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HIGH-SPEED NETWORKS: TCP/IP and ATM Design Principles

William Stallings

Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

CONTENTS
Foreword, xi Preface, xiii Chapter 1 Introduction, 1 1.1 A Brief Networking History, 2 1.2 The Need for Speed and Quality of Service, 10 1.3 Advanced TCP/IP and ATM Networks, 13 1.4 Outline of this Book, 16 Appendix 1A Internet and Web Resources, 18

PART ONE PROTOCOL AND NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS, 21


Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite, 23 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Chapter 3 The Need for a Protocol Architecture, 24 The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture, 24 The OSI Protocol Architecture, 33 Internetworking, 35 Recommended Reading, 38 Problems, 40

Data Networks, 43 3.1 3.2 Packet-Switching Networks, 43 X.25,50

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CONTENTS

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Frame Relay Networks, 53 Congestion in Data Networks and Internets, 60 Recommended Reading, 70 Problems, 70

PART TWO HIGH-SPEED NETWORKS, 73


Chapter 4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode, 75 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Chapter 5 ATM Protocol Architecture, 76 ATM Logical Connections, 77 ATM Cells, 81 ATM Service Categories, 85 ATM Adaptation Layer, 89 Recommended Reading, 97 Problems, 99

High-Speed LANs, 101 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, 102 ATM LANs, 113 Recommended Reading, 118 Problems, 119

PART THREE PERFORMANCE MODELING AND ESTIMATION, 121


Chapter 6 Overview of Probability and Stochastic Processes, 125 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Chapter 7 Probability, 126 Random Variables, 130 Stochastic Processes, 135 Recommended Reading, 143 Problems, 144

Queuing Analysis, 147 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 How Queues Behave: A Simple Example, 148 Why Queuing Analysis?, 149 Queuing Models, 152 Single-server Queues, 159 Multiserver Queues, 162 Examples, 162

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7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 Chapter 8

Queues with Priorities, 167 Networks of Queues, 168 Other Queuing Models, 172 Estimating Model Parameters, 173 Recommended Reading, 176 Problems, 176

Self-similar Traffic, 181 8.1 Self-similarity, 182 8.2 Self-similar Data Traffic, 185 8.3 Performance Implications of Self-similarity, 198 8.4 Modeling and Estimation of Self-similar Data Traffic, 202 8.5 Recommended Reading, 204 8.6 Problems, 205 Appendix 8A The Hurst Self-similarity Parameter, 208

PART FOUR END-SYSTEM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, 209


Chapter 9 Link-level Flow and Error Control, 211 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 The Need for Flow and Error Control, 212 Link Control Mechanisms, 215 ARQ Performance, 223 Recommended Reading, 235 Problems, 236

Chapter 10 Transport-Level Traffic Control, 239 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 240 TCP Congestion Control, 254 Performance of TCP over ATM, 269 Real-time Transport Protocol, 281 Recommended Reading, 295 Problems, 296

PART FIVE NETWORK TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT, 299


Chapter 11 Internetwork Traffic Management, 301 11.1 The Internet Protocol (IP), 302 11.2 IPv6,307

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CONTENTS

11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7

Integrated Services Architecture (ISA), 317 Queueing Discipline, 325 Random Early Detection, 333 Recommended Reading, 338 Problems, 340

Chapter 12 Traffic and Congestion Control in ATM Networks, 343 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Requirements for ATM Traffic and Congestion Control, 344 ATM Traffic-Related Attributes, 349 Traffic Management Framework, 353 Traffic Control, 354 ABR Traffic Management, 365 Recommended Reading, 376 Problems, 377

PART SIX INTERNET ROUTING, 379


Chapter 13 Overview of Graph Theory and Least-Cost Paths, 383 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Elementary Concepts of Graph Theory, 384 Shortest Path Length Determination, 391 Recommended Reading, 397 Problems, 397

Chapter 14 Routing Protocols, 401 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Internetwork Routing Principles, 401 Distance-Vector Protocol: RIP, 408 Link-State Protocol: OSPF, 414 Path-Vector Protocols: BGP and IDRP, 421 Recommended Reading, 428 Problems, 428

Chapter 15 Routing for High-Speed and Multimedia Traffic, 431 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Multicasting, 432 Resource Reservation: RSVP, 444 IP Switching, 458 Recommended Reading, 466 Problems, 466

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PART SEVEN

COMPRESSION, 469

Chapter 16 Overview of Information Theory, 471 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Information and Entropy, 472 Coding, 476 Recommended Reading, 483 Problems, 483

Chapter 17 Lossless Compression, 485 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 Run-Length Encoding Techniques, 486 Facsimile Compression, 489 Arithmetic Coding, 495 String-Matching Algorithms, 503 Recommended Reading, 509 Problems, 509

Chapter 18 Lossy Compression, 511 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Discrete Cosine Transform, 512 JPEG Image Compression, 519 MPEG Video Compression, 528 Fractal Image Compression, 533 Recommended Reading, 547

18.6 Problems, 549 Glossary, 551 References, 557 Index, 568