.(i) 1–3 = 2–0  Slope of line QR Slope of line PS –2 2 = –1 = –1 – 1 = 0 – (– 2) –2 = 02 –2 2 = –1 = Slope of line PS = .. 6) is parallel to the line joining (– 2. 1). 1) and (– 9. R  (2. –1) y 2 – y1 P (– 2.. 133) 5. 14) and (6... 1)  02 2  2  Slope of line PQ = 1 –1 – 1 Slope of line RS = 0–2  Slope of line RS  Slope of line PQ  line PQ || line RS Slope of line QR –2 = –2 = 1 = Slope of line RS . 1) and (0.(ii) [From (i)] [From (ii)] [By definition]  Slope of line PS  Slope of line QR  line QR || line PS In PQRS.  line AB || line CD  The line joining (– 1. – 1) S (0.5. (2.. side PQ || side RS side QR || side PS  PQRS is a parallelogram parallelogram. – 1) are the vertices of 243 . (0. 1) Slope of a line = x – x 2 1 3 –1 Slope of line PQ = 0 – (– 2) 2 Q (0. Show that (– 2. (0. (4 marks) Let. 1). EXERCISE . 3)..

8). 1) y 2 – y1 S (4.. Q (3. 200) EDUCARE LTD.. R (10.. 6. Q  (3. 6).(ii) [From (i)] [From (ii)] [By definition] PROBLEM SET . 8). R  (8. R  (10.(i) 5–8 Slope of line QR = 10 – 4 –3 = 6 –1  Slope of line QR = 2 1– 4 Slope of line PS = 4 – (– 2)      –3 = 42 –3 = 6 –1 Slope of line PS = 2 Slope of line QR = Slope of line PS line QR || line PS In PQRS. 5) 4 = 6 2  Slope of line PQ = 3 1–5 Slope of line RS = 4 – 10 –4 = –6 2  Slope of line RS = 3  Slope of line PQ = Slope of line RS  line PQ || line RS ... 4)..5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. S  (10.. 5). 4) Slope of a line = x – x 2 1 8–4 Slope of line PQ = 4 – (– 2) 4 = 42 Q (4. 8) R (10. k) line PQ || line RS [Given] S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 5) and S (4. 1) P (– 2.. 4).. 1). 244 Find the value of k if line PQ will be parallel to line RS where P (2.. Q (4.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . S  (4. 4).. 1) are the vertices of a quadrilateral (4 marks) show that it is a parallelogram.. side PQ || side RS side QR || side PS PQRS is a parallelogram .. 200) 7. 4). If P (– 2. P  (– 2. (4 marks) P  (2. k). Sol. 1) and S (10. Sol.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Q  (4. R (8. 6).

the x intercept of a line is the value of the x-co-ordinate of the point at which the line intersects the X-axis.  y intercept  (0. then find c. If (4. x intercept and y intercept. The x intercept of a line is the point at which the line intersects the X-axis  x intercept  (x. GEOMETRY  Slope of line PQ 6–4  3–2 2  1  k–1  k  k = = = = = = Slope of line RS k –1 10 – 8 k –1 2 4 4+1 5  The value of k is 5 ` Equation of a line : An equation of a line essentially defines the conditions which must be satisfied by every point on the line. – 3) Point P lies on the line 5x + 8y = c  Co-ordinates of P satisfies the equation of the line  5 (4) + 8 (– 3) = c  20 – 24 = x  c = –4  The value of c is – 4 EXERCISE . MT EDUCARE LTD.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. If (– 2. EXERCISE ..5. find m. 245 • S C H O O L S E C TI O N . – 3) is a point on the line 5x + 8y = c. The equation of the line is 2y = mx + 5 Let P (– 2. y) Hence. The equation of the line is 5x + 8y = c Let P  (4. 0) Hence. 137) 4.5. 137) (2 marks) 5.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. – 3) is a point on the line 2y = mx + 5. the y intercept of a line is the value of the y-co-ordinate of the point at which the line intersects the Y-axis. The y intercept of a line is the point at which the line intersects the Y-axis. Sol. Sol. – 3) Point P lies on the line 2y = mx + 5  Co-ordinates of point P satisfies the equation of the line  2 (– 3) = m (– 2) + 5  – 6 = – 2m + 5  – 2m = – 6 – 5  – 2m = – 11 11  m = 2 11  The value of m is 2 (2 marks) ` • Intercept of a line : A line can have two intercepts viz.

Write the equation of the lines if m and c are given as follows : m = 5.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (4)x + (0)  y = 4x  The equation of the given line is y = 4x 246 S C H O O L S E C TI O N (1 mark) (1 mark) (1 mark) . 4) is 4. m = 4. c = – 1 (1 mark) Slope of the line (m) = 5 y intercept of the line (c) = – 1 By slope intercept form. (i) Sol. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (– 4)x + (– 3)  y = – 4x – 3  The equation of the given line is y = – 4x – 3 (iii) Sol. l (0. c = 0 Slope of the line (m) = 4 y intercept of the line (c) = 0 By slope intercept form. m = – 2.5. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (– 2)x + 3  y = – 2x + 3  The equation of the given line is y = – 2x + 3 (iv) Sol. 0) (I) Equation of a line in slope intercept form : If the slope of a line is m and its y intercept is c then the equation of the line is y = mx + c. m = – 4. Line l intersects the X-axis  The x intercept of line l Line l intersects the Y-axis  The y intercept of line l at point (– 3.GEOMETRY  MT Y EDUCARE LTD. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = 5 (x) + (–1)  y = 5x – 1  The equation of the given line is y = 5x – 1 (ii) Sol. In the adjoining figure. c = – 3 Slope of the line (m) = – 4 y intercept of the line (c) = – 3 By slope intercept form. 137) 2. EXERCISE . c = 3 Slope of the line (m) = – 2 y intercept of the line (c) = 3 By slope intercept form. 0) is – 3 at point (0. The equation of a line passing through the origin and having slope ‘m’ is y = mx. 4) X O (–3.

5.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Write the equation of line in slope intercept form : 2y – 3x + 5 = 0 (1 mark) 2y – 3x + 5 = 0  2y = 3x – 5 3 5  y = x – [Dividing throughout by 2] 2 2 3 –5 and c = Where m = 2 2 247 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . GEOMETRY m = 0. The equation of the line y = mx + c 1  y= – x+3 2 1  The equation of the given line is y = – x + 3 2 EXERCISE . c = 2 Slope of the line (m) = 0 y intercept of the line (c) = 2 By slope intercept form. (1 mark) Slope of the line (m) = 3 y intercept of the line (c) = – 4 By slope intercept form. c = – 3 Slope of the line (m) = 0 y intercept of the line (c) = – 3 By slope intercept form. 137) 2. MT (v) Sol. Sol. 3) with slope – write the equation of 2 (2 marks) line PQ.5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Write the equation of that line. 1 Slope of the line PQ (m) = – 2 line PQ intersects Y-axis in (0. 141) 1 Line PQ intersects Y-axis in (0. EDUCARE LTD.5. (i) Sol.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Slope of line is 3 and y intercept is – 4. 141) (1 mark) (vi) Sol. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (3)x + (– 4)  y = 3x – 4  The equation of the given line is y = 3x – 4. EXERCISE . 3. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (0)x + (– 3)  y=0–3  y=–3  The equation of the given line is y = – 3 EXERCISE . (1 mark) 1. Sol. 3)  Its y intercept (c) is 3 By slope intercept form. The equation of the line is y = mx + c  y = (0)x + 2  y=2  The equation of the given line is y = 2 m = 0.

Find the slope and y-intercept of the lines given below : y = 3x – 5 (1 mark) y = 3x – 5  y = (3) x + (– 5) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope intercept form y = mx + c m = 3 and c = – 5  Slope of the line is 3 The y intercept of the line is – 5. (i) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. (1 mark) [Dividing throughout by – 2] EXERCISE . (ii) Sol. (ii) Sol.5. 3y – x = 1 3y – x = 1  3x = x + 1 1 1  y = x 3 3 1 1 and c = Where m = 3 3 x + 2y – 4 = 0 x + 2y – 4 = 0  2y = – x + 4 –1 4 x  y = 2 2 –1 x2  y = 2 –1 Where m = and c = 2 2 3x – 2y = 5 3x – 2y = 5  – 2y = – 3x + 5 –3 5  y = –2 x  –2 3 5  y = x – 2 2 3 –5 Where m = and c = 2 2 (1 mark) [Dividing throughout by 3] (iii) Sol. 2 x+4 (1 mark) 3 2 y= x+4 3 Comparing with the equation of a line in slope intercept form y = mx + c 2 and c = 4 m= 3 2  Slope of the line is 3 The y intercept of the line is 4. S C H O O L S E C TI O N (iii) Sol.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. y= y = – 2x + 3 (1 mark) y = – 2x + 3 Comparing with the equation of a line in slope intercept form y = mx + c m = – 2 and c = 3  Slope of the line is – 2 The y intercept of the line is 3. 248 . (1 mark) [Dividing throughout by 2] (iv) Sol. 137) 1.

y – y1 = m (x – x1)  m=5  Slope of the line y – 2 = 5 (x – 2) is 5 (1 mark) (iii) Sol. y+3= 1 (x – 5) 2 1 y+3 = (x – 5) 2 Comparing with the equation of a line in slope point form. 3 (x + 3) = y – 1 3 (x + 3) = y – 1  y – 1 = 3 (x + 3) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope point form.5. y – y1 = m (x – x1)  m=2  Slope of the line y – 5 = 2 (x – 7) is 2 (1 mark) (ii) Sol.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. y – y1 = m (x – x1) (1 mark)  m= 1 2 1 1 (x – 5) is 2 2 (1 mark)  Slope of the line y + 3 = (iv) Sol. (i) Sol. 141) 3. GEOMETRY y = – 3x – 5 (1 mark) y = – 3x – 5  y = (– 3) x + (– 5) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope intercept form y = mx + c m = – 3 and c = – 5  Slope of the line is – 3 The y intercept of the line is – 5. y – 2 = 5 (x – 2) y – 2 = 5 (x – 2) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope point form. EDUCARE LTD. Write the slope of each of the line stated below : y – 5 = 2 (x – 7) y – 5 = 2 (x – 7) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope point form. y – y1 = m (x – x1)  m=3  Slope of the line 3 (x + 3) = y – 1 is 3 (1 mark) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 249 . MT (iv) Sol. y – y1 = m (x – x1)  m=–5  Slope of the line y = – 5 (x + 3) is – 5 (v) Sol. EXERCISE . y = – 5 (x + 3) y = – 5 (x + 3) Comparing with the equation of a line in slope point form.

141) 4. 7)  (x1. 7) and having slope 1 m= is given by slope point form 2 (y – y1) = m (x – x1) 1 (y – 7) = [x – (– 3)] 2 1 y–7 = (x + 3) 2 2 (y – 7) = x + 3 2y – 14 = x + 3 x – 2y + 3 + 14 = 0 x – 2y + 17 = 0  The required equation of the line is x – 2y + 17 = 0 (iii) Sol. y1) 1 m= 2 The equation of the line passing through P (– 3. y1) m=2 The equation of the line passing through P (3.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. y1) 3 m= 5 The equation of the line passing through P (– 2. the equation of line l is y – y1 = m (x – x1). EXERCISE . 7) and m =       1 (2 marks) 2 P  (– 3. 5)  (x1. Write the equation of the line passing through the point P and having slope m : P (3. 3 P (– 2. (II) Equation of a line in slope point form : If a line l having slope m and passes through point A (x1. 5) and having slope m = 2 is given by slope point form (y – y1) = m (x – x1)  (y – 5) = 2 (x – 3)  y – 5 = 2x – 6  2x – y – 6 + 5 = 0  2x – y – 1 = 0  The required equation of the line is 2x – y – 1 = 0 (ii) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. P (– 3. – 3) and m = (2 marks) 5 P  (– 2. – 3)  (x1. (i) Sol. y1) then.5. 5) and m = 2 (2 marks) P  (3. – 3) and having slope 3 is given by slope point form m= 5 (y – y1) = m (x – x1) 3  y – (– 3) = [x – (– 2)] 5 3  y+3 = (x + 2) 5  5 (y + 3) = 3 (x + 2) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 250 .

 MT EDUCARE LTD. Sol. 6) and B (3. mx 2  nx1 my 2 + ny1 y = x = m+n m+n 2 (3) + 3 (– 2) y –7 = = 2+3 7–3 6–6 – 8 + 18 = = 5 5 0 10 = = 5 5 = 0 = 2  P  (0. 6) and having slope 6 is given by slope point form m= 7 (y – y1) = m (x – x1) 6 y–6 = (x – 0) 7 7 (y – 6) = 6x 7y – 42 = 6x 6x – 7y + 42 = 0  The required equation of the line is 6x – 7y + 42 = 0 PROBLEM SET . 6). y) By section formula for internal division. y1) 6 m= 7 The equation of the line passing through P (0. 2) Write down the equation of a the line whose slope is The line having slope  The equation (y – y1) =  (y – 2) =  y–2 =  2y – 4 =  3x – 2y + 4 = 3 passes through the point P (0. 6) and m =     6 (2 marks) 7 P  (0. 6)  (x1. – 4) Point P divides seg AB internally in the ratio 2 : 3 Let. – 4) in the ratio 2 : 3. 3 and which 2 passes through P where P divides the line segment joining A (– 2. m (x – x1) 3 (x – 0) 2 3x 3x 0  The equation of the required line is 3x – 2y + 4 = 0 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 251 . (3 marks) A  (– 2. 201) 12.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. GEOMETRY  5y + 15 = 3x + 6  3x – 5y + 6 – 15 = 0  3x – 5y – 9 = 0  The required equation of the line is 3x – 5y – 9 = 0 (iv) Sol. P  (x. P (0. 2) 2 of the line by slope point form is. B  (3.

GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE . 4). x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x – (– 3) y –4  = (– 3) – 4 4–5 y –4 x3  = –1 –7  x + 3 = 7 (y – 4)  x + 3 = 7y – 28  x – 7y + 3 + 28 = 0  x – 7y + 31 = 0  The equation of line AB is x – 7y + 31 = 0 252 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . y1) B  (4. y2) then. 4) X  The equation of the line by slope point form is. 4)  The equation of the line by slope point form is. Two points of each line are given below write the equation of these lines : A (– 3. 4). Find the equation of line PA and line PB. 147) EDUCARE LTD. 10. Sol. (i) Sol. y1) and B (x2.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. B (4.  (y – y1) = m (x – x1)    (y – 4) = y–4 = Y P (3. two lines are intersecting at point (3. In the adjoining figure.5. 5)  (x2. (3 marks) Inclination of line PA is 45º Slope of line PA = tan  = tan 45º = 1 A Line PA passes through point P (3. 4) 45º 60º B Y X 3 (x – 3) 3x – 3 3 3x – y  4 – 3 3 = 0 3x – y  4 – 3 3 = 0  The equation of PB is (III) Equation of a line in two point form : If a line l passes through point A (x1. 5) (2 marks) A  (– 3. 141) 7.5.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 4)  (x1. x – x1 y – y1 the equation of line l is x – x = y – y 1 2 1 2 EXERCISE . y2) The equation of line AB by two point form is. (y – y1) = m (x – x1)  (y – 4) = 1 (x – 3)  y–4 = x–3  x–y–3+4 = 0  x–y+1 = 0  The equation of line PA is x – y + 1 = 0 Inclination of line PB is 60º  Slope of line PB = tan  = tan 60º = 3 Line PB passes through point P (3.

x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2  S C H O O L S E C TI O N (2 marks) x – (– 2) y – (– 3) = – 2 – (– 4) –3 – 7 253 . – 5). y2) The equation of line CD by two point form is. x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –5 y –6  = 5 – (– 5) 6 – (– 6) x –5 y –6  = 55 66 x –5 y –6  = 10 12  12 (x – 5) = 10 (y – 6)  12x – 60 = 10y – 60  12x – 10y – 60 + 60 = 0  12x – 10y = 0  6x – 5y = 0 [Dividing throughout by 2]  The equation of line DE is 6x – 5y = 0 (iv) Sol. y2) The equation of line EF by two point form is. – 6) (2 marks) D  (5. y1) F  (– 4. 6)  (x1. MT (ii) Sol. y2) The equation of line CD by two point form is. y1) D  (– 1. GEOMETRY C (4. EDUCARE LTD. 7) E  (– 2. F (– 4. – 3)  (x1. – 2) C  (4. D (5. – 3). – 6)  (x2. x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2         (2 marks) x –4 y – (– 5) 4 – (–1) = – 5 – (– 2) x –4 y5 4  1 = –5  2 x –4 5 – 3 (x – 4) – 3x + 12 – 3x – 5y + 12 – 25 – 3x – 5y – 13 3x + 5y + 13 = = = = = = y5 –3 5 (y + 5) 5y + 25 0 0 0  The equation of line CD is 3x + 5y + 13 = 0 (iii) Sol. D (– 1. 6). E (– 2. y1) E  (– 5. – 5)  (x1. – 2)  (x2. E (– 5. 7)  (x2.

x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2    (2 marks) (2 marks) x –4 y – (– 5) 4 – (– 3) = – 5 – 0 x –4 y5 = 43 –5 y5 –5 7 (y + 5) 7y + 35 0 0 0 x –4 = 7  – 5 (x – 4) =  – 5x + 20 =  – 5x – 7y + 20 – 35 =  – 5x – 7y – 15 =  5x + 7y + 15 =  The equation of line RT is 5x + 7y + 15 = 0 254 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . R (4. 2)  (x1. H (– 3. – 1)  (x2. 0) R  (4. T (– 3. x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –0 y –2  0 – (– 3) = 2 – (–1) y –2 x  = 21 3 x y –2  = 3 3  x = y–2  x–y+2 = 0  The equation of line GH is x – y + 2 = 0 (vi) Sol. y1) H  (– 3. y2) The equation of line GH by two point form is. – 5)  (x1. – 5). – 1) G  (0. 2). y1) T  (– 3. x2 –2  4 = x2  = 2  – 10 (x + 2) =  – 10x – 20 =  – 10x – 2y – 20 – 6 =  – 10x – 2y – 26 =  5x + y + 13 =  y3 –10 y3 –10 2 (y + 3) 2y + 6 0 0 0 [Dividing throughout by – 2]  The equation of line EF the 5x + y + 13 = 0 (v) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. G (0. y2) The equation of line RT by two point form is. 0)  (x2.

5) and (5. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 255 . – 7) Let. 5) and (4. 6) 5 (– 3.7) (ii) Sol.5. 3) and (4. y2) The line passes through points A and B  The equation of the line by two point form is x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2 x –0 y –5  = 0–5 5–6 x y –5  = –5 –1  x = 5 (y – 5)  x = 5y – 25  5y = x + 25 1  y = x+5 [Dividing throughout by 5] 5 1  y = x + 5 is the equation of the line passing through (0. (0. – 7)  (x2. 7) (2 marks) Let. (i) Sol. A  (0. 5)  (x1. 3)  (x1. y2) The line passes through points A and B  The equation of the line by two point form is x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x – (– 3) y –5  = –3 – 4 5 – (– 7) (2 marks) (iii) Sol. 7)  (x2. 5) and (5. A  (2. 6) (2 marks) Let. y2) The line passes through points A and B  The equation of the line by two point form is x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –2 y –3  = 2 –4 3–7 x –2 y –3  = –2 –4  4 (x – 2) = 2 (y – 3)  4x – 8 = 2y – 6  2y = 4x – 8 + 6  2y = 4x – 2  y = 2x – 1 [Dividing throughout by 2]  y = 2x – 1 is the equation of the line passing through (2. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . 6)  (x2.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 141) 5. y1) B  (4. Write the equation of the line passing through each of the pair of points given below in the form y = mx + c (2. A  (– 3. y1) B  (5. y1) B  (4. MT EDUCARE LTD. 3) and (4. 5)  (x1.

Sol. 8) are the vertices of ABC. B (5. – 5)  (x1. EXERCISE .    2 2   B (5. – 5) and (– 4. y2) The line passes through points A and B  The equation of the line by two point form is x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x – (– 2) y – (– 5)  = – 2 – (– 4) – 5 – (– 3) x2 y5  –2  4 = – 5  3 y5 x2  = –2 2  – 2 (x + 2) = 2 (y + 5)  – 2x – 4 = 2y + 10  2y = – 2x – 4 – 10  2y = – 2x – 14  y = –x–7 [Dividing throughout by 2]  y = – x – 7 is the equation of the line passing through (– 2. D     2 2   5  (– 2) 11  8  . Find the equation of the median AD. AD is one of the medians of the triangle. C (– 2. y1) B  (– 4. 8) Seg AD is median of ABC  D is the midpoint of seg BC  By midpoint theorem.  2 2  The equation of median AD by two point form is 256 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .    2  2  3 19    . 7). 5) and (4. B  (5. 146) 8. x3 –7 12 (x + 3) 12x + 36 7y 7y = = = = = y = y –5 12 – 7 (y – 5) – 7y + 35 – 12x + 35 – 36 – 12x – 1 –12 1 x – 7 7 [Dividing throughout by 7] –12 1 x – is the equation of the line passing through (– 3. C  (– 2. 11).   x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. – 5) and (– 4. 7) A  (3. – 3). – 3)  (x2. A  (– 2. A (3.5.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 11). 7). 11) D C (– 2. (3 marks) A (3.        y= (iv) Sol. 8)  5 – 2 9  . – 7) 7 7 (– 2. – 3) (2 marks) Let.

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

x – x1 x1 – x 2 = x –3  3 = 3– 2 x –3  = (6 – 3) 2 x –3  = –3 2 2 (x – 3)  = 3  5 (x – 3) =  5x – 15 =  5x – 3y – 15 + 21 =  5x – 3y + 6 =

y – y1 y1 – y 2 y –7 19 7– 2 y –7 (14 – 19)
y –7 –5 2 2 (y – 7) 5 3 (y – 7) 3y – 21 0 0

2

 The equation of median AD is 5x – 3y + 6 = 0. EXERCISE - 5.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 146) 9. Sol. P (– 3, 4), Q (2, 3), R (– 2, – 5) are the vertices of the PQR. Find the equations of all the medians of PQR. (5 marks) P  (– 3, 4), Q  (2, 3), R  (– 2, – 5) Let seg PA, seg QB and seg RC be the medians on the sides QR, PR and PQ respectively. P (– 3, 4)  A, B and C are the midpoints of sides QR, PR and PQ respectively  By midpoint formula,

B

A

    

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  ,    2 2 
 2  (– 2) 3  (– 5)  ,   2 2   2 – 2 3 – 5 ,   2   2 0 –2  ,  2 2  (0, – 1)  – 3  (– 2) 4  (– 5)  ,   2 2    –3 – 2 4 – 5 ,   2   2
Q (– 3, 4)

C

A

R (– 2, – 5)

B

  

 – 5 –1  ,   2   2
 –3  2 4  3 ,   2   2

C

 

 –1 7  ,   2 2 
257

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

GEOMETRY

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EDUCARE LTD.

By two point form, Equation of line PA is x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2  

x – (– 3) y –4 (– 3) – 0 = 4 – (–1)
= = = = =

x3 –3  5 (x + 3)  5x + 15  5x + 3y + 15 – 12  5x + 3y + 3

y –4 5 – 3 (y – 4) – 3y + 12 0 0
is y – y1 y1 – y 2 y –3  –1  3–   2 
y –3 1 3 2 y –3 (6  1) 2 2 (y – 3) 7 9 (y – 3) 9y – 27 0 0

     

Equation of line QB x – x1 x1 – x 2 = x –2 =  –5 2–   2  x –2 = 5 2 2 x –2 = (4  5) 2 2 (x – 2) = 9 7 (x – 2) = 7x – 14 = 7x – 9y – 14 + 27 = 7x – 9y + 13 =

       

Equation of line RC, x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2 x – (– 2) y – (– 5) = –1 (– 2) – (– 5) – 7 2 2 x 2 y5 = –5 – 7 –2  1 2 2 x2 y 5 (– 4  1) = (–10 – 7) 2 2 2 (x  2) 2 (y  5) = –3 –17 17 (x + 2) = 3 (y + 5) 17x + 34 = 3y + 15 17x – 3y + 34 – 15 = 0 17x – 3y + 19 = 0

 

 The equation of the median of PQR are 5x + 3y + 3 = 0, 7x – 9y + 13 = 0 and 17x – 3y + 19 = 0. 258
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

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EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

PROBLEM SET - 5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 201) 13. Sol. In triangle ABC the co-ordinates of vertices A, B and C are (4, 7), (– 2, 3) and (0, 1) respectively. Find the equation of medians passing through vertices A, B and C. (3 marks) A  (4, 7), B  (– 2, 3), C  (0, 1) Let, seg AD, seg BE and seg CF be the medians on sides BC, AC and AB respectively.  D, E and F are the midpoints of sides BC, AC and AB respectively. By midpoint formula, A (4, 7) D

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  ,     2 2 

E

 – 2 + 0 3 + 1 ,     2 2   – 2 4 ,    2 2   (– 1, 2)
E
B (– 2, 3)

F

D

C (0, 1)

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  ,     2 2 
 4  0 7  1 ,    2   2

4 8   ,  2 2  (2, 4)
F

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  ,     2 2 

 4  (– 2) 7  3  ,    2 2    4 – 2 10  ,    2   2 2    , 5 2    (1, 5) By two point form, The equation of median AD, x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2
     

x –4 y –7 4 – (– 1) = 7 – 2
x –4 y –7 4+ 1 = 5

x –4 5 x–4 x–y–4+7 x–y+3

y –7 5 = y–7 = 0 = 0
= 259

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

GEOMETRY

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

The equation of the median BE x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2 x – (– 2) y –3  = –2 – 2 3–4     

   

x2 –4 x+2 x+2 x – 4y + 2 + 12 x – 4y + 14 The equation of x – x1 x1 – x 2 x –0 0 –1 x –1 4x 4x – y + 1

y –3 –1 = 4 (y – 3) = 4y – 12 = 0 = 0 the median CF y – y1 = y – y 1 2 y –1 = 1–5 y –1 = –4 = y–1 = 0
=

 The equation of the medians of ABC are x – y + 3 = 0, x – 4y + 14 = 0 and 4x – y + 1 = 0 PROBLEM SET - 5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 201) 14. Sol. A (5, 4), B (– 3, – 2) and C (1, – 8) are the vertices of a triangle ABC. Find the equation of median AD and line parallel to AC passing through point B. (3 marks) A  (5, 4), B  (– 3, – 2), C  (1, – 8) seg AD is the median of seg BC  D is midpoint of seg BC

 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  ,  D     2 2   – 3 + 1 – 2 + (– 8) ,     2  2 – 2 – 2 – 8   ,     2 2  –10   –1 ,     2   (– 1, – 5) By two point form, The equation of median AD x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –5 y –4  = 5 – (–1) 4 – (– 5) x –5 y –4  = 5 +1 4+5 x –5 y –4  = 6 9
260
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

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EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

 9 (x – 5)  9x – 45  9x – 6y – 45 + 24  9x – 6y – 21  3x – 2y – 7

= = = = =

6 (y – 4) 6y – 24 0 0 0

[Dividing throughout by 3]

 The equation of median AD is 3x – 2y – 7 = 0

 

    

y 2 – y1 = x – x 2 1 –8 – 4 = 1–5 –12 = –4 = 3 Slope of parallel lines are equal Slope of the line parallel to line AC is 3 The line passes through B (– 3, – 2) The equation of the line parallel to line AC passing through point B by the slope point form is y – y1 = m (x – x1) y – (– 2) = 3 [x – (– 3)] y + 2 = 3 (x + 3) y + 2 = 3x + 9 3x – y + 9 – 2 = 0 3x – y + 7 = 0
Slope of line AC

 The equation of the line parallel to AC passing through point B is 3x – y + 7 = 0 PROBLEM SET - 5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 201) 11. Sol. Find the equation of the line which passes through (2, 7) and whose y-intercept is 3. (2 marks) Let A  (2, 7) The y intercept of the line is 3  The line intersects the y-axis at point (0, 3) Let B  (0, 3) The line passes through point A and B  The equation of the line AB By two point form x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –2 y –7  = 2–0 7–3 x –2 y –7  = 2 4  4 (x – 2) = 2 (y – 7)  4x – 8 = 2y – 14  4x – 2y – 8 + 14 = 0  4x – 2y + 6 = 0  2x – y + 3 = 0 [Dividing throughout by 2]  The required equation of the line is 2x – y + 3 = 0
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

261

GEOMETRY

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

(III) Equation of a line in double intercept form :
If a line l has x intercept a and y intercept b then, the equation of line l is

x y + =1 a b

EXERCISE - 5.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 141) 6. (i) Sol. Convert the equation in y = mx + c form :

x y + =1 (1 mark) (ii) 2 3 x y  =1 Sol. 2 3 Multiplying throughout by 3, 3x  y =3 2 – 3x 3  y= 2

x y – =1 (1 mark) 3 4 x y – =1 3 4 Multiplying throughout by 4, 4x – y =4 3 4x –4  y= 3

(iii) Sol.

x y + =1 – 4 –1 x y  – 4 –1 = 1 –x – y =1  4 –1 x –1  y= 4

(1 mark) (iv) Sol.

x y + =2 (1 mark) 4 3 x y  =2 4 3 Multiplying throughout by 3, 3x  y =6  4
 y=

– 3x 6 4

EXERCISE - 5.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 146) 3. (i) Sol. Write the equation of each of the following line in double intercept form and write x intercept and y intercept. (2 marks) x+y=2 x+y=2 Dividing throughout by 2,

x y  =1 2 2  x intercept of line x + y = 2 is 2 y intercept of line x + y = 2 is 2
 (ii) Sol. 2x – y = 3 2x – y = 3 Dividing throughout by 3,   (2 marks)

2x y – =1 3 3 x y  =1 3 –3 2 3 2 y intercept of line 2x – y = 3 is – 3
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

 x intercept of line 2x – y = 3 is

262

EDUCARE LTD.   2x 3y 7  = 7 7 7 x y  7 7 =1 2 3 7 2 7 3 (2 marks)  x intercept of line 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 is y intercept of line 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 is (vi) Sol. 2x – y = 11 2x – y = 11 Dividing throughout by 11. 4x y 7 –  = 7 7 7 x y   =1 7 –7 4  x intercept of line 4x – y – 7 = 0 is 7 4 y intercept of line 4x – y – 7 = 0 is – 7 (2 marks) (v) Sol. GEOMETRY 3x + y = 4 3x + y = 4 Dividing throughout by 4. 2x y 11 –  = 11 11 11 x y  11  =1 –11 2  x intercept of line 2x – y = 11 is 11 2 y intercept of line 2x – y = 11 is – 11 263 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 4x – y – 7 = 0 4x – y – 7 = 0  4x – y = 7 Dividing throughout by 7. MT (iii) Sol.   (2 marks) 3x y 4  = 4 4 4 x y  =1 4 4 3 4 3 y intercept of line 3x + y = 4 is 4 (2 marks)  x intercept of line 3x + y = 4 is (iv) Sol. 2x + 3y – 7 = 0 2x + 3y – 7 = 0  2x + 3y = 7 Dividing throughout by 7.

(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). y=     2 x–4 ... 2 x–4 0 = 3 2 x = 4 3 3 x = 4× 2 x = 2×3 x = 6 y = 2 x–4 3 (2 marks)  The x intercept of the line y = 2 x – 4 is 6 3 Substituting x = 0 in equation (i). (i) Sol...GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .5...(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). 146) EDUCARE LTD. y–0 = –5  y = –5  The y intercept of the line y – x = – 5 is – 5 (2 marks) (iii) Sol.. 0–x = –5  –x = –5  x = 5  The x intercept of the line y – x = – 5 is 5 Substituting x = 0 in equation (i).... y–x=–5 y–x = –5 .4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.(i) 3 Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). y = 2 (0) – 3  y = 0–3  y = –3  The y intercept of the line y = 2x – 3 is – 3 (2 marks) (ii) Sol.... Find x and y intercepts of each of the line : y = 2x – 3 y = 2x – 3 . 0 = 2x – 3  2x = 3 3  x = 2 3  The x intercept of the line y = 2x – 3 is 2 Substituting x = 0 in equation (i). 2 (0) – 4 y = 3  y = –4  The y intercept of the line y = 264 2 x – 4 is – 4 3 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .. 1..

= 0 = 0 5x = 2 7 2 1 x = × 7 5 2 x = 35 2 2 = 0 is 7 35  The x intercept of the line 5x – y – Substituting x = 0 in equation (i).. 5 =0 3 5 3x + y – 3 Substituting 5 3x + 0 – 3 5  3x – 3 3x + y – (2 marks) = 0 .(i) y = 0 in equation (i). GEOMETRY 2 =0 7 2 5x – y – 7 Substituting 2 5x – 0 – 7 2  5x – 7 5x – y –    (2 marks) = 0 .... EDUCARE LTD.(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). x + 2 (0) – 6 = 0  x–6 = 0  x = 6 2 –2 = 0 is 7 7 (2 marks)  The x intercept of the line x + 2y – 6 = 0 is 6 Substituting 0 + 2y – 6  2y  y x = 0 in equation (i). MT (iv) Sol.......(i) y = 0 in equation (i). = 0 = 6 = 3  The y intercept of the line x + 2y – 6 = 0 is 3 (vi) Sol... 2 = 0 5 (0) – y – 7 2  –y– = 0 7 –2  y = 7  The y intercept of the line 5x – y – (v) Sol..... = 0 = 0 265 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .. x + 2y – 6 = 0 x + 2y – 6 = 0 .

(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). 3 (0) – 2x + 5 = 0  0 – 2x + 5 = 0  – 2x + 5 = 0  – 2x = – 5 5  x = 2 5 5 = 0 is 3 3 (2 marks)  The x intercept of the line 3y – 2x + 5 = 0 is Substituting 3y – 2(0) + 5  3y + 5  3y  x = 0 in equation (i). 5 = 0 3 (0) + y – 3 5  0+y– = 0 3 5  y = 3  The y intercept of the line 3x + y – (vii) Sol... 7x + 6y – 1 = 0 7x + 6y – 1 = 0 .(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i)..... = 0 = 0 = –5 –5 y = 3 5 2  The y intercept of the line 3y – 2x + 5 = 0 is (viii) Sol...GEOMETRY  MT 3x = x = x = EDUCARE LTD.. 3y – 2x + 5 = 0 3y – 2x + 5 = 0 .. 7x + 6 (0) – 1 = 0  7x – 1 = 0  7x = 1 1  x = 7  The x intercept of the line 7x + 6y – 1 = 0 is Substituting x = 0 in equation (i).    5 3 5 1 × 3 3 5 9 5 5 = 0 is 3 9  The x intercept of the line 3x + y – Substituting x = 0 in equation (i)... 266 –5 3 (2 marks) 1 7 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .

GEOMETRY  7 (0) + 6y – 1 = 0  6y – 1 = 0  6y = 1 1  y = 6  The y intercept of the line 7x + 6y – 1 = 0 is (ix) Sol. 146) 2....4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. MT EDUCARE LTD.....(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i). Find the slope and y intercept for each of the following line : 2x – 3y = 7 (2 marks) 2x – 3y = 7  2x – 3y – 7 = 0 – coefficient of x –2 2 Slope of line 2x – 3y = 7 is coefficient of y = – 3 = 3 267 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (i) Sol.(i) Substituting y = 0 in equation (i).5. 4 (0) – 7y = 0  – 7y = 0  y = 0  The y intercept of the line 4x – 7y = 0 is 0 (2 marks) 1 6 (2 marks) ` General equation of a line : The general equation of line is ax + by + c = 0 – coefficient of x Slope of the line = m = coefficient of y – co ns tant term x intercept of the line = coefficient of x – co ns tant term y intercept of the line = coefficient of y EXERCISE . 4x – 7(0) = 0  4x = 0  x = 0  The x intercept of the line 4x – 7y = 0 is 0 Substituting x = 0 in equation (i).... y – 3 (0) = 0  y–0 = 0  y = 0  The y intercept of the line y – 3x = 0 is 0 (x) Sol. y – 3x = 0 y – 3x = 0 . 4x – 7y = 0 4x – 7y = 0 ... 0 – 3x = 0  – 3x = 0  x = 0  The x intercept of the line y – 3x = 0 is 0 Substituting x = 0 in equation (i).

– coefficient of x –4 Slope of line 4x – y = 0 is coefficient of y = –1 = 4  Slope of line 4x – y = 0 is 4. y – 3x – 6 = 0 y – 3x – 6 = 0  – 3x + y – 6 = 0 (2 marks) 2 3 – coefficient of x – (– 3) =3 Slope of line y – 3x – 6 = 0 is coefficient of y = 1  Slope of line y – 3x – 6 = 0 is 3. 2y + 2x – 5 = 0 2y + 2x – 5 = 0  2x + 2y – 5 = 0 (2 marks) – coefficient of x –2 =–1 Slope of line 2x + 2y – 5 = 0 is coefficient of y = 2  Slope of line 2x + 2y – 5 = 0 is – 1. (iii) Sol. 268 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . – coefficient of x –8 Slope of line 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 is coefficient of y = – 4 = 2  Slope of line 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 is 2.  Slope of line 2x – 3y = 7 is – cons tan t term – (– 7) –7 y intercept of line 2x – 3y = 7 is coefficient of y = – 3 = 3 –7  y intercept of line 2x – 3y = 7 is 3 (ii) Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 7x – y + 3 = 0 7x – y + 3 = 0 (2 marks) – coefficient of x –7 Slope of line 7x – y + 3 = 0 is coefficient of y = –1 = 7  Slope of line 7x – y + 3 = 0 is 7. – cons tan t term – (– 5) 5 y intercept of line 2x + 2y – 5 = 0 is coefficient of y = = 2 2 5  y intercept of line 2x + 2y – 5 = 0 is . 2 (iv) Sol. – cons tan t term – (– 6) y intercept of line y – 3x – 6 = 0 is coefficient of y = =6 1  y intercept of line y – 3x – 6 = 0 is 6. 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 (2 marks) (vi) Sol. – cons tan t term –3 y intercept of line 7x – y + 3 = 0 is coefficient of y = –1 = 3  y intercept of line7x – y + 3 = 0 is 3. 4x – y = 0 4x – y = 0 (2 marks) (v) Sol. – cons tan t term –0 y intercept of line 4x – y = 0 is coefficient of y = –1 = 0  y intercept of line 4x – y = 0 is 0.

– co ns tant term –12 = coefficient of y –4 = 3     – cons tan t term –12 x intercept of the line = coefficient of x = = – 4 3 The line intersects the X-axis at point A Its y-co-ordinate is 0 A  (– 4. 0) The line intersects the Y-axis at point B Its x-co-ordinate is 0 B  (0. 8 – cons tan t term –2 1 y intercept of line 5x – 8y = – 2 is coefficient of y = – 8 = 4  y intercept of line 5x – 8y = – 2 is 1 . 2 – cons tan t term – (– 3) 3 –3 y intercept of line 5x – 2y = 3 is coefficient of y = – 2 = – 2 = 2  y intercept of line 5x – 2y = 3 is (viii) Sol. GEOMETRY – cons tan t term – (–1) 1 –1 y intercept of line 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 is coefficient of y = – 4 = – 4 = 4  y intercept of line 8x – 4y – 1 = 0 is (vii) Sol. 5x – 2y = 3 5x – 2y = 3  5x – 2y – 3 = 0 –1 . 3) 269 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . MT EDUCARE LTD. 5x – 8y = – 2 5x – 8y = – 2  5x – 8y + 2 = 0 –3 2 (2 marks) – coefficient of x –5 5 Slope of line 5x – 8y = – 2 is coefficient of y = – 8 = 8 5  Slope of line 5x – 8y = – 2 is . find the length of AB. The equation of a line is 3x – 4y + 12 = 0. 4 PROBLEM SET . find the co-ordinates of points A and B. (3 marks) The equation of line is 3x – 4y + 12 = 0 y intercept of the line = Sol. 4 (2 marks) – coefficient of x –5 5 Slope of line 5x – 2y = 3 is coefficient of y = – 2 = 2  Slope of line 5x – 2y = 3 is 5 . It intersects X-axis in point A and y-axis in point B.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 200) 10.

146) 5. By Distance formula. – 5) and parallel to x – 2y – 7 = 0. Sol. Sol.5.5. AB (x 2 – x1 )2  (y 2 – y1 )2 [0 – (– 4)]2  (3 – 0)2 (0  4)2  32 42  32 16  9 = 25 = 5 units  l (AB) = 5 units EXERCISE . 3x + 4y – 10 = 0 – coefficient of x –3 Slope of the given line is coefficient of y = 4 The required line is parallel to the given line –3  Slope of the required line is 4 –3 The required line whose slope is passes through point (2. (3 marks) The equation of the given line is x – 2y – 7 = 0 – coefficient of x –1 1 = coefficient of y –2 = 2 The required line is parallel to the given line 1  Slope of the required line is 2 1 The required line whose slope is passes through (– 3. – 5) 2  Slope of the given line is 270 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Find the equation of the line passing through (– 3. (3 marks) The equation of the given line is 3x + 4y = 10 i. – 1) 4  The equation of the line by slope point form is (y – y1) = m (x – x1) –3  y – (– 1) = (x – 2) 4 –3  y+1 = (x – 2) 4  4 (y + 1) = – 3 (x – 2)  4y + 4 = – 3x + 6  3x + 4y + 4 – 6 = 0  3x + 4y – 2 = 0  The equation of the line passing through (2. –1) and parallel to 3x + 4y = 10 is 3x + 4y – 2 = 0. EXERCISE .. –1) and parallel to 3x + 4y = 10. Find the equation of the line passing through (2.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 146) 4.e.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.GEOMETRY  MT = = = = = EDUCARE LTD.

5. 0) –4 and passes through point A (– 3. (i) Sol. GEOMETRY  The equation of the line by slope point form is.. 0) Let A  (– 3. 141) 7. 4x + 3y – 5 = 0 – coefficient of x –4 Slope of the given line 4x + 3y = 5 is coefficient of y = 3 The required line is parallel to the given line –4  Slope of the required line is 3 The required line has x intercept – 3  The line intersects the X-axis at point (– 3. MT EDUCARE LTD.5.e. x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2 x –0 y –0  = 0 – (– 3) 0 – 5 (1 mark) (2 marks) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 271 . (3 marks) The equation of the given line is 4x + 3y = 5 i. (y – y1) = (x – x1) 1  y – (– 5) = [ x – (– 3)] 2 1  y+5 = (x + 3) 2  2 (y + 5) = x + 3  2y + 10 = x + 3  x – 2y + 3 – 10 = 0  x – 2y – 7 = 0  The equation of the line passing through (– 3. Find the equation of the line parallel to 4x + 3y = 5 and having x-intercept (– 3). Sol. y1) A  (– 3. 5)  (x2. (ii) Sol. EXERCISE . 0) The required line has slope 3  The equation of the line by slope point form is. Write the equation of each of the following line : The X-axis and Y-axis The equation of X-axis is y = 0 The equation of Y-axis is x = 0 The line passing through the origin and the point (– 3. 5) Let O  (0. 0)  (x1. y – y1 = m (x – x1) –4  x – (– 3)  y–0 = 3  3y = – 4 (x + 3)  3y = – 4x – 12  4x + 3y + 12 = 0  The equation of required line is 4x + 3y + 12 = 0 EXERCISE . 146) 6. – 5) and parallel to x – 2y – 7 = 0 is x – 2y – 7 = 0.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. y2)  The equation of line OA by two point form is.

2m – 1) lies on the line Let. 5)  (x2. 4) is y = 4. (1 mark) The equation of the line parallel to Y-axis and passing through the point (– 3. 3m 2 (2m – 1) –  = –1 5 3 272 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 5) is 5x + 3y = 0. The line passing through the points (3. Sol. (iii) Sol. B  (4. 3)  (x1. 3) and (4. y2)  The equation of line AB by two point form is. 4). 4) and having slope 5. 3) and (4. 5). 5 3 (2 marks) 3x 2y – = – 1 5 3  Co-ordinates of point A satisfies the equation. y1). x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –2 y –3  2–4 = 3–5 x –2 y –3  = –2 –2  x–2 = y–3  x–y–2+3 = 0  x–y+1 = 0 (2 marks)  The equation of the line passing through the points (2. 4)  (x1. Point (m. A  (m. HOTS PROBLEM (Problems for developing Higher Order Thinking Skill) 36. y1) and m = 5 The equation of the line passing through A and having slope 5 by slope point form is. (vi) Sol. The line parallel to X-axis and passing through the point (– 3. 4) and having slope 5 is 5x – y – 11 = 0. The line parallel to Y-axis and passing through the point (– 3. 5). Let A  (2. (2 marks) Let A  (3. y x = –5 3  – 5x = 3y  5x + 3y = 0   The equation of the line passing through the origin and the point (– 3. The line passing through the points (2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. (v) Sol. 5) is x = – 3. 2m – 1) Point A lies on the line 3x 2y – = –1 find m. y – y1 = m (x – x1)  y – 4 = 5 (x – 3)  y – 4 = 5x – 15  5x – y – 15 + 4 = 0  5x – y – 11 = 0  The equation of the line passing through the points (3. 5) is x – y + 1 = 0 (iv) Sol. (1 mark) The equation of the line parallel to X-axis and passing through the point (– 3.

1). 1) and B (– 3. 25 11 – 15 – 15 – 15 – 10 – 25 25 m = 11 The line x – 6y + 11 = 0 bisects the segment joining (8. MT EDUCARE LTD. Justify.  P   2   2 –1  k    P  4 . (3 marks) Let.  x1  x 2 y1  y 2  . The point P divides the segment AB joining points A (2. 6) Point P divides seg AB internally in the ratio 2 : 3  By section formula for internal division.  –1  k  4–6    2  4 – 3 (– 1 + k) 4 + 3 – 3k 7 – 3k – 3k + 11 = 0 + + + + – 11 11 11 18 3k k = = = = = = 0 0 0 0 – 18 6  The value of k is 6. 6) in the ratio 2 : 3. (4 marks) Proof : Let A  (2. Sol. k) Let.  5 5   P  (0.  P    5   5  0 15   P   . – 1) and (0. B  (0.       3m   2 (2m – 1)  15   – 15   5 3     3 (3m) – 5 (4m – 2) 9m – 20m + 10 – 11m – 11m = 15 (– 1) = = = =  The value of m is 37. – 1). k) find the value of k. P   mn   mn   2 (– 3)  3 (2) 2 (6)  3 (1)  .  lies on line x – 6y + 11 = 0 2    Co-ordinates of point P satisfies the equation. GEOMETRY Multiplying throughout by 15. Does P lie on the line x – 5y + 15 = 0.  mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1  . A  (8.       38. 3) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 273 . P   2 2    8  0 –1  k  .   P   23 23    6  6 12  3  .  2   –1  k   Point P  4 . line x – 6y + 11 = 0 bisect seg AB at point P  Point P is the midpoint of seg AB By midpoint formula. B  (– 3.

(ii) Slope of line CB = cot (90 – 120) [tan  = cot (90 – )] Slope of line CB = cot – 30 Slope of line CB = – cot 30 Slope of line CB = – 3 Find the value of k so that PQ will be parallel to RS where P (2. 4). R (8.F.B . 3) lies on the x – 5y + 15 = 0 39.S..H. Q (3.. 4).S. 6). (4 marks) C 120º A 60º 60º • B F X O Y D E • M X Construction : Extend ray CA and ray CB intersecting the X-axis at points D and E respectively. Take point M as shown in the figure.. of the equation L.. (2 marks) P  (2. CBF  CEM [Converse of corresponding angles test] m CEM = 120º Inclination of line CB is 120º Slope of line CB = tan 120º .H. k) Line PQ is parallel to line RS  Slope of line PQ = Slope of line RS S C H O O L S E C TI O N 274 ...S. 1). Sol. Sol.  Point P (0. R  (8. Q  (3.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. Extend ray AB upto point F such that A .. = x – 5y + 15 = 0 – 5 (3) + 15 = 0 – 15 + 15 = 0 = R.(i) line AB || X axis On transversal CE. Slope of side AC = tan 60º = 3 m CBF + m CBA = 180 [Linear pair axiom] m CBF + 60 = 180 m CBF = 180 – 60 m CBF = 120º . CAB  CDE [Converse of corresponding angles test] But... Given equation of the line is x – 5y + 15 = 0 Substituting x = 0 and y = 3 on the L. S  (10.. Find the slopes of all sides.H. The side AB of an equilateral Y triangle ABC is parallel to X-axis. 1) and S (10. 6). m CAB = 60º [Angle of equialteral triangle]  m CDE = 60º  The inclination of line AC is 60º             40. k). ABC is an equilateral triangle side AB || X axis [Given] Slope of X axis is 0  Slope of side AB is 0 [Slopes of parallel lines are equal] line AB || X axis [Given]  On transversal CD.

. 1) and O  (0. k –1 = 10 – 8 k –1 = 2 = k–1 = 4+1 = 5 Find the equation of the straight line passing through the origin and the point of intersection of the lines x + 2y = 7 and x – y = 4..(i) x–y=4 .  x=5 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 275 . 1) The straight line passes through A  (5.. 0) Let line y = 4 and x = 5 intersect at point B  B  (5. Find the equation of the diagonals. x–1 = 4  x = 4+1  x = 5  A  (5. Sol.(ii) Subtracting (ii) from (i). Sol.. Lines x = 5 and y = 4 form a rectangle with coordinate axes. (4 marks) Let line y = 4 intersect the Y-axis at point A  A  (0. (3 marks) Let line x + 2y = 7 and x – y = 4 intersect at point A x + 2y = 7 . 4) X X The origin O  (0. 0)  The equation of the line by two point form..... 4) Y Let line x = 5 intersect the X-axis at point C y=4 B A  C  (5. y – y1 x – x1 = y1 – y 2 x1 – x 2 x –5 y –1  5 – 0 = 1–0 x –5 y –1  = 5 1  x – 5 = 5 (y – 1)  x – 5 = 5y – 5  x – 5y – 5 + 5 = 0  x – 5y = 0  The equation of the line passing through the origin and the point of intersection of the lines x + 2y = 7 and x – y = 4 is x – 5y = 0.. 42. 0) O C ABCO is a rectangle seg AC and seg BO are the diagonals Y Equation of line AC by two point form. GEOMETRY       41.. MT EDUCARE LTD. x + 2y = 7 x – y = 4 (–) (+) (–) 3y = 3  y = 1 Substituting y = 1 in equation (ii).. 6–4 3–2 2 1 4 k k Value of k is 5.

B  (4. 6).  E    2 2   1 + 3 2  5   . 5) are the vertices of a triangle ABC. Find the equation of the line passing through the mid points of AB and (4 marks) AC.    2 2  7  2.     2 The required line passes through points D and E  The equation of the line by two point form. 2). x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x – 52 y –4  5 –2 = 4–7 2 2 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 276 . C  (3.  2 2 5    . 43. 2). A  (1.  D    2 2   1  4 2  6   .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.     2 2  5 8   . 4 2  Point E is the midpoint of side AC  x1  x 2 y1  y 2  .     2 2   4 7 . Equation of line BD by two point from ix. B (4. 0). Sol. 5) Let D and E be the midpoints of sides AB and AC respectively Point D is the midpoint of side AB  x1  x 2 y1  y 2  .            x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –0 y –4 = 0–5 4–0 x y –4 = –5 4 4x = – 5 (y – 4) – 5y + 20 = 4x 4x + 5y – 20 = 0 Equation of diagonal AC is 4x + 5y – 20 = 0. C (3. If the points A (1. x – x1 y – y1 = x1 – x 2 y1 – y 2 x –5 y –4 = 5–0 4–0 x –5 y –4 = 5 4 4 (x – 5) = 5 (y – 4) 5y – 20 = 4x – 20 4x – 5y = 0  Equation of diagonal BD is 4x – 5y = 0.

.. (5 marks) Let point P be the point of intersection of lines 4x + 3y + 2 = 0 and 6x + 5y + 6 = 0 4x + 3y + 2 = 0  4x + 3y = –2 . MT EDUCARE LTD..45º . GEOMETRY 2x  – 5 2 2x – 5  = 5–4  2x – 5 =  2x – 5 =  2x – 2y – 5 + 8 =  2x – 2y + 3 = 5 – 4 2 =  8 – 7 y –4 2 (y – 4) 1 2 2 (y – 4) 2y – 8 0 0  The equation of the required line is 2x – 2y + 3 = 0 44.(iii) 277 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .(i) Multiplying throughout by 3 we get. OP = 2 2 units OAP = 45 In OPA. (3 marks) Let line l be the line making an angle of 45º with positive X axis at point A Slope of line l = tan 45 = 1 Let seg OP  line l as shown in the figure. Find the equation of the line making an angle of 45º with positive X-axis and at a distance 2 2 from the origin..45º . X O A 45º • C X 2 2 Y P OA = 2 2  2 OA = 4 units A is at distance of 4 from the origin A  (4.. 1 OP = OA 2 2 2 = 2 2 OA [Given] [Vertically opposite angles] Y B•             45. 0) line l has slope 1 and passes through point A  (4. Sol. 0) Equation of l by slope point (y – y1) = m (x – x1) y – 0 = 1 (x – 4) y=x–4 x–y–4=0 Find the equation of the line passing through the point of intersection of 4x + 3y + 2 = 0 and 6x + 5y + 6 = 0 and the point of intersection of lines 4x – 3y – 17 = 0 and 2x + 3y + 5 = 0......(ii) 6x + 5y + 6 = 0  6x + 5y = –6 ..90º triangle theorem. Sol...  12x + 9y = –6 . m OPA = 90º m OAP = 45º m PAO = 45º OPA is a 45º .90º triangle By 45º .

12x + 9y = – 6 – 12x – 10y = 12 –y = 6 y = –6 Substituting y = – 6 in equation (i).(iv) Adding (ii) and (iv). 4x – 3 (– 3) = 17 4x + 9 = 17 4x = 17 – 9 4x = 8 x = 2 Q  (2... 4x + 3 (– 6) = – 2 4x – 18 = – 2 4x = – 2 + 18 4x = 16 16 x = 4 x = 4 P  (4.(v) 2x + 3y + 5 = 0 2x + 3y = – 5 .(vi) Multiplying throughout by – 2 we get. y – y1 x – x1 = y1 – y 2 x1 – x 2         278 y – (–6) x –4 = –6 – (–3) 4–2 y6 x –4 = –6  3 2 y6 x –4 = –3 2 2 (y + 6) = – 3 (x – 4) 2y + 12 = – 3x + 12 3x + 2y + 12 – 12 = 0 3x + 2y = 0 The required equation of line is 3x + 2y = 0... 4x – 3y = 17 – 4x – 6y = 10 – 9y = 27 y = –3 Substituting y = – 3 in equation (v)....... – 3) The equation of line PQ by two point from.. – 12x – 10y = 12 .                 Multiplying throughout by – 2 we get.... S C H O O L S E C TI O N .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.. – 6) Let Q be the point of intersection of lines 4x – 3y – 17 = 0 and 2x + 3y + 5 = 0 4x – 3y – 17 = 0 4x – 3y = 17 .. – 4x – 6y = 10 .(vii) Adding (v) and (vii)..

What is the equation of 2 (b) (d) 2y = – x + 10 2y = x + 5 9. – 5) and (– 2. 2). 5) lie on a line. 3) is a point on the line 3y = mx – 1 then what is the value of m ? –5 2 (c) – 2 (a) 7. (b) (d) 5 2 2 The slope of a line is 4 and y-intercept is – 3. For what value of x will be points (x. (b) (d) –2 5 2. if D (m.n=1 (d) m = . – 5).n=–1 2 2 279 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . What is the slope of a line having inclination 45º ? 1 (b) (a) 3 3 (c) 2 (d) 1 If the slope of a line joining the points (2. – 2) is the midpoint of the segment joining (– 3. – 1) and C (2. n) and (2. MT EDUCARE LTD. k) and (–3. 1) and (4. GEOMETRY MCQ’s 1. then its equation is (a) y = 4x – 3 (b) y = 4x + 3 (c) y = – 4x – 3 (d) y = – 4x + 3 The slope of a line is line ? (a) 2y = x – 10 (c) 2y = – x – 5 8. What is the slope of line AC ? (a) 4 (b) – 4 (c) 5. –1 1 (a) m = 1. What are the values of m and n. 1 4 (d) –1 4 6. – 1) (2. – 4) is is the value of k ? (a) – 1 (c) – 4 (b) (d) 1 4 1 then what 2 4. 2 then what is 5 If the slope of a line joining the points (k. B (– 2. If (– 4. (a) 1 (b) – 1 (c) 4 (d) 2 A (1. – 2) are the vertices of ABC. –1 and its y-intercept is 5. 0) is the value of k ? (a) 2 (c) – 5 3. n = (b) m = – 1 n = 2 2 –1 –1 (c) m = .

.. 1 4 (d) –1 4 15. then the equation of line is . (3k... . 1) are collinear then what is the value of k ? –1 1 (b) (a) 3 3 (c) – 3 (d) 3 What is the slope of line (a) (c) 11... – 3) (c) (3.... (a) (– 3. 7) and C (– 4.. The vertices of ABC are A (3.... . (a) 4 (b) – 4 (c) 13.. 3k) and (3..... 14. –3 5 –3 5 x – x (b) y = (a) y = 2 2 2 2 3 5 3 5 (c) y = x – (d) y = x  2 2 2 2 The point (4.. – 3) lies on the 5x + 8y = c. in slope intercept form is . ...... y – 2 = 4 (x + 3) passes through the point . 17. is .. – 4). – 2) (d) (– 2.. The slope of a line is 3 and y intercept is – 4.. then the value of c is ... B (5. 2 18...3) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 280 . ....... . If the points (k. 1 (a) 3 (b) 3 –1 (c) – 3 (d) 3 The equation of a line passing through origin with slope m = (a) 3x – 2y = 0 (c) 2x + 3y = 0 (b) (d) 3x + 2y = 0 2x – 3y = 0 16. . 5)....... .... Then the slope of seg BC is : 2 9 (b) (a) 9 2 –2 –9 (c) (d) 9 2 The equation of line 2y – 3x + 5 = 0. 3 .. 2) (b) (2. x y – 2 ? 3 4 (b) (d) –4 3 –3 4 4 3 3 4 12.. 2k).. (a) y = 3x + 4 (b) y = 3x – 4 (c) y = – 3x + 4 (d) y = – 3x – 4 Slope of the line 3 (x + 3) = y – 1.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.... 10......

. The equation of a line parallel to y = – 3x + 2 and passing through point (3. ... 14........ 13.. ..... x y x y  1  1 7 7 7 –7 (a) (b)    4 4 x y x y  1  1 – 7   – 7  –7 7 (c)  (d)      4   4  Equation of X-axis is . 5.... (a) 2 (d) 2 –5 (a) 2 (b) 2y = – x + 10 –1 (a) 3 2 (a) 9 (b) – 4 (a) 3 (a) (– 3. 12. ...... GEOMETRY The slope of the line y – 3x – 6 = 0 is . 7) and whose y-intercept is 3 is .... (a) x = – 3 (b) x = 3 (c) y = – 4 (d) y = 4 The equation of a line passing through the point (2...... 5) is . EDUCARE LTD..... 17..... 4) is ... 16........ 7. (a) 2x – y + 3 = 0 (b) 2x – y – 3 = 0 (c) 2x + y + 3 = 0 (d) 2x + y – 3 = 0 The line y = – 3x lies in the .. (a) I and II (b) II and IV (c) III and IV (d) IV and III 23... 8... 1 –1 (b) (a) 3 3 (c) 3 (d) – 3 The equation of line 4x – y – 7 = 0 in the double intercept form is . 9. 25.. (d) 1 (c) – 4 (b) – 4 (a) y = 4x – 3 –1 . (a) y – 3 = – 3 (x – 5) (b) y – 5 = – 3 (x – 3) (c) y – 5 = 2 (x – 3) (d) y – 3 = 2 (x – 5) Equation of a line parallel to X-axis and passing through (– 3. 24.... MT 19. . .. 3.... 21.. 22........ 10. 15. (a) x = 0 (c) x = k (b) (d) y=0 y=k 20. 6....... 2) 281 3 5 x – 2 2 (b) y = 3x – 4 (c) y = (a) 3x – 2y = 0 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ...n=1 (c) m = 2 4 (b) 3 2. : ANSWERS : 1... 4...... 11. quadrant.. . 18.

21. Sol. 23. c = – 3  By slope point form. 0) is x = 3. If m = 5 and c = – 3. Sol. 25. Sol. Write the slope of line 2y = 3x – 5. Sol. 2y = 3x – 5 3 5  y= x – [Dividing throughout by 2] 2 2 Comparing the above equation with slope intercept form y = mx + c we get m =  3 2 3 2 Slope of line is 3. Sol. the equation of line is y = mx + c  y = 5x – 3  5x – y – 3 = 0 5. 0). x y  1 –7 (a) 7 4 (b) y – 5 = – 3 (x – 3) EDUCARE LTD. Write the y-intercept of the line 3y = 2x + 7 3y = 2x + 7 2 7  y= x [Dividing throughout by 3] 3 2 Comparing the above equation with slope intercept form y = mx + c we get c =  7 2 7 2 y-intercept of line is 4.GEOMETRY  MT 20. S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 19. Equation of a line parallel to Y-axis and passing through point (3. m = 5. 282 Write the equation of X-axis. 6. 24. 22. then write the equation of the line. Sol. inclination is 45º. 45º tan  tan 45º 1 2. Equation of X-axis is y = 0 Write the equation of a line parallel to Y-axis and passing through point(3. (c) 3 (b) y = 0 (d) y = 4 (b) II and IV (a) 2x – y + 3 = 0 1 Mark Sums 1. Find the slope of a line whose Inclination of the line () =  Slope of the line = = =  Slope of the line is 1.

Equation of the line passing through origin y = 3x y-co-ordinate of a point lying on this line is 3 [Given]  3 = 3x 3  x= 3  x=1 A line has the equation y = 3x – 2. 60º tan  tan 60 3 3. if its y-coordinate is 3. Equation of a line parallel to Y-axis and passing through the poitn (3. GEOMETRY Find the slope of a line having Inclination of the line () =  Slope of the line = = =  Slope of the line is inclination 60º. Find the x-coordinate of a point on the line. Sol. Sol. Equation of a line parallel to X-axis and passing through the point (– 2. c=–2  y intercept of the line is – 2. y = mx + c  y = 2x + 5 12. find m. Sol. – 2) lies on the line 2y = mx + 5  Its co-ordinates will satisfy the equation  2 (– 2) = m (– 3) + 5  – 4 = – 3m + 5  3m = 5 + 4  3m = 9 9  m = 3  m = 3 10. 14. State its y-intercept. Sol. The equation of a line passing through the origin is y = 3x. (– 3. MT 7. EDUCARE LTD. 5). 4). 4) is x = 3. Slope of the line (m) = 2 Its y-intercepts (c) = 5  Equation of the line by slope-intercept form. Sol. Sol. If the slope of a line is 2 and its y-intercept is 5. Write the equation of a line parallel to X-axis and passing through the point (– 2. 13. State the slope of X-axis. 5) is y = 5. write its equation. 9. 11. Sol. Sol. – 2) lies on the line 2y = mx + 5. Write the equation of a line parallel to Y-axis and passing through the point (3. 283 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 8. Slope of X-axis = tan 0 = 0  Slope of X-axis = 0 If (– 3. Equation of the line is y = 3x – 2 Comparing the given equation with slope-intercept form y = mx + c.

= = 17. What is the y-intercept of line 2x – 3y = 4 ? 2x – 3y = 4  3y = 2x – 4 Dividing throughout by 3.  2  4 5  1 . What can you say about the points P. 5) and B (4. 1) ? A (2. 15. Sol. 1)  Co-ordinates of the midpoint of line segment AB by midpoint formula is. Sol. Write the x-intercept and the y-intercept of the line represented by the x y + = 1. 5) and B (4. Sol. equation 2 3 x y   1 with the double intercept form.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 16. Q and R ? Slope of line PQ = – 1 Slope of line QR = – 1 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 20. Sol.   2   2 6 6  . Comparing the equation 2 3 x y   1 we get a = 2 and b = 3 a b  x intercept = 2 and y intercept = 3 What are the co-ordinates of the midpoint of the line segment joining A (2. 2 4 y= x– 3 3 Comparing the above equation with slope intercept form y = mx + c. 18. we get –4 y intercept = 3 The slope of line PQ is – 1 and the slope of line QR is – 1. 3) What is the x-intercept of line 3x – 4y = 12 ? Substituting y = 0 in the equation 3x + 4y = 12 3x – 4(0) = 12  3x – 0 = 12  3x = 12 12  x = 3  x = 4  x intercept is 4.  2 2 (3. Sol. 284 . Sol. What is the equation of a line whose slope is – 2 and y-intercept is 3 ? Slope (m) = – 2 y intercept (c) = 3  Equation of the line by slope-intercept form is y = mx + c y = – 2x + 3  2x + y – 3 = 0 19.

Sol. –7) is y = – 7 What is the slope of line whose inclination is 0º ? Inclination of line () = 0º  Its slope = tan  Its slope = tan 0  Its slope = 0 What is the x-intercept of the line 3x – 4y = 7 ? Substituting y = 0 in the equation. 24. Sol. – 7) ? Equation of a line parallel to X-axis and psssing through the point (5. Sol. y = mx + c 5 y = – 3x + 2 2y = – 6x + 5 [Dividing throughout by 2] 6x + 2y – 5 = 0 5 ? 2      S C H O O L S E C TI O N 285 . Sol. Slopes of line PQ and line QR are equal and point Q is a common point for both the lines Points P. GEOMETRY   21. Q and R are collinear What is the equation of a line parallel to X-axis and passing through the point (5. What is the slope of line DE which is parallel 3 25. to line AB ? line DE || line AB [Given]  Slope of line DE = slope of line AB 2 [Given] But. slope of line AB = 3 2  Slope of line DE = 3 2 . 22. What is the equation of a line whose slope is – 3 and the y-intercept Slope of the line (m) = – 3 5 It’s y intercept (c) = 2 Equation of the line by slope-intercept form. Sol. MT EDUCARE LTD. 3x – 4y = 7  3x – 4 (0) = 7  3x – 0 = 7  3x = 7 7  x = 3 7  x intercept is 3 The slope of line AB is 23.

In previous classes we have studied certain concepts related to areas of plane figures (shapes) such as triangles.6.14) (2 marks) 144º Diameter of a circle = 10 cm  Its radius (r) = 10 2 = 5 cm     l = l = l =  × 2r 360 144 × 2 × 3. The diameter of a circle is 10 cm. (i. quadrilaterals. when the corresponding central angle is as given below : ( = 3.14 × 5 360 144 × 3. 286 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .6. (i) Sol.56 cm  The length of the arc is 12. 157) 1. arc between the two ends of radii)  × r 2 Area of the sector (A) = 360 O r  Major arc B Central angle Minor arc A X  Length of an arc : Length of an arc of a circle (arc length) is the distance along the curved line making up the arc. ` Introduction : Mensuration Mensuration is a special branch of mathematics that deals with the measurement of geometric figures.e. Sector.56 cm. `  Circle : Arc. Now we will study how to find some measurements related to circle and the surface area and the volume of solid figures. polygons and circles.14 × 10 360 l = 12. Find the length of the arc.  × 2r Length of the arc (l) = 360  Relation between the area of the sector and the length of an arc : Area of the sector = r × length of arc 2 EXERCISE .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Segment : Area of sector : Sector of a circle is the part Y of the circle enclosed by two radii of the circle and their intercepted arc.

925 l = 3. MT (ii) Sol. EDUCARE LTD.5 100 l = 3.14 × 5 360 3 × 3. GEOMETRY 45º Diameter of a circle = 10 cm 10  Its radius (r) = 2 = 5 cm l =        l = l = l = l = l = (2 marks)  × 2r 360 45 × 2 × 3. 270º Diameter of a circle = 10 cm  It radius (r) = (2 marks) 10 2 = 5 cm l =    l = l =  × 2r 360 270 × 2 × 3.55 cm. (iv) Sol.70 cm  The length of the arc is 15.93 cm.14 × 5 360 15.14 × 10 4 l = 23. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 287 .55 cm  The length of the arc is 23.93 cm  The length of the arc is 3.14 × 5 360 45 × 3.14 × 10 360 5 314 × 4 100 785 2  100 392. 180º Diameter of a circle = 10 cm  Its radius (r) = = l = = = (2 marks) 10 2 5 cm  × 2r 360 180 × 2 × 3. (iii) Sol.70 cm.

6. Find A (P-RYS) Area of the sector =  × r2 360 60 22 = × ×7×7 360 7 77 = 3 = 25. 2.5 m.67 Area of the sector P -RYS is 25.50 m ( = 3.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.05 = ×2× × 5. with the help of the figure.14)  l = × 2r 360   78.67 cm2 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 288 . (ii) Sol. S P-RYS Find the area of the circle.6. length of arc = 6.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE . (ii) Sol.5 7 360 605 22   = × × 11 100 7 360 605 × 360 × 7  100 × 22 × 11 =    = 63º  Measure of the arc is 63º. 158) (2 marks) 3.14 × 20 360 785 314   = × × 40 10 360 100 785 × 9 × 100  =  10 × 314   = 225º  Measure of an arc is 225º. given the following : 22 ) (2 marks) radius of circle = 5.50 = × 2 × 3. 157) EDUCARE LTD. answer the following questions : (3 marks) Name the shaded portion. Find the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc. EXERCISE . X P 60º R Y (iii) Sol. Area of circle =  r 2 22 = ×7×7 7 = 154 cm2  Area of a circle is 154 cm2.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. radius of circle = 20 m length of arc = 78.05 m ( = 7  l = × 2r 360 22   6. (i) Sol. (i) Sol. The radius of the circle is 7 cm and m (arc RYS) = 60º.

1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6. (iii) Sol.83 cm2.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.50 cm2. GEOMETRY Find A (P-RXS) Area of sector P-RXY = Area of circle – Area of sector P-RYS = 154 – 25. (i) Sol. MT (iv) Sol.50  Area of the sector is 115. Sol.83  Area of the sector is 89. EDUCARE LTD.33 cm2. angles Area of the sector = = = = (2 marks)  × r2 360 270 22 × ×7×7 360 7 231 2 115. 158) 5. Find area of the sector of this circle if the angle of the sector is : 30º (2 marks)  Area of the sector = × r2 360 30 22 = × ×7×7 360 7 77 = 6 = 12.67 = 128. The radius of a circle is 7 cm. 3 rt. Length of arc (l) = 176 m  measure of arc () = 36º  l = × 2r 360 36  176 = × 2 r 360 289 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Find the (2 marks) circumference of the circle.6. 158) 4.83 cm2. EXERCISE . (ii) Sol. An arc of a circle having measure 36 has length 176 m.83  Area of the sector is 12. EXERCISE .33 cm2  Area of sector P-RXY is 128. 210º Area of the sector = = = = (2 marks)  × r2 360 210 22 × ×7×7 360 7 539 6 89.

1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.    176 × 10 2r But. EXERCISE . An arc of length 4 cm subtends an angle of measure 40º at the centre. 158) 8.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. EXERCISE . Sol. If the area of the minor sector is 392. 158) 6.5 sq. (2 marks) Length of arc (l) = 10 cm Radius of a circle (r) = 5 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N . l ×r Area of the sector = 2 4 × 18 = 2 = 36  cm 2  Radius of the circle is 18 cm and Area of the sector is 36 cm2. Sol. cm and the corresponding central angle is 72º. 158) 7. ( = 3. Sol. EXERCISE . Find the radius and the area of the sector formed by this arc.5 cm2 Area of the sector 392. (2 marks) Length of arc (l) = 4 cm  measure of arc () = 40º  l = × 2r 360 40  4 = ×2××r 360 4×9  = r 2  r = 18 cm. find the radius.14) (2 marks) Measure of arc () = 72º Area of the sector = 392. circumference 1 × 2r 10 = 2r = 1760 = 2r =  Circumference of the circle is 1760 m.GEOMETRY  MT 176 EDUCARE LTD.6.5     3925 10 3925 × 360 × 100 10 × 72 × 314 r2 r  × r2 360 72 = × 3.14 × r2 360 72 314 = × × r2 360 100 = = r2 = 625 = 25 [Taking square roots]  Radius of the circle is 25 cm.6.6. 290 Find the area of sector whose arc length and radius are 10 cm and 5 cm respectively.

158) 11.28 cm2 Area of the sector     49. EXERCISE . (2 marks) Ratio of lengths of two arcs is 4 : 5.28 4928 100 4928 × 360 × 7 × 10 × 10 100 × 22 × 112 × 112   × r2 360 22  = × × 11. 158) 9. (2 marks) Radius of a circle = 11.6.2 cm Area of the sector = 49.6. Sol. Two arcs of the same circle have their lengths in the ratio 4:5.49 m2 r Area of the sector = ×l 2 0.2 7 360 22 112 112  = × × × 7 10 10 360 = =  = 45º  Measure of arc is 45º. 158) 10. EXERCISE .4 m.49 = ×l 2    49 100 49  20 100  7 l = 7 ×l 20 = l = 1. Let the common multiple be ‘x’  Lengths of two arcs are (4x) units and (5x) units respectively Let the lengths of two arcs be ‘l1’.7  0.2 cm is 49. Sol.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. and ‘l2’ and Areas of their corresponding sectors be A1 and A2. Sol.6.49 m2. 291 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. GEOMETRY Area of the sector = = r ×l 2 5 × 10 2 = 25 cm2  Area of the sector is 25 cm2. If the area of minor sector of a circle with radius 11.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.7 m and area of the sector is 0. Find the ratio of the areas of the corresponding sectors.4  The length of the arc is 1.7 cm Area of the sector = 0. (2 marks) Radius of a circle = 0. MT EDUCARE LTD.28cm2. Find the length of the arc of a circle with radius 0.2 × 11. find the measure of the arc. EXERCISE .

.. 105 m The distance between two inner parallel 70 m line segments is 70 m and they are each 70 m 105 m long. 292 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 22 7 ...6..(ii) A2 = 2 Dividing (i) and (ii) we get. find 105 m the difference in the lengths of the inner 7m edge and outer edge of the track. r × l1 .  Their radii are equal Now.. Adjoining figure depicts a racing track 7m whose left and right ends are semicircular. 158) 12....(i) A1 = 2 r × l2 .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. A1 l1 = A2 l2 A1 4x  A2 = 5x  A1 : A 2 = 4 : 5  Ratio of the areas of sectors is 4 : 5. (4 marks) Diameter of inner circular edge (d 1) = 70 m Width of the track = 7 m Diameter of outer circular edge (d2) = 70 + 7 + 7 = 84 m The inner and outer edges of the racing tracks comprises of two semicircles and parallel segments of length 105 m each  Length of outer edge = Sol.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO...   l1 = (4x) units l2 = (5x) units Both Arcs are of the same circle. EXERCISE . 1 1 d2 + 105 + d2 + 105 2 2 = d2 + 210 = (84 + 210) m 1 1 d1 + 105 + d1 + 105 2 2 = d1 + 210 = (70 + 210) m Difference in the lengths of = (84 + 210) – (70 + 210) inner and outer edge = 84 + 210 – 70 – 210 = 14  Length of inner edge = = 14 × = 44 m  The difference in the lengths of inner edge and outer edge of the track is 44 m. If the track is 7 m wide.

Side of a square = 30 m. A horse is tied to a pole fixed 10 m at one corner of a 30 m × 30 m square field of grass by means of a 10 m long rope. Find the area of its major sector. The area of a circle is 314 sq.  Area of field that can be grazed = 157 m2 PROBLEM SET . 202) 3. 1 C r.H. (2 marks) L. C.14). Sol.5 Sol. for a circle having radius.4 sq.14 × 10 × 10 360 1 × 314 4  Area of field that can be grazed = 78. (3 marks) Find the area of that part of the field in which the horse can graze..S. 30 m Length of the rope = radius of the sector  Radius of the sector (r) = 10 m Measure of arc () = 90º [Angle of a square] Area of field that can be grazed = Area of sector (i) Sol.6  Area of major sector is 282. =  r 2 .cm.5 m2 (ii) 10 m 10 m In the adjoining figure. if the pole was fixed on a side exactly at the middle of the side? If the pole is fixed at the middle of the middle of the side of a square.1 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.. 158) 13. (2 marks) 2 Area of a circle = 314 cm Area of major sector = Area of a circle – Area of its minor sector = 314 – 31.. GEOMETRY EXERCISE . 202) 2. What will be the area of the part of the field in which the horse can graze. Sol. 2 A respectively.cm and area of its sector is 31. circumference and area r. = A  L..6 cm2 PROBLEM SET .6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..S. = = =  × r2 360 90 × 3.(i) Prove A = 293 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . then 30 m Area of field that can be grazed = 2 × Area of sector = 2 × 78.6. 10 m In the adjoining figure.H. MT EDUCARE LTD.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. ( = 3...4 = 282.

85 × 2 × 10 = l 100 × 35 22 10 l = 2.5 3..S = 1 Cr 2 1 × 2r × r 2  R. (3 marks) Radius of a circle (r) = 3.5 cm and area of the sector is 3. Find the perimeter of each of these sectors.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..85 cm2. =  r 2 L.H.H.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.S.85 cm2 Area of sector =      3. = R.85 = r ×l 2 3.5 cm Area of the sector = 3.85 = 3.H.5 360 7  22 35 35    360 7 10 10 385  35  11  = 100 360 10 385 × 360 × 10 100 × 11 × 35 =   = 36º  Length of arc is 2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.S 1  A = Cr 2 . R. PROBLEM SET .85 =  22   3. The radius of a circle is 3. (Give your answers in terms of ) (3 marks) Radius of the sector (r) = 8 cm Measure of arc () = 40º Sol.2 cm and measure of an arc is 36º.2 cm l = Area of sector =   r 2 360      3.. = R..5 ×l 2 3.S..H.(ii) [From (i) and (ii)] PROBLEM SET . Sol.. 202) 4.S. Find the length of the corresponding arc and the measure of arc..H. 202) 6.5  3.85 × 2 = l 3. 40º 8 cm 10 cm 120º 294 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .

 MT EDUCARE LTD. PROBLEM SET . units  4 9  295 .units   4  Area of sector I + Area of sector II  70   50   360    9  9    360    8  8        Area of shaded part S C H O O L S E C TI O N =  63 80     sq. (a) Area of shaded part  Area of shaded part (b) Area of shaded part = = =  3   4  sq. Find the area of the shaded part. GEOMETRY   2r 360 40 = ×2××8 360 16 =  cm 9 Perimeter of the sector = r + r + l Length of arc (l) = = 8+8+ = 16  16  9 16 9   = 16 1 +  9   Perimeter of the sector = (b) Radius of a sector (r) Measure of arc () 16 (9 +  ) cm 9 = 10 cm = 126º   2r Length of arc (l) = 360 126 = × 2 ×  × 10 360 = 7  cm Perimeter of the sector = r + r + l = 10 + 10 + 7  Perimeter of the sector = (20 + 7 ) cm. (Give your answers in terms of ) 8 cm (b) 50º (a) 70º 30º 9c m m 3c 4 cm (3 marks) = = Area of sector I + Area of sector II  30   90   360    3  3    360    4  4       Sol. 202) 7.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

In the adjoining figure.17 cm2 296 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 10 cm . 3 = 1.60º .5 – 52.90º triangle theorem. O Radius of the circle is 10 cm.3 cm = = = 1 × Product of Perpendicular sides 2 1 × OQ × QR 2 1  10  17. T OR = 20 cm. m OQR OQ OR OQ = = = = = 1 OR 2  By converse of 30º . Find the area of the shaded region.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.14.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET . 10.17 cm2   Area of the shaded region is 34. For sector O-QXT Measure of arc () = 60º Radius (r) = 10 cm  × r2 Area of Sector O-QXT = 360 60 = × 3.33 = 34.5 cm2 90º 10 cm 20 cm In OQR. ( = 3. Point Q is the point of contact.14 × 10 × 10 360 157 = 3 Area of sector O-QXT = 52. Sol.73) = 17.  m ORQ = 30º  m QOR = 60º [Remaining angle] Now.73 ) R (4 marks) Q In OQR.33 cm2 Area of shaded region = Area of OQR – Area of sector O-QXT = 86. seg QR is a tangent to the circle with centre O.3 2 86. [Radius is perpendicular to the tangent] m OQR = 90º 2 2 OQ + QR = OR 2 [By Pythagoras theorem] 2 2 2  10 + QR = 20  QR 2 = 400 – 100  QR 2 = 300  QR = 300     QR QR QR QR Area of OQR = 100 × 3 = 10 3 = 10 (1. 203) EDUCARE LTD.

.. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET . Area of shaded portion = Area of semicircle with diameter PR + Area of semicircle with diameter PQ + Area of PQR – Area of semicircle with diameter QR A (PQR) = = 1 1 1 r12 + r22 + 24 – r 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 1  r1  r22 – r32   24 =  2  2 2 = = = = 1  (r12 + r22 – r32) + 24 2 1 × 3. PR = 6 units and PQ = 8 units.14 × (9 + 16 – 25) + 24 2 1 × 3. ( = 3... EDUCARE LTD.14) (5 marks) Diameter PR = 6 units Q R  Its radius (r1) = 3 units Diameter PQ = 8 units  Its radius (r2) = 4 units In PQR. RQ and PQ as diameters as shown in the figure. MT 11.14 (0) + 24 2 = 0 + 24 = 24 sq. P Semicircles are draw taking sides PR. 203) In the adjoining figure.. m RPQ = 90º . 1 × product of perpendicular sides 2 1 = × PR × PQ 2 1 ×6×8 = 2 = 24 sq. units  Area of shaded portion = 24 sq. Find out the area of the shaded portion.14 (32 + 42 – 52) + 24 2 1 × 3.(i) [Angle subtended by a semicircle] 2 2 2 [By Pythagoras theorem] QR = PR + PQ 2  QR = 62 + 82  QR 2 = 36 + 64  QR = 100  QR = 10 units [Taking square roots] Diameter QR = 10 units  Its radius (r3) = 5 units PQR is a right angled triangle [From (i)] Sol.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. units.units S C H O O L S E C TI O N 297 .

2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. find the area O of the segment AXB.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.08 cm2.28 cm2 Area of the segment AXB = A (O-AXB) – A (OAB) = 75.08 cm2  Area of the segment AXB is 13. EXERCISE .GEOMETRY  MT A EDUCARE LTD.14). 162) 2. (3 marks) C sin      Area of the segment AXC = r2  360 2     3. Mark point X as shown in the figure ABCD is a square [Given] side = 8 cm D 8 cm Radius (r) = side of a square  r = 8 cm Measure of arc () = 90º [Angle of a square] B A 60º B X Sol.73 = 62. A Calculate the area of the shaded region in the adjoining figure where X ABCD is a square with side 8 cm each. 162) 1.36 – 62. In the adjoining figure. sin   2   – Area of segment = r  2   360  P O  Q R EXERCISE . A (O-AXB) = 75.57  1 = 64   2   298 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .6. Sol.36 cm2 1 2 Area of OAB = r sin  2 1 = × 12 × 12 × sin 60º 2 3 = 72 × 2 = 36 3 = 36 × 1.14  90 sin 90   = 82  2   360  1.28 = 13. (2 marks) Radius of a circle (r) = 12 cm A (O-AXB) = 75.36 cm2 and radius = 12 cm. ` Area of segment of a circle : A segment of a circle is the region bounded by a chord and an arc.57 1    = 64  2  2 1. ( = 3.6.

68 cm2 A M P P F E D Sol. In the adjoining figure.  = 3.48 cm2 2 2 × Area of segment AXC 36.04 Area of sector P-QXR = 113. 162) 3. ( = 3.04 cm2  Area of sector = × r2 360   113.14 × 18 × 18 360   11304 = × 314 × 18 × 18 360 11304 × 360  314 × 18 × 18 =    = 40 Sol.14) (3 marks) Q R Radius of a circle (r) = 18 cm Area of PQR = 100 cm2 X Area of the segment QXR = 13.48 cm2.14 × 12 = 37.04 cm2. EXERCISE . P is the centre of the circle with radius 18 cm.6. GEOMETRY = = Area of shaded region = = = 64  0.04 cm2 Area of sector P-QXR = Area of PQR + Area of segment QXR = 100 + 13. the centre of the circle is A and ABCDEF is a regular hexagon of side 6 cm. EXERCISE .04 = × 3. Find the central angle .57 2 36.6.14 × 6 × 6 360 = 3.48 2× 2 36. If the area of the PQR is 100 cm2 and area of the segment QXR is 13.  Central angle is 40º. 162) 4.14) B (i) Area of segment BPF (5 marks) (ii) Area of the shaded portion C Side of hexagon = radius of a circle  Radius (r) = 6 cm Measure of arc () = Angle of a regular hexagon   = 120º  Area of sector A-BPF = × r2 360 120 = × 3. MT EDUCARE LTD.48 cm2  Area of shaded region is 36. 18 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 299 . P In the adjoining figure. Find the following : ( 3 = 1.73.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.2 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

.(ii) [ B .11 cm2 300 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .  By 30º . In ABF.68 – 15...90º triangle.(i) mBAF + m ABF + mAFB = 180º       In AMB.M ...57  Area of segment BPF = 22.60º .90º triangle theorem.38 cm.. seg AB  seg AF  ABF  AFB .73)  BF = 10.60º . 120 + mABF + mABF = 2m ABF = 2m ABF = m ABF = m ABF = m ABM = [Radii of the same circle] [Isosceles triangle theorem] [Sum of measures of angles of a triangle is 180º] 180 [Given. Area of ABF = = = 1 × base × height 2 1 × BF × AM 2 1 × 10.... from (i)] 180 – 120 60 60 2 30º 30º . bi sec ts the chord] 1 BF 2  BF = 6 3  BF = 6 (1..38 × 3 2 = 15.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.F] [By construction] [From (ii)] [Remaining angle] m AMB = 90º m ABM = 30º  m BAM = 60º  AMB is 30º . AM =  AM = 1 AB 2 [Side opposite to 30º] 1 ×6 2  AM = 3 cm BM =  BM = 3 × AB 2 3 ×6 2 [Side opposite to 60º]  BM = 3 3 cm seg AM  chord BF 1  BM = BF 2  3 3 = [The perpendicular drawn from the centre of circle to a chord..57 cm2 Area of segment BPF = Area of sector A-BPF – Area of ABF = 37.

28 – 3(1.14 × 60 – = 12  2   360   3.14 3 –  = 144  4   6  6.42 – 15. 202) 8.73 = 93. PROBLEM SET .08 cm2.09 12 = 12 × 1.11 cm2 and Area of shaded portion is 77.85 cm2. ( = 3.19  = 144   12   144 × 1.14. = S C H O O L S E C TI O N 301 .85 cm2  Area of segment BPF is 22.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.28 – 5.73) (3 marks) 12 cm 60º Sol. Find the area of the shaded region. 3 = 1.09 = 13.08 cm2  Area of shaded region is 13.57 = 77.42 cm2 Area of the shaded portion = Area of regular hexagon ABCDEF – Area of ABF = 93. GEOMETRY (ii) side = 6 cm 3 3 × (side)2 2 3 3 ×6×6 2 Area of regular hexagon ABCDEF = = = 54 3 = 54 × 1. MT EDUCARE LTD. Radius of the sector (r) Measure of arc () Area of segment = 12 cm = 60º sin     – = r2  2   360  sin 60  2  3.73)  = 144   12    6.14 3 1 –   = 144  2 2  6  3.

P PR and QS are two diameters of the circle.73) (4 marks) Draw seg OM  side PS 1  PR OP = [Radius is half of diameter] 2 1  28  OP = 2  OP = 14 cm S R 302 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . If PR = 28 cm and PS = 14 3 cm. find 120º (i) Area of triangle OPS O (ii) The total area of two shaded segments.60º . In the adjoining figure. Sol. In the adjoining figure.60º .Q]  m OPM = 60º [Remaining angle]  OMP is 30º . 9. Q ( 3 = 1.14 × 12 × 12 360 = 37.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. OP = OQ = 12 cm [Radii of same circle] 1 × base × height Area of OPQ = 2 1 × OQ × PM = 2 1 × 12 × 6 = 2 = 36 cm2 Area of segment PRQ = Area of sector O-PRQ – Area of OPQ = 37.90º triangle  By 30º . 203) 12.M . Sol.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET .68 cm2 In OMP. 203) EDUCARE LTD. m POQ = 30º and radius OP = 12 cm.68 cm2 PROBLEM SET .68 – 36 = 1. m OMP = 90º [Given] m POM = 30º [Given and O .68 cm2 (ii) Area of OPQ is 36 cm2 (iii)Area of segment PRQ is 1. Find the following (Given  = 3.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.PRQ = × r2 360 30 = × 3.90º triangle theorem 1 PM = OP 2 1 × 12 = 2  PM = 6 cm.14) O (i) Area of sector O-PRQ (ii) Area of OPQ M (3 marks) (iii) Area of segment PRQ 12 cm 30º Radius of the circle (r) = 12 cm Q • Measure of arc () = 30º R P  Area of sector O .68 cm2 (i) Area of sector O-PRQ is 37.

Find the area of the shaded portion (Given  = 3.73) (5 marks) For a segment PMQ.14.56 cm2 10 cm P M • Q 10 Q Sol. OMP = 90º OM2 + PM2 = OP 2 1  14 3 2 = 7 3 cm = [By construction] [By Pythagoras theorem]  OM2 + 7 3  OM2  OM2  OM   2 = = = = Area of OPS = Area of OPS = = = = 142 196 – 147 49 7 cm [Taking square roots] 1 × base × height 2 1 × PS × OM 2 1 × 14 3 × 7 2 49 3 49 (1.73)  Area of OPS = 84.12 cm2.56 cm2  Total area of two shaded segments = 120.33 cm2 Area of sector OPS – Area of OPS 205. Area of segment QR = 120. GEOMETRY seg OM  chord PS 1  PS  PM = 2   [By construction] [The perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle to a chord bi sec ts the chord] PM PM In OMP.56 = 241.33 – 84. In the adjoining figure.77 120. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 303 . seg PQ is a diameter of semicircle PNQ.12 cm2 Area of OPS is 84.77 cm2 Area of sector OPS = = = = Area of segment PS = = = Similarly we can prove. 203) 13. radius (r) = 10 cm measure of arc () = 60º O cm 60º  × r2 360 120 22   14  14 360 7 616 3 205. The centre of arc PMQ is O. MT EDUCARE LTD.56 + 120. OP = OQ = 10 cm and m POQ = 60º. PROBLEM SET .6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.77 cm2 and total area of two shaded segments is 241. 3 = 1.

14  5  5 2 39.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.28 – 5.14 3 = 100  6 – 4     6.08 cm2 In OPQ.73)  = 100   12    6.17 cm2 Area of semicircle = = = Area of the shaded portion = = =  The area of shaded portion is 30. m OPQ = m OQP = x m OPQ + m OQP + m POQ = 180º [Sum of the measures of angles of a triangle is 180º] x + x + 60 = 180 2x = 180 – 60 2x = 120 x =        120 2  x = 60  m POQ = m OPQ = m OQP = 60º  OPQ is an equilateral triangle  [An equiangular triangle is an equilateral triangle] OP = OQ = PQ = 10 cm [Sides of an equilateral triangle] Diameter PQ = 10 cm Radius (r) = 10 2 = 5 cm 1 2 r 2 1  3.17 cm2. 304 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . sin   2   – Area of segment PMQ = r  2   360  sin 60  2  3.08 30.14 × 60 – = 10  2   360   3.28 – 3(1.14 3 1 –   = 100  2 2  6  3.25 cm2 Area of semicircle – Area of segment PMQ 39.19  = 100   12   100  1.25 – 9. seg OP  seg OQ [Radii of same circle] OPQ  OQP [Isosceles triangle theorem] Let.09 = 12 109 = 12 Area of segment PMQ = 9.

76 × 1000 litres [l m3 = 1000 litres]  Volume of cuboidal water tank is 5760 litres. 169) 6.6 m and height 1.6. The following are the formulae for the surface area of cuboid : FORMULAE 1. GEOMETRY CUBOID [RECTANGULAR PARALLELOPIPED] A cuboid is a solid figure bounded by six rectangular faces. EXERCISE .6 × 1. breadth and height denoted as ‘l’.8 = 5. ‘b’ and ‘h’ respectively as shown in the figure. where the opposite faces are equal.76 m3 = 5. Volume of cuboidal water tank = l × b × h = 2 × 1. side faces and back faces are to be covered (2 marks) with a coloured paper.6 m and its height (h) = 1. Sol. 2. Find the capacity of the tank in litres. etc.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. The dimensions of a cuboid in cm are 16 × 14 × 20. brick.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. MT EDUCARE LTD.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. rectangular box.8m. Total surface area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + lh) Vertical surface area of a cuboid = 2 (l + b) × h Volume of a cuboid = l × b × h EXERCISE . (2 marks) Length of a cuboid (l) = 16 cm its breadth (b) = 14 cm its height (h) = 20 cm Total surface area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + lh) = 2 (16 × 14 + 14 × 20 + 16 × 20) = 2 (224 + 280 + 320) = 2 × 824 = 1648 cm2  Total surface area of a cuboid is 1648 cm2. A cuboid has a length. (2 marks) Length of the cuboidal water tank (l) = 2 m its breadth (b) = 1. 3.6. EXERCISE . The cuboid water tank has length 2 m. The base. Length of cuboidal fish tank (l) = 80 cm its breadth (b) = 40 cm its height (h) = 30 cm 305 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . breadth 1.6. rectangular fish tank. A fish tank is in the form of a cuboid whose external measures are 80cm × 40cm × 30cm. 169) 1. Find the area of the paper needed. Sol.8 m. b h l In our day to day life we come across cuboids such as rectangular room. Find its total surface area. Sol. 169) 4.

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Cuboid is make up of 6 rectangular faces Area of the base of the fish tank = l × b = 80 × 40 = 3200 cm2 Area of two side faces = 2 × b × h = 2 × 40 × 30 = 2400 cm2 Area of back face = l × h = 80 × 30 = 2400 cm2 Area of the paper needed = 3200 + 2400 + 2400 = 8000 cm2  The area of the paper needed is 8000 cm2. EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169) 7. Find the total cost of white washing the 4 walls of a cuboidal room at the rate Rs. 15 per m2. The internal measures of the cuboidal room are (3 marks) length 10 m, breadth 4 m and height 4 m. Length of the cuboidal room (l) = 10m Its breadth (b) = 14m Its height (h) = 4m Vertical Surface area of the room = 2 (l + b) × h = 2 (10 + 4) × 4 = 2 × 14 × 4 = 112m 2  Area of white washing = 112m 2 Rate of white washing = Rs 15 per m2  Total cost = Area of white washing × rate of white washing = 112 × 15 = 1680  Total cost of white washing is Rs. 1680. EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169) 9. Sol. A beam 4m long, 50cm wide and 20cm deep is made of wood which (3 marks) weighs 25kg per m3. Find the weight of the beam. Length of the beam (l) = 4m its breadth (b) = 50cm = =

Sol.

50 m 100

its height (h)

5 m 10 = 20 cm
= =

20 m 100 2 m 10
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= l×b×h 5 2 = 4× × 10 10 40 3 = m 100 Weight of the beam = 25kg per m3 40  Total weight of the beam = 25 × 100 = 10 kg  The weight of the beam is 10 kg. PROBLEM SET - 6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 202) 5. Sol. The length, breadth and height of a cuboid are in the ratio 5:4:2. If the total surface area is 1216 cm2, find the dimensions of the solid. (3 marks) Ratio of the length, breadth and height of a cuboid is 5 : 4 : 2 Let the common multiple be ‘x’  Length of a cuboid = 5x cm its breadth = 4x cm and its height = 2x cm Total surface area of a cuboid = 1216 cm2 Total surface area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + lh)  1216 = 2 [(5x) (4x) + (4x) (2x) + (5x) (2x)] 1216  = 20x2 + 8x2 + 10x2 2  608 = 38x2 608  = x2 38  x2 = 16  x = 4 [Taking square roots] Length of a cuboid = 5x = 5 (4) = 20 cm its Breadth = 4x = 4 (4) = 16cm and its height = 2x = 2 (4) = 8 cm  Dimensions of a cuboid are 20 cm, 16 cm and 8 cm.

Volume of the beam

CUBE
A cube is a cuboid bounded by six equal square faces. Hence its length, breadth and height are equal.  The edge of the cube = length = breadth = height The edge of the cube is denoted as ‘l’ l A dice is an example of cube. The following are the formulae for the surface area of the cube :

FORMULAE
1. Total surface area of a cube = 6l2 2. Vertical surface area of a cube = 4l2 3. Volume of cube = l3
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 MT EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169)

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2. Sol.

The side of a cube is 60 cm. Find the total surface area of the cube. Side of a cube (l) = 60 cm Total surface area of a cube = 6l2 = 6 (60)2 = 6 × 60 × 60 = 21600 cm2  Total surface area of a cube is 21600 cm2. EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169)

3. Sol.

The perimeter of one face of a cube Find (i) the total area of the 6 faces Perimeter of one face of a cube = Perimeter of one face of a cube =  4l =   l = l = Total surface area of a cube = = = = Volume of the cube = = =

is 24 cm. (ii) the volume of the cube. 24 cm 4l 24

24 4 6 cm. 6l2 6 (6)2 6×6×6 216 cm2 l3 63 216 cm3.

 Total area of the 6 faces is 216 cm2 and volume of the cube is 216 cm3. EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169) 5. Sol. The volume of a cube is 1000 cm3. Find its total surface area. Volume of a cube = 1000 cm3 Volume of a cube = l3  l3 = 1000  l = 10 cm [Taking cube roots] Total surface area of a cube = 6l2 = 6 × 102 = 6 × 10 × 10 = 600 cm2  Total surface area of a cube is 600 cm2. EXERCISE - 6.4 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 169) 8. Sol. A solid cube is cut into two cuboids exactly at middle. Find the ratio of the total surface area of the given cube and that of the cuboid. Side of a cube = l  Total Surface of a cube = 6l2 l Length of cuboid (l1) = side of a cube l1 = l Its Breadth (b1) =

l 2 Its height (h1) = l

l

l l 2 2

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Total surface area of a cuboid = 2 (l1b1 + b1h1 + l1h1)

l l   + × l + l × l = 2 l × 2 2  
 l2  l2 + + l2 = 2 2  2 

 2l 2  + l2  = 2   2  = 2 × 2l2 Total surface area of a cuboid = 4l2

T.S.A of a cube Ratio of the total surface area of a cube and cuboid = T.S.A of a cuboid
= =

6l 2 4l 2

3 2 = 3:2
 The ratio of the total surface area of the given cube and that of the cuboid is 3 : 2.

RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER
A right circular cylinder (Cylinder) is a solid figure bounded by two flat circular surfaces and a curved surface. h The perpendicular distance between the two base faces is called height of the cylinder and is denoted by ‘h’. The radius of the base of the cylinder is denoted by ‘r’. r The cylinders which we see regularly are drum, pipe, road roller, coins, test tube, refill of a ball pen, syringe etc. The following are the formulae for the surface area of a right circular cylinder :

FORMULAE
1. Curved surface area of a right circular cylinder = 2rh 2. Total surface area of a right circular cylinder = 2r (r + h) 3. Volume of a right circular cylinder = r2h EXERCISE - 6.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 173) 1. The radius of the base of a right circular cylinder is 3 cm height is 7cm. Find (i) curved surface area (ii) total surface area (iii) volume of the

Sol.

22    7   Radius of a right circular cylinder = 3cm its height (h) = 7cm (i) Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2 rh 22 = 2× ×3×7 7  Curved surface area of a cylinder = 132 cm2
cl osed ri gh t ci rcu l ar cyl i n der.  Given  =

(3 marks)

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(ii) Total Surface area of a cylinder = 2r (r + h) 22 × 3 (3 + 7) = 2× 7 22 × 3 × 10 = 2× 7 1320 = 7 = 188.57 cm2 (iii) Volume of the cylinder =  r 2 h 22 ×3×3×7 = 7 = 198 cm3  Curved surface area is 132 cm2 Total surface area is 188.57cm2 and volume of the cylinder is 198 cm3 EXERCISE - 6.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 173) 2. Sol. The volume of a cylinder is 504 cm3 and height is 14 cm. Find its curved surface area and total surface area. Express answer in terms of . (3 marks) Volume of a cylinder = 504  cm3 Its height (h) = 14 cm Volume of a cylinder =  r 2 h  504  =  × r2 × 14 504  = r2 14  r 2 = 36  r = 6 cm [Taking square roots] Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2  rh = 2 ×  × 6 × 14 = 168  cm2 Total surface area of a cylinder = 2r (r + h) = 2 ×  × 6 (6 + 14) = 2 ×  × 6 × 20 = 240  cm2  Curved surface area of a cylinder is 168 cm2 and Total surface area of a cylinder is 240 cm2 EXERCISE - 6.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 173) 3. Sol. The radius and height of a cylinder are n same ratio 3:7 and its volume is 1584 cm3. Find its radius. (3 marks) The ratio of radius and height of a cylinder is 3 :7 Let the common multiple be ‘x’  Radius of cylinder (r) = ‘3x’ cm and its height (h) = ‘7x’ cm Volume of a cylinder = 1584 cm3 Volume of a cylinder =  r 2 h 22  1584 = × (3x) × (3x) × (7x) 7  1584 = 22 × 9 × x3 1584  = x3 22 × 9  x3 = 8  x = 2 [Taking cube roots]
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Radius (r) = 3x = 3(2) = 6cm  Radius of the cylinder is 6 cm. EXERCISE - 6.5 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 173) 4. Sol. Keeping the height same, how many times the rod of the given cylinder should be made to get the cylinder of double the volume of given cylinder ? (3 marks) Let the radius and the volume of the given cylinder be r1 and v1 respectively. The radius and the volume of the required cylinder be r2 and v2 respectively. Let the heights of the cylinder be h [ their heights are same] From the given condition, v2 = 2v1 2 2  r2 h = r1 h 2 2  = r2 2r1  r 2 = 2 r1 [Taking square roots]  The radius of the required cylinder should be the given cylinder

EXERCISE - 6.8 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 184) 1. A cylindrical hole of diameter 30 cm is bored through a cuboid wooden block with side 1 meter. Find the volume of the object so formed ( = 3.14) (4 marks) side of cubical wooden block = 1 m = 100 cm Volume of cubical wooden block = l3 = (100) 3 = 1000000 cm3 A cylindrical hole is bored through the cubical wooden block  Height of cylindrical hole (h) = 1m = 100 cm Diameter of cylindrical hole = 30 cm  Its radius (r) =

Sol.

= Volume of cylindrical hole = = = Volume of the object so formed = = =

30 2 15 cm r 2h 3.14 × 15 × 15 × 100 70650 cm3 Volume of cubical wooden block – Volume of cylindrical hole 1000000 – 70650 929350 cm3

 Volume of the object so formed is 929350 cm3.
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6.2 m2 Its radius (r) S C H O O L S E C TI O N 312 . Ball pen refills of length 12 cm and inner diameter 2 m are filled upto 84%.2 m Curved surface area of a pillars = 2  rh 22 1 = 2× × × 4. PROBLEM SET . Sol. If the height and radius of the ink container are 14 cm and 6 cm respectively. volume of ink filled = 91% of 504  in the cylindrical container 91 × 504 cm 3 = 100 Length of ball pen refill (h1) = 12m its inner diameter = 2 mm  Its radius (r1) = 1 mm 1 = cm 10 Volume of the refill =  r 1 2 h 1 1 1 = × × × 12 10 10 12  = cm3 100 12   But. EXERCISE . find the number of refills that can be filled with this ink. A building has 8 right cylindrical pillars whose cross sectional diameter is 1 m and whose height is 4.2 m.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 4.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. (4 marks) Height of the cylindrical container (h) = 14cm Its radius (r) = 6 cm Volume of cylindrical container =  r2h =  × 6 × 6 × 14 = 504 cm3 But. 24 per m2. Find the expenditure to paint those pillars at the rate of Rs. 204) 15.8 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol. volume of ink filled = 84% of 100 84 12  × = cm3 100 100 Number of refills that can be filled with ink Volume of ink filled in the cylindrical container = Volume of ink filled in each refill 91 × 504  100 84 ×12  = 100 ×100 91 × 504  100 ×100 × = 100 84 ×12  = 4550  Number of refills that can be filled with this ink is 4550. 185) An ink container of cylindrical shape is filled with ink upto 91%.2 7 2 = 13. (3 marks) Diameter of a pillar = 1 m   1 =   2 m Its height (h) = 4.

204) 16. 2534.4 m3  Volume of earth dug is 15. MT EDUCARE LTD. Sol.9 m 0. PROBLEM SET .4 m us dug up in a field and the earth from digging is spread evenly on the adjoining cuboid field.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6 × 24 2534. Find the thickness of the earth layer spread. A roller of diameter 0.9 m and length 1.02 cm.8 m is used to press the ground. 204) 18.7  10 = 7 22 7 7    10 = 7 10 10 154 = 10 = 15.4 = 55 × 14 × h 154  10 × 55 × 14 = h 1  h = m 50  h = 0.4 m3 Now.40  Total expenditure to paint the pillars is Rs.4 m 1. 24 per m2 Area to be painted × Rate of painting 105.45 m its length (h) = 1.7 m Its depth (h) = 10 m Volume of cylindrical well =  r 2 h 22  0.6 m2 Rs. GEOMETRY  Curved surface area of 8 pillars = = Rate of painting = Total expenditure = = = 8 × 13.14) (3 marks) Diameter of the roller = 0.02 m  The thickness of the earth layer spread is 0.4 m3 Length of a cuboid (l) = 55 m Its breadth (b) = 14 m Volume of cuboid = l × b × h  15. PROBLEM SET .7  0. Sol. Find the area of ground pressed by it in 500 revolutions.4  Its radius (r) = 2 = 0.2 105. A 10 m deep well of diameter 1. (4 marks) Diameter of well = 1. Earth dug from the well is spread evenly on the adjoining cuboid field Volume of cuboid = Volume of earth dug = 15. The length and breadth of that filled are 55m and 14 m respectively.9  its radius (r) = 2 = 0.40.8 m 313 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . (Given  = 3.

6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. seg OP is the slant height of the cone denoted by ‘l’.   l 2 = r 2 + h 2. EXERCISE . The curved surface area of a cone is 4070 cm 2 and its diameter is 70 cm.81 = 5.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 m2.4 m2 Area of the ground pressed by the roller = 2543. r and l of a cone represents the sides of a right angled triangle where l is the hypotenuse.0868 50868 = 500  10000 = 2543. seg OA is the height of the cone denoted by ‘h’. a funnel are examples of cones. In the diagram alongside. What is its slant height ? (2 marks) Diameter of a cone = 70 cm.6. FORMULA Volume of a right circular cone = 1 × r2h 3 EXERCISE .14 × 0.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.8 = 6. (3 marks) Let the radii of two right circular cone be r1 and r2 and their volumes be v1 and v2 respectively S C H O O L S E C TI O N .28 × 0. A cone has one circular flat surface and one l h curved surface. Curved surface area of a cone = 4070 cm2 Curved surface area of a cone =  r l 22  35  l  4070 = 7 4070  22 × 5 = l  l = 37  Slant height of a cone is 37 cm. The h. Sol.6.  RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE O An ice-cream cone. Sol.  Curved surface area of the roller = 2rh = 2 × 3.45 × 1. 178) 1.0868 m2 Area of the ground pressed in 500 revolution = 500 × 5. 70  Its radius (r) = 2 = 35 cm. 178) 2.0868 m2 Area of the ground pressed by the roller in 1 revolution = curved surface area of roller Area of the ground pressed in one revolution = 5. Find the ratio of their volumes. a clown’s hat. 314 The base radii of two right circular cones of the same height are in the ratio 2:3. P A r seg AP is the radius of the base denoted by ‘r’.

r l  × 40 × l 1640 = l 40 l = 41 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 315 . 178) 3.(i) (Given)     = 1 2 r1 h 3 1 2 r2 h 3 v1 v2 v1 v2 2 r1 = 2 r2  r1  =    r2  2 v1 v2 = v1  v2 =  v1 : v2 = 2   3 4 9 4:9 2 [From (i)]  Ratio of volumes of two right circular cone is 4 : 9 EXERCISE . = = = = = = l2 412 412 – 402 1681 – 1600 81 9 cm [Taking square roots] base radius 40 cm is 1640 sq. 178) 4. Curved surface area of a cone = its radius (r) = Curved surface area of a cone =  1640 =   Now.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.       r2 + h2 402 + h2 h2 h2 h2 h Height of a cone is 9 cm.... Sol. Curved surface area of a cone with Find the height of the cone.6. (3 marks) 1640 cm2 40 cm..6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Sol.cm. (2 marks) Height of a cone (h) = 24 cm Surface area of base = 154 cm2 1 Volume of a cone = × Surface area of base × height 3 1 × r2 × h = 3 1 × 154 × 24 = 3 = 1232 cm3 3  Volume of the cone is 1232 cm .. EXERCISE . GEOMETRY  r1 r2 v1 v2 = 2 3 . MT EDUCARE LTD.. Find its volume.6. A cone of height 24 cm has a plane base of surface area 154 cm2.

28 = × 2. Find the volume of this cone if the diameter of the base is 5. 900 such cones are molten to form 1 right circular cylinder whose radius is 10 cm.8 cm Total surface area of a cone = 71.8  2.28 cm2 Total surface area of cone = r (r + l) 22  71. Sol.6 cm. Find total surface area of the right circular cylinder so formed.6 cm 5. 17.3)2 – (2.8 = l  l = 5.8)2 + h2 = (5.5 81 × 25  h 2 = 10 × 10 9×5  h = [Taking square roots] 10 45  h = 10  h = 4. (Given  = 3.28 cm2.5 cm 1 2 r h Volume of a cone = 3 1 22   2.1 – 2.3 cm r2 + h2 = l2  (2.96 cm3.8 + l) 100 7 10 7128  10  100  22  4 = 2. 204) 19. Sol.5 = 3 7 1 22 28 28 45     = 3 7 10 10 10 36960 = 1000  Volume of a cone is 36.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. PROBLEM SET .3 + 2.8 + l 10  8.14) (4 marks) Diameter of the base of metallic cone = 2 cm 2  Its radius (r) = = 1 cm 2 Its height (h) = 10 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 316 .6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.8 + l 81  = 2.GEOMETRY  MT PROBLEM SET .6  Its radius (r) = 2 = 2. The diameter of the base of metallic cone is 2 cm and height is 10 cm. The total surface area of cone is 71. 204) EDUCARE LTD.1 × 2.8 + l) 7 7128 22 28  = × (2.8) (5.3 – 2.8 (2.8)  h 2 = 8.8)2  h 2 = (5.8  4.3)2  h 2 = (5. (3 marks) Diameter of the base = 5.

Total surface area of cylinder = 2r (r + h) = 2 × 3.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Radius (r2) = Volume of a cylinder = 3000 = h1 = Total surface area of cylinder = = = =     Total surface area of the right circular cylinder is 2512 cm2.6 cm3. Find the total surface area of cylinder. This cone and a cylinder have equal radii and height.28 × 40 2512 cm2  Volume of 900 metallic cones = 900  = 900 cones are melted to form a Volume of a cylinder = For a cylinder. GEOMETRY Volume of a metallic cone = = = 1 2 r h 3 1 ×  × 1 × 1 × 10 3 10 cm3 3 10 3 3000 cm3 right circular cylinder 3000  10 cm and height be h2 2 r1 h1  × 10 × 10 h2 30 cm 2r1 (r1 + h1) 2 × 3.14 × r2 × 5 3 7536 10 7536 × 3 × 100 10 × 314 × 5 1 314 × × r2 × 5 3 100 = r2 r 2 = 144 r = 12 cm [Taking square roots] Cone and cylinder have equal radii and height Radius of a cylinder = 12 cm and its heights = 5 cm.36 × 17 = 1281.12 cm2. Sol.6 cm3 Volume of a cone       753. PROBLEM SET . 204) 20. (Given  = 3.14 × 10 (10 + 30) 6. 317  S C H O O L S E C TI O N .6 = = = 1 2 r h 3 1 × 3.14 × 12 (12 + 5) = 75.12 cm2 Total surface area of a cylinder is 1281. The volume of a cone of height 5 cm is 753. MT EDUCARE LTD.14) (3 marks) Height of a cone (h) = 5 cm Volume of a cone = 753.

Slant height (l) of the frustum = h 2 + r1 – r2  Curved surface area = p (r1 + r2) l 2 2 2 Total surface area of the frustum =  r1 + r2  l +  r1 +  r2 1 2 2  r1 + r2 + r1 × r2 h Volume of the frustum = 3   EXERCISE ..6.. 204) 21. E and F as shown in the figure.. In AEF and ABC. The curved surface area of the frustum of a cone is 180 sq. 4. If its volume be 64 (5 marks) cone. we get 2r1 + 2r2 = 18 + 6  2 (r1 + r2) = 24 24   (r1 + r2) = 2   (r1 + r2) = 12 .. 178) 5.....6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. Find the slant height of the frustum of a cone. h1 and v1 respectively. C. The radius height and volume of the given figure cone be r2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.. 2.. at what height above the base is the section cut ? Let the radius.. h2 = 40 m [Given] Consider points A... two parts are formed as (i) cone (a part towards the vertex) (ii) frustum of cone (the part left over on the other side i.. Sol... h2 and v2 respectively. (3 marks) Curved surface area of the frustum of a cone = 180 cm2 Perimeters of circular bases are 18 cm and 6 cm  2  r 1 = 18 .(iii) Curved surface area of the frustum of a cone = (r1 + r2) l  180 = (r1 + r2) l  180 = 12 × l [From (iii)]  l = 15 cm  Slant height of the frustum of a cone is 15 cm. A  A [Common angle] AEF  ABC [Each is 90º] AEF ~ ABC [By AA test of similarity] A Sol.(ii) Adding (i) and (ii). 3.. The height of a cone is 40 cm.. E  r1 h F l r2 B C  318 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. A small cone is cut off at the top of a 1 of the volume of the given plane parallel to its base. B. height and volume of the smaller cone be r1.(i) 2r 2 = 6 . FRUSTUM OF THE CONE : If the cone is cut off by a plane parallel to the base not passing through the vertex.e. towards base of the original cone) r2 h r1 l FORMULAE 1. cm and the perimeters of its circular bases are 18 cm and 6 cm respectively.. PROBLEM SET .

. GEOMETRY    AE EF = AB BC h1 r1 = h2 r2 1 v2 V1 = 64 V1 1 V2 = 64 1 r2 h V1 3 1 1 = 1 r2 h V2 3 2 2 1 64 1 64 1 64 h1 h2 h1 40  r1  h1 =   × r h  2 2  h1  h1 =   × h2  h2  2 [c. MT EDUCARE LTD.(i) [Given] ... globe. The following are the formulae for surface area of the sphere : Surface area (curved surface area) of a sphere = 4r2 4 Volume of a sphere = × r3 3 S C H O O L S E C TI O N FORMULAE 319 ..t.. Some common examples of a sphere are cricket ball. football.(ii) 2         [From (i)]  h1  =   h  2 3 1 = 4 1 = 4 40 h1 = 4 h 1 = 10 cm The height above the base in the section cut = h2 – h1 = 40 – 10 = 30 cm The height above the base in the section cut is 30 cm. its area is called as curved surface area or simply surface area of the sphere..] . Since the entire surface of the sphere is curved.s..  SPHERE The set of all points of space which are at a fixed distance from a fixed point is called a sphere. A Oh • r In the adjoining figure. spherical soap bubble etc.s. The fixed point is called the centre and the fixed distance is called the Radius of the sphere... point O is the centre of the sphere and seg OA is the radius of the sphere which is denoted as ‘r’..

v1 27 .7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO..GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .2 × 4....2 cm 4 Volume of a sphere = r3 3 4 22 = × × 4.2 7 22 42 42 = 4× × × 7 10 10 22176 = 100 = 221.6.7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.46 cm3  Surface area of a sphere = 4  r 2 22 = 4× × 4. Sol. (3 marks) Let the radii of two spheres be r1 and r2 and their volumes be v1 and v2. The volumes of two spheres are in the ratio 27 : 64.2 × 4..2 × 4. 204) EDUCARE LTD. 204) 2.6. Sol.. 22   Find the volume and surface area of a sphere of radius 4. 1.   =  7   (3 marks) Radius of a sphere (r) = 4.76 cm2  Volume of sphere is 310.76 cm2. EXERCISE .2 3 7 4 22 42 42 42 = × × × × 3 7 10 10 10 310464 = 1000 = 310.46 cm3 and surface area of a sphere is 221. Find their radii if the sum of their radii is 28 cm.(i) [Given] v 2 = 64 4 3 r1 3 v1  3 v 2 = 4 r2 3 4 3 r1 3 27  = 4 3 64 r2 3 3 r1 27  = 3 r2 64 r1 3  [Taking cube roots] r2 = 4 Let the common multiple be x  r1 = 3x and r2 = 4x [Given] r1 + r2 = 28  3x + 4x = 28  7x = 28 28  x = 7  x = 4 S C H O O L S E C TI O N 320 .464 = 310.2 cm..

33 cm3. MT EDUCARE LTD. What is its volume ?   =  7   (3 marks) Surface area of sphere = 616 cm2 Surface area of a sphere = 4  r 2 22  616 = 4 × × r2 7 616  7  = r2 4  22  r 2 = 49  r = 7 cm [Taking square roots] 4 3 Volume of a sphere = r 3 4 22  777 = 3 7 4312 = 3 = 1437.6.6. Sol. Let the original radius be ‘r1’  Original surface Area (A 1)= 4  r 1 2 New radius (r2) = 2r 1  New surface Area (A 2) = 4  r 2 2 = 4 ×  × (2r1)2 = 4 ×  × 4r12 = 16  r 1 2 A2 Ratio of New surface area to the original surface area = A 1 2 16r1 = 2 4r1 4 = 1  Ratio of New surface area to the original surface area is 4 : 1 4 r 3 Now. Sol. GEOMETRY  r 1 = 3x  r 1 = 3 (4)  r 1 = 12 cm  r 2 = 4x r 2 = 4 (4) r 2 = 16 cm  Radii of two spheres are 12 cm and 16 cm.7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. EXERCISE .7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.33 cm3  The volume is 1437. 204) 3. 204) 4. EXERCISE . 22   The surface area of a sphere is 616cm2. If the radius of a sphere is doubled. original volume (v1) = 3 1 4 New volume (v2) = r 3 3 2 4 =  (2r 1) 3 3 4 = ×  × 8r13 3 32 v2 = 3  r 1 3 321 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . what will be the ratio of its surface area and volume as to that of the first sphere.

7 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.6. The following are the formulae for the surface area of a hemisphere : FORMULAE 1.57 cm3. 322 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Total surface area of a hemisphere = 3r2 2 × r 3 3.57 cm3  Volume of a hemisphere is 3620. 204) 5.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. what is its volume? 7 (3 marks) 1 cm2 7 Sol. The curved surface area of a hemisphere is 905 1 cm2. v2 Ratio of New volume to the original volume = v 1 32 3 r1 3 = 4 3 r1 3 32 = 4 8 = 1  Ratio of New volume to the original volume is 8 : 1 HEMISPHERE Half of a sphere is called as hemisphere. Volume of a hemisphere = 3 EXERCISE . Curved surface area of a hemisphere = 905 Curved surface area of a hemisphere 1 905 7 6336 7 6336  7 7  2  22 r2 r      = 2 r 2 22 = 2× × r2 7 22 = 2× × r2 7 = r2 = 144 = 12 cm [Taking square roots] 2 3 r Volume of a hemisphere = 3 2 22 = × × 12 × 12 × 12 3 7 25344 = 7 = 3620. Any hemisphere is made up of a curved surface and a plane circular surface. Curved surface area of a hemisphere = 2r2 2.

68 cm3 =  Volume of the given figure is 247.5 cm 2 Diameter of bigger figure = 10 cm 10  Its radius r2 = = 5 cm 2 Volume of the figure = Volume of smaller hemisphere + volume of bigger hemisphere 2 3 2 3 r1  r2 = 3 3 2 3 3  r1  r2 = 3 2 22   (1. MT 14.3 3 10 385  193 = 3  10  10 74305 = 3  100 24768. GEOMETRY PROBLEM SET .5 cm Volume of the figure = Volume of cone + Volume of hemisphere = = = = = 1 2 3  r1h + r 3 3 1 2 r [h + 2r] 3 1 22   3.98 cm3.375  125) = 3 7 2 22   128.3  7) 3 7 10 10 1 385   19. Height = radius (r) = 3. Find their volume.5 cm 1 22 35 35    (12.5  3. EDUCARE LTD. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 323 .5 = 21 = 268.5  [12.5)] 3 7 12.3 cm 3.3  2(3.33 100 = 247. (b) Diameter of smaller hemisphere = 3 cm 3  Its radius r1 = = 1.98 cm3 3 cm 10 cm    Volume of the given figure is 268.375 = 3 7 5648. Sol. (3 marks) (a) For a hemisphere.5)3  53  =   3 7 2 22   (3.68 cm3. 204) The following shapes are made up of cones and hemispheres.6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.

Height of the conical part is 10 cm and total height is 60cm.GEOMETRY  MT EXERCISE .4 × 114.6. 324 .14.1 3582. radius 10 cm r = 10 cm Height of the conical part (h) = Height of the hemispherical part = Total height of the toy = Height of the cylindrical part (h1) = l2 = l2 = l2 = l2 = l = l = Slant height of the conical part (l) = = = Total surface area of the toy = hemisphere and cone.74 cm2  Total surface area of the toy is 3582.8 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO.4 (14.14) (5 marks) Diameter of a test tube = 20 mm 15 cm 20  its radius (r) = 2 = 10 mm = 1 cm Its height (h) = 15 cm Height of hemispherical part (h1) = radius of hemisphere = 1 cm  Height of cylindrical part (h2) = h – h1 = 15 – 1 = 14 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N Sol. 2 = 1. The lower portion is a hemisphere in the adjoining figure. Sol. each with 10 cm its radius = 10cm 60cm 60 – 10 – 10 = 60 – 20 = 40 cm r2 + h2 102 + 102 100 + 100 200 [Taking square roots] 200 10 2 cm = = = = = = 10 2 10 × 1.1 cm Curved surface area of the conical part + Curved surface area of the cylindrical part + Curved surface area of the hemispherical part rl + 2rh1 + 2r2 r (l + 2h1 + 2r) 3. ( = 3.41 14.8 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. A toy is a combination of a cylinder. 2. ( = 3.14 × 10 (14.1 + 2 × 40 + 2 × 10) 31. EXERCISE . A test tube has diameter 20 mm and height is 15 cm.6.1 + 80 + 20) 31. Find the total surface area of the toy.41) (5 marks) 10 cm 10 cm 10 cm       60 cm A toy is a combination of cylinder.74 cm2. each with radius 10cm. 184) 3. Find the capacity of the test tube. hemisphere and a cone. 184) EDUCARE LTD.

 MT

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

Volume of test tube = Volume of cylindrical part + Volume of hemispherical part 2 3 = r 2h 2 + r 3 2   r = r2 h2 + 3   2  =  3.14 (1) 14 +  3  44 = 3.14 × 3 138.16 = 3 Volume of test tube = 46.05 cm3  Capacity of a test tube is 46.05 cm3 EXERCISE - 6.8 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 185) 5. Sol. A cylinder of radius 12 cm contains water upto depth of 20 cm. A spherical iron ball is dropped into the cylinder and thus water level is (5 marks) raised by 6.75 cm. what is the radius of the ball ? Radius of the cylinder (r) = 12 cm A spherical iron ball is dropped into the cylinder and the water level rises by 6.75 cm  Volume of water displaced = volume of the iron ball Height of the raised water level (h) = 6.75 m Volume of water displaced =  r 2 h =  × 12 × 12 × 6.75 cm3  Volume of iron ball =  × 12 × 12 × 6.75 cm3 4 3 r But, Volume of iron ball = 3 4   × 12 × 12 × 6.75 = ×  × r3 6.75 cm 3 12 × 12 × 6.75 × 3  = r3 4 20 cm  r 3 = 3 × 12 × 6.75 × 3  r 3 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 4 × 6.75  r 3 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 27  r = 3 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 [Taking cube roots]  r = 3×3  r = 9

 Radius of the iron ball is 9 cm. PROBLEM SET - 6 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 204) 22. A piece of cheese is cut in the shape of the sector of a circle of radius 6 cm. The thickness of the cheese is 7 cm. Find (i) The curved surface area of the cheese. (ii) The volume of the cheese piece. (4 marks) For a sector, Measure of arc () = 60º Radius (r) = 6 cm
6 cm 60º

Sol.

7 cm

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

325

GEOMETRY

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(i) Curved surface area of the cheese = Length of arc × height   2r  h = 360 60 22 2 67 = 360 7 = 44 cm2  The curved surface area of the cheese is 44 cm2. (ii) Volume of the cheese piece = A (sector) × height   r 2  h = 360 60 22  667 = 360 7 = 132 cm3

 The volume of the cheese piece 132 cm3. EXERCISE - 6.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 164) 1. Which are polyhedrons from the following ?

Nail (i)

Unsharpened Pencil (ii)

Tile (iii)

Diamond (iv)

Test tube (v)

Sol.

(i) No

(ii) Yes

(iii) Yes

(iv) Yes

(v) No

EXERCISE - 6.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 164) 2. Sol. Using Euler’s formula, find V, if E = 30, F = 12. If the solid figure is a prism, how many sides the base polygon has. (1 mark) F+V = E+2  12 + V = 30 + 2  V = 32 – 12  V = 20 1  20 = 10  Number of sides of base polygon = 2 EXERCISE - 6.3 (TEXT BOOK PAGE NO. 164) 3. (i) Sol. Verify Euler’s formula for these solids : (2 marks) F = 8, V = 12, E = 18 L.H.S. = F + V = 8 + 12 L.H.S. = 20 R.H.S. = E + 2 = 18 + 2 R.H.S. = 20 L.H.S. = R.H.S. F+V = E+2

    326

......(i) ......(ii) [From (i) and (ii)]

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

 MT (ii) Sol.

EDUCARE LTD.

GEOMETRY

(2 marks) F = 8, V = 6, E = 12 L.H.S. = F + V = 8+6 L.H.S. = 14 R.H.S. = E + 2 = 12 + 2 R.H.S. = 14 L.H.S. = R.H.S. F+V = E+2 F = 8, V = 12, E = 18 L.H.S. = F + V = 8 + 12 L.H.S. = 20 R.H.S. = E + 2 = 18 + 2 R.H.S. = 20 L.H.S. = R.H.S. F+V = E+2 F = 6, V = 6, E = 10 L.H.S. = F + V = 6+6 L.H.S. = 12 R.H.S. = E + 2 = 10 + 2 R.H.S. = 12 L.H.S. = R.H.S. F+V = E+2

    (iii) Sol.     (iv) Sol.    

......(i) ......(ii) [From (i) and (ii)] (2 marks)

......(i) ......(ii) [From (i) and (ii)] (2 marks)

......(i) ......(ii) [From (i) and (ii)]

HOTS PROBLEM
(Problems for developing Higher Order Thinking Skill)
47. A sphere and a cube have the same surface area. Show that the ratio of the volume of the sphere to that of the cube is Proof : Surface are of sphere = surface area of cube  4  r 2 = 6l 2 ......(i)   

6: .

(4 marks)

r2 l2

= = =

6 4

r2 l2

3 2
3 ......(ii) 2× 

r l
Volume of sphere Volume of cube

4
= =

r3 3 l3 4 r 3 3l 3
327

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

GEOMETRY

 MT = = = = = =

EDUCARE LTD.

4 r 2 × r 3l 2 × l 4 r 2 r × 3l 2 l 6l 2 r × [From (i)] 3l 2 l r 2× l 3 2× 2× 
2× 2× 3 2×  6

Volume of sphere Volume of cube

=

 Ratio of the volume of the sphere to that of the cube is 48.

6 

Sol.

Marbles of diameter 1.4 cm are dropped into a beaker containing some water and are fully submerged. The diameter of the beaker is 7 cm. Find how many marbles have been dropped in it if the water rises by 5.6 cm. (5 marks) Diameter of marble = 1.4 cm 1.4  its radius (r) = 2 = 0.7 cm 4 3 r Volume of a marble = 3 4 7 7 7 ×× × × = cm3 3 10 10 10  Marbles are submerged fully in the water, water level rises by 5.6 cm  Height of water displaced (h) = 5.6 cm Diameter of beaker = 7 cm 7  Its radius (r1) = cm 2 2 Volume of water displaced = r1 h 7 7 56 cm3 = × × × 2 2 10 Volume of water displaced Number of marbles = Volume of marble 7 7 56  4 7 7 7      = ×    2 2 10  3 10 10 10  7 7 56 3 1 10 10 10 × × × × × = × × × 2 2 10 4  7 7 7 = 150  Number of marbles is 150. Water flows at the rate of 10 m per minute through a cylindrical pipe having its diameter is 20 mm. How much time will it take to fill a conical vessel of base diameter 40 cm and depth 24 cm ? (5 marks) Diameter of conical vessel = 40 cm 40  Its radius (r) = = 20cm 2
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

49. Sol.

328

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GEOMETRY

Its depth (h) = 24 cm Volume of conical vessel = = = = Diameter of cylindrical pipe= 20  Its radius (r1) = = =

1 2 r h 3 1 ×  × 20 × 20 × 24 3 20 × 20 × 8 ×  3200 cm3 mm 20 2 10 mm

= = =

10 cm [ 1 cm = 10 mm] 10 = 1 cm Water flowing in 1 minute (h) = 10 m = 10 × 100 cm [ 1 m = 100 cm] = 1000 cm Volume of water flowing in 1 minute through a cylindrical pipe 2 r1 h  × 1 × 1 × 1000 1000 cm3 Volume of conical vessel Time taken to fill conical vessel = Volume of water flowing in 1 minute
= = =

3200 1000
32 mins 10

32 × 60 secs [1 minute = 60 seconds] 10 = 192 seconds = 3 minutes and 12 seconds

 The time taken to fill the conical vessel is 3 minutes and 12 seconds. 50. Sol. Find the length of 13.2 kg. copper wire of diameter 4 mm, when 1 cubic cm of copper weighs 8.4 gm. (4 marks) 3 Volume of 8.4 gm of copper = 1 cm Volume of 13.2 kg i.e. 13200 gm of copper =

13200 8.4 13200 × 10 = 84 11000 cm3 = 7 Diameter of copper wire = 4 mm

4 2 = 2 mm
=

2 cm 10
329

S C H O O L S E C TI O N

GEOMETRY

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Volume of copper wire =  r 2 h    

11000 7 11000 × 7 × 10 × 10 7 × 22 × 2 × 2 h h

=

22 2 2 × × ×h 7 10 10

= h = 12500 cm = 125 m [ 1 metre = 100 cm]

 Length of wire is 125 m. 51. Sol. A hollow garden roller, 63 cm wide with a girth of 440 cm, is made of 4 (4 marks) cm thick iron. Find the volume of the iron. Girth of garden roller = 440 cm Girth of garden roller = 2 r  2  r = 440     

22 × r = 440 7 440 × 7 r = 2 × 22 r = 70 cm Radius of outer cylinder (r) = 70 cm Width of the roller (h) = 63 cm Thickness of the roller = 4 cm Radius of inner cylinder (r1) = 70 – 4 = 66 cm Volume of iron = Volume of outer cylinder – Volume of inner cylinder 2 = r2h – r1 h 2×
2 = h r2 – r1

=

22 × 63 ×  702 – 662    7

= 198 (70  66) (70 – 66) = 198 × 136 × 4 = 107712 cm3  The volume of the iron is 107712 cm3. 52. Sol. A semi-circular sheet of metal of diameter 28 cm is bent into an open conical cup. Find the depth and capacity of cup. ( 3 = 1.73) (5 marks) Diameter of semicircle sheet = 28 cm 28  Its radius (r) = 2 = 14 cm A semicircular sheet is bent to form a open cone  Slant height of a cone (l) = radius of a semicircular sheet  l = 14 cm Circumference of a base of a cone = length of semicircle = r =

22 × 14 7 = 44 cm
S C H O O L S E C TI O N

330

65 cm3. 53. A cone and a hemisphere have equal bases and equal volumes.11 cm 1 2 r1 h = 3 1 22 × × 7 × 7 × 12. (3 marks) A cone and a hemisphere have equal bases  their radii are equal Height of hemisphere = radius of hemisphere Volume of a cone = Volume of hemisphere 1 2 2 3 r h = r 3 3  h = 2r h 2  = r 1  Ratio of heights of a cone and a hemisphere is 2 : 1  54. Find the height of the bucket.11 cm and volume of conical cup is 621. GEOMETRY Let the radius of a cone be r1 Circumference of a base of a cone = 2  r 1  44 = 2  r 1 22 × r1  44 = 2 × 7 44 × 7  2 × 22 = r 1  r 1 = 7 cm          l2 142 h2 h2 h2 h h h h h Volume of conical cup = = = = = = = 2 r1  h2 72 + h2 142 – 72 196 – 49 147 147 49 × 3 = 7 3 = 7 × 1.646 = 621. Find the ratio of their heights. (4 marks) Radii of circular ends are 25 cm and 21 cm  r1 = 28 cm and r2 = 21 cm Volume of bucket = 28. The radii of the top and bottom are 28 cm and 21 cm respectively.73 = 12. MT EDUCARE LTD.490 litres of water. A bucket is in the form of a frustum of a cone and holds 28. S C H O O L S E C TI O N .11 = 3 7 1864.490 litres [ 1 litre = 1000 cm3] = 28.94 = 3 = 621.490 × 1000 cm3 3 = 28490 cm 331 Sol. Sol.65 cm3  Depth of a conical cup is 12.

A oil funnel of tin sheet consists of a cylindrical portion 10 cm long attached to a frustum of a cone. Sol. height 12 cm and length 50 cm. Length of a stair-step (l) = 50 cm its breadth (b) = 25 cm its height (h) = 12 cm Volume of a stair-step = l × b × h = 50 × 25 × 12 = 15000 cm3  Volume of 3 stair-step = 6 × 15000 = 90000 cm3 Length of a brick (l1) = 12. 332 . 55. If diameter of the top and bottom of the frustum is 18 cm and 8 cm respectively and the slant height of the frustum of cone is 13 cm. There are 3 stair-steps as shown in the figure.25 cm its height (h1) = 4 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N Sol. Find the surface area of the tin required to make the funnel.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. How many bricks have been (5 marks) used in it if each brick is 12.5 cm its breadth (b2) = 6. (Express your answer in terms of ) (4 marks) Diameters of circular ends of frustum are 18 cm and 8 cm 18 8  r1 = = 9 cm and r2 = = 4 cm 2 2 Slant height (l) = 13 cm Curved surface area of frustum of frustum =  (r1 + r2) l =  (9 + 4) × 13 =  × 13 × 13 = 169 cm2 Radius of a cylinder (r2) = 4 cm Its height (h) = 10 cm Curved surface area of a cylinder = 2 r 2h = 2 ×  × 4 × 10 = 80 cm2 Surface area of tin required to make the funnel = Curved surface area of frustum + curved surface area of cylinder = 169 + 80 = 249 cm2  The surface area of the tin required to make the funnel is 249 cm2.25 cm × 4 cm. 56. Volume of bucket =      28490 = 28490 = 28490 = 28490 × 21 22 × 1813 = h h = 15 cm 1 2 2  r1  r2  r1  r2 × h 3 1 22 × 282  212  28 × 21 × h 3 7 22 784  441  588 × h 21 22 × 1813 × h 21      The height of the bucket is 15 cm. Each stair-step has width 25 cm.5 cm × 6.

...8 m (d) 17. If the radius of the circle is 7 cm.. m (arc RYS) = 60º.4 m (c) 12. = .H.5 6 × 50 × 25 × 12 = 12.5 × 6.5 × 6.H..(i) abc 2 1 1 1   R.S. = .5 cm3 Volume of 3 stair-steps Number of bricks required = Volume of each brick 90000 = 312.S.S. what is the perimeter of P-RYS ? (a) 4.S.... = S  a b c   2  bc  ac  ab  = 2 (ab  bc  ac)   abc   1 (ab + bc + ac) = ab + bc + ac × abc 1 R. What is the area of sector ? (b) 77 cm2 (a) 78.5 cm2 P is the centre of a circle. S C H O O L S E C TI O N . MT EDUCARE LTD. [From (i) and (ii)]  2 1 1 1  1 + +  = S  V a b c MCQ’s 1. GEOMETRY Volume of a brick = l1 × b1 × h1 = 12. 57.H.25 × 4 = 288  Number of bricks required is 288..5 cm2 2 (c) 35. If V is the volume of a cuboid of dimensions a × b × c and S its surface area.H.H.2 cm.S. then prove that Proof : L. What is the circumference of the circle ? (a) 200 cm (b) 100 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 45 cm The measure of arc of circle is 90º.25 × 4 = 312.(ii) abc  L.2 m 333 2.S. = 1 2  1 1 1 =  + + .4 m (b) 8.8 cm (d) 38. 3. If the radius of the circle is 4.H.. = R. V S  a b c (3 marks) 1 V 1  L. An arc of a circle having measure 45º has length 25 cm..

... 6.. (a) (c) 2 3 rd 5.5 cm.. What will be its slant height ? (a) 12 cm (b) 21 cm (c) 45 cm (d) 25 cm The diameter of a sphere 6 cm is melted and drawn into a wire of diameter 2 mm..... What is the measure of arc whose length is 5. 4. 13.... of area of a circle.. What is the difference in surface area of the resulting cuboid and the surface area of two cubes ? (a) 288 m2 (b) 144 m2 2 (c) 1440 m (d) 770 m2 Area of a sector with central angle 60º will be . 8. 9. (a) 72 cm (b) 120 cm (c) 36 cm (d) 40 cm S C H O O L S E C TI O N 334 . What is its curved surface area ? (a) 314 cm2 (b) 157 cm2 2 (c) 78... What is the radius of the cone ? (a) 2 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 16 cm Which of the following represents Euler’s formula ? (a) F – V = E + 2 (b) F + V = E + 2 (c) F + E = V + 2 (d) F – V = E – 2 What is the curved surface area of a cone of height 15 cm and base radius 8 cm ? (a) 60 cm2 (b) 68 cm2 2 (c) 120  cm (d) 136  cm2 How many solid metallic spheres each of diameter 6 cm are required to be melted to form a solid metallic cylinder of height 45 cm and diameter 4 cm..GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. . (b) (d) 1 6 1 4 th 1 2 th 14... What will be the length of the wire ? (a) 12 m (b) 18 m (c) 24 m (d) 36 m Two cubes each with 12 m edge are joined end to end. 12....5 cm ? (a) 30º (b) 45º (c) 60º (d) 90º A cylinder with base radius 8 cm and height 2 cm is melted to form a cone of height 6 cm... If area of semicircle is 77 cm2 its perimeter is .. 10... The radius of a circle is 3. 7.. (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 15 (d) 6 The radius and slant height of a cone are 5 cm and 10 cm respectively.5 cm (d) 100 cm2 The radii of the circular ends of a bucket which is 24 cm high are 14 cm and 7 cm respectively. 11.

.. (a) 38. (a) 30 (b) 45 (c) 60 (d) 90 25......0 cm (d) 154 cm2 O 7 x B 16..... Find the radius. ... EDUCARE LTD.... Then its surface area will increase .4 cm in diameter and 2 mm thick to be melted to form a right circular cylinder of height 12 cm and diameter 6 cm ? (a) 350 (b) 370 (c) 400 (d) 375 The curved surface area of a right cone is double that of another right cone..5 cm2 2 (c) 14... GEOMETRY Area of minor segment AXB is .... .... A solid metallic ball of radius 14 cm is melted and recasted into small balls of radius 2 cm. (a) 8 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 7 cm (d) 6 cm 3 A 17. find the ratio of their radii ? (a) 1 : 4 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 3 : 2 (d) 4 : 1 The area swept out by a horse tied in a rectangular grass field with a rope 8 m long is . If the volume of the cylinder is 300 cm3.. cm2... times... 19. Hence...... Find how many such balls can be made ? (a) 434 (b) 343 (c) 433 (d) 344 Find the capacity of swimming pool of length 20 m breadth 5 m and depth 4 m ? (a) 40000 l (b) 400000 l (c) 4000 l (d) 4000000 l A cube of side 40 cm is divided into 8 equal cubes. If the ratio of their slant heights is 1 : 2.. The capacity of a bowl is 144 cm .. (a) 16 cm2 (b) 64 cm2 2 (c) 48 cm (d) 32 cm2 The angle swept by the minute hand of a clock of length 9 cm in 15 mins is ....... (a) 90 (b) 45 (c) 30 (d) 60 A (sector) = 18. .. 22...... (a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 2 (d) 5 Find the number of coins 2.5 cm2 (b) 24... then what is the volume of the cone ? (a) 100 cm3 (b) 10 cm3 3 (c) 110 cm (d) 300 cm3 335 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..... 21....... 23..... 24. 1 A (circle). 20...... MT 15....... measure of the corresponding central 12 angle will be . A cylinder and a cone have equal radii and equal heights..

5.0 cm2 343 2 4:1 90 100 cm2 th 2. 2r = 36.4 4 94. : ANSWERS : 1. 15. 18.55 cm If length of an arc is 7 cm. Find the length of the arc when the corresponding central angle is 270º and circumference is 31. 3. Sol. (a) (c) (c) (d) (b) (d) (b) (c) (b) (c) (d) (a) (a) 200 cm 12. (d) (d) (b) (c) (d) (a) 38. 20. 24. 8.4 cm Length of the arc =     2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 13. 11.8 m 8 cm 136  cm2 157 cm2 36 m 1 6 14.4 cm. 23. 6. 25. 9. Sol. Length of the arc (l) = 7 cm 2  r = 36      336   2r 360   36 7 = 360 7  360  = 36  = 7 × 10 l =  = 70º The angle subtended at the centre by the arc is 70º. 16. Measure of central angle () = 270º Circumfernce (2 r) = 31. 22.4 360 3  31. 14. 4. 10.5 cm2 90º F+V=E+2 15 25 cm 288 m2 (c) 36 cm (d) (b) (d) (a) (a) 6 cm 400000 l 375 16 cm2 30 1 Mark Sums 1. 12. then find the angle subtended at the centre by the arc.2 4 l = 23. 19. l = l = l =   2r 360 270 × 31. 7. 17. S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 21.

find the area of a sector.14 cm2. 337 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . MT 3. Find the capacity of the tank 2m l3 23 8 m3 7. Sol. 4. 2 m. Area of major sector = = =  The area of the major sector is 282. write the value of V. Using Euler’s formula. Perimeter of one face of a cube = 24 cm Perimeter of one face of a cube = 4l  24 = 4l 24  l = 4  l =6  The length of the side of a cube is 6 cm.14 × 2 = 3.4 cm2. Radius of circle (r) = 7 cm  Area of the circle =  r 2 22 77 = 7 = 154 cm2  The area of a circle is 154 cm2. 6.14 cm. The area of a circle is 314 cm2 and the Find the area of its major sector. EDUCARE LTD.14 282. A cubical tank has each side of length in cubic metres. F+ V = E+2  12 + V = 30 + 2  12 + V = 32  V = 32 – 12  V = 20 area of its minor sector is 31. Find the length of its side. Sol. Perimeter of one face of a cube is 24 cm. if E = 30 and F = 12. Radius (r) = 2 cm Length of arc (l) = 3.14 cm2  The area of a sector is 3. Sol. 8.6 cm2 5.14 cm r Area of sector = l  2 2 = 3. Sol. Area of circle – Area of minor sector 314 – 3. If the radius is 2 cm and length of corresponding arc is 3. Side of a cubical tank (l) = Volume of cubical tank = = =  Capacity of the cubical tank is 8 m3. Sol.6 cm2. GEOMETRY Find the area of a circle with radius 7 cm. Sol.

Sol. What is the value of R ? According to given condition. Length of side of cube (i) = 1 cm  Total surface area of a cube = 6l2 = 6 (l)2 = 6 (1) = 6 cm2  The total surface area of cube is 6 cm2. 4 cm and 3 cm. Sol. Sol. Find its volume. Sol. Volume of a cube = 1000 cm3 Volume of a cube = l3  l3 = 100  l = 10 [Taking cube roots]  Length of the side of cube is 10 cm. Find the total surface area of a cube with side 1 cm. What is = = = = = = = 7 cm 24 cm r2 + h2 72 + 242 49 + 576 625 25 [Taking square roots] 14. Volume of cuboid is 60 cm3. is 7 cm and its height is 24 cm. 11. 9. Sol. = 5 cm = 4 cm = 3 cm = l×b×h = 5×4×3 = 60 cm3  10. 13. The dimensions of a cuboid are Length of a cuboid (l) Its breadth (b) Its height (h) Volume of a cuboid 5 cm. Volume of a cube is 1000 cm3. S C H O O L S E C TI O N 338 . Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. side 5 cm ? 5 cm l3 (5) 3 125 cm3 12. What is the volume of a cube with Side of a cube (l) = Volume of cube = = =  Volume of the cube is 125 cm3. The area of a circle with radius R is equal to the sum of the areas of circles with radii 6 cm and 8 cm. The radius of the base of a cone its slant height ? Radius of base of cone (r) Its height (h) l2  l2  l2  l2  l  Slant height of cone is 25 cm.  R 2 =  × (6)2 +  × (8)2   R 2 =  [62 + 82]  R 2 = 36 + 64  R 2 = 100  R = 10 [Taking square roots]  The value of R is 10. find the length of its side.

The length of an arc of this circle is 25 cm. EDUCARE LTD. GEOMETRY Using Euler’s formula. The area of a circle is 1368 cm2. Radius of a circle is 10 cm. Sol. if V = 6 and E = 12. What is the length of this arc. F+V=E+2  F + 6 = 12 + 2  F + 6 = 14  F = 14 – 6  F=8 16. A cylinder and a cone have equal radii and equal heights ? If the volume of the cylinder is 300 cm3. MT 15. Sol. What is the area of the sector ? Radius of circle (r) = 10 cm Length of arc (l) = 25 cm r Area of sector = l  2 10 = 25 × 2 = 25 × 2 = 125 cm2  The area of the sector is 125 cm2. 19. What is the corresponding angle of a sector whose area is one-forth of the area of the circle ? The corresponding angle of a sector whose area is one-forth of the area of the circle is 90º. The corresponding central angle of an arc is 90º. 17. S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Sol. Sol. what is the volume of the cone ? A cylinder and cone have equal height and equal radii 1  volume of cylinder  Volume of cone = 3 1  300 = 3 = 100 cm3  Volume of the cone is 100 cm3. Sol. 18. What is the area of the sector of the circle whose corresponding central angle is 120º ? Area of circle = 1368 cm2  Area of sector of the circle whose corresponding central is 120º 1  1368 = 3 = 456 cm2  Area of the sector is 456 cm2. Sol. find F. 339 20. if the radius of the circle is 14 cm ? Measure of central angle () = 90º Radius (r) = 14 cm   2r Length of the arc (l) = 360 90 22 2  14  l = 360 7  l = 22  Length of the arc is 22 cm.

96 cm2. Sol. 23. What is the value of r ? According to given condition. 21.14  45   r 2 = 3. Sol. The volume of this cuboid is equal to the volume of a cube with side 6 cm. What is = = = = = = = 7 cm 24 cm r2 + h2 72 + 212 49 + 576 625 25 24. What is the area of the circle ? ( = 3. Sol. The dimensions of a cuboid are 3 cm × 9 cm × x cm. What is the value of x ? Volume of cuboid = Volume of cube [Given] 3  3 × 9 × x = (6)  3×9×x = 6×6×6 666  x = 39  x = 8 22.96  Area of the circle is 200.  340 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .  (17) 2 = r2 +  (15)2   (17) 2 =  (r2 + 152)  172 = r2 + 152  r 2 = 172 – 152  r 2 = 289 – 225  r 2 = 64  r = 8 [Taking square roots] The radius of the base of a its slant height ? Radius of base of cone (r) its height (h) l2  l2  l2  l2  l  cone is 7 cm and its height is 24 cm.14 × 64   r 2 = 200.14) Area of sector = 8  cm 2 Measure of the arc ()= 45º   r 2 Area of sector = 360 45  r 2  8 = 360 360   r 2 = 8 × 45 360 2   r = 8  3.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. What is the corresponding central angle of a sector whose area is onetenth the area of the circle ? The corresponding central angle of a sector whose area is one tenth the area of the circle is 36º. Sol. [Taking square roots] Slant height of cone is 25 cm 25. Sol. The area of a sector with corresponding angle 45º is 8cm2. The area of a circle with radius 17 cm is equal to the sum of the areas of circles with radii r cm and 15 cm respectively.

(iv) [From (i)....Q .(i) bisector of a triangle PQ BQ   • In ACQ..  In PQR... As shown in figure.......... C B Q ray CP bisects ACQ [Given] By property of an angle  AP AC   = .....(ii) 2.. Then prove that : PQ BC Proof : In ABQ.. seg QM is angle bisector of PQR.. PQR = 900.. Line AP cuts the AP AB + AC = (5 marks) side BC at Q. QSR ~ PQR SR QR = QR PR QR² = PR × SR PR × PS PM2 2 = PR × SR MR PS PM2 2 = SR MR P S M Q xx [Pr operty of an angle bi sec tor of a triangle] [Squaring both sides] [Given] [Given] [Theorem on similarity of right angled triangles] [From (ii)] [Corresponding sides • R       of similar triangles] .. [Given] seg QM bisects PQR PQ PM  = QR MR PQ² PM2  ..SIMILARITY Bisectors of B and C in ABC meet each other at P.. MT EDUCARE LTD... PM² PS = (5 marks) Prove that : MR² SR Proof : In PQR.......(i) 2 = QR ² MR In PQR... GEOMETRY EXTRA HOTS SUMS CHAPTER : 1 .C] PQ BC 1.(ii) bisector of a triangle PQ CQ   AP AB AC  = = [From (i) and (ii)] PQ BQ CQ AB + AC AP  = BQ + CQ [By Theorem on equal ratios] PQ AP AB + AC  = [ B ..... m PQR = 90º seg QS  hypotenuse PR  PQR ~ PSQ ~ QSR .(iii) [From (ii)] [Corresponding sides of similar triangles] .. (iii) and (iv)] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 341 . A ray BP bisects ABQ [Given] By property of an angle  AP AB P   = ... PSQ ~ PQR PQ PS = QR PQ PQ² = PR × PS Also. seg QS  side PR.

C To Prove : OD = OE....(iv) From (iii) and (iv). From the end points of a diameter of circle perpendiculars are drawn to a tangent of the same circle. O Construction : Draw seg OC.(i) [By property of geometric mean] In ADC. (5 marks) prove A (AEDF) = AE × EB × AF × FC E Proof : In ADB. [Given] m ADC = 90º seg DF  side AC [Given]  DF2 = AF × FC .. BQ BP = CQ AP seg PQ || seg AC [ A .... DE2 × DF2 = AE × EB × AF × FC  DE × DF = AE × EB × AF × FC .T.  A (AEDF) = AE × EB × AF × FC [From (iii) and (iv)] CHAPTER : 2 ..C] [From (vii)] [By converse of B. Proof : seg AD  line l [Given] E seg OC  line l [Radius is perpendicular to the tangent] l B seg BE  line l [Given]  seg AD || seg OC || seg BE [Perpendiculars drawn to the same line are parallel to each other]  On transversal AB and DE. seg DF  side AC.. (ii) seg AB is the diameter of the circle.. (5 marks) Given : (i) A circle with centre O.GEOMETRY  MT [By Dividendo] EDUCARE LTD. D (iii) Line l is tangent to the circle at point C.... m EAF = m AED = m AFD = 90º [Given]  m EDF = 90º [Remaining angle]  AEDF is a rectangle [By definition] A (AEDF) = DE ×DF .] A F In ABC.(vii) CQ AP In ABC. (v) seg BE  line l .... A (iv) seg AD  line l .. Show that their feet on the tangent are equidistant from the centre of the circle...Q ... seg DE  side AB.B and B ... m BAC = 90º.(i) [By property of intercepts made by OB CE three parallel lines]  344 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ....(iii) In AEDF..P ..P.    6. AO DC = .(ii) [By property of geometric mean] Multiplying (i) and (ii).... CB – CQ AB – AP = CQ AP BQ BP = .... [Given] m ADB = 90º B C seg DC  side AB [Given] D  DE2 = AE × EB .CIRCLE 1.

. m BAE = m CAE = x PAC  PAC Let. m IBE = 90º .(i) [Angles in alternate segment] . B Proof : BAE  CAE Let.... seg OC  seg OC  OCD  OCE seg DC  seg CE  OCD  OCE seg OD  seg OE OD = OE [Radii of the same circle] ..s............ PAE  PEA seg AP  seg PE P C O E F (5 marks)      [ Ray AE bisects BAC] . Prove that : seg AP  seg PE. mPAC = mABC = y m PAE = m PAC + m CAE m PAE = (y + x) .. Prove that AIBE is cyclic....(iv) In PAE.. seg AF is angle bisector of BAC..] C The bisectors of the angles A.. E m CAB + m BAP = 180º [Linear pair axiom] 1 1 1 1 m CAB + m BAP = × 180º[Multiplying throughout by ] 2 2 2 2 m IAB + m BAE = 90º [ Ray AI and ray AE bisects CAB and BAP respectively] m IAE = 90º ..E .... m PEA = m ABE + m BAE m PEA = m ABC + m BAE m PEA = (y + x) . (5 marks) Proof : A P ) ) I • • × × B Q      3...(iii) [Common side] [Each is a right angle] [From (iii)] [By SAS test of congruence] [c....(i) [Angle addition property] Similarly. GEOMETRY       2... But.t. MT EDUCARE LTD... the bisectors of the corresponding exterior angles intersect in E........(ii) [Angle addition property] [From (i) and (ii)] [Remote interior angle theorem] [ B .B of ABC intersect in I.... Take points P and Q as shown in the figure..(ii) m IAE + m IBE = 90º + 90º [Adding (i) and (ii)] m IAE + m IBE = 180º AIBE is cyclic [If opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary then quadrilateral is cyclic] A 0 0 In the adjoining figure..... line AP is a tangent to a circle with centre O at point A..(ii) [From (i) and (ii)] .C] [From (i) and (ii)] [From (iii) and (iv)] [Converse of isosceles triangle theorem] 345 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .(iii) PEA is a exterior angle of ABE.c.... AO = OB AO = 1 OB DC = 1 CE DC = CE In OCD and OCE .

D] ABCD is a rectangle [Given]  AB = CD ........ C . CD and AD are the tangents to the circle at points Q S P...J....J . A .......S . B AB is diameter of a circle with centre O....... Prove that : seg AJ  seg CJ.(i) [The lengths of two tangent segments seg AJ  seg DJ from an external point to a circle are equal] . we get AP + BP + CR + DR = AS + BQ + CQ + DS  (AP + BP) + (CR + DR) = (AS + DS) + (BQ + CQ)  AB + CD = AD + BC .. (5 marks) A P B Given : (i) Lines AB..... D line JD touches circle at point D..C.. (ii). (iii) and (iv)...R . R and S respectively (ii) ABCD is a rectangle. . BDM  JDC  m JDC = (90 – x)º .. •M seg AC is tangent to the circle at point A. [Radii of the same circle] seg OB  seg OD  OBD  ODB [Isosceles triangle theorem] Let... O and intersects segment AC in point J.D .Q ....C] m JCD = (90 – x)º In JDC...(iii) [Angle addition property] m ODM = m ODB + m BDM  90 = x + m BDM [From (ii) and (iii)]  m BDM = (90 – x)º .D....D . (5 marks) Proof : C J A Take a point M on line DJ such that M .....(v) [ A .(iv) . m OBD = m ODB = xº .(viii) [Converse of Isosceles triangle theorem]  seg AJ  seg CJ [From (i) and (viii)] 5.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.... B ..(iii) external point to a circle DR = DS . In the adjoining figure... B ..C] m ABC = xº  m ACB = (90 – x)º [Remaining angle] ...(ii) [Radius is perpendicular to the tangent] m ODM = 900 In OBD...B. BC...P .(vii) [B .(vii) congruent] 346 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .. If four tangents of a circle determine a rectangle then show that it must be a square......... 4. To Prove : ABCD is a square C R D Proof : AP = AS .(ii) tangent segments from an CR = CQ ...(vi) [ Opposite sides of a rectangle are  AD = BC ...... JCD   JDC [From (vi) and (vii)]  seg DJ  seg CJ ........O .D ...B.(v) [Vertically opposite angles] But.(vi) [From (iv) and (v)] In BAC.....(iv) are equal] Adding (i).. Q....(i) [The lengths of the two BP = BQ ..... [Radius is perpendicular to tangent] m BAC = 90º [From (iii) and A ..C and A ......

GEOMETRIC CONSTRUTION 1..(ii) With respect to bigger circle... m BIC + m IBC + m ICB = 180º  120 + x + y = 180  x + y = 180 – 120  x + y = 60 .. GEOMETRY    6. (5 marks) Analysis : Let m ABI = m IBC = x and m ACI = m ICB = y  m ABC = 2x and m ACB = 2y [Angle addition property] In BIC. Point I is the incentre of ABC. Q and R respectively and also they are chords of the bigger circle.. median AP = 3 cm. ...... Draw ABC.(i) seg OP  seg AB seg OQ  seg BC .... ABC can be constructed median AP.... seg OP  chord AB AP = BP . = 180 = 180 = 180 = 180 [From (i)] = 180 = 180 – 120 = 60º with base BC. MT EDUCARE LTD.....(iv) B [Radius is perpendicular to the tangent] [From (i)] [Perpendicular drawn from centre of circle to chord bisects the chord] [From (ii) Perpendicular drawn from centre of circle to chord bisects the chord] [From (iii) and (iv)] [By Midpoint theorem]   In ABC. (vi) and (vii)] [A rectangle in which adjacent sides are congruent. AB + AB = BC + BC 2 AB = 2 BC AB = BC ABCD is a square [From (v).. BC = 4 cm. seg BC and seg AC are the tangents to the smaller circle at points P. Seg AB. is a square] Two concentric circles with centre O.. PQ = (5 marks) 2 Proof : R P O Q C   With respect to smaller circle.... 1 A AC .. seg PQ || seg AC 1 PQ = AC 2 CHAPTER : 3 .(i) In ABC. Prove that seg PQ || seg AC . P and Q are midpoints of sides AB and BC respectively. vertical angle BAC and 347       S C H O O L S E C TI O N . m BAC + m ABC + m ACB m BAC + 2x + 2y m BAC + 2 (x + y) m BAC + 2 (60) m BAC + 120 m BAC m BAC Now. BIC = 120º.(iii) seg OQ  chord BC BQ = QC .

B. m FAE + m AFO + m EOF + m AEO = 360º [Angle sum property of a quadrilateral]  m FAE + 90 + 105 + 90 = 360 (Rough Figure) A  m FAE + 285 = 360  m FAE = 360 – 285  m FAE = 75º E  m BAC = 75º [A . ABC can be constructed with base BC. Draw ABC.5 cm C X 348 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5 cm and AD = 3.5 cm P B 15º 150º 6. 2.5 cm. B D 6.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.C] F O Now. (Rough Figure) A A 60º 3 cm A O 120º B 30º 30º P 4 cm I B C • 120º • P × × C Point O is the orthocentre of ABC. seg AD  seg BC.5 cm C A 75º 3.E .F . A . 105º vertical angle BAC and altitude AD. (5 marks) Analysis : BOC  EOF [Vertically oppsoite angles]  m BOC = m EOF = 105º In AFOE. BC = 6. m BOC = 105º.5 cm 15º A Y 3.

8 cm. 4. Draw bisector of B. 3. 6.8 cm. Draw a circle touching the sides OA and OB and also the arc. GEOMETRY Construct ABC such that BC = 8. 5. draw m ABC = 50º. 2. 7. At B. 8.8 cm C Q 4. From C draw the tangent to the circle to meet ray BA at A. Draw a sector O-AXB with radius 7 cm and m (arc AXB) = 50º.2 cm from BC. seg IM is in-radius. Let incentre be I.2 cm M 8. Draw incircle with IM as radius to touch sides AB and BC. From I. P 8 5 cm cm B O 5. Draw a line parallel to side BC at a distance of 2. MT 3. radius of incircle of ABC is 2. draw seg IM  side BC. (5 marks) (Rough Figure) A I A B 50º 2.8 cm C Steps of construction : 1. EDUCARE LTD. (5 marks) (Rough Figure) A cm X I O S C H O O L S E C TI O N 50º 7 cm B 7 349 . as incentre lies on angle bisector. B = 50º. 4. Draw seg BC = 8.2 cm. Point of intersection of line parallel to BC and angle bisector is incentre.

BC = 5. 4. Draw bisector of Q.8 cm C 2. It intersects arc AB at X. 8 cm A B 5 cm 5.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. Draw incircle with I as centre and IX as radius. 3. This circle touches the ray OA. Construct ABC. Draw bisector of O.8 cm C I Y 2. seg BP  seg AC. 5. It intersects ray OX at I. seg CQ  seg AB. 2. In ABC.2 cm B • 50º • M 8. CQ = 4. ray OB and also arc AXB. 5. BP = 5 cm . (5 marks) (Rough Figure) A Q P 4. A P X I O • 50º • 7 cm B × × Q Steps of construction : 1. Draw m O = 50º and arc AB of radius 7 cm.8 cm.2 cm X 350 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . draw the PQ  ray OX to cut ray OA at P and ray OB at Q. At X.8 cm.

4. 4. 2. Draw a circle with radius 3cm such that the circle touches the line l and passes (5 marks) through point P. 5.8 cm. With point M as the centre. draw the required circle. Draw a perpendicular from point O to line l to get point T.  ABC is the required triangle. cut an arc of radius 5 cm on the perpendicular to get point P. 3. Taking C as the centre and radius 4. Draw line l. With point O as the centre and seg OP as the radius. 3. Taking B as the centre and radius 5 cm cut an arc on the semicircle to get point P and draw seg BP. prove that tan2  + cot2  = x2 + 1 + x 2 sin  sin  sin2  = = = x 1 . 6. 6. CHAPTER : 4 . Take a point P at a distance 5cm from line l. x2 (5 marks) Proof :   x [Squaring both sides] 351 1 + x2 x2 1 + x2 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .TRIGONOMETRY 1. 8. If 1 + x 2 sin  = x. 2. 5.8 cm cut an arc on the semicircle to get point Q and draw seg CQ. Draw a semicircle with seg BC as the diameter. GEOMETRY Steps of construction : Draw seg BC of length 5. MT 1. Draw a line l. (Rough Figure) P 3 P cm 3 5 cm 5 cm cm O 3 cm N O 3 cm N M T l M T Steps of construction : 1. 7. With point M as the centre and radius 3 cm cut an arc on seg PM to get point N. EDUCARE LTD. Extend seg BQ and seg CP to intersect at point A. With point P as the centre cut an arc of radius 3 cm on line m to get point O. Draw a line m perpendicular to line PM at point N. Take a point M on line l and draw a perpendicular to line l at point M.

S. cos   cos 2 )  (sin  – cos  ) cos   sin  S C H O O L S E C TI O N  cos     sin   cos    sin  .GEOMETRY  MT 1 1 – sin2  1– x2 1 + x2 EDUCARE LTD. = = =  tan2  + cot2  = 1  x2 – x2 1 + x2 1 1 + x2 sin2  cos 2  x2 1  2 1 x 1  x2 2 x 1  x2  1 1  x2 x2 1 tan2  1 x2 tan2  + cot2  1 x2 + 2 x R. = = = = = = = = 352 (5 marks)  sin   cos     1 –    sin     cos    sin  sin  – cos      sin   cos    sin    1 –  cos     cos  – sin     cos    sin    cos   sin  cos        cos  sin  – cos    sin  cos  – sin   sin2  cos 2   cos  (sin  – cos  ) sin  (cos  – sin  ) sin2  cos 2  – cos  (sin  – cos  ) sin  (sin  – cos )  sin2  cos2   1 –   (sin  – cos )  cos  sin    sin3  – cos3   1   (sin  – cos )  cos  × sin   1 (sin  – cos ) (sin2   sin  .H.      sin2  + cos2  = cos2  = cos2  cos2  cos2  tan2  = = = = = = = cot2  = = L.H. 1 x2 + 2 x tan  cot  Prove : 1 – cot  + 1 – tan  = 1 + tan  + cot  tan  cot  Proof : L.S.H. = 1 – cot  + 1 – tan  2.S.

5 m A C BG = 28.S.5  3 3 = 9. 4. (5 marks) Let the distance he walked B towards the building x m Height of tower (AB) = 30 m 28. sin  sin2  sin  . GEOMETRY = = = = = = tan  1 – cot  sin2  + sin  .5 1.S.5  3 = 3 3 = = 28. cos  + cos 2  cos  .5 = 3 28.5 m 1.H.5 m BG = 30 – 1. BG GF [By definition] 3 GF GF GF GF 28. sin  cos  .5 m BG = AB – AG 1. The angle of elevation from his eyes to the top of building increases from 30º to 60º as he walks towards the building.  sin8  – cos8  = (sin2  – cos2 ) (1 – 2 sin2  cos2 ). cos  cos 2    cos  .5 m x E In right angled BGF. A 1.5 3 m 353 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . tan 60º =      Sol.H.S.5 m 60º 30º But CD = EF = AG D G F AG = 1. Find the distance he walked towards the building.5 GF 28. (5 marks) 8 8 Proof : L. sin   sin  cos  1 cos  sin  tan + 1 + cot  1 + tan  + cot  R. cot  + = 1 + tan  + cot  1 – tan  3. MT EDUCARE LTD.5 m Height of boy (CD) = 1.H.5 m tall boy is standing at some distance from a 30 m tall building. Prove : sin8  – cos8  = (sin2  – cos2 ) (1 – 2 sin2  cos2 ). = sin  – cos  = (sin4 )2 – (cos4 )2 = (sin4  – cos4 ) (sin4  + cos4 ) = (sin2  – cos2 ) (sin2  + cos2 ) (sin4  + cos4 ) [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] = (sin2  – cos2 ) (sin4  + cos4 ) 2 2 4 4 2 = (sin  – cos ) (sin  + cos  + 2sin  cos2  – 2sin2  cos2 ) = (sin2  – cos2 ) [(sin2  + cos2 )2 – 2 sin2  cos2 ] = (sin2  – cos2 ) (1 – 2sin2  cos2 ) [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] = R. sin  cos  .

 (sin A + cosec A)2 + (cos A + sec A)2 = 7 + tan2 A + cot2 A.1 sec A + 1 = 2 cosec A L.1 sec A + 1 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . 6. cos ) [ sin2  + cos2  = 1] cos     sin  .5 1 = 9. = (5 marks) Proof : 354 tan A tan A + sec A . cos  sin 2  – cos 2  × = sin  cos  (sec  – cosec ) sin 3  + cos 3  = = = = =  7. sec A  1   1  = 1 + (1 + cot2 A) + (1 + tan2 A) + 2 × sin A  sin A  + 2cos A  cos A      = 1 + 1 + cot2 A + 1 + tan2 A + 2 + 2 = 7 + tan2 A + cot2 A = R.H.H. cos  (sin   cos ) (sin  – cos ) ×  1 1  (sin   cos ) (sin2  – sin  . BG tan 30º = GD 28. Prove that : L. 1 – sin  .      In right angled BGD. tan A tan A + sec A .5 3 – 9.S. Prove : (sin A + cosec A)2 + (cos A + sec A)2 = 7 + tan2 A + cot2 A.5 3  x = 28. cos  sin 2  – cos 2  × = sin  cos  (sec  – cosec ) sin 3  + cos 3  1 – sin  .S.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.5 3 x x = 28. cos  sin2  – cos 2  × cos  (sec  – cosec  ) sin3  + cos 3  (5 marks) Proof : = 1 – sin  .S. (5 marks) Proof : L. 5.H.H.H. cosec A + cosec2 A + cos2A + 2cos A . cos   cos2 ) cos   –   cos  sin   (1 – sin  .5 3 = 19 3 [By definition] Distance he walked towards the building is 19 3 m. sec A + sec2 A = (sin2 A + cos2 A) + (cosec2 A) + (sec2 A) + 2 sin A .S. = 1 – sin  . cosec A + 2 cos A . cos   1 × sin  – cos  sin  – cos  sin  sin   sin  – cos  sin  – cos  sin  R.S = (sin A + cosec A)2 + (cos A + sec A)2 = sin2 A + 2sin A .5 3  x 3 9. cos ) (sin  – cos ) ×  sin  – cos   (1 – sin  .

.cos ² A = sin² A     6. tan A + sec A + 1 = 2 cosec A sin² A + cos² A = 1   1 . AB [By definition] tan 30 = DB 1 80  = 3 DB  DB = 80 3 m . 0 30 450 seg AB represents the lighthouse.. A is the position of the observer D and C are the position of the ships.1 sinA sin A cos A cos A 1 1 + -1 +1 cos A cos A sinA sin A cos A cos A (1 – cos A ) + (1 + cos A ) cos A cos A sin A sin A + 1 – cos A 1 + cos A   1 1 +  sin A  1 – cos A 1 + cos A  1 + cos A + 1– cos A  sin A  (1– cos A) (1+cos A)      2  sin A  1 – cos ² A   2   sin A   sin² A  2 sin A 2 cosec A R. 450  m EAD = 30º and m EAC = 45º 300 B C D On transversal AD [Converse of alternate angles test] m EAD = m ADB = 30º On transversal AC [Converse of alternate angles test] m EAC = m ACB = 45º In right angled ABD..S.H.. Draw ray AE || seg BD. two ships on same side of light house are observed .(i) 80 m S C H O O L S E C TI O N 355 . From the top of a light house. GEOMETRY = = = = = = = = = = tan A sec A . 80 metres high. EAD and EAC are the angles of depression. Sol. Find the distance between the two ships (Assume that the two ships and the bottom of (5 marks) the lighthouse are in a line). MT EDUCARE LTD. The angles of depression of the ships as seen from the lighthouse are found to be of 450 and 300.. E A In the adjoining figure.

 2 2   2 2   –4  2 2  6 . 6) are the vertices of a ABCD.       In right angled ABC..  2 2 2    5 –3 – – (–1) 2 y 2 – y1 2 1 Slope of PQ = x – x = 5 17 = –12 = 4 – 2 1 2 2 2  5 4 – –  13  2 2 –13 Slope of QR = 5 = –7 = 7 –1 – 2 2 11 3 –4 1 Slope of RS = 2 = 2 = 4 5 – (– 1) 6 11 13 – (–1) 2 2 –13 Slope of PS = 17 = – 7 = 7 5– 2 2 Slope of PQ = Slope of RS seg PQ || seg RS .. Q. –1 2 2          356 9 – 4 –7  2 5 –5 . AB tan 45 = CB 80 1 = CB CB = 80 m BD = BC + CD [By definition] . Sol.CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY 1. 2) and D  (2. C  (– 4. Q     .  CHAPTER : 5 . – 7)..  x1  x 2 y1  y 2  8  9 5 – 7  17  . Q... C (– 4.B] [From (i) and (ii)] 80 3 = CD CD = = 80 + CD 80 3 – 80 80 3 – 1 m   The distance between the two ships is 80  3 – 1 m. BC.. A  (8... B  (9...(ii) [ D .GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 6) By midpoint formula. R and S are the midpoints of sides AB. Show that PQRS is a parallelogram. If P. 4) 2   2 11  8  2 5  6  ... CD and AD of ABCD. 5). P.. A (8. – 7). (ii) and by definition] S C H O O L S E C TI O N . R and S are the midpoints of side AB.. 2) and D (2. 2    2 . CD and DA respectively.. P     2 . BC. S    5 .(i) Slope of QR = slope of PS seg QR || seg PS .. B (9..(ii) PQRS is a parallelogram. 5). R    (– 1. [From (i)..C . using the slopes.

3b + 4 (14 – b) = (14 – b)b  3b + 56 – 4b = 14b – b2  b2 – 15b + 56 = 0  b2 – 8b – 7b + 56 = 0  b (b – 8) – 7 (b – 8) = 0  (b – 8) (b – 7) = 0  b = 8 OR b = 7 By (i) when b = 8. Let the intercepts made by the line on the co-ordinate axes be a and b respectively... 4) and the sum of whose intercepts on the axes is 14. Sol.. Sol.. c = 14 – 8 = 6 and when b = 7..(ii) From (i)... 7) and makes intercepts on the co-ordinate axes which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. Sol. MT 2. EDUCARE LTD. 1) and whose x-intercept is twice its y-intercept.... c = 14 – 7 = 7  Equations of the required lines are x y x y   1 and  1 6 8 7 7  4x + 3y = 24 and x + y = 7  4x + 3y – 24 = 0 and x + y – 7 = 0 Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (– 3. a = 14 – b Substituting a = 14 – b in (ii) we get.. 4... Let the intercepts made by the lines on the co-ordinate axes be a and b respectively.. Find the equation of a line which contains the point (4.  a + b = 14 . Let the intercepts made by the line on the co-ordinate axes be a and b. 7)  – (– 3) + 7 = b  b = 10  The equation of the line is – x + y = 10  x – y + 10 = 0 3.. GEOMETRY Find the equations of the lines which through the point (3.. 4) 3 4  1 a b  3b + 4a = ab ..  a=–b .  a = 2b x y  1 The equation of the line is a b x y  1  2b b 357 S C H O O L S E C TI O N ..(i) x y  1 The equation of the line is a b Since the line passes through the point (3..(i) x y  1 The equation of the line is a b x y  –b  b 1  –x+y=b This line passes through the point (– 3.

k) Since A lies on side AB i. 0) and C  (6. k2 + k2 = k2 + k2 = 0 = 12k = k k k+4 (k  4 – 6)2  (k – 4)2          17 5  . if the equation of side AB is x – y – 4 = 0 and B  (4.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.  A   3 3 Equation of side AC by two point form is x – x1 y – y1 x1 – x 2 = y1 – y 2 x –6 y –4 17 = 5 6– 4– 3 3 (k – 2)2 + (k – 4)2 k2 – 4k + 4 + k2 – 8k + 16 – 12k + 20 20 20 = 12 5 = 3 5 17 4 = = 3 3   x– 6 y –4 x– 6 y –4 =      358 = x– 6 y –4 = 7 (x – 6) = 7x – 42 = 17 3 5 4– 3 1 3 7 3 1 7 y–4 y–4 6– 7x – y – 38 = 0 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . l (AB) = l (AC)  (k  4 – 4)2  (k – 0)2 = On squaring both sides. Let A  (h.      5. 4) are the extremities of the base.e. Sol. k) Since ABC is an isosceles triangle with BC as base. on x–y–4=0  h–k–4=0  h=k+4  A  (k + 4. x + 2y = 2b Since this line contains the point (4. 1) 4 + 2 (1) = 2b 6 = 2b b=3 Equation of the required line is x + 2y = 6 x + 2y – 6 = 0 Find the equation of side AC of an isosceles ABC.

.MENSURATION 1. Side of the cube is 50 cm and radius of the cylinder is 7 cm. S C H O O L S E C TI O N .(i) and ab = – 6 ..... A tinmaker converts a cubical metallic box into 10 cylindrical tins.(ii) From (ii) –6 b= a Substituting this in (i) we get....... MT 6. 7 Side of the cubical metallic box (l) = 50 cm Total surface area of cubical box = 6l2 = 6 × (50)2 = 6 × 2500 = 15000 cm2 Wastage incurred in the process of making 10 cylindrical tins = 12% of 15000 12 × 15000 = 100 = 1800cm2 Area of metal sheet used to make 10 cylindrical tins = Total surface area of cubical box – Wastage incurred in the process = 15000 . 22 (Given  = ). b = 1 – (– 2) = 3 Now. equation of the line making intercepts a and b is x y  1 a b  Equations of the required lines are x y x y   1 and  1 3 –2 –2 3  2x – 3y = 6 and – 3x + 2y = 6  2x – 3y – 6 = 0 and 3x – 2y + 6 = 0 CHAPTER : 6 . GEOMETRY Find the equations of the line which cut off intercepts on the axes whose sum is 1 and product is – 6.1800 = 13200 cm2 Area of metal sheet used to make each cylindrical tin 13200 = 10 = 1320 cm2 359 Sol... EDUCARE LTD. b = 1 – 3 = – 2 and when a = – 2. Sol.  a+b=1 . Let the intercepts made by the line on the co-ordinates axes be a and b respectively. Find the height of each cylinder so made if the wastage of 12% is incurred in the process. 6 = 1 a– a  a2 – 6 = a 2  a –a–6 = 0  a2 – 3a + 2a – 6 = 0  a (a – 3) + 2 (a – 3) = 0  (a – 3) (a + 2) = 0  a = 3 or a = – 2 By (i) when a = 3.

B. Radius (r) = 7 cm Area of metal sheet used to = Total surface area of cylinder make each cylindrical tin Total surface area of cylinder = 2r (r + h) 22 1320 = 2  × 7 (7 + h) 7 1320 = 2  22 × (7 + h) 1320 = 7+h 2 × 22 30 = 7+h h = 30 – 7 h = 23 cm Height of each cylinder is 23 cm.. Oil tins of cuboidal shape are made from a metallic sheet with length 8 m and breadth 4 m . Sol.(i) Surface area of face B = 600cm2 Surface area of face B = l × b  l × b = 600 .. l × h × l × b × b × h = 450 × 600 × 300  l2 × b2 × h2 = 450 × 2 × 300 × 300    l×b×h l×b×h l×b×h But. Length of the metallic sheet (l) = 8 m = 8 × 100 B = 800 cm its breadth (b) = 4 m C = 4 × 100 A h b = 400 cm Area of metallic sheet = l × b l = 800 × 400 = 320000 cm2 Length of the oil tin (l1) = 60 cm its breadth (b1) = 40 cm its height (h1) = 20 cm Area of metallic sheet required for each tin = surface area of vertical faces + surface area of the base = [2 (l1 + b1) × h1] + [l1  b1] S C H O O L S E C TI O N 360 . Sol. Surface area of face A = 450 cm2 Surface area of face A = l × h  l × h = 450 . Find the volume of the cuboid.. Find the number of such tins that can be made. Volume of the cuboid Volume of the cuboid = = = = = 900  300  300 [Taking square roots] 30 × 300 9000cm3 l×b×h 9000cm3  3.(ii) Surface area of face C = 300 cm2 Surface area of face C = b × h  b × h = 300 . The three faces A...GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. 600 cm2 and 300 cm2 respectively.. C of a cuboid have surface area 450 cm2. (ii) and (iii). Volume of the cuboid is 9000 cm3....         2..(iii) Multiplying (i). Each tin has dimensions 60  40  20 in cm and is open from the top...

height 90 cm and outer radius 30 cm. 4. MT EDUCARE LTD. Plastic drum of cylindrical shape is made by melting spherical solid plastic balls of radius 1 cm. 361 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . Find the number of balls required to make a drum (5 marks) of thickness 2 cm. GEOMETRY = = = = = = =  [2 (60 + 40) × 20] + [60 × 40] (2 × 100 × 20) + (60 × 40) 4000 + 2400 6400 cm2 Number of tins that can be made Area of metallic sheet Area of metal required for each tin 320000 6400 50 50 Oil tins can be made. Outer radius of the drum (r1) = 30cm Its thickness = 2 cm  inner radius of the drum (r2) = 30 – 2 = 28 cm Outer height of cylindrical plastic drum (h1) = 90cm Inner height of cylindrical plastic drum (h2) = Outer height – thickness of base = 90 – 2 = 88cm Volume of plastic required for the cylindrical drum = Volume of outer cylinder – Volume of inner cylinder = r 12h 1 –  r 22h 2 =  [(30)2 × 90 – (28)2 × 88] =  × (900 × 90 – 784 × 88] =  × (81000 – 68992) = 12008 cm3 Radius of spherical solid plastic ball (r) = 1cm Volume of each plastic ball = = = 4 r3 3 4 ××r×1×1×1 3 4  cm3 3 Volume of plastic required for the drum Volume of each plastic ball 12008  4  3 Number of balls required to make the drum = = = 12008  = 9006  3 4 Number of plastic balls required to make the cylindrical drum is 9006. Sol.

5.6 cm3 Water drips from the tap at the rate of 4 drops in every 3 seconds  Volume of water collected in 3 seconds = 1. arcs with radius 7 cm are drawn. Volume of one drop is 0.6  10 352  3  10 = 16 = 660 seconds = 11 minutes [ 1 minutes = 60 seconds] 3 hours and 40 minutes = 3 × 60 min + 40 min = 180 + 40 = 220 minutes  Number of vessels that can be completely filled in 220 minutes 220 = 11 = 20  20 vessels can be filled in 3 hours and 40 minutes.. (5 marks) F Draw seg BN  chord PQ Radii of each arc = 7 cm [Given] i.. Find the area of the shaded portion. From each vertex.4 = 1. If dripped water is collected in a cylinder vessel of height 7 cm and diameter is 8 cm. Sol.4 cm3..4 cm3  Volume of 4 drops of water = 4 × 0. Water drips from a tap at the rate of 4 drops in every 3 seconds.6 3 3 352  = 1.6 352  3  10 = 1. In the adjoining figure.6 cm3 1.e. Sol.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD. E D 6.. C X• N Q B A P 362 S C H O O L S E C TI O N . PB = BQ = 7 cm ABCDEF is a regular hexagon.6  Volume of water collected in 1 seconds = cm3 3  Time required to fill the cylindrical vessel Volume of cylindrical vessel = Volume of water collected in each sec ond 352 = 1. In what time will the vessel be completely filled ? What is the volume of water collected ? How many such vessels (5 marks) will be completely filled in 3 hours and 40 minutes ? Diameter of the cylindrical vessel = 8cm  Its radius (r) = 4 cm its height (h) = 7 cm  Volume of the cylindrical vessel = r 2h 22 447 = 7 = 22 × 16 = 352 cm3  Volume of water collected = 352 cm3 Volume of one drop of water = 0. ABCDEF is a regular hexagon with each side 14 cm..

GEOMETRY             In BPQ..25 × 1..5 = 2 = 3.60º ..1925 = 21.33 cm2 = A (B – PXQ) – A (BPQ) = 51. MT EDUCARE LTD..5 × 3.Q] PBN = 60º [Remaining angle] BNP is 30º .5 cm PN 3  BP 2 3 7 = 2 = [Side opposite to 60º]   PN PN PQ = 3.5 3  3.(ii) In BNP.73 = 20.5 3 cm = 2PN [Perpendicular drawn from the centre of the circle to the chord bisects the chord]    PQ PQ A (BPQ) A (B-PXQ)  A (segment PXQ) 2  3....5 = 3.90º triangle By 30º .(i) [Isosceles triangle theorem] m BPQ + m BQP + m PBQ = 180º [Sum of the measures of angles of a triangle is 180º] m BPQ + m BPQ + 120 = 180 [From (i) and angle of regular hexagon] 2 mBPQ = 180 – 120 2 mBPQ = 60 m BPQ = 30º .19 cm2   r2 = 360 120 22  77 = 360 7 154 = 3 = 51.90º triangle theorem...33 – 21.5 × 1.14 cm2 = 363 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5 3 7 3 cm = 1  PQ  BN = 2 1  7 3  3. BP = BQ mBPQ = m BQP ..60º . 1 BN = BP [Side opposite to 30º] 2 7 BN = 2 BN = 3..73 = 21.N . BNP = 90º [Construction] BPN = 30º [From (ii) and P .19 = 30.

25 = 7 4455000 = 7 = 6364.84 cm2 The area of shaded portion is 180.5 cm and total surface area of the sphere is 6364.  A (shaded portion) = 6 × A (segment PXQ) = 6 × 30. find the radius and total surface area of the sphere. Sol. A metallic right circular cylindrical disc is of height 30 cm and the diameter of the base is one half time the height.  364 S C H O O L S E C TI O N .5 cm  Total surface area of sphere = 4  r 2 22 2   22.25 = 7 88  506. This metallic disc is melted and moulded into the sphere. Assuming that no metal is wasted during moulding.28 cm2. (5 marks) Height of cylindrical disc (h) = 30 cm 1 its diameter = 1 times the height 2 3  30 = 2 = 45 cm 45  Radius of cylindrical disc (r) = cm 2 2  Volume of cylindrical disc = r h 45 45   30 =  2 2 60750  cm2 = 4 Let the radius of the sphere be ‘r1’ cm The metallic disc is melted and moulded into the sphere [Given]  Volume metallic sphere = Volume cylindrical disc 4 3 60750 r1 cm3  = 3 4 4 45 45 3    r1   30  =  3 2 2   45  45  30  3 3  = r1 422 45  45  45 3  = r1 222 45  r1 = [Taking cube roots] 2  r 1 = 22.14 = 180.84 cm2.GEOMETRY  MT EDUCARE LTD.28 cm2 (Approximately)  Radius of the sphere is 22.  7.5  = 4 7 4  22  506.