HANDBOOK OF

NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

HANDBOOK OF

NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Andrei D. Polyanin Valentin F. Zaitsev

CHAPMAN & HALL/CRC
A CRC Press Company Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Polyanin, A.D. (Andrei Dmitrievich) Handbook of nonlinear partial differential equations / by Andrei D. Polyanin, Valentin F. Zaitsev. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-58488-355-3 (alk. paper) 1. Differential equations, Nonlinear — Numerical solutions. 2. Nonlinear mechanics — Mathematics. I. Zaitsev, V.F. (Valentin F.) II. Title. QA372.P726 2003 515¢.355 — dc22

2003058473

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© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-58488-355-3 Library of Congress Card Number 2003058473 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

CONTENTS
Authors Foreword Some Notations and Remarks 1. Parabolic Equations with One Space Variable 1.1. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities ∂2w 2 1.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + bw + cw 1.1.2. Equations of the Form 1.1.3. 1.1.4. 1.1.5. 1.1.6. 1.1.7. 1.1.8.

1.1.9. 1.1.10. 1.1.11. 1.1.12. 1.1.13. 1.1.14. 1.1.15. Other Equations

∂2w ∂w 2 3 ∂t = a ∂x2 + b0 + b1 w + b2 w + b3 w 2 ∂ w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (w ) ∂2w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) ∂2w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (w ) ∂x + g (w ) 2 ∂w ∂ w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) 2 2 ∂ w ∂w + f (x, t, w) Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + b ∂x 2 ∂ w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x2 + f x, t, w, ∂w ∂x k ∂2w = aw + f x , t , w , ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂ m ∂w = a w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂ m ∂w k Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x w ∂x + bw ∂ ∂w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x wm ∂x + bw + c1 wk1 + c2 wk2 ∂ ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (w ) ∂x + g (w ) ∂ ∂w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = ∂x f (w) ∂w ∂x + g x, t, w , ∂x

+ c 3 w k3

1.2. Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities ∂2w λw + b2 e2λw 1.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + b0 + b1 e ∂ ∂w λw ∂w 1.2.2. Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x e ∂x + f (w) ∂ ∂w 1.2.3. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (w ) ∂x + g (w ) 1.2.4. Other Equations Explicitly Independent of x and t 1.2.5. Equations Explicitly Dependent on x and/or t 1.3. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities 1.3.1. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Cosine 1.3.2. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Sine 1.3.3. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Tangent 1.3.4. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Cotangent 1.4. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities ∂2w 1.4.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) 1.4.2. Other Equations 1.5. Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 1.5.1. Equations Involving Cosine 1.5.2. Equations Involving Sine 1.5.3. Equations Involving Tangent 1.5.4. Equations Involving Cotangent 1.5.5. Equations Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.6. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions ∂2w 1.6.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) 1.6.2. Equations of the Form 1.6.3. 1.6.4. 1.6.5. 1.6.6. 1.6.7. 1.6.8. 1.6.9. 1.6.10. 1.6.11. 1.6.12. 1.6.13. 1.6.14. 1.6.15.

∂w ∂2w ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂2w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂w 2 ∂2w + f (x, t, w) Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x2 + b ∂x ∂w 2 ∂2w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x2 + b ∂x + f (x, t, w) ∂w ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂w 2 ∂2w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w) ∂x + g (x, t, w) ∂w ∂x + h(x, t, w ) ∂2w ∂w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂x2 + f x, t, w, ∂x ∂w ∂ 2w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = f (x, t) ∂x2 + g x, t, w , ∂x ∂2w ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = aw ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂ 2w ∂w 2 + g (x, t, w) ∂w Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = (aw + b) ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) ∂x ∂x +

h(x, t, w) Equations of the Form Equations of the Form Equations of the Form Equations of the Form Equations of the Form

1.6.16. Equations of the Form 1.6.17. Equations of the Form

∂w ∂ w = f x, w, ∂w 1.6.18. Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x2 + g x, t, w , ∂x 1.6.19. Nonlinear Equations of the Thermal (Diffusion) Boundary Layer

∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t

w ∂w = awm ∂ ∂x2 + f (x, t) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂ ∂w = a ∂x w ∂x + f (x, t) ∂w ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂ m ∂w = a ∂x w ∂x + f (x, t) ∂w ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂ = a ∂x eλw ∂w + f ( x , t , w ) ∂x ∂ ∂w = ∂x f (w) ∂x +g x, t, w, ∂w ∂x w = f (x, w) ∂ ∂x2
2

2

w + g x, t, w, = f (x, t, w) ∂ ∂x2
2

2

∂w ∂x

1.7. Nonlinear Schr¨ odinger Equations and Related Equations ∂2w 1.7.1. Equations of the Form i ∂w ∂t + ∂x2 + f (|w |)w = 0 Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1 ∂ n ∂w 1.7.2. Equations of the Form i ∂w ∂t + xn ∂x x ∂x + f (|w |)w = 0 Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1.7.3. Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1.7.4. Equations with Cubic Nonlinearities Involving Arbitrary Functions 1.7.5. Equations of General Form Involving Arbitrary Functions of a Single Argument 1.7.6. Equations of General Form Involving Arbitrary Functions of Two Arguments 2. Parabolic Equations with Two or More Space Variables 2.1. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w p 2.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + aw 2.1.2. Equations of the Form 2.1.3. Equations of the Form 2.1.4. Other Equations
∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t ∂ ∂ k ∂w = a ∂x wn ∂w ∂x + b ∂y w ∂y

=

∂ ∂x

f (w) ∂w ∂x +

∂ ∂y

g (w) ∂w ∂y + h(w )

2.2. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w λw 2.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ae 2.2.2. Equations of the Form
∂w ∂t ∂ ∂ λw ∂w = a ∂x eβw ∂w ∂x + b ∂y e ∂y + f (w )

2.3. Other Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Parameters 2.3.1. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities 2.3.2. Equations with Trigonometrical Nonlinearities
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.4. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2.4.1. Heat and Mass Transfer Equations in Quiescent or Moving Media with Chemical Reactions ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w 2.4.2. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + h(w ) ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w 2.4.3. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = ∂x f (w ) ∂x + ∂y g (w ) ∂y + h(t, w ) 2.4.4. Other Equations Linear in the Highest Derivatives 2.4.5. Nonlinear Diffusion Boundary Layer Equations 2.5. Equations with Three or More Space Variables 2.5.1. Equations of Mass Transfer in Quiescent or Moving Media with Chemical Reactions 2.5.2. Heat Equations with Power-Law or Exponential Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity 2.5.3. Equations of Heat and Mass Transfer in Anisotropic Media 2.5.4. Other Equations with Three Space Variables 2.5.5. Equations with n Space Variables 2.6. Nonlinear Schr¨ odinger Equations 2.6.1. Two-Dimensional Equations 2.6.2. Three and n-Dimensional Equations 3. Hyperbolic Equations with One Space Variable 3.1. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 2 w w = ∂ + aw + bwn + cw2n−1 3.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 ∂x2 3.1.2. Equations of the Form 3.1.3. Equations of the Form 3.1.4. Equations of the Form 3.1.5. Equations of the Form 3.1.6. Equations of the Form 3.1.7. Other Equations
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 w = a∂ ∂x2 + f (x, t, w )
2 2 2

w = a∂ ∂x2 + f x, t, w ,

w = f (x) ∂ + g x, t, w, ∂x2

∂w ∂x ∂w ∂x

= =

2 w awn ∂ ∂x2 + f (x, w ) ∂ a ∂x wn ∂w ∂x +f (w )

3.2. Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities 2 ∂2w w βw + ceγw 3.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = a ∂x2 + be 3.2.2. Equations of the Form 3.2.3. Equations of the Form 3.2.4. Other Equations
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 w = a∂ + f (x, t, w) ∂x2
2 2

w = f (x) ∂ ∂x2 + g x, t, w ,

∂w ∂x

3.3. Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 3.3.1. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities 3.3.2. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities 3.3.3. Sine-Gordon Equation and Other Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 2 ∂w ∂ ∂w w 3.3.4. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 + a ∂t = ∂x f (w ) ∂x 3.3.5. Equations of the Form
∂2w ∂t2

+ f (w) ∂w ∂t =

∂ ∂x

g (w) ∂w ∂x

3.4. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 ∂2w w 3.4.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = a ∂x2 + f (x, t, w ) 3.4.2. Equations of the Form 3.4.3. Equations of the Form 3.4.4. Equations of the Form 3.4.5. Equations of the Form
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2
2 2

w = a∂ ∂x2 + f x, t, w ,

w = f (x) ∂ + g x, t, w, ∂x2

∂w ∂x

= =

∂w ∂x w ∂w f (w ) ∂ + g x , t , w , 2 ∂x ∂x 2 w ∂w f (x, w) ∂ ∂x2 + g x, t, w , ∂x
2

w w = f ( t, w ) ∂ + g x, t, w, 3.4.6. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 ∂x2 3.4.7. Other Equations Linear in the Highest Derivatives

2

2

∂w ∂x

3.5. Equations of the Form

∂2w ∂x∂y

= F x, y , w,

∂w ∂w ∂x , ∂y

3.5.1. Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters of the Form 3.5.2. Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 3.5.3. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 4. Hyperbolic Equations with Two or Three Space Variables

∂2w ∂x∂y

= f (w )

4.1. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 ∂ ∂ ∂w w p = ∂x f (x) ∂w 4.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + aw ∂t2 4.1.2. Equations of the Form 4.1.3. Equations of the Form 4.1.4. Other Equations
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂ ∂ k ∂w = a ∂x wn ∂w ∂x + b ∂y w ∂y

=

∂ ∂x

f (w) ∂w ∂x +

∂ ∂y

g (w) ∂w ∂y

4.2. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities 2 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w w λw 4.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ae 4.2.2. Equations of the Form 4.2.3. Other Equations
∂2w ∂t2 ∂ ∂ λw ∂w = a ∂x eβw ∂w ∂x + b ∂y e ∂y

4.3. Nonlinear Telegraph Equations with Two Space Variables 4.3.1. Equations Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities 4.3.2. Equations Involving Exponential Nonlinearities 4.4. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w w 4.4.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + h(w ) 4.4.2. Equations of the Form 4.4.3. Other Equations
∂2w ∂t2

=

∂ ∂x

f (w) ∂w ∂x +

∂ ∂y

g (w) ∂w ∂y + h(w )

4.5. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Parameters 2 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w w p 4.5.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ∂z h(z ) ∂z + aw 4.5.2. Equations of the Form 4.5.3. Equations of the Form 4.5.4. Equations of the Form s eβw
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2

=

∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w λw ∂x f (x) ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ∂z h(z ) ∂z + ae ∂ ∂ ∂ m ∂w k ∂w p = a ∂x wn ∂w ∂x + b ∂y w ∂y + c ∂z w ∂z + s w ∂ ∂ ∂ λ2 w ∂w λ3 w ∂w = a ∂x eλ1 w ∂w ∂x + b ∂y e ∂y + c ∂z e ∂z +

4.6. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w w 4.6.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = ∂x f1 (x) ∂x + ∂y f2 (y ) ∂y + ∂z f3 (z ) ∂z + g (w )
w 4.6.2. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = 4.6.3. Other Equations
2

∂ ∂x

∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w f1 (w) ∂w ∂x + ∂y f2 (w ) ∂y + ∂z f3 (w ) ∂z + g (w )

5. Elliptic Equations with Two Space Variables 5.1. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 ∂2w w n 2n−1 5.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x2 + ∂y 2 = aw + bw + cw 5.1.2. Equations of the Form 5.1.3. 5.1.4. 5.1.5. 5.1.6. Equations of the Form Equations of the Form Equations of the Form Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters

2 w ∂2w +∂ = f (x, y , w) ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 ∂ 2w ∂w ∂w ∂ w ∂x2 + a ∂y 2 = F x, y , w , ∂x , ∂y ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂x f1 (x, y ) ∂x + ∂y f2 (x, y ) ∂y = g (w ) ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂x f1 (w ) ∂x + ∂y f2 (w ) ∂y = g (w )

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

5.2. Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities 2 ∂2w w βw + ceγw 5.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x2 + ∂y 2 = a + be 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4. 5.2.5.
∂ w w Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x2 + ∂y 2 = f (x, y , w ) ∂ ∂w ∂ f1 (x, y ) ∂w Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y f2 (x, y ) ∂y = g (w ) ∂ ∂w ∂ f1 (w) ∂w Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y f2 (w ) ∂y = g (w ) Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters
2 2

5.3. Equations Involving Other Nonlinearities 5.3.1. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities 5.3.2. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities 5.3.3. Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 5.4. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 ∂2w w 5.4.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x2 + ∂y 2 = F (x, y , w ) 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.4.5.
∂ w ∂w ∂w w Equations of the Form a ∂ ∂x2 + b ∂y 2 = F x, y , w , ∂x , ∂y ∂ ∂w ∂ f (x) ∂w Heat and Mass Transfer Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y = h(w ) ∂ ∂w ∂ f (x, y , w) ∂w Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y g (x, y , w ) ∂y = h(x, y , w ) Other Equations
2 2

6. Elliptic Equations with Three or More Space Variables 6.1. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ p f (x) ∂w 6.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ∂z h(z ) ∂z = aw ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ f (w) ∂w 6.1.2. Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y g (w ) ∂y + ∂z g (w ) ∂z = 0 6.2. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ λw f (x) ∂w 6.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂y g (y ) ∂y + ∂z h(z ) ∂z = ae ∂ ∂ ∂ λ2 w ∂w λ2 w ∂w βw eλ1 w ∂w 416 6.2.2. Equations of the Form a1 ∂x ∂x + a2 ∂y e ∂y + a3 ∂y e ∂y = be 6.3. Three-Dimensional Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions ∂ f1 (x) ∂w 6.3.1. Heat and Mass Transfer Equations of the Form ∂x ∂x + ∂w ∂ f ( z ) = g ( w ) 3 ∂z ∂z 6.3.2. Heat and Mass Transfer Equations with Complicating Factors 6.3.3. Other Equations
∂ ∂y

f2 (y ) ∂w ∂y +

6.4. Equations with n Independent Variables ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ f1 (x1 ) ∂x + · · · + ∂x fn (xn ) ∂x = g (x 1 , . . . , x n , w ) 6.4.1. Equations of the Form ∂x n n 1 1 6.4.2. Other Equations 7. Equations Involving Mixed Derivatives and Some Other Equations 7.1. Equations Linear in the Mixed Derivative 7.1.1. Calogero Equation 7.1.2. Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya Equation 7.1.3. Equation of Unsteady Transonic Gas Flows ∂2w ∂w ∂ 2 w 7.1.4. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂y ∂x∂y − ∂x ∂y 2 = F x, y , 7.1.5. Other Equations with Two Independent Variables 7.1.6. Other Equations with Three Independent Variables 7.2. Equations Quadratic in the Highest Derivatives 2 w ∂2w 7.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂x2 ∂y 2 = F (x, y ) 7.2.2. Monge–Amp` ere equation 7.2.3. Equations of the Form
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

∂w ∂w ∂x , ∂y

2 w ∂2w ∂2w 2 −∂ = ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 2 − ∂x2 ∂y2 = F ∂x∂y

F (x, y ) x, y , w,
∂w ∂w ∂x , ∂y

7.2.4. Equations of the Form 7.2.5. Other Equations

∂2w 2 ∂x∂y

w = f (x, y ) ∂ ∂x2

2

∂2w ∂y 2

+ g (x, y )

7.3. Bellman Type Equations and Related Equations 7.3.1. Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities 7.3.2. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 8. Second›Order Equations of General Form 8.1. Equations Involving the First Derivative in t ∂w ∂ 2 w 8.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = F w , ∂x , ∂x2 ∂w ∂ 2 w 8.1.2. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = F t, w , ∂x , ∂x2 ∂w ∂ 2 w 8.1.3. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = F x, w , ∂x , ∂x2 ∂w ∂ 2 w 8.1.4. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = F x, t, w , ∂x , ∂x2 ∂w ∂ 2 w 8.1.5. Equations of the Form F x, t, w, ∂w ∂t , ∂x , ∂x2 = 0 8.1.6. Equations with Three Independent Variables 8.2. Equations Involving Two or More Second Derivatives 2 ∂w ∂ 2 w w 8.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = F w , ∂x , ∂x2 2 ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w w 8.2.2. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = F x, t, w , ∂x , ∂t , ∂x2 8.2.3. Equations Linear in the Mixed Derivative 8.2.4. Equations with Two Independent Variables, Nonlinear in Two or More Highest Derivatives 8.2.5. Equations with n Independent Variables 9. Third›Order Equations 9.1. Equations Involving the First Derivative in t ∂3w ∂w 9.1.1. Korteweg–de Vries Equation ∂w ∂t + a ∂x3 + bw ∂x = 0 9.1.2. Cylindrical, Spherical, and Modified Korteweg–de Vries Equations ∂w ∂3w 9.1.3. Generalized Korteweg–de Vries Equation ∂w ∂t + a ∂x3 + f (w ) ∂x = 0 9.1.4. Equations Reducible to the Korteweg–de Vries Equation ∂w ∂3w 9.1.5. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t + a ∂x3 + f w , ∂x = 0 ∂3w ∂w 9.1.6. Equations of the Form ∂t + a ∂x3 + F x, t, w, ∂w ∂x = 0 9.1.7. Burgers–Korteweg–de Vries Equation and Other Equations 9.2. Equations Involving the Second Derivative in t 9.2.1. Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities 9.2.2. Other Equations 9.3. Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer Equations 9.3.1. Steady Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer Equations for a Newtonian Fluid 9.3.2. Steady Boundary Layer Equations for Non-Newtonian Fluids 9.3.3. Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations for a Newtonian Fluid 9.3.4. Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations for Non-Newtonian Fluids 9.3.5. Related Equations 9.4. Equations of Motion of Ideal Fluid (Euler Equations) 9.4.1. Stationary Equations 9.4.2. Nonstationary Equations 9.5. Other Third-Order Nonlinear Equations 9.5.1. Equations Involving Second-Order Mixed Derivatives 9.5.2. Equations Involving Third-Order Mixed Derivatives 3 ∂3w w 9.5.3. Equations Involving ∂ ∂x3 and ∂y 3
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10. Fourth›Order Equations 10.1. Equations Involving the First Derivative in t ∂4w 10.1.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂x4 + F x, t, w , 10.1.2. Other Equations 10.2. Equations Involving the Second Derivative in t 10.2.1. Boussinesq Equation and Its Modifications 10.2.2. Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities 10.2.3. Other Equations 10.3. Equations Involving Mixed Derivatives 10.3.1. Kadomtsev–Petviashvili Equation 10.3.2. Stationary Hydrodynamic Equations (Navier–Stokes Equations) 10.3.3. Nonstationary Hydrodynamic Equations (Navier–Stokes equations) 10.3.4. Other Equations 11. Equations of Higher Orders 11.1. Equations Involving the First Derivative in t and Linear in the Highest Derivative 11.1.1. Fifth-Order Equations ∂nw 11.1.2. Equations of the Form ∂w n + f (x, t, w ) ∂t = a ∂x ∂nw ∂w 11.1.3. Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂xn + f (w) ∂w ∂x ∂nw ∂w 11.1.4. Equations of the Form ∂w n + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂t = a ∂x n ∂ w ∂w 11.1.5. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = a ∂xn + F x, t, w , ∂x ∂nw ∂ n−1 w ∂w 11.1.6. Equations of the Form ∂t = a ∂xn + F x, t, w, ∂w ∂x , . . . , ∂xn−1 n ∂ w ∂w 11.1.7. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = aw ∂xn + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) 11.1.8. Other Equations 11.2. General Form Equations Involving the First Derivative in t ∂w ∂nw 11.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t = F w , ∂x , . . . , ∂xn ∂w ∂ nw 11.2.2. Equations of the Form ∂w n ∂t = F t, w , ∂x , . . . , ∂x ∂w ∂nw = F x , w , , . . . , 11.2.3. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂xn n ∂w w = F x , t , w , , . . . ,∂ 11.2.4. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂xn 11.3. Equations Involving the Second Derivative in t 2 ∂ nw w 11.3.1. Equations of the Form ∂ ∂t2 = a ∂xn + f (x, t, w ) 11.3.2. Equations of the Form 11.3.3. Equations of the Form 11.3.4. Equations of the Form 11.3.5. Equations of the Form
∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂t2
n

∂w ∂x

w = a∂ ∂xn + F x, t, w ,

= = =

∂w ∂x ∂ nw ∂ n−1 w a ∂xn + F x, t, w, ∂w ∂x , . . . , ∂xn−1 n w ∂w aw ∂ ∂xn + f (x, t, w ) ∂x + g (x, t, w ) ∂ nw F x, t, w, ∂w ∂x , . . . , ∂xn

11.4. Other Equations 11.4.1. Equations Involving Mixed Derivatives n ∂mw w 11.4.2. Equations Involving ∂ ∂xn and ∂y m Supplements. Exact Methods for Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations S.1. Classification of Second-Order Semilinear Partial Differential Equations in Two Independent Variables S.1.1. Types of Equations. Characteristic Equation S.1.2. Canonical Form of Parabolic Equations S.1.3. Canonical Form of Hyperbolic Equations S.1.4. Canonical Form of Elliptic Equations
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S.2. Transformations of Equations of Mathematical Physics S.2.1. Point Transformations S.2.2. Hodograph Transformation S.2.3. Contact Transformations. Legendre and Euler Transformations S.2.4. B¨ acklund Transformations. Differential Substitutions S.3. Traveling-Wave Solutions and Self-Similar Solutions. Similarity Methods S.3.1. Preliminary Remarks S.3.2. Traveling-Wave Solutions. Invariance of Equations Under Translations S.3.3. Self-Similar Solutions. Invariance of Equations Under Scaling Transformations S.3.4. Exponential Self-Similar Solutions. Equations Invariant Under Combined Translation and Scaling S.4. Method of Generalized Separation of Variables S.4.1. Introduction S.4.2. Structure of Generalized Separable Solutions S.4.3. Solution of Functional-Differential Equations by Differentiation S.4.4. Solution of Functional-Differential Equations by Splitting S.4.5. Simplified Scheme for Constructing Generalized Separable Solutions S.4.6. Titov–Galaktionov Method S.5. Method of Functional Separation of Variables S.5.1. Structure of Functional Separable Solutions S.5.2. Special Functional Separable Solutions S.5.3. Differentiation Method S.5.4. Splitting Method. Reduction to a Functional Equation with Two Variables S.5.5. Solutions of Some Nonlinear Functional Equations and Their Applications S.6. Generalized Similarity Reductions of Nonlinear Equations S.6.1. Clarkson–Kruskal Direct Method: a Special Form for Similarity Reduction S.6.2. Clarkson–Kruskal Direct Method: the General Form for Similarity Reduction S.6.3. Some Modifications and Generalizations S.7. Group Analysis Methods S.7.1. Classical Method for Symmetry Reductions S.7.2. Nonclassical Method for Symmetry Reductions S.8. Differential Constraints Method S.8.1. Description of the Method S.8.2. First-Order Differential Constraints S.8.3. Second- and Higher-Order Differential Constraints S.8.4. Connection Between the Differential Constraints Method and Other Methods S.9. Painlev´ e Test for Nonlinear Equations of Mathematical Physics S.9.1. Movable Singularities of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations S.9.2. Solutions of Partial Differential Equations with a Movable Pole. Description of the Method S.9.3. Examples of the Painlev´ e Test Applications S.10. Inverse Scattering Method S.10.1. Lax Pair Method S.10.2. Method Based on the Compatibility Condition for Two Linear Equations S.10.3. Method Based on Linear Integral Equations S.11. Conservation Laws S.11.1. Basic Definitions and Examples S.11.2. Equations Admitting Variational Formulation. Noetherian Symmetries
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S.12. Hyperbolic Systems of Quasilinear Equations S.12.1. Conservation Laws. Some Examples S.12.2. Cauchy Problem, Riemann Problem, and Initial-Boundary Value Problem S.12.3. Characteristic Lines. Hyperbolic Systems. Riemann Invariants S.12.4. Self-Similar Continuous Solutions. Rarefaction Waves S.12.5. Shock Waves. Rankine–Hugoniot Jump Conditions S.12.6. Evolutionary Shocks. Lax Condition (Various Formulations) S.12.7. Solutions for the Riemann Problem S.12.8. Initial-Boundary Value Problems of Special Form S.12.9. Examples of Nonstrict Hyperbolic Systems References

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

AUTHORS
Andrei D. Polyanin, Ph.D., D.Sc., is a noted scientist of broad interests, who works in various areas of mathematics, mechanics, and chemical engineering sciences. A. D. Polyanin graduated from the Department of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University in 1974. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1981 and D.Sc. degree in 1986 at the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian (former USSR) Academy of Sciences. Since 1975, A. D. Polyanin has been a member of the staff of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is a member of the Russian National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Professor Polyanin is an author of 33 books in English, Russian, German, and Bulgarian, as well as over 120 research papers and three patents. He has written a number of fundamental handbooks, including A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev, Handbook of Exact Solutions for Ordinary Differential Equations, CRC Press, 1995 and 2002; A. D. Polyanin and A. V. Manzhirov, Handbook of Integral Equations, CRC Press, 1998; A. D. Polyanin, Handbook of Linear Partial Differential Equations for Engineers and Scientists, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 2002; A. D. Polyanin, V. F. Zaitsev, and A. Moussiaux, Handbook of First Order Partial Differential Equations, Taylor & Francis, 2002; and A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev, Handbook of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics Equations, Fizmatlit, 2002. Professor Polyanin is Editor of the book series Differential and Integral Equations and Their Applications, Taylor & Francis, London, and Physical and Mathematical Reference Literature, Fizmatlit, Moscow. In 1991, A. D. Polyanin was awarded a Chaplygin Prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences for his research in mechanics. In 2001, he received an award from the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation.
Address: Institute for Problems in Mechanics, RAS, 101 Vernadsky Avenue, Building 1, 119526 Moscow, Russia E›mail: polyanin@ipmnet.ru

Valentin F. Zaitsev, Ph.D., D.Sc., is a noted scientist in the fields of ordinary differential equations, mathematical physics, and nonlinear mechanics. V. F. Zaitsev graduated from the Radio Electronics Faculty of the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute (now Saint-Petersburg Technical University) in 1969 and received his Ph.D. degree in 1983 at the Leningrad State University. His Ph.D. thesis was devoted to the group approach to the study of some classes of ordinary differential equations. In 1992, Professor Zaitsev received his Doctor of Sciences degree; his D.Sc. thesis was dedicated to the discrete-group analysis of ordinary differential equations. In 1971–1996, V. F. Zaitsev worked in the Research Institute for Computational Mathematics and Control Processes of the St. Petersburg State University. Since 1996, Professor Zaitsev has been a member of the staff of the Russian State Pedagogical University (St. Petersburg). Professor Zaitsev has made important contributions to new methods in the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations. He is an author of more than 130 scientific publications, including 18 books and one patent.
Address: Russian State Pedagogical University, 48 Naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 191186 Saint-Petersburg, Russia E›mail: valentin zaitsev@mail.ru

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

FOREWORD
Nonlinear partial differential equations are encountered in various fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology, and numerous applications. Exact (closed-form) solutions of differential equations play an important role in the proper understanding of qualitative features of many phenomena and processes in various areas of natural science. Exact solutions of nonlinear equations graphically demonstrate and allow unraveling the mechanisms of many complex nonlinear phenomena such as spatial localization of transfer processes, multiplicity or absence steady states under various conditions, existence of peaking regimes and many others. Furthermore, simple solutions are often used in teaching many courses as specific examples illustrating basic tenets of a theory that admit mathematical formulation. Even those special exact solutions that do not have a clear physical meaning can be used as “test problems” to verify the consistency and estimate errors of various numerical, asymptotic, and approximate analytical methods. Exact solutions can serve as a basis for perfecting and testing computer algebra software packages for solving differential equations. It is significant that many equations of physics, chemistry, and biology contain empirical parameters or empirical functions. Exact solutions allow researchers to design and run experiments, by creating appropriate natural conditions, to determine these parameters or functions. This book contains more than 1600 nonlinear mathematical physics equations and nonlinear partial differential equations and their solutions. A large number of new exact solutions to nonlinear equations are described. Equations of parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, mixed, and general types are discussed. Second-, third-, fourth-, and higher-order nonlinear equations are considered. The book presents exact solutions to equations of heat and mass transfer, wave theory, nonlinear mechanics, hydrodynamics, gas dynamics, plasticity theory, nonlinear acoustics, combustion theory, nonlinear optics, theoretical physics, differential geometry, control theory, chemical engineering sciences, biology, and other fields. Special attention is paid to general-form equations that depend on arbitrary functions; exact solutions of such equations are of principal value for testing numerical and approximate methods. Almost all other equations contain one or more arbitrary parameters (in fact, this book deals with whole families of partial differential equations), which can be fixed by the reader at will. In total, the handbook contains significantly more nonlinear PDE’s and exact solutions than any other book currently available. The supplement of the book presents exact analytical methods for solving nonlinear mathematical physics equations. When selecting the material, the authors have given a pronounced preference to practical aspects of the matter; that is, to methods that allow effectively “constructing” exact solutions. Apart from the classical methods, the book also describes wide-range methods that have been greatly developed over the last decade (the nonclassical and direct methods for symmetry reductions, the differential constraints method, the method of generalized separation of variables, and others). For the reader’s better understanding of the methods, numerous examples of solving specific differential equations and systems of differential equations are given throughout the book. For the convenience of a wide audience with different mathematical backgrounds, the authors tried to do their best, wherever possible, to avoid special terminology. Therefore, some of the methods are outlined in a schematic and somewhat simplified manner, with necessary references made to books where these methods are considered in more detail. Many sections were written so that they could be read independently from each other. This allows the reader to quickly get to the heart of the matter. The handbook consists of chapters, sections, and subsections. Equations and formulas are numbered separately in each subsection. The equations within subsections are arranged in increasing order of complexity. The extensive table of contents provides rapid access to the desired equations.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

Separate parts of the book may be used by lecturers of universities and colleges for practical courses and lectures on nonlinear mathematical physics equations for graduate and postgraduate students. Furthermore, the books may be used as a database of test problems for numerical and approximate methods for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. We would like to express our deep gratitude to Alexei Zhurov for fruitful discussions and valuable remarks. The authors hope that this book will be helpful for a wide range of scientists, university teachers, engineers, and students engaged in the fields of mathematics, physics, mechanics, control, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Andrei D. Polyanin Valentin F. Zaitsev

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

SOME NOTATIONS AND REMARKS
Latin Characters
C1 , C 2 , . . . r , ϕ, z r, θ, ϕ t w x, y , z x1 , . . . , x n are arbitrary constants; cylindrical coordinates, r = x2 + y 2 and x = r cos ϕ, y = r sin ϕ; spherical coordinates, r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 and x = r sin θ cos ϕ, y = sin θ sin ϕ, z = r cos θ; time (t ≥ 0); unknown function (dependent variable); space (Cartesian) coordinates; Cartesian coordinates in n-dimensional space.

Greek Characters
∆ Laplace operator; in two-dimensional case, ∆ = in three-dimensional case, ∆ = ∆∆
∂2 ∂x2 ∂2 ∂x2

+

∂2 ∂y 2 ;

+

∂2 ∂y 2

+

∂2 ∂z 2 ;

in n-dimensional case, ∆ =
∂ ∂x4
4

n k=1

∂2 ∂x2 k

;

biharmonic operator; in two-dimensional case, ∆∆ =

+ 2 ∂x∂ 2 ∂y 2 +

4

∂ ∂y 4 .

4

Brief Notation for Derivatives
wx = ∂w , wt = ∂x df , fxx = fx = dx ∂w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w , wxx = , w = , w = , ... (partial derivatives); xt tt ∂t ∂x2 ∂x∂t ∂t2 d2 f d3 f d4 f dn f (n) , fxxx = , fxxxx = , fx = (derivatives for f = f (x)). 2 3 4 dx dx dx dxn

Brief Notation for Differential Operators
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ , ∂y = , ∂t = , ∂w = (differential operators in x, y , t, and w); ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂w ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + wx + wxx + wxt + · · · (total differential operator in x); Dx = ∂x ∂w ∂wx ∂wt ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ + wt + wxt + wtt +··· (total differential operator in t). Dt = ∂t ∂w ∂wx ∂wt In the last two relations, w is assumed to be dependent on x and t, w = w(x, t). ∂x =

Remarks
1. The book presents solutions of the following types: (a) expressible in terms of elementary functions explicitly, implicitly, or parametrically; (b) expressible in terms of elementary functions and integrals of elementary functions; (c) expressible in terms of elementary functions, functions involved in the equation (if the equation contains arbitrary functions), and integrals of the equation functions and/or other elementary functions; (d) expressible in terms of ordinary differential equations or finite systems of ordinary differential equations; (e) expressible in terms of solutions to nonlinear equations that can be reduced to linear partial differential equations or linear integral equations.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

6.2. Solution name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ∗ ∗∗ Solution structure ∗ Traveling-wave solution w = F (z ). 7. very simple and graphical classification of solutions by their appearance is used in the book. w. and Polyanin. we also use this term in the cases where the variable t plays the role of a spatial coordinate. 3. where x ¯ = t + C2 . An expression that solves an equations in three independent variables and is determined by an equation in two independent variables will be called a two-dimensional solution. The book also deals with solutions described by equations with fewer new variables than those in the original equations. For these equations. 1989). and Moussiaux (2002). see Kamke (1965). z = αx + βt. Rhee. the solution name and structure are as follows (x and t in the solutions below can be swapped): No. z = ϕ(t)x + ψ (t) For uniformity of presentation. When referencing a particular equation. Aris. Equations are numbered separately in each subsection. and Amundson (1986.2. and one unknown. Though incomplete. αβ ≠ 0 w = ϕ(x) + ψ (t) w = ϕ(x)ψ (t) w = tα F (z ). z = xψ (t) w = ϕ1 (x)ψ1 (t) + · · · + ϕn (x)ψn (t) w = F (z ).2. it is often not stated that the 5. z = ϕ1 (x)ψ1 (t) + · · · + ϕn (x)ψn (t) Additive separable solution Multiplicative separable solution Self-similar solution ∗∗ Generalized self-similar solution Generalized separable solution Functional separable solution Generalized traveling-wave solution w = F (z ). will also be called a self-similar Sometimes. For equations in two independent variables. f (x) . x and t. 4. If a formula or a solution contains an expression like a−2 assumption a ≠ 2 is implied. a solution of the form w = t ¯t ¯ = x + C1 and t solution. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z = xtβ w = ϕ(t)F (z ). Zaitsev. As a rule.1. (b) the cited source provides further information on the equation in question and their solutions.5. The present book does not consider first-order nonlinear partial differential equations. ODE and PDE are conventional abbreviations for ordinary differential equation and partial differential equation. respectively. 8. the book does not present simple solutions that depend on only one of the variables involved in the original equation. ¯ α F (z ).  ¢¡ This symbol indicates references to literature sources whenever: (a) at least one of the solutions was obtained in the cited source (even though the solution contained “correctable” misprints in signs or coefficients). z = x ¯β . which implies equation 5 from Subsection 3. we use a notation like 3.1.

z = x + λt. Then the function 2 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 . it describes the mass transfer in a two-component medium at rest with a volume chemical reaction of quasi-first order. This equation arises in heat and mass transfer.   where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. 2◦ . Then the functions w1 = w( x + C1 . t) is a solution of the equation in question.2 with m = 2. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. C2 . auξξ + 2 2. ∂2w ∂w = + aw(1 – w). biology.1. where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz − λwz + bw2 = 0.1. Suppose w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 ξuξ + u + bu2 = 0.3. ∂t ∂x2 Fisher equation. combustion theory. This is a special case of equation 1. where C1 . t + C2 ).1. 1◦ . Suppose w(x. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 + bw + cw 2 1. 3◦ . The kinetic function f (w) = aw(1 − w) models also an autocatalytic chain reaction in combustion theory. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Self-similar solution: w = t−1 u(ξ ). are also solutions of the equation. C 1 t + C3 ). ∂2w ∂w =a + bw2 . and ecology. Traveling-wave solution (λ is an arbitrary constant): w = w(z ). ∂t ∂x2 1◦ .Chapter 1 Parabolic Equations with One Space Variable 1. For example. ξ = xt−1/2 . is also a solution of the equation.

1). where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz − λwz − bw3 = 0. Mansfield (1994). – bw3 . t) = ¡ w = w(z ). Volosov (1995).5 with b0 = b1 = b2 = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 ξuξ + 2 u − bu3 = 0. C 1 ∂w ∂2w where C1 . A. Zeppetella (1978). the inversion of this relation corresponds to the classical Weierstrass elliptic function. P. 0. b C1 x2 + C2 x + 6aC1 t + C3 3◦ . w(x. Ablowitz and A. auξξ + 2 ¢¤£ Reference: P. and K. V. For the upper sign.2. 4◦ . Self-similar solution: w = t−1/2 u(ξ ). L. w(x. 2◦ .1. Clarkson and E. ξ = C1 exp 1 6 5 at ¡ w(x. t) = 1 + C exp − 6 1 6 √ −2 √ 6a x + 5 6 at . and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . t) = √ 2 5 at ¡ 1 1 + C exp − 6 6 −6a x 3◦ . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. Danilov. Maslov. G. 4◦ . ϕ(ξ ) = ℘(ξ + C3 . A. Traveling-wave solution (λ is an arbitrary constant): w(x. ¢¤£ 2 + b0 + b1 w + b2 w 2 + b3 w 3 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. ξ = xt−1/2 .2. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Solutions: 2C1 x + C2 2a . Traveling-wave solutions (C is an arbitrary constant): 6a x . The substitution U = 1 − w leads to an equation of the similar form ∂ 2U ∂U = − aU (1 − U ). z = x + λt.1. Suppose w(x. where the function ϕ(ξ ) is defined implicitly by ξ= ¡ dϕ (4ϕ3 − 1) − C2 . J. Then the functions 2 t + C3 ).2 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ . =a 1◦ . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. √ −2 1 5 . ∂t ∂x2 References: M. w1 = C1 w ( ¡ C 1 x + C2 . V. Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. are also solutions of the equation. t) = −1 + C exp − 6 at ¡ 6 6a x √ 1 1 + 2C exp − 5 6 at ¡ 6 −6a x . t) = ¡ ξ 2 ϕ(ξ ).

t) = where C is an arbitrary constant.1. Clarkson (1992). 3. . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC −1 ∂w ∂2w ct ¥ b x+C 2a .2. Solution with a > 0 (generalizes the first solution of Item 2◦ ): √ √ 1 3 3 w = C1 exp 1 2 2a x + 2 at − C2 exp − 2 2a x + 2 at U (z ). and the function U = U (z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aUzz = 2bU 3 (whose solution can be written out in implicit form). 1 3 b C1 exp 2a x + C2 exp 2 2a x − 2 at + C3 where C1 . are also solutions of the equation (the signs are chosen arbitrarily).2 with m = 3. 2|a| x + C1 + C2 . =a 1◦ . M. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 3 2. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. C2 . ¦¤§ 6◦ .1. t + C2 ). C2 .5 with b1 = b0 = 0.3. Solution with a < 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 3◦ ): w = exp ξ = exp 3 2 at 3 2 at 1 2 1 2 sin cos 2|a| x + C1 V (ξ ). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Solutions with a > 0 and b > 0: w= w= √ √ 1 1 C1 exp 2 2a x − C2 exp − 2 2a x a √ √ . 5◦ . = ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.5 with b0 = b2 = 0. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Cariello and M. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 1 3 b C1 exp 1 2 2a x + C2 exp − 2 2a x + C3 exp − 2 at √ √ 1 3 2C1 exp 2a x + C2 exp 2 at 2a x − 2 a √ √ −1 . See also equation 1. where C1 . Tabor (1989). C. Suppose w(x. References: F. 2◦ . – bw3 – cw2 .2. ∂2w ∂w + aw – bw3 . Solution with a < 0 and b > 0: w= |a| b cos sin 1 2 1 2 √ 2|a| x + C1 √ 3 at 2|a| x + C1 + C2 exp − 2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . Nucci and P.1. Then the functions w1 = ¥ w(¥ x + C1 . Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. √ √ 1 3 3 z = C1 exp 1 2 2a x + 2 at + C2 exp − 2 2a x + 2 at + C3 .1.1. 1◦ . 4◦ . and the function V = V (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aVξξ = −2bV 3 (whose solution can be written out in implicit form). A.

1 2 A exp ¨ 1 2 2 (1 − a)x + 2 (1 − a )t + 1 √ 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 tanh ¨ 4 2 x + 4 (1 − 2a)t + A . 1 (2a − 1)t 2x + 2 a √ . and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = w(x. Solutions: PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2a 1 ∂F . 3◦ . ∂t ∂x2 Fitzhugh–Nagumo equation. t) = w(x. – w(1 – w)(a – w). (1 + a) − (1 − a) coth ¨ 1 4 2a √ . where w1 = 0. There are three stationary solutions: w = wk . w(x. t) = w(x. t) = k where F = C1 x + kc c2 kc 2a x + t + C3 . t) = w(x. t + C2 exp − √ b 2b 2ab and C1 . 2◦ . and w3 = a. B . √ 1 1 1 1 2 a + 2 a tanh ¨ 4 2 ax + 4 a(a − 2)t + A . F = C1 exp √ 2b b 2b 2ab 2ab 2ab 4.4 2◦ . There is a stationary nonhomogeneous solution that can be represented in implicit form (A and B are arbitrary constants): dw 1 4 4w 1 1 −3 (a + 1)w3 + 2 aw2 + A = ¨ x + B. t) = w(x. 1 1 1 1 2 + 2 coth ¨ 4 2 x + 4 (1 − 2a)t + A . b F ∂x k = ¨ 1. w = 0 is unstable. if 0 < a < 1: the solutions w = 0. Solutions: w(x. This equation arises in population genetics and models the transmission of nerve impulses. b F ∂x b c2 c2 c2 kc kc kc x− x + t exp √ x− t + C2 √ t + C3 . 1 (1 − a 2 )t + A 2 (1 − a)x + 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 1◦ . w2 = 1. 1 (1 − a 2 )t + A 2 (1 − a)x + 4 − a 2 )t + A . C2 . and C are arbitrary constants): w(x. Traveling-wave solutions (A. w = 1 are stable. t) = w(x. t) = k where 2a 1 ∂F c − . w = 1 are stable. √ 1 1 1 1 2 (1 + a) + 2 (1 − a) coth ¨ 4 2 (1 − a)x + 4 (1 (1 + a) − (1 − a) tanh √ ¨ 1 4 2a √ . t) = 1 + A exp ¨ 1 + A exp ¨ 1 2 A exp ¨ 1 2 2 (1 − a)x + 2 (1 − a )t + a √ . ∂w = ∂2w k = ¨ 1. 1 1 2 2 a x + 2 a(2 − a)t 1 2 − a 2 )t + A . t) = w(x. √ 1 1 1 1 ¨ 2 (1 + a) + 2 (1 − a) tanh 4 2 (1 − a)x + 4 (1 √ 1 √ . √ 1 1 1 1 ¨ 2 a + 2 a coth 4 2 ax + 4 a(a − 2)t + A . t) = w(x. t) = w(x. The linear stability analysis shows that if −1 ≤ a < 0: the solutions w = a. w = a is unstable. t) = w(x.

1 − a−1 are also solutions of the equation. Clarkson (1992). z2 = © √ 2 2 x+ 1 2 ax + a 1 2a − 1 t. F. 1 − a . N.2. a) is a solution of the equation in question. The solutions of Item 2◦ are special cases of the traveling-wave solution w(x. Ibragimov (1994).2. ∂τ ∂z 2 a Therefore. t) = β ∂F + λ. z = ax a leads to an equation of the similar form with parameter a2 = 1 − a−1 : v (z . a2 t. ¤ The transformation 6◦ . where A. B . w2 = a − aw ax.7. References for equation 1. F ∂x β=© − 2a . t. D. Nucci and P. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 5 3◦ . if w = w(x. M. t) depends on the equation coefficients. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . C. The general solution of this equation with a = −1 and λ = © (2003). ξ = x + λt. and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wξξ − λwξ = w(1 − w)(a − w). t. t) = w(ξ ).4: T.1. 3 √ 2 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev 5◦ . See also Example 1 in Subsection S. The abovesaid allows us to “multiply” exact solutions. τ ) = 1 − ∂2v 1 ∂v = − v (1 − v ) 1 − − v . Solutions are given by 5. The substitution wξ = λy (w) leads to an Abel equation of the second kind: yyw − y = λ−2 aw − (a + 1)w2 + w3 . =a w(x. A. H.1. Tanaka (1983).1. V. where λ is an arbitrary constant. Let us give two transformations that preserve the form of the original equation. Kawahara and M. t) = z1 = © √ 2 2 A exp(z1 ) + aB exp(z2 ) . The substitution u = 1 − w leads to an equation of the similar form with parameter a 1 = 1 − a: ∂u ∂ 2 u = − u(1 − u)(1 − a − u). ∂t ∂x2 1 w(x. t). + b0 + b1 w + b2 w 2 + b3 w 3 . “Two-phase” solution: w(x. Polyanin (1996). and C are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (2) . b3 (1) ∂w ∂2w where λ is any of the roots of the cubic equation b 3 λ3 + b 2 λ2 + b 1 λ + b 0 = 0 and the specific form of F = F (x. Zaitsev and A. τ = a2 t. A exp(z1 ) + B exp(z2 ) + C − a t. then the functions w1 = 1 − w x. 4◦ .

1 q1  kn = − 2 2 1. 1. t) = C1 exp(z1 ) + C2 exp(z2 ) + C3 where √ 1 bλ1 (λ1 − 2λ2 )t. C2 . References: V. P. C2 . Sybochev (1991). auξξ + ξuξ + 2 k−1 w = t 1−k u(ξ ). For q2 ≠ 0 and q1 = 4q2 . we have β (b2 + 3b3 λ). By formulas (1)–(4) with λ = 0. A. 2 2 1 1 1 1 q1 . F (x. 2 + f (w ) 1. C 1 t + C3 ). G. a = 1. Suppose w(x. Traveling-wave solution: 3◦ . F (x. Yu. For q2 ≠ 0 and q1 ≠ 4q2 . 2a Four cases are possible. b0 = 0. ¤ Example. t) = C1 exp(kx + s1 t) + C2 (kx + s2 t) exp(kx + s1 t) + C3 . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . L. q1 2 2 s n = −k n p1 − kn p2 . 2b λ 1 x + 2 z1 =  1 2 √ 1 1 z2 =  2 2b λ2 x + 2 bλ2 (λ2 − 2λ1 )t. Danilov and P. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. p2 = β (b2 + 3b3 λ). s 1 = − 4 p 1 q1 +2 p 2 q1 . w (x. For q2 = 0 and q1 ≠ 0. Self-similar solution: 1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2◦ . s 2 = − 2 p 1 q1 +1 k = −2 2 p 2 q1 . are also solutions of the equation.6 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE Introduce the notation p1 = −3a. w = w(z ). q1 = − 1 (3b3 λ2 + 2b2 λ + b1 ). t) = C1 (x − p2 t) + C2 exp[−q1 x + q1 (p2 − p1 q1 )t] + C3 . For q2 = q1 = 0. Let 2◦ .1.3. F (x.4. we have 1 2 2 − 4q . x ξ= √ . Kudryashov (1993).2. where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz − λwz + bwk = 0. 2a q2 = − (3) F (x. one can obtain the solution C1 λ1 exp(z1 ) + C2 λ2 exp(z2 ) . t) = C1 exp(k1 x + s1 t) + C2 exp(k2 x + s2 t) + C3 . t) is a solution of this equation.1. Mansfield (1994). + bwk . 2. t) = C1 (x − p2 t)2 + C2 (x − p2 t) − 2C1 p1 t + C3 . A. There is a traveling-wave solution. 2 1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. N.3. 1. Clarkson and E. and C3 are arbitrary constants. w1 = C1 w (  C1 ∂w =a ∂2w where C1 . n = 1. Then the functions k−1 2k−2 2 x + C2 . w = w(x + γt). b1 w + b2 w 2 + b3 w 3 = −bw (w − λ1 )(w − λ2 ). t where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 u + buk = 0. z = x + λt. (4) where C1 .

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Volosov (1995). t) = −β + C exp(λt  µx) 2 1−m . ∂t ∂x2 This equation arises in heat and mass transfer. G. and K. 2(m + 1) β= b − . and β are given by λ= a(1 − m)(m + 3) . z =  µx + λt. t) = β + C exp(λt  µx) w(x. 1◦ . b1 = −bµ2 λ−2 . 3◦ .1. a 2◦ . P. ∂2w ∂w = + aw + bwm + cw2m–1 . (1) (2) 2 1−m . V. combustion theory. Maslov. Danilov. where C is an arbitrary constant and the parameters λ. D. µ. m−1 w = ζ f (ζ ) 2 m−1 . where the function f (ζ ) is given by f (ζ ) =  and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C1 − 4b ζ m+1 a(m − 1)2 −1/2 dζ + C2 . V. ¤ References: P. The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995.1. Kaliappan (1984). and ecology. biology. 2(m + 1) λ = µ2 (m ≠  1. biology. 2(m + 1) µ= a(1 − m)2 . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 7 2. equation (3) can be reduced to an Abel equation of the second kind: U Uw − U = a 1 w + b1 w m . = ∂t ∂x2 Kolmogorov–Petrovskii–Piskunov equation. 2003) present exact solutions of this equation for some values of m and a1 (b1 is any). m ≠ −3) (3) the solution of equation (3) can be represented in parametric form as z= m+3 ln f (ζ ). These are determined by the autonomous equation µ2 wzz − λwz + aw + bwm = 0. ∂2w ∂w + aw + bwm . A. This equation arises in heat and mass transfer. Solutions (1) and (2) are special cases of a wider class of solutions. F. a1 = −aµ2 λ−2 . combustion theory. Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. By the change of variable U (w) = µ2 λ−1 wz . 3. For µ= a(m + 3)2 . Zaitsev and A. Polyanin (1996). V. and ecology. the class of traveling-wave solutions: w = w(z ).

The substitution (5) z = x + σt. whose general solutions for some m (no constraints are imposed on a. z = x + λt. ◦ 2 . ∂t ∂x2 Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). In the general case. t) = β + C exp(λt + µx) 1 1−m . D. Solution (1) is a special case of a wider class of traveling-wave solutions. m 3◦ . (2) wz = w − bwm + mb Integrating (2) yields a solution in implicit form (A is any): 1 dw = z + A. µ − λ + (1 − m)[2a + (b/β ) = 0. Polyanin (1996). and µ are determined by the system of algebraic equations aβ 2 + bβ + c = 0. equation (6) has also other traveling-wave solutions: u(x. (1) where C is an arbitrary constant and the parameters β . Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. µ − (1 − m)λ + a(1 − m) = 0. and c) can be found in the books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. system (2)–(4) gives four sets of the parameters. where C is an arbitrary constant. 2 ¤ (2) (3) (4) 2 2 The quadratic equation (2) for β can be solved independently. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . (3) a + mbw − mb2 wm mb In the special case a = 0. that are determined by the autonomous equation wzz − σwz + aw + bwm + cw2m−1 = 0. (1) For λ = 1. which generate four exact solutions of the original equation. t) = (1 − m) bt ! 4. where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wzz − λwz + awm−1 + bmwm − mb2 w2m−1 = 0. The substitution U (w) = wz brings (5) to the Abel equation U Uw − σU + aw + bwm + cw2m−1 = 0. ∂w = ∂2w − c x + C. 2003). + awm–1 + bmwm – mb2 w2m–1 .8 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1◦ . Reference: V. u = w1−m leads to an equation with quadratic nonlinearity: ∂2u m ∂u 2 ∂u =u 2 + + a(1 − m)u2 + b(1 − m)u + c(1 − m). it can be shown that a one-parameter family of solutions to equation (1) satisfies the first-order equation a . it follows from (3) that w(z ) = C exp (1 − m)z + b 1 1−m . λ. For a = 0. b. Zaitsev and A. w = w(z ). (6) u ∂t ∂x 1 − m ∂x Solution (1) corresponds to a particular solution of (6) that has the form u = β + C exp(ωt + µx). F.

3. one arrives at the simpler equation ∂2w ∂w = a 2 + cw + k1 wn1 + k2 wn2 . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . where C is an arbitrary constant.1.3.6. C 2k−2 t). hydrodynamics. 2◦ . ∂t ∂z special cases of which are discussed in Subsections 1. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a +b + cw + k1 wn1 + k2 wn2 .1.6. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1. It is used for describing wave processes in gas dynamics. + " (w + bx + ct)k . + " (bx + ct)k wn .6. 2. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.3 with f (t) = b. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.4. 2 + f (w ) ∂w + g (w ) 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. w) = s1 z k + s2 wn . w) = s (w + z )k . z = x + bt.6. .5. w) = s ez wn .1.1. + btn xm wk . 2 2(k − 1) 2n+m+2 2(1−k) u(ξ ). ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.2 with f (z .1.2 with f (z .1.2. 2. On passing from t.2 with f (z . + " ebx+ct wn . + " 1 (bx + ct)k + " 2 wn . ∂w =a ∂2w 2n + m + 2 1 ξuξ + u + bξ m uk = 0. Then the function w1 = C 2n+m+2 w(C k−1 x. t where the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w=t auξξ + 5. w ) 1.1.1. w) = s z k wn . x to the new variables t.2 with f (z . Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x Burgers equation. t) is a solution of this equation.1. ∂x2 ∂w = ∂2w +w ∂w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1. is also a solution of the equation. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 9 2 + f (x.6.1 to 1. 4. Self-similar solution: ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w x ξ= √ . and acoustics. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. t.

and λ are arbitrary constants. t) = B exp(λ2 t) + sin(λx + A) (x + B ) 2 2A exp − w(x. t) = A−x . t) = λ2 t λx + B λ 2 tanh 2 +A λ t+A − λx − B . t) = 2 x + Ax + 2t + B 6(x2 + 2t + A) . Then the function 2 w 1 = C 1 w (C 1 x + C 1 C 2 t + C 3 . (1) w(x. Other solutions can be obtained using the following formula (Hopf–Cole transformation): 2 ∂u . J. w(x. Hopf (1950). Hopf (1950). w(x. x + λt + A 4x + 2A . Suppose w(x. The transformation (1) and equation 1. C . 4◦ . Cole (1951). . where C1 . . t) = 1 + A exp(−λ2 t − λx) exp A(x − λt)] − B . see the books Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).6. B . which is a generalized Burgers equation. t) = 3 x + 6xt + 3Ax + B 2λ . C4 are arbitrary constants. t) = −λ + A exp A(x − λt) + B w(x. Cauchy problem. t) = −λ + 2A tanh A(x − λt) + B . t) = 2 where #¤$ −∞ < x < ∞ . w(x. ∂ ln F (x.2. were encountered much earlier in Fortsyth (1906). B+t 2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = u ∂x where u = u(x. w(x. References: E. 2λ cos(λx + A) . t). t) = √ 4πt ∞ −∞ exp − f (ξ ) dξ dξ . w(x. w(x. ∂x (x − ξ ) 2 1 − 4t 2 ξ 0 1 F (x. Reference: E. C 1 t + C4 ) + C2 . Solution: w(x. t) = √ 4(t + λ) π (t + λ ) A erf x+B √ 2 t+λ z 0 +C −1 . is also a solution of the equation. . t) is a solution of the linear heat equation ∂u ∂ 2 u = . Initial condition: w = f (x) at t = 0. t) = −λ + 2A tan A(λt − x) + B . (2) ∂t ∂x2 For details about this equation. Solutions: w(x. Remark. and erf z ≡ √ π (also called the probability integral). exp(−ξ 2 ) dξ is the error function #¤$ 3◦ . 2 where A. 2◦ .10 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1◦ . t) = λ + w(x. .3. w(x.

2: J. The scaling of the independent variables x = z . The Burgers equation is connected with the linear heat equation (2) by the B¨ acklund transformation ∂u 1 − uw = 0. ∂x 2 ∂u 1 ∂ (uw) − = 0. b(x + C1 ) . Degenerate solution: w(x.1. is also a solution of the equation.1. t) + ct. z =x+ 2 ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + bw .1. a a Unnormalized Burgers equation. C2 . C2 . Rudenko and C. t) − 2◦ . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ .1. b1 leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. σ (1 + C2 e−bt ) 2◦ . ∂t ∂z ∂z © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂w ∂t ∂x2 The transformation =a ∂2w + bw ∂w ∂x + c. ∂τ ∂z 2 ∂z 4. t = 2 τ leads to b b an equation of the form 1. N. and C3 are arbitrary constants. F. The transformation z =x+σ b0 t. t + C3 + Cb1 eb1 t . b0 . t + C3 + Cbebt . Traveling-wave solution: ∂w + σw ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w ∂2w ∂w + σw =a + b1 w + b0 . 3◦ . Then the function w1 = w x − C1 σeb1 t + C2 .5. z = x + λt. and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = 6. Zaitsev and A. is also a solution of the equation.5. Soluyan (1975). Polyanin (1996). I. 3. Burgers (1948). Suppose w(x.2: ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w = +w . b1 ∂u ∂ 2u ∂u + σu = a 2 + b 1 u.3: ∂ 2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + bu . O. ∂t 2 ∂x %¤& References for equation 1.1. H. t) is a solution of this equation. leads to the Burgers equation 1. where C1 . ∂t ∂z ∂z 5. V. t) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x. 1 bct2 . + bw. V.5. Ibragimov (1994). where C1 .1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 11 5◦ . where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz − σwwz − λwz + bw = 0. Then the function w1 = w x − C1 σebt + C2 . w = w(z ). D. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x w = u(z . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . M.5: w = u ( z .5.

'¤( 3◦ .1. A. βσ + 2a βσ + 2a Four cases are possible. z ∂x (1) Here. 1◦ . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 Solutions of the equation are given by 8. q1 = − p2 = λσ + βb2 + 3βλb3 . q2 = − . 1. Case b3 = b2 = 0. β and λ are any of the roots of the respective quadratic and cubic equations b3 β 2 + σβ + 2a = 0. t) = C1 exp(kx + s1 t) + C2 (kx + s2 t) exp(kx + s1 t) + C3 . Case b3 ≠ 0.3. λ= bk . 12a ∂w ∂2w ∂w + σw =a + b0 + b1 w + b2 w 2 + b3 w 3 . 2 2 1 1 1 1 q1 . n = 1. Reference: N. For q2 = 0 and q1 ≠ 0. w= 1 + C1 e4λx + C2 e2λx+bkλt where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) depends on the equation coefficients. 1. Solutions are given by (1) with β=− 2a . 2. q1 2 2 s n = −k n p1 − kn p2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z (x.1. t) = C1 exp(k1 x + s1 t) + C2 exp(k2 x + s2 t) + C3 . we have z (x. Private communication: K. 1 q1 ) kn = − 2 1 2 2 − 4q . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 9a Solution: k (−1 + C1 e4λx ) . A. See equations 1. 2 1. 3b3 λ2 + 2b2 λ + b1 βb2 + 3βλb3 .5. w(x.4–1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = C1 (x − p2 t) + C2 exp[−q1 x + q1 (p2 − p1 q1 )t] + C3 . Volosov (2000).12 7. and the specific form of z = z (x. Case b3 = 0 and b2 ≠ 0. For q2 ≠ 0 and q1 = 4q2 . C2 . 2ab2 where λ is a root of the quadratic equation b2 λ2 + b1 λ + b0 = 0.4. σ z (x. t) = β ∂z + λ. z (x. 2◦ . For q2 ≠ 0 and q1 ≠ 4q2 . PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE '¤( ∂w ∂2w b2 ∂w + bw =a + w(w – k)(w + k). t) = C1 + C2 exp Ax + A b1 σ 2ab2 + t . t) = C1 (x − p2 t)2 + C2 (x − p2 t) − 2C1 p1 t + C3 . 2b2 σ A= σ (b1 + 2b2 λ) . s 2 = − 2 p 1 q1 +1 k = −2 2 p 2 q1 . Introduce the notation: p1 = −βσ − 3a. where C1 .2. z (x.1. b3 λ3 + b2 λ2 + b1 λ + b0 = 0.6. s 1 = − 4 p 1 q1 +2 p 2 q1 . Kudryashov (1993). 2 1.5. For q2 = q1 = 0.

∂t ∂z special cases of which are discussed in Subsections 1.3. Then the function where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. one arrives at the simpler equation t.1. There is a self-similar solution of the form 1 w(ξ . On passing from t. t) = |t|− 2m ϕ(ξ ). Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. if k = 1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 2. where C1 .1 with f (w) = s w k . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. m 2m w1 = C1 w C1 x + C2 . Traveling-wave solution: b λm z + . C2 . Then the functions 2 w 1 = C 1 w (C 1 x + C 2 .6. 1◦ . t) + C3 (1 − k )t−k w3 = w(x − bC3 ln |t|. t) + C3 t −1 if k ≠ 1. z = x + n+1 ∂ 2w ∂w = a 2 + cw + k1 wm1 + k2 wm2 . w2 = w(x − bC3 t1−k . x to the new variables b n+1 t . + cw + k1 wm1 + k2 wm2 . is also a solution of the equation. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ).3. z = x + C1 e−bt . ξ = x|t|− 2 .3 with f (t) = btn . t) = C exp − 3◦ . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂w =a ∂2w + btn ∂w 1◦ . ∂x2 3.6. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. t) is a solution of this equation. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation awzz + bzwz + s wk = 0.6.1.1. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + (bx + c) + 0 wk . is also a solution of the equation. are also solutions of the equation. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. z = x + λt. Suppose w(x.2. A wider family of traveling-wave solutions is presented in 1. 2◦ .1.2. w1 = w(x + C1 e−bt . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 13 ∂w ∂2w ∂w + bwm =a . C 1 t). C2 . w ) 1. + k w + bw ∂w =a ∂2w ∂x2 . Then the function 9. t) is a solution of this equation. 1 −1/m 2 + f (x. where C1 . Suppose w(x.1 to 1. ∂w ∂t t ∂x Modified Burgers equation. t. t. 2◦ . C 1 t + C3 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. a λ(m + 1) where C and λ are arbitrary constants. t + C2 ). w(x.6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w ) ∂w + g (x.1.7 for f (w) = bw m .

t) = u(z )t−1/2 . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. . t) satisfies the linear equation 5. t) = − b θ ∂x where the function θ = θ(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂w =a ∂2w + bw ∂w 7.14 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ . and Z. + c(x + 3 t)k .2 with f (x. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). ∂w + bw ∂w =a 1 ∂ ∂w 1¤2 ∂w ∂2w ∂w ∂w + bw =a + cxk + ckxk–1 w. ∂t ∂x 1◦ . z = xt−1/2 . z = x + C1 e−bt . Schmahl. ∂x2 ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + bw + cxk + 3 tn . E. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂2θ ∂θ ∂θ = a 2 + cxk . The variable x plays the role of the radial coordinate. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation awzz + (bz + cwk )wz = 0.6. 2◦ . Musielak (1996). Suppose w(x. 4. t) is a solution of this equation. if k = 1.3. E. ∂t ∂x x ∂x ∂x x2 Cylindrical Burgers equation. w(x. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x Solution: 2a 1 ∂θ . ∂t ∂x ∂x 6. ∂w =a ∂2w + (bx + cwk ) ∂w . t) = c(x + s t)k . Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x + C1 e−bt . w(x. t) satisfies the linear heat equation with axial symmetry x a ∂ ∂θ ∂θ = x . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t + C2 ). is also a solution of the equation. where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation auzz + 1 2z − bu uz + – w 1 2 − k u = 0. J. Solution: 2a 1 ∂θ . t) = t(C2 + b ln |t|) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = 3◦ . t) = cxk + s tn . Self-similar solution: if k ≠ 1. Nerney. Degenerate solution linear in x: (1 − k )x + C 1 C2 tk + bt x + C1 w(x. ∂t x ∂x ∂x Reference: S. .6.2 with f (x. w(x. w(x.3. 8. t) = − b θ ∂x where the function θ = θ(x.

1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t.6. 4bt 2b a ln |x2 + 2at + Ax + B | + C .7. t) = a ln |u(x. t)| b ∂2u ∂u =a 2. C . w(x) = w(x. g (t) = ct + s . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 2 + f (x.3. c k+1 t . g (t) = ctk . and h(w) = 0. t) = a ( x + A) 2 − ln t + B . 1 2 ct + s t.6. z = x + k+1 form 1. t) = − b b where A. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂w ∂x 2 .1. x to the new variables t. z = x + 2 1. b a a 2 λ2 t + ln |cos(λx + A)| + B . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 2 + b ∂w 1. w) = s1 z k wn and g (z . B .11 with f (w) = bw m .1. w) = s2 z p wq .5. x to the new variables t. w(x. b 2 w(x. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.11 with f (w) = bw m . Solutions: a ln |Ax + B | + C . we obtain an equation of the On passing from t.3. This is a special case of equation 1. b a w(x.9: ∂2w ∂w ∂w = a 2 + bwm .13 with f (z . b a w(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + (bwm + ctk ) ∂w ∂x . ∂t ∂x For details about this equation. 1◦ .1. we obtain an equation of the form On passing from t. w ) 1. 10. and h(w) = 0. t) = A bt 5 Ax + B . t) = ln |x3 + 6axt + Ax + B | + C .6. t) = − w(x. t) = ln |x4 + 12ax2 t + 12a2 t2 + A| + B . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 15 ∂2w ∂w ∂w + (bwm + ct + 4 ) =a . The substitution leads to the linear heat equation w(x.1. 2◦ . This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + 4 1 (bx + ct)k wn ∂w ∂x + 4 2 (bx + ct)p wq . ∂t ∂z ∂z 9.9: ∂w ∂2w ∂w = a 2 + bwm .3. ∂t ∂z ∂z 11.5.

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. Then the functions w1 = w(7 x + C1 . t) = 4. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos x a + C . w(x. ψt = a(2ϕ − 1)ψ . F. Posashkov (1989). t) = 2 C1 − at (C1 − at) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Polyanin (1996). References: V. Generalized separable solution for a < 0: √ √ w(x. A. t) is a solution of this equation. a generalized separable solution. are also solutions of the equation. ∂t ∂x 3. C2 . − − ct C1 e − 4b C1 c + aw2 .16 2. t + C2 ) + C3 ect . 8¤9 (1) (2) Dividing equation (1) by (2) termwise yields the first-order equation (2ϕ − 1)ψϕ ψ = ϕ2 + 4ABψ 2 . t) = C1 exp −at 7 x −a . (3) (4) Dividing equation (3) by (4) termwise yields a first-order equation. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ◦ 1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. and the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations ϕt = a ϕ2 + 4ABψ 2 . 2◦ . + cw + 6 . where C1 . 3◦ . ∂w = ∂2w + ∂w 2 ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 s 2a ct c(x + C2 )2 e ln |C1 e−ct − 4b| + C3 ect − . where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 +a PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂x 2 + b. A. Galaktionov and S. Solutions for a < 0: √ w(x. and the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations ϕt = a ϕ2 + ψ 2 . Zaitsev and A. where A and B are arbitrary constants. D. V. Generalized separable solution for a > 0: √ w(x. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) A exp x −a + B exp −x −a . √ C2 1 + exp −at 7 x −a . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . 2◦ . ψt = a(2ϕ − 1)ψ . The first formula represents a multiplicative separable solution and the second one. The substitution u = ew leads to the constant coefficient linear equation ∂2u ∂u = a 2 + bu.

Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 1. Generalized separable solution for c < 0: 5. Galaktionov and S.6. and h(t) = s tk . g = s tn . C1 exp −(2bcλ + s )t − bc 2 (2) (3) C1 C2 exp −(2bcλ + s + ac)t C1 exp −(2bcλ + s )t − bc bcλ2 + s λ + k = 0.1. The solution of system (2). ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂2w ∂w 2 2.6.6. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and λ = λ1 and λ = λ2 are roots of the quadratic equation B¤C 2◦ . g (t) = ctm . t. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + btn ∂w ∂x 2 + ctm w + @ tk .2 with f .6. V. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x The substitution u = ew leads to the constant coefficient linear equation ∂w =a +a ∂2u ∂u ∂u =a 2 +b + cu. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . + cw2 + @ tn w + ktm . w . Zaitsev and A.2 with f = const. =a +b 2 + f x. 6. ψt = (2bcϕ + s − ac)ψ . g . For more complicated generalized separable solutions that involve hyperbolic and trigonometric functions of x.6. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 17 + bcw2 + @ w + k.1. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂w =a ∂2w +a ∂w 2 + btn ∂w 3.1. Posashkov (1989). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. Polyanin (1996). h = const. . F.6. t) = ctm . =a +b w(x. + ctm . References: V. ∂w +b + c. (1) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations ϕt = bcϕ2 + s ϕ + k . A. t) = btn and g (x. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp A ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 √ x −c .4 with f (x.6.5. A. D. ∂w 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . This is a special case of equation 1. see equation 1. and h = ktm .8. The substitution u = ew leads to the linear equation ∂x2 ∂2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + btn + ctm u. (3) is given by ϕ ( t) = λ + ψ ( t) = 2bcλ + s .1 with f (t) = btn .

9. k . ∂w 1. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. w . t) = where A. 2◦ .6. This is a special case of equation 1.6. For other exact solutions. The substitution 1 wa+1 if a ≠ −1. 7. ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + awm ∂w ∂x 2 + (bx + ct + D ) ∂w ∂x . B . This is a special case of equation 1. g (t) = ceµt .8 with f (w) = a/w.8. For k = 0. . Then the function −2 w1 = C1 C2 w(C1 x + C3 .6. t) is a solution of this equation.1 with f (t) = beλt . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + beλt ∂w ∂x 2 + ceµt w + D eνt . and h(t) = ct + s .10 with f (w) = aw m . 2 + f x. see equation 1.8 with f (w) = aw k . u= a+1 ln |w| if a = −1 leads to the constant coefficient linear equation ∂t u = ∂xx u. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . is also a solution of the equation. C2 t + C4 ). Suppose w(x. t. g (t) = b. 5. C2 . ∂2w ∂w = aw .1. see equation 1. and C are arbitrary constants.1.18 with m = 1. and λ are arbitrary constants. . 6. . 3◦ . This is a special case of equation 1.6.9.1.6. and for k = −1. and h(t) = s eνt .18 4.6.1. The substitution a wk+1 dw u = exp k+1 leads to the constant coefficient linear equation ∂t u = ∂xx u.5.1.6. This is a special case of equation 1. C − 2at where C1 .6. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: ak 2 dw = kx + λt + C2 . see equation 1. C4 are arbitrary constants. Items 5 ◦ to 8◦ . ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + awk ∂w ∂x 2 . where C1 . . ∂2w a ∂w = + 2 ∂t ∂x w ∂w ∂x 2 .7. λ ln |w| + C1 x2 + Ax + B . 4◦ . Equations of the Form ∂w = aw k ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1.

5.1. = aw © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂w ∂2w . b b(x + A)2 − Bce−bt − 2act + C . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 19 2. Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ak 2 wwzz − λwz + bw + c = 0. B . is also a solution of the equation. A. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. and C are arbitrary constants (the first solution is degenerate). Generalized separable solutions: c w(x. where the function U (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aU Uξξ + ξUξ − U + b = 0. A.1. 4◦ .6. F¤G + cw2 + kw + E . t) = Aebt x + Bebt − . ∂2w ∂w + b. t) = b x2 + Ax + B − (C − 2at). where C1 .9. 2◦ . Posashkov (1989). t) = Bbe−bt − 2a where A. The first solution is degenerate and the second one is a generalized separable solution. ξ = x/t. 2◦ . B . Suppose w(x.9. w(x. w(x. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w = aw ∂2w where k and λ are arbitrary constants. z = kx + λt. C − 2at 4a where A. Then the function −1 w1 = C1 w(C1 x + C2 . Solutions: w(x. Self-similar solution: w = tU (ξ ). ∂w ∂2w + bw2 + (ct + d)w + E t + k.1. and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ak 2 wwzz − λwz + b = 0. and C are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = Ax + B + bt. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . z = kx + λt. and C3 are arbitrary constants.3 with f (t) = ct + d and g (t) = s t + k . = aw ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . Galaktionov and S. Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). + bw + c. where k and λ are arbitrary constants. 4.9 with b = 0. 3◦ . 3. C2 . C1 t + C3 ). = aw Reference: V.

∂t ∂x2 3 ∂x Generalized separable solution: w(x. 36A2 t 1 1 ϕ ( t) ϕ(t) dt + B + 2 9A 6A2 where the function ϕ(t) is defined implicitly by ϕ(t) dt + B + (C1 + 72A2 abϕ − 8ϕ3 )−1/2 dϕ = H t + C2 . . ∂w = aw ∂2w – 2 a ∂w 2 + b.6. 2 f0 = 2f0 f2 − 2 3 f1 + ab.20 6. + kϕ + s On computing the integral. a where A is an arbitrary constant and the functions f2 (t). (1) a+b where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations w(x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w ∂w +b = aw + (ct + d)w + pt + k. Reference: J. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂x2 ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂w = aw + b + cw2 + kw + Q . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . f 1 ( t) = 3 1 A ϕ(t) dt + B 2 + 1 ϕ(t). λ= ϕt = cϕ2 + kϕ + s . f1 = 18Af0 − 3 2 f2 = 6Af1 − 2 3 f2 . 2A 1 ϕ (t).2 with f (t) ≡ 0.6. I¤P and B . and s (t) = q . g (t) = c. The solution of equation (3) is expressed in terms of ϕ(t) as cϕ2 ψ (t) = C2 exp where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = 7. h(t) = p. R. Integrating (2) yields dϕ = t + C1 .2 with f (t) = b. + pw + q . 8. ψt = (aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + k )ψ . C1 . one can find ϕ = ϕ(t) in explicit form. Generalized separable solutions involving an exponential of x: 9. g (t) = b.10. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1/2 ∂w = aw ∂2w +b ∂w 2 +c ∂w (2) (3) (aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + k ) dt . −c . V. and f0 (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2 f1 f2 . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. f1 (t). King (1993). Galaktionov (1995). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(H λx). and C2 are arbitrary constants. A. The general solution of this system with A ≠ 0 has the form f 2 ( t) = 3 f 0 ( t) = ϕ(t) dt + 3B . h(t) = ct + d.10. 1 3Ax3 + f2 (t)x2 + f1 (t)x + f0 (t) . and s (t) = pt + k .

a+b The functions ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by autonomous systems of first-order ordinary differential equations (these systems can be reduced to a single first-order equation each).3: 1 ∂v ∂ ∂v .11. x = u. H. C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Functional separable solutions: w(x. C 1 t + C3 ). Reference: N. Ibragimov (1985). τ = at leads to an equation of the form 1. For details about these solutions.10. The transformation w = 1/u. =a ∂t ∂x v 2 ∂x Therefore the solutions of the original equation are expressed via solutions of the linear heat equation ∂2u ∂u =a 2 ∂t ∂y by the relations ∂u . t) = T C1 (x + C2 )2 + C3 exp(2aC1 t) − b aC1 1/2 . Galaktionov and S. see Items 2◦ to 4◦ of equation 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .10. w= ∂y The variable y should be eliminated to obtain w = w(x. 1/2 R¤S c . w(x. Suppose w(x. C2 .2: ∂ 1 ∂u b ∂u = − . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos(λx + A). ∂t ∂x u2 ∂x a 12. 2◦ . where C1 . + bw–1 . where C1 .19 with m = 2 and b = −1.9. Then the function 2 −1 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C2 . 11. A. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 21 2◦ . ∂w = aw2 ∂2w + bw2 .1.1. λ = w(x. A. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh(λx + A). . t) in explicit form. 2◦ . 1/2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. λ= λ= −c a+b −c a+b 1/2 .1. is also a solution of the equation. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Posashkov (1989). w1 = C1 w ( T C1 where C1 . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh(λx + A). Reference: V. C2 .6. C 1 t + C3 ).1.1. are also solutions of the equation. Then the functions 2 2 −1 x + C2 . ∂w = aw2 ∂2w ∂w = aw2 ∂2w 1◦ . There are also generalized separable solutions that involve hyperbolic and trigonometric functions (A is an arbitrary constant): w(x. ∂t ∂x2 The substitution w = 1/v leads to an equation of the form 1. t) is a solution of this equation.1 with f (t) = k and g ( t) = s . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . R¤S 10.

∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. ∂2w ∂w = aw4 + bw + cw–1 . function ϕ in explicit form: ϕ = − 2 Reference: G. and C3 are arbitrary constants. I. V¤W + bw–2 .19 with m = 3 and b = −2. Rudykh and E. f 1 ( t) = 3 1/3 ∂w = aw3 ∂2w .9. ψt = 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C1 . t) = a−1/3 3Ax3 + f2 (t)x2 + f1 (t)x + f0 (t) Here. 1 aχ(4ϕχ − ψ 2 ) + 2bχ + 2c. F (t) = exp aC1 e2bt + 2bt .1. B . 2A 1 ϕ (t).18 with m = 3.9. f 2 ( t) = 3 f 0 ( t) = ϕ(t) dt + 3B . ψ (t). and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations 2 ϕt = 1 2 aϕ(4ϕχ − ψ ) + 2bϕ. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w + bw + cw–1 . A. ∂2u 2 ∂u ∂u = au 2 − a ∂t ∂x 3 ∂x 2 ∂w = aw3 ∂2w + 3b.1. 14. 1 A ϕ(t) dt + B 2 + 1 ϕ(t). one obtains the 1 (t + C2 )−2 .1. χt = 2 It follows from the first two equations that ϕ = Cψ . t) = U bC1 e2bt (x + C2 )2 + C3 F (t) + 2cF (t) dt F ( t) 1/2 . t) = a−1/3 3Ax3 + f2 (t)x2 + f1 (t)x + f0 (t) 16. .7: 15. C2 . C1 . 36A2 t 1 1 ϕ ( t) ϕ(t) dt + B + 2 9A 6A2 where the function ϕ(t) is defined implicitly by ϕ(t) dt + B + (C1 − 8ϕ3 )−1/2 dϕ = U t + C2 .22 13.9. where C is an arbitrary constant. and A. where the functions ϕ(t). = aw2 ∂t ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. t) = U ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). The substitution w = u1/3 leads to an equation of the form 1. Functional separable solution: w(x. 1/3 . Setting C1 = 0 in the last relation. 1 aψ (4ϕχ − ψ 2 ) + 2bψ . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. Therefore the equation in question has a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. Semenov (1999).

. Solutions: w(x) = Ax + B . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 23 17. 6◦ . where λ is an arbitrary constant. . β . B . To λ = 0 there corresponds a stationary solution. t) = A|t + B | m−2 + w(x. λw1−m + C1 aβ 2 (1 − m) where C1 . its order can be reduced. This equation is generalized homogeneous. 5◦ . and to C1 = 0 there corresponds the second solution in Item 2◦ . Suppose w(x. C .11. ∂2w ∂w + bxm w5 .6.1 with f (x) = bxm . w = w(z ). ζ = xt− mβ +1 2 . t) = (x + C ) 2 m 2a(m − 2) t + B 1/m . and λ are arbitrary constants (the first solution is degenerate). t where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2aw m wzz zwz = 0. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: βx + λt + C2 dw = . . where β is an arbitrary constant. C2 . is also a solution of the equation. ϕ ( t) = C + 2a(m − 2) t. 3◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. t) = (X βx + βλt + A)1/m . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.1. Self-similar solution of a more general form: w = tβ U (ζ ). and the function U = U (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aU m Uζζ = βU − 1 2 (mβ + 1)ζUζ . t) = m ( x − A) 2 2a(2 − m)(B − t) m −2/m C2 1/m w(C1 x + C3 . and. . and the function f = f (x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation amfxx + λf 1−m = 0 (its solution can be written out in implicit form). Then the function w1 = C1 2◦ . where C1 . t) = (λt + A)−1/m f (x). w(x. a(1 − m) 1/m w(x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . C2 t + C4 ). 1/m m(m−3) ( x + A) 2 + B ( x + A) m | ϕ ( t ) | 2 ϕ ( t) . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂2w ∂w = awm . and λ are arbitrary constants. Self-similar solution: x z= √ . = aw4 ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. 4◦ . w(x. mλ . hence. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . m where A. 18. β= .1.

B . Traveling-wave solutions: w = w(z ). the transformation w(x. ∂x2 ∂w = awm ∂2w + bxtn ∂w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and C3 are arbitrary constants. m 9◦ . This equation is generalized homogeneous. C2 . bm ∂ 2U ∂U = aU m 2 . 1 ξ = xt k−m−1 2(1−k) .6.24 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 7◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. and k are arbitrary constants. and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awm wzz − λwz + bwk = 0. 19. its order can be reduced. The substitution u = w 1−m leads to the equation m ∂u ∂ ∂u =a u 1−m . aum uξξ + 2(1 − k ) 1−k 4◦ . τ ). Suppose w(x. where k and λ are arbitrary constants. For m ≠ 1. ∂τ ∂x 20. ∂t ∂x ∂x which is considered in Subsection 1. hence. and. = awm ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . z = kx + λt. Self-similar solution for k ≠ 1: w = t 1−k u(ξ ). and the function ϕ = ϕ(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕm ϕξξ = λmξϕξ − 2λϕ. For k = 1. ∂2w ∂w + bwk .11.4 with f (t) = btn and g (t) = ctk .11. where A. t) = ebt U (x. leads to an equation of the form 1. + ctk w. where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 m−k+1 ξuξ + buk − u = 0.1. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂t ∂x ∂x which is considered Subsection 1. 2◦ . w = (At + B )−1/m ψ (u). 3◦ .1. where λ is an arbitrary constant. u = x + k ln(At + B ). the substitution u = w 1−m leads to the equation m ∂u k −m ∂ ∂u =a u 1−m + b(1 − m)u 1−m . Then the functions k−m−1 2k−2 2 x + C2 . w1 = C1 w ( Y C1 8◦ . Generalized self-similar solution: w = e−2λt ϕ(ξ ). ξ = xeλmt .10. and the function ψ = ψ (u) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation A aψ m ψuu = Akψu − ψ .1. 5◦ . Solution: where C1 .18: τ= 1 bmt e + const.9. are also solutions of the equation. C 1 t + C3 ).

For other solutions. w = tfξ (ξ ) + gξ (ξ ). Zaitsev (2002). Solutions: 2 w(x. we obtain another solution. Equations of this form admit traveling-wave solutions w = w(kx + λt). The second particular solution follows from the comparison of (1) and (2).3. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 3 . Remark. F. A. fξ gξ − f gξξ = agξξξ . Suppose a solution of equation (1) is known. Reference: A. where the functions f = f (ξ ) and g (ξ ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations (fξ )2 − f fξξ = afξξξ . + 6a(t + C2 ) |t + C2 |1/3 (x + C 1 ) 2 + C3 |x + C1 |1/2 |C2 − 6at|−5/8 . D. Zwillinger (1989). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. (3) f dξ . see Items 4◦ to 9◦ of equation 1. 1 1 exp − 2 (f ξ ) a It is not difficult to verify that equation (1) has the following particular solutions: (4) f (ξ ) = Ceλξ − aλ. Polyanin and V. The general solution of equation (1) can be represented in the form (see Polyanin and Zaitsev. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 25 1. Zaitsev (2002). w(x. 2003): g (ξ ) = C 1 + C 2 f + C 3 f f = f (ξ ). (1) (2) The order of equation (1) can be reduced by two.7 with m = 1. Solution in parametric form: x = tf (ξ ) + g (ξ ). t) = C2 − 6at where C1 . 2 .1. with the help of the Mises transformation. 4◦ .1. t) = − References: D. t) = C1 x + aC1 t + C2 . One can see. w(x. The above solution was obtained.1. . Solution in parametric form: ◦ x = (6at + C1 )ξ + C2 ξ 2 + C3 .10. w 1◦ . w = −(6at + C1 )ξ 2 − 2C2 ξ 3 .1. taking into account (1) and (3). ∂w =a ∂ ∂w `¤a C3 (x + C 1 ) 2 . Equation (2) is linear in g and has two linearly independent particular solutions g1 = 1. where C and λ are arbitrary constants. Items 5 ◦ and 7◦ ). F.1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ψ= ψ dξ − f ψ dξ . ◦ f (ξ ) = 6a(ξ + C )−1 .1. C2 . from a solution of the hydrodynamic boundary layer equation (see 9. g2 = f (ξ ). `¤a 5 . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w m ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. ◦ 2 w − C2 ln |w + C2 | = C1 x + aC1 t + C3 . Polyanin and V.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Substituting the second relation of (4) into (1). D.10. that the first solution in (4) leads to the solution of Item 3◦ .7 with m = 1.10.

. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ 1 ∂w =a . V.1. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. t) = d equation (1) can be reduced to a linear heat equation for u = u(y . y ) = 2 C1 x C1 C3 exp − at + C2 at + C2 −1+ C1 x at + C2 −1 . w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) by w = ∂x respect to x to obtain −2 2 ∂z ∂ z ∂z =a . y ) = (x + C 2 ) 2 + C 3 (t + C 1 ) 2 2 C1 . ∂t ∂x w ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂z and then integrate the resulting equation with 2◦ . S. w(x. C2 . N.1.10.7 with m = −2. Solutions: 2 t + C2 )−1/2 .7 with m = −1.10. t) = d x x t ∂w =a ∂ w–2 ∂w C 1 (x + C 2 ) 2 + C3 exp(C1 t) . 1◦ . Solutions: 2 w(x. w(x. y ) = (C1 x − aC1 t + C2 )−1 . y ) = 2 cosh (C1 x + C3 ) 2 2aC1 t + C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. (1) ∂t ∂x ∂x2 By the hodograph transformation x = u. C2 . y ) = C2 + C3 exp(aC2 t − C1 x) w(x. ∂t ∂y (3) −1/2 Transformation (2) means that the dependent variable z is taken to be the independent variable. b¤c 2 2aC1 t + C2 . and the third is a functional separable solution. 2a where C1 . 2 sinh (C1 x + C3 ) 2 C2 − 2aC1 t . y ) = (2at + C1 )(x + C2 )−2 . Pukhnachov (1987). 2a(t + C1 ) . w(x. the second is self-similar. t): ∂2u ∂u =a 2. The first solution is of the traveling-wave type. w(x. y ) = 2 cos (C1 x + C3 ) where C1 . the dependent one. References: V. w(x. Introduce a new unknown z = z (x. and the independent variable x. y ) = w(x. z = y . t) = d (2C1 x − 2aC1 √ −1/2 C1 2at ln 2 . w(x.26 2. Aristov (1999). 3. (2) w(x.

R. x = u(y . x=x 0 ¯ = t − t0 . 4. t). t References: M. Fijalkow. Then the function w1 = |A1 B2 − A2 B1 |3/2 C1 (A 2 x + B 2 ) 3 −3/4 w A1 x + B1 . the second is a solution in multiplicative separable form. References: L. is also a solution of the equation. t) = w(x. V. −3/4 (x + C 1 ) 2 + C 3 (t + C 2 ) 2 (x + C 1 ) 4 a(t + C2 ) . where C1 . Bluman and S. t) in explicit form. Gutierres. A. ◦ 2 t + C2 )−3/4 . τ ) ∂x dτ . . 1982). t) = (at + C1 )3/4 [(x + C2 )(C3 x + C2 C3 + 1)]−3/2 . w(x. t 1 . Burgan. Munier. 3◦ . t) of the linear equation (3) according to −1 ∂u . R. and M. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Functional separable solution: w(x. Solutions: w(x. ¯ ∂t ∂x ¯ The inversion of transformation (5) is given by x= e¤f x ¯ x ¯0 ¯) dx + w ¯ (x .1. w(x. t ¯ t ¯0 t ∂w ¯ (x ¯. B1 . t) (5) where x0 and t0 are any numbers. N. t) = 1 .10. Feix (1981).1. t) dy + a w−2 (x. A2 x + B2 e¤f where A1 . The first solution is of the traveling-wave type. This is a special case of equation 1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 27 Solutions w = w(x. C2 . w(x. A2 . Suppose w(x. G. t ) ∂x ¯ dt . Ibragimov (1985). L. H.1. t) = (g 2C1 x − 3aC1 2 . t=t w ( x . and C3 are arbitrary constants. J.7 with m = −4/3 (the equation admits more invariant solutions than for m ≠ −4/3). leads to the linear equation ∂2w ¯ ∂w ¯ =a 2. W. The transformation x ¯= x x0 t t0 w(y . E. Kumei (1980). 1◦ . Storm (1951). (4) w= ∂y The variable y should be eliminated from (4) to obtain w = w(x. C1 . C 1 t + C2 . ¯) w ¯ (x ¯. 3◦ . t) = ϕ4 (t)x4 + ϕ3 (t)x3 + ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC −3/4 . t) = (g 2C1 x3 + C2 x4 − 3aC1 w(x. B2 . ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x w–4/3 ∂w ∂x . and C2 are arbitrary constants (A1 B2 − A2 B1 ≠ 0). Ovsiannikov (1959. t ¯) = w ¯ (x ¯. x ¯ =x ¯0 ¯− t ¯0 . t) of the original equation are expressed via solutions u = u(y . t) = (x + C 1 ) 2 + C 3 (t + C 2 ) 2 a(t + C2 ) −3/4 . and the other are functional separable solutions. J. τ ) ∂w (x. 2 4 −3/4 x t) .

1. Ibragimov (1994). There are exact solutions of the following forms: 1 . A. Akhatov. t) = x−3 G(z ). 1◦ . ϕ 0 = −a 4 3 ϕ2 = −aϕ2 2 + 2 aϕ1 ϕ3 + 12aϕ0 ϕ4 . 2A 1 ϕ (t). Solution: 2 . H. Fijalkow (1984). Galaktionov (1995). and C2 are arbitrary constants. we find ϕ in explicit −2 form: ϕ = − 1 2 (t + C 2 ) . R. w(x. For other solutions.7 with m = −2/3. Fijalkow. Functional separable solution: 6. Munier. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. For other solutions.10. f 1 ( t) = 3 −2/3 . Feix (1981). A. R. = u. and N.7 with m = −4/3. x = v . h¤i 3 2 ϕ1 + 2aϕ0 ϕ2 . leads to an equation of the form 1. J.10. . Sh. R. H. 5. y = t − Reference: N.7 with m = −3/2. t) = a2/3 3Ax3 + f2 (t)x2 + f1 (t)x + f0 (t) Here. see equation 1. H. 1 A ϕ(t) dt + B 2 + 1 ϕ(t). Munier. A. ∂τ ∂ξ ∂ξ h¤i References: A. J. I. I.4: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u−4/3 . Gutierres. t) = x−3 F (y ). ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w–3/2 .10.1. The prime denotes a derivative with respect to t. 2◦ .1. x tx2 . C1 . where ∂v ∂ξ t = τ . 4◦ . Burgan. Ibragimov (1989). Gazizov. G. ◦ h¤i 5 . 2 ϕ4 = − 3 4 aϕ3 + 2aϕ2 ϕ4 .28 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE where the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕ1 = −aϕ1 ϕ2 + 6aϕ0 ϕ3 . N. and E. see equation 1. B . References: V. w = 1/u. and A. f 2 ( t) = 3 f 0 ( t) = ϕ(t) dt + 3B . E. Ibragimov (1994). ϕ3 = −aϕ2 ϕ3 + 6aϕ1 ϕ4 . Setting C1 = 0 in this relation. w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Burgan. Semenov (1998). z = (x + 1)2 w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 36A2 t 1 1 ϕ(t) dt + B + ϕ ( t) 9A2 6A2 where the function ϕ(t) is defined implicitly by ϕ(t) dt + B + (C1 − 8ϕ3 )−1/2 dϕ = p t + C2 . R. J. M. Rudykh and E. The transformation ◦ ∂w =a ∂ w–2/3 ∂w w = (C − 4at)3/2 (C − 4at)3/2 − x2 −3/2 .1. K. and M. Feix.10. R.

I. 1 m m m ( x + A) 2 − m(2m+3) + B |x + A| m+1 |ϕ(t)| 2(m+1)2 w(x. This equation often occurs in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer. Samarskii. −1. . x = 0 (t > 0). and C2 are arbitrary constants. . λw + C1 z = q x + λt. and λ. where w t 0. t) = A|t + B |− m+2 − (x + C ) 2 m 2a(m + 2) t + B . S. Mikhailov (1995). Kurdyumov. and to C1 = 0 there corresponds the second solution in Item 2◦ . A. exact solutions of nonlinear equations are given only for the domain of their spatial localization. A. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 29 7. References: Ya. A. Rudykh and E. 3◦ . Solutions:* w(x) = (Ax + B ) m+1 . −4/3.7. t) = m ( x − A) 2 2a(m + 2)(B − t) 1 m 1 k = λm/a.7. For m = 1. for 0 ≤ x ≤ λt. P.1. 1◦ . w(x. Semenov (1998). −2.1. w(x. combustion theory. k (t − x/λ)1/m 0 ak m /m.1. I. Example. Zel’dovich and A. The third solution for B > 0 and the fourth solution for B < 0 correspond to blow-up regimes (the solution increases without bound on a finite time interval).1 to 1. is also a solution of the equation. S. here and henceforth. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x . where the function w(z ) is defined implicitly by a wm dw = C2 + z . B. −2/3. . P. . . G. Then the function m 2 w 1 = C 1 w (C 2 x + C 3 . it describes unsteady heat transfer in a quiescent medium with the heat diffusivity being a power-law function of temperature. for x > λt. 1 m m w(x. and A. t) = where λ = r¤s at at t=0 (x > 0). Barenblatt (1952). C . G. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. C1 . A solution satisfying the initial and boundary conditions w=0 w = kt1/m is given by w (x. −3/2. ϕ(t) = C − 2a(m + 2)t. t) = ϕ ( t) . B . and λ are arbitrary constants. where A. Kompaneets (1950). A. C 1 C2 t + C4 ). t) is a solution of the equation in question. Traveling-wave solutions: w = w(z ). 2◦ . see also equations 1. where C1 .1. * For the sake of brevity. Suppose w(x. Galaktionov. C4 are arbitrary constants. t) = (q kx + kλt + A)1/m . To λ = 0 there corresponds a stationary solution. and flows in porous media. For example. V.

1 −1 6 . The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. (3) where C is an arbitrary constant. z0 2 z0 = P (1 − Z . am(m + 2) (1) where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2a wm wz z + zwz = 0. m ) = bk ξ k . 2003) present general solutions of equation (4) for m = −1 and m = 1. (2) Solution of this sort usually describe situations where the unknown function assumes constant values at the initial and boundary conditions. . = u x + C2 . (4) m where α = a(mC m+2) and β = a(m+2) . w = t− m+2 F (ξ ). for 1 ≤ Z < ∞. one obtains ϕξ = αϕ−1/m − βξ . see Samarskii and Sobol’ (1963). For details. which describes the propagation of a thermal wave coming from a plane source. see also the book by Lykov (1967). C1 . To the particular solution of equation (2) with w(z ) = k2 z 2/m there corresponds the third solution in Item 2◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . m ) P (1. Self-similar solution: w = w(z ). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Self-similar solution: ξ = xt− m+2 1 (0 ≤ x < ∞). To C = 0 in (3) there corresponds the fourth solution in Item 2◦ . t) = (λt + A)−1/m f (x). see the book by Zel’dovich and Raiser (1966). mP (1. . . Here. k=0 −1 2 [m (m + 1)] . Fujita (1952) obtained the general solution of equation (2) for m = −1 and m = −2.30 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 4◦ . m) for 0 ≤ Z ≤ 1. b= 2λ . Performing the change of variable ϕ = F m in equation (3). x z= √ t (0 ≤ x < ∞). bf m+2 and λ. the function F = F (ξ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation a(m + 2)F m Fξ + ξF = C . m) P (ξ . ∞ 2a . . and C2 are arbitrary constants. b1 = ◦ (1 − Z )1/m 0 z . w = 0 at z = ∞ the solution of equation (2) is localized and has the structure w= where Z= b0 = 1. With the boundary conditions w = 1 at z = 0. where the function f = f (x) is defined implicitly by f m df C1 − 5◦ .

Here. for |x| > η0 t1/(m+2) . and the condition of conservation of energy ∞ −∞ w(x. −2. up to notation. d a = Introduce the new dependent variable p(ψ ) = ψ m ψu . and. b are any.1. . (6) where the function ϕ = ϕ(u) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(ϕm ϕu )u = λmuϕu − 2λϕ. v¤w Reference: A. − 2 (2003). V. Exact analytical solutions of equation (5) for various values of m can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). P. 9◦ . λ is any. Self-similar solution of a more general form: w = tβ g (ζ ). Γ (z ) = ∞ 0 e−ξ ξ z−1 dξ .1. −1 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev The general solutions of this equation with m = −3. (5) where A1 = −(mβ + 1)/(2a) and A2 = β (m + 1)/a. This equation is homogeneous. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 31 7◦ . where δ (x) is the Dirac delta function. m ζ = xt− mβ +1 2 . the function g = g (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Gζζ = A1 ζG− m+1 Gζ + A2 G m+1 . Taking into account the identity b du b −m d ψ p . A. and. The substitution Φ = ϕm+1 brings (6) to an equation that coincides. 3 . Mikhailov (1995). Kurdyumov. s = a/(mb2). Galaktionov. t) = At t  0 where A= m 2(m + 2) 1/m 1/m for |x| ≤ η0 t1/(m+2) . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Solution: w = (t + A)−1/m ψ (u). hence. Generalized self-similar solution: w = e−2λt ϕ(u). This equation is homogeneous. 0) = E0 δ (x). β is any. η0 = Γ(1/m + 3/2) √ E0 A π Γ(1/m + 1) m/(m+2) . and A. 8◦ . we arrive at an Abel equation of the second kind: a dψ ppψ = p − s ψ m+1 . (7) where the function ψ = ψ (u) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation a(ψ m ψu )u = bψu − ψ/m. with (5). S. 10◦ +. A. therefore. Samarskii. A. u = x + b ln(t + A). The above solution satisfies the initial condition w(x. Unsteady point source solution with a = 1:   −1/(m+2) 2 x2 η0 − 2/(m+2) w(x. with Γ(z ) being the gamma function. u = xeλmt . t) dx = E0 > 0. 1 G = g m+1 . P. its order can be reduced (and then it can be transformed to an Abel equation of the second kind). its order can be reduced (and then it can be transformed to an Abel equation of the second kind).

∂ ∂w ∂w = w–2 + b. Svirshchevskii (1983). The transformation x=− leads to the equation ∂Ψ ∂ 1 ∂u 1 ∂ Φ = 0. C2 . Suppose w(x. 2◦ . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w m ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. P.1. C1 t + C3 ). Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: w u du = − ln | € x + C1 t + C2 | + C3 . Samarskii. C2 . t) of the original equation to a solution w (x.32 11◦ . Kurdyumov. ∂ x ∂x ∂t x¤y References for equation 1. 1962. ∂w =a ∂ ∂w where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. + b. τ ) t0 ∂w (x. Then the functions −1 t + C3 ). t) takes a nonzero solution w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. A. 2. are also solutions of the equation. t) = − b ∂ 2 ∂y 1 ∂u u ∂y −1 (1) ∂u ∂ 2 u − .11. A. −1 2 ∂u . Reference: V. Generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in x: 2 w(x. t) of a similar equation ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w−m−2 .1. τ ) ∂x dτ . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . w(x. H. Ψ= ∂y ∂y ∂y u ∂y u It follows that any solution u = u(x. S. Suppose w(x. Ovsiannikov (1959. t) is a solution of this equation. t) dy + a t wm (x. where Φ = .7: L. Dorodnitsyn and S. 2◦ .10. N. Ibragimov (1994). V. t) = C1 x + (aC1 + b)t + C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. R. + bw k Equations of this form admit traveling-wave solutions w = w(kx + λt). ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . bu ∂y w(x. w1 = C1 w ( € C 1 x + C2 .1. Mikhailov (1995).11 with m = 1 and k = 0. 1982). A. A. t) of the linear heat equation ∂u ∂ 2 u − =0 ∂t ∂y 2 generates a solution (1) of the original nonlinear equation. t) = 1 w ( x . ∂t ∂y 2 (2) x¤y © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C2 . see equation 1. a € x + C1 t + C2 au2 − C1 u + b 4◦ . Galaktionov. x= PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE x x0 w(y . Then the functions w −1 w1 = C1 w(€ C1 x + C2 . x=x 0 w (x. C 1 where C1 .11. are also solutions of the equation. and C3 are arbitrary constants. For other solutions. 1. t) = − 3◦ . 6a(t + C1 ) 4 where C1 . The first solution is degenerate. V. and A. The transformation t = t − t0 . P. u = . 3 (x + C 2 ) 2 + C3 |t + C1 |−1/3 + b(t + C1 ).

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

33

3.

∂ ∂w =a w–2 – bw3 . ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solutions: ∂w w(x, t) =  C1 (x + C2 )2 + C3 exp(2aC1 t) − b aC1
−1/2

,

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants. 4. + bw–1/3 . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . For ab > 0, the transformation =a w(x, t) = exp( 3λx)z (ξ , t), ξ= 1 exp( 2λx), 2λ λ= b 3a
1/2

∂w

w–4/3

∂w

,

‚¤ƒ

leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1.10.4: ∂z ∂ ∂z z −4/3 . =a ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 2◦ . For ab < 0, the transformation z ( ξ , t) , cos3 (λx) also leads to equation 1.1.10.4. w(x, t) = 3◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, t) = (t + C )3/4 u(x), ξ= 1 tan(λx), λ λ= − b 3a
1/2

(1)

References: N. H. Ibragimov (1994), A. A. Samarskii, V. A. Galaktionov, S. P. Kurdyumov, and A. P. Mikhailov (1995).

,

where C is an arbitrary constant, and the function u = u(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation a(u−4/3 ux )x + bu−1/3 − 3 4 u = 0. 4◦ . See also equation 1.1.12.6 with b = c = 0. 5. + bw5/2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Functional separable solution: =a w(x, t) = a2/3 3Ax3 + f2 (t)x2 + f1 (t)x + f0 (t) Here, f 2 ( t) = 3 f 0 ( t) = ϕ(t) dt + 3B , f 1 ( t) =
3 −2/3

∂w

w–3/2

∂w

.

1 A

ϕ(t) dt + B

2

+

1 ϕ(t), 2A 1 ϕ (t), 36A2 t

1 1 ϕ(t) dt + B + ϕ ( t) 9A2 6A2 where the function ϕ(t) is defined implicitly by

ϕ(t) dt + B +

(C1 − 108A2 abϕ − 8ϕ3 )−1/2 dϕ = t + C2 , and A, B , C1 , and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . For other solutions, see equations 1.1.11.9 and 1.1.11.11 with m = −3/2. 3◦ . The substitution w = u−2/3 leads to an equation of the form 1.1.9.7: ∂2u 2 ∂u ∂u = au 2 − a ∂t ∂x 3 ∂x
2

3 b. 2

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

34 6. ∂w

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

∂ ∂w =a w–4/3 + cw7/3 . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.12.5 with b = 0. See also equation 1.1.11.11 with m = −4/3 and k = 7/3. 7. ∂w ∂t ∂x 1◦ . Solutions: =a ∂ wm ∂w ∂x + bw.
1

w(x, t) = ebt (Ax + B ) m+1 ,
„

w(x, t) = e w(x, t) = e

bt

λ2 bmt λm x+ e +A a ab

1 m

,

bt

bm2 (x − A)2 2a(m + 2)(B − ebmt )

1 m

,
1 m

2bmt w(x, t) = A exp m+2 w(x, t) = e 2◦ . By the transformation
bt

bm2 (x + B )2 − 2a(m + 2)

,
1 m

A| e

bmt

m + B |− m+2 −

(x + C ) 2 bm2 2a(m + 2) ebmt + B

,

where A, B , C , and λ are arbitrary constants. 1 bmt e + const bm the original equation can be reduced to an equation of the form 1.1.10.7: ∂ ∂v ∂v =a vm . ∂τ ∂x ∂x 3◦ . See also equation 1.1.11.11 with k = 1. w(x, t) = ebt v (x, τ ), τ=
Reference: L. K. Martinson and K. B. Pavlov (1972).

…¤†

…¤†

L , 2 (1) L for |x| > , 2 1/2 where L = 2π (m + 1) /m. Solution (1) describes a blow-up regime that exists on a limited time interval t ‡ [0, t0 ). The solution is localized in the interval |x| < L/2. for |x| ≤
References: N. V. Zmitrenko, S. P. Kurdyumov, A. P. Mikhailov and A. A. Samarskii (1976), A. A. Samarskii, V. A. Galaktionov, S. P. Kurdyumov, and A. P. Mikhailov (1995).

+ bwm+1 . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Multiplicative separable solution (a = b = 1, m > 0):   2(m + 1) cos2 (πx/L)   m(m + 2) (t0 − t) w(x, t) =   0 8. =a wm

∂w

∂w

1/m

2◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, t) = B= λ2 (m + 1)2 , 4b2 A(m + 2)2 Aeµx + Be−µx + D mλt + C D=− λ(m + 1) , b(m + 2)
1/m

, − b , a(m + 1)

µ=m

where A, C , and λ are arbitrary constants, ab(m + 1) < 0.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

35

3◦ . Multiplicative separable solution (C and λ are arbitrary constants): w(x, t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x), where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(ϕm ϕx )x + bϕm+1 + λϕ = 0. Equation (2) has the following solution in implicit form: ϕm A − b 2λ ϕm+2 − ϕ2m+2 a(m + 2) a(m + 1)
−1/2

(2)

dϕ = ˆ x + B ,

where A and B are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . Functional separable solution [it is assumed that ab(m + 1) < 0]: w(x, t) = f (t) + g (t)eλx
1/m

,

λ=ˆ m

−b , a(m + 1)

where the functions f = f (t) and g = g (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations bm(m + 2) f g. ft = bmf 2 , gt = m+1 Integrating yields m+2 f (t) = (C − bmt)−1 , g (t) = C (C − bmt)− m+1 ,
1 2 1

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . Functional separable solution (A and B are arbitrary constants): w(x, t) = f (t) + g (t)(Aeλx + Be−λx )
1/m

,

λ=m

−b , a(m + 1)

(3)

where the functions f = f (t) and g = g (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ft = bmf 2 + 4bmAB 2 g , m+1 gt = bm(m + 2) f g. m+1 (4)

On eliminating t from this system, one obtains a homogeneous first-order equation: fg = 4AB g m+1 f + . m+2 g m+2 f (5)

The substitution ζ = f /g leads to a separable equation. Integrating yields the solution of equation (5) in the form 1 2 C1 is any. f = ˆ g 4AB + C1 g − m+2 2 , Substituting this expression into the second equation of system (4), one obtains a separable equation for g = g (t). 6◦ . The functional separable solutions w(x, t) = f (t) + g (t) cosh(λx) w(x, t) = f (t) + g (t) sinh(λx) are special cases of formula (3) with A = 1 2, B =
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC
1 2 1/m 1/m

,

1 1 and A = 2 , B = −2 , respectively.

36

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

7◦ . Functional separable solution [it is assumed that ab(m + 1) > 0]: w(x, t) = f (t) + g (t) cos(λx + C )
1/m

,

λ=m

b , a(m + 1)

‰¤

where the functions f = f (t) and g = g (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations bm(m + 2) bm 2 g , gt = f g, ft = bmf 2 + m+1 m+1 which coincides with system (4) for AB = 1 4.
References for equation 1.1.11.8: M. Bertsch, R. Kersner, and L. A. Peletier (1985), V. A. Galaktionov and S. A. Posashkov (1989), V. F. Zaitsev and A. D. Polyanin (1996).

+ bw1–m . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.11.11 with k = 1 − m. Functional separable solution: 9. =a wm
m bm2 1 (x + A)2 + B |F |− m+2 − F F 4a(m + 1) 2a(m + 2) t, F = F ( t) = C − m where A, B , and C are arbitrary constants.

∂w

∂w

w(x, t) =

1/m

,

‰¤

Reference: R. Kersner (1978).

+ bw1–n . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.11.11 with m = 2n and k = 1 − n. Generalized traveling-wave solution: 10. =a
‘

∂w

w2n

∂w

w(x, t) =

bn2 x + C1 √ − (C2 − kt) C2 − kt 3a(n + 1)

1/n

,

k=

2a(n + 1) , n

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 11. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + bwk .

This is a special case of equation 1.6.15.2 with f (w) = aw m and g (w) = bwk . For b = 0, see Subsection 1.1.10. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of the ‘equation in question. Then the functions
k−m−1 2k−2 2 x + C2 , C 1 t + C3 ), w1 = C1 w ( C1

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . A space-homogeneous solution and a stationary solution are given by (the latter is written out in implicit form): w ( t) = wm A − (1 − k )bt + C Cebt
1 1−k

if k ≠ 1, if k = 1,
−1/2
‘

2b wm+k+1 a(m + k + 1)

dw = x + B ,

where A, B , and C are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

37

3◦ . Traveling-wave solutions: w = w(z ), z = ’ x + λt, where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation a(wm wz )z − λwz + bwk = 0. The substitution u (w ) = brings (1) to the Abel equation a m w wz λ (2) (1)

uuw − u = −abλ−2 wm+k .

The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) presents exact solutions of equation (2) with m + k = 1 , 0, 1. −2, −1, − 2 4◦ . Self-similar solution for k ≠ 1: w = t 1−k u(ξ ),
1 k−m−1 2(1−k)

ξ = xt

,

where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(um uξ )ξ +
“¤”

1 m−k+1 ξuξ + buk − u = 0. 2(1 − k ) 1−k

Reference: V. A. Dorodnitsyn (1982).

1.1.12. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w m ∂w + bw + c w k1 + c w k2 + c w k3 1 2 3 ∂t ∂x ∂x
Equations of this form admit traveling-wave solutions w = w(kx + λt). 1. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w ∂t ∂x ∂x + bw + c.

For c = 0, see equation 1.1.11.7. Generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in x:
2 c aC1 e2bt − , b b cebt ebt bebt (x + C2 )2 + C3 1/3 + 1/3 w(x, t) = ϕ ( t) ϕ ( t) ϕ ( t)

w(x, t) = C1 xebt + C2 ebt +

e−bt ϕ1/3 (t)dt,

ϕ(t) = C1 − 6aebt ,

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants. The first solution is degenerate. 2. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x w–2 ∂w ∂x – bw – cw3 .

Functional separable solutions for b ≠ 0: w(x, t) = ’ bC1 e2bt (x + C2 )2 + C3 F (t) + 2cF (t) dt F ( t)
−1/2

,

F (t) = exp aC1 e2bt + 2bt ,

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

38 3. ∂w

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

∂ ∂w =a w–4/3 + bw–1/3 + cw. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Multiplicative separable solutions: w(x, t) = ect Aekx + Be−kx
−3 −3

if b/(3a) = k 2 > 0, if b/(3a) = −k 2 < 0,

w(x, t) = ect A cos(kx) + B sin(kx) where A and B are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . The transformation w = ect u(x, τ ), τ =−

leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1.11.4: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u−4/3 ∂τ ∂x ∂x 4. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w–4/3 ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: + bw + cw5/3 .

3 − 4 ct e 3 + const 4c + bu−1/3 .

w(x, t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t) , where the functions ϕ(t), ψ (t), and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations 2 1 aϕ(4ϕχ − ψ 2 ) − 3 bϕ, ϕt = 2
2 2 2 χt = 1 2 aχ(4ϕχ − ψ ) − 3 bχ − 3 c. It follows from the first two equations that ϕ = Cψ , where C is an arbitrary constant. 2 2 ψt = 1 2 aψ (4ϕχ − ψ ) − 3 bψ ,

−3/2

5.

∂w

∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution:

=a

w–4/3

∂w

+ bw + cw7/3 .
−3/4

w(x, t) = ϕ4 (t)x4 + ϕ3 (t)x3 + ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) , where the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 4 4 3 aϕ2 ϕ0 = − 4 1 + 2aϕ0 ϕ2 − 3 bϕ0 − 3 c, ϕ1 = −aϕ1 ϕ2 + 6aϕ0 ϕ3 − 4 3 bϕ1 ,
4 3 ϕ2 = −aϕ2 2 + 2 aϕ1 ϕ3 + 12aϕ0 ϕ4 − 3 bϕ2 ,

2 4 ϕ4 = − 3 4 aϕ3 + 2aϕ2 ϕ4 − 3 bϕ4 . The prime denotes a derivative with respect to t. •¤–

ϕ3 = −aϕ2 ϕ3 + 6aϕ1 ϕ4 − 4 3 bϕ3 ,

Reference: V. A. Galaktionov (1995).

– aw–1/3 + bw7/3 + cw. ∂t ∂x ∂x The substitution u = w −4/3 leads to an equation with quadratic nonlinearity: 6. = ∂ 2 u 3 ∂u 4 ∂u =u 2 − + au2 − cu − b . ∂t ∂x 4 ∂x 3 1◦ . For a = 1, there is a solution of the form u = ϕ1 (t) + ϕ2 (t) cos(kx) + ϕ3 (t) sin(kx) + ϕ4 (t) cos(2kx) + ϕ5 (t) sin(2kx), k = 2 × 3−1/2 , where the functions ϕn = ϕn (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations (not written out here).
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC
2

∂w

w–4/3

∂w

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

39

2◦ . For a = −1, there is a solution of the form
—¤˜

u = ϕ1 (t) + ϕ2 (t) cosh(kx) + ϕ3 (t) sinh(kx) + ϕ4 (t) cosh(2kx) + ϕ5 (t) sinh(2kx),
Reference: V. A. Galaktionov (1995).

k = 2 × 3−1/2 .

+ bwm+1 + cw. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Multiplicative separable solutions: 7. =a wm w(x, t) = ect A cos(kx) + B sin(kx)
1 m+1 1 m+1

∂w

∂w

if b(m + 1)/a = k 2 > 0, if b(m + 1)/a = −k 2 < 0,

w(x, t) = ect A exp(kx) + B exp(−kx) where A and B are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . The transformation w = ect u(x, τ ), τ= leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1.11.8:

1 cmt e + const cm + bum+1 .

∂ ∂u ∂u =a um ∂τ ∂x ∂x
Special case. Multiplicative separable solution for m = −1: w = A exp ct − where A and B are arbitrary constants.

b 2 x + Bx , 2a

8.

∂w

∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution:

=a

wm

∂w

+ b + cw–m .
1 m+1

b(m + 1) 2 x + C1 x + C2 w = c(m + 1)t − 2a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 9. + bw + cw1–m . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Generalized traveling-wave solution: =a wm w(x, t) = C1 ebmt x + ∂w ∂ ∂w

,

c a 2bmt e + C2 ebmt − bm2 b

1/m

,

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.
—¤˜

2◦ . For a more complicated solution, see 1.6.13.4 with f (t) = b and g (t) = c.
Reference: V. A. Galaktionov and S. A. Posashkov (1989).

+ bw1+m + cw + ™ w1–m . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.5 with f (t) = c and g (t) = s . The substitution u = w m leads to an equation of the form 1.1.9.9: 10. =a wm ∂2u a ∂u = au 2 + ∂t ∂x m ∂u ∂x
2

∂w

∂w

+ bmu2 + cmu + s m.

—¤˜

Reference: V. A. Galaktionov and S. A. Posashkov (1989).

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

40 11. ∂w

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

∂ ∂w =a w2n + bw + cw1–n . ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solutions: w(x, t) = ϕ(t)(d x + C1 ) + cnϕ(t) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 12. ∂ ∂w =a wn + bw + ck + bkwn+1 + cw–n . ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solutions: ∂w w(x, t) = w(x, t) = √ √ exp b(n + 1)t C1 cos x λ + C2 sin x λ exp b(n + 1)t C1 cosh x c − b
1 n+1

dt ϕ ( t)

1/n

,

ϕ(t) = C2 e−2bnt −

a(n + 1) bn2

−1/2

,

if λ > 0,
1 n+1

|λ| + C2 sinh x |λ| bk (n + 1). a

c − b

if λ < 0,

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and λ =
e¤f

Reference: V. A. Galaktionov (1994).

1.1.13. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g (w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x
Equations of this form admit traveling-wave solutions w = w(kx + λt). ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x (aw2 + bw) ∂w ∂x . 1.

This is a special case of equation 1.6.15.1 with f (w) = aw 2 + bw. Solutions: 2t + C − b , 2C1 x + 2aC1 w(x, t) = d 2 a b x + C1 , − w(x, t) = d √ C2 − 4at 2a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. The first solution is of the traveling-wave type and the second one is self-similar. 2. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x w2 a + b2 ∂w ∂x .

This is a special case of equation 1.6.15.1 with f (w) = a(w 2 + b2 )−1 . 1◦ . Solutions (A and B are arbitrary constants): w(x) = b tan(Ax + B ), w(x, t) = d bx A − 2ab−2 t − x2
−2 −1/2 2

,
−1/2

w(x, t) = Ab exp(ab t − x) 1 − A exp 2(ab−2 t − x) 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: λ(kx + λt) + B = A2

.

1 A w ak 2 ln |w + A| − ln(w2 + b2 ) + arctan , + b2 2 b b

where A, B , k , and λ are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

41

3◦ . The substitution

bu w= √ 1 − u2 a ∂2u ∂u ∂u = 2 (1 − u 2 ) 2 + u ∂t b ∂x ∂x
2

(1)

leads to the equation

,

(2)

g¤h

which is a special case of 8.1.2.12 with F (t, ξ , η ) = ab−2 (ξ − η ). Equation (2) has multiplicative separable solutions 2aλ2 Aeλx + Be−λx , k= 2 ; u= √ b 4AB + Ce−kt (3) 2aλ2 A sin(λx) + B cos(λx) , k= 2 , u= √ b A2 + B 2 + Cekt where A, B , C , and λ are arbitrary constants. Formulas (1) and (3) provide two solutions of the original equation.
Reference: P. W. Doyle and P. J. Vassiliou (1998); see also Example 10 in Subsection S.5.3.
i

4◦ . Solution: w = b tan z = x cos
2

1 z 2
i

i

a t+C , b2 1 z − arctan ψ (z ) 2
i

−2

a t+C , b2

where C is an arbitrary constant and the function ψ = ψ (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation i ψ 1 2 . ψ z = (1 + ψ ) 1 − 2 z Here the function z = z (x, t) is defined implicitly. 5◦ . Solution: w = b tan ϕ(z ) + arctan ψ (z ) + z= at C ln 2 , 2 b

C at b 2 x2 cos−2 ϕ(z ) + ln 2 , at 2 b

where C is an arbitrary constant and the functions ϕ(z ) and ψ (z ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕz =
g¤h

ψ , 2z

ψz =

1 C ψ ψ (1 + ψ 2 ) − − . 2 2 2 z

Here the function z = z (x, t) is defined implicitly.
References: I. Sh. Akhatov, R. K. Gazizov, and N. H. Ibragimov (1989), N. H. Ibragimov (1994).

3.

∂w ∂t

=

∂ ∂x

(aw2n + bwn )

∂w ∂x

.

This is a special case of equation 1.6.15.1 with f (w) = aw 2n + bwn . 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function
2 w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 , C 1 t + C3 ),

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

42

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

2◦ . Traveling-wave solution:
j

w(x, t) = where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . Self-similar solution:
j

2 nt + C − 2C1 nx + 2aC1 2

b a

1/n

,

w(x, t) = 4. ∂w = ∂

b x + C1 √ − C2 − kt a(n + 1) ∂w + cw1–n .

1/n

,

k=

2a(n + 1) . n

∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution:
j

(aw2n + bwn )

w(x, t) =

b cn2 x + C1 √ (C2 − kt) − − a(n + 1) C2 − kt 3a(n + 1)

1/n

,

k=

2a(n + 1) , n

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 5. ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solutions:
j

=

(aw2n + bwn )

∂w

+ cw + k w1–n .

w(x, t) = ϕ(t)( x + C1 ) + ϕ(t) = C2 e−2cnt −

b ϕ ( t) n
−1/2

ϕ(t) dt + s nϕ(t) ,

dt ϕ ( t)

1/n

,

a(n + 1) cn2

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.

1.1.14. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g x, t, w , ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x
1. + bxm w–1/3 . ∂t ∂x ∂x For m = 0, see equation 1.1.11.4. For m ≠ 0, the original equation can be reduced to a simpler equation 1.1.10.4 that corresponds to the case b = 0 [see equation 1.6.13.1 with f (x) = bx m ]. =a 2. ∂w =a ∂ w–2 ∂w +b ∂w ∂w ∂ w–4/3 ∂w

+ cw. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.8 with m = −2, f (t) = b, and g (t) = c. The transformation (A and B are arbitrary constants) w(x, t) = ect u(z , τ ), leads to an equation of the form 1.1.10.3: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u−2 . ∂τ ∂z ∂z
l¤m

z = x + bt + A,

τ =B−

1 −2ct e 2c

Reference: V. A. Dorodnitsyn and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983); the case b = 0 was treated.

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

43

u(z , t) = w(x, t) + b, z = x + ct leads to an equation of the form 1.1.10.3: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u−2 . ∂t ∂z ∂z 4. . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.14.16 with n = 1. Degenerate solution linear in x: ax + b ln |t + C1 | + C2 , w(x, t) = a 2 (t + C 1 ) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. w ∂w ∂ ∂w + aw =b w2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.14.16 with n = 2. ∂w 2b ∂w + aw ∂w =b ∂ ∂w

∂ a ∂w = ∂t ∂x (w + b)2 ∂x The transformation 3. ∂w

+c

∂w ∂x

.

5.

1◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: w2 dw = x + λt + C2 , aw2 + 2λw + C1 where C1 , C2 , and λ are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x, t) = (x + C1 )f (t). Here, C1 is an arbitrary constant, and the function f = f (t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ft + af 2 = 2bf 3 , whose solution can be represented in implicit form: 2b 2bf − a 1 + 2 ln = t + C2 . af a f 6. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w + aw = (bw2 + cw) . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x, t) = f (t)x + g (t), where the functions f = f (t) and g = g (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ft + af 2 = 2bf 3 , gt + af g = 2bf 2 g + cf 2 . The solution of the first equation can be found in 1.1.14.5, Item 2 ◦ . The second equation is easy to integrate, since it is linear in g . 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: bw2 + cw dw = x + λt + C2 , + 2λw + C1 where C1 , C2 , and λ are arbitrary constants. 2 aw2
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

44 7. ∂w

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

∂ ∂w =a wm + btn w. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.2 with f (t) = btn . 8. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + beλt w.

This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.2 with f (t) = beλt . 9. + btn w1–m . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.3 with f (t) = btn . =a wm 10. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + beλt w1–m . ∂w ∂ ∂w

This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.3 with f (t) = beλt . 11. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + btn w + ctk w1–m .

This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.4 with f (t) = btn and g (t) = ctk . 12. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + beλt w + ceµt w1–m .

This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.4 with f (t) = beλt and g (t) = ceµt . 13. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a wm ∂t ∂x ∂x + bw1+m + ctn w + n tk w1–m .

This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.5 with f (t) = ctn and g (t) = s tk . 14. ∂ ∂w =a wm + bxn w1+m . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6.13.6 with f (x) = bxn . ∂w 15. ∂w

∂ ∂w ∂w =a wn – bx . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions
n −2 x + C2 ebt , t + C3 ), w1 = C1 w ( o C1

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Generalized traveling-wave solutions: w(x, t) =
o

x + C1 ebt

2/n

C2 e2bt +

a(n + 2) bn

−1/n

,

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . Generalized traveling-wave solutions: w = w(z ), z = o x + Cebt , where C is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(wn wz )z − bzwz = 0.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

45

∂w ∂ ∂w + aw =b wn . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of this equation. Then the function 16. ∂w
1−n 2−n w 1 = C 1 w (C 1 x + C2 , C 1 t + C3 ),

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2b aw2 wn dw = x + λt + C2 , + 2λw + C1

where C1 , C2 , and λ are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . Self-similar solution for n ≠ 2: w(x, t) = u(z )t1/(n−2) , z = xt−(n−1)/(n−2) , 1 n−1 z uz − u = 0. n−2 n−2 where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation bun uzz + 2bnun−1 (uz )2 − au − 17. ∂w ∂ ∂w =a wn + (bwn + c) . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: ∂w w(x, t) = a ln |t + C1 | c C2 − x + − b(t + C1 ) b2 n(t + C1 ) b ∂2w
2 1/n

,

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 18. . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of this equation. Then the function wn
n 2 w 1 = C 1 w (C 2 x + C 3 , C 1 C2 t + C4 ),

∂w

=

∂w

+ awn

+ bwn–1

∂w

where C1 , . . . , C4 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Functional separable solution for b = 1 3 n(a − 2) − a − 1:
3 1/n

w(x, t) = n
k=0

ϕ k ( t) x k

.

Here, ϕ 3 ( t ) = A, ϕ 0 ( t) = ϕ 2 ( t) = ψ (t) dt + B ,
3

ϕ 1 ( t) =

1 3A

ψ (t) dt + B ψ (t) dt + B +

2

+

1 ψ (t), 2Aβn

1 27A2

ψ (t) dt + B

+

1 ψ ( t) 6A2 βn
−1/2

1 ψ (t), 12A2 β 2 n2 t

where the function ψ = ψ (t) is defined implicitly by
3 C1 − 8 3 βnψ

dψ = C2 + t,

p¤q

A, B , C1 , and C2 are arbitrary constants, β = a + 1; A ≠ 0, n ≠ 0, a > −1.
Reference: G. A. Rudykh and E. I. Semenov (1998).

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

46

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

1 n(a − 3) − a − 1: 3◦ . Functional separable solution for b = 4 4

w(x, t) = n
k=0

1/n

ϕ k ( t) x k

.

Here, the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations
2 ϕ0 = − 3 4 βϕ1 + 2βϕ2 ϕ0 ,

ϕ1 = −βϕ1 ϕ2 + 6βϕ3 ϕ0 ,
3 ϕ2 = −βϕ2 2 + 2 βϕ1 ϕ3 + 12βϕ4 ϕ0 ,

ϕ3 = −βϕ2 ϕ3 + 6βϕ1 ϕ4 ,
2 ϕ4 = − 3 4 βϕ3 + 2βϕ2 ϕ4 ,
r¤s

where β = n(a + 1); the prime denotes a derivative with respect to t.
Reference: G. A. Rudykh and E. I. Semenov (1998).

4 . There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x, t) = F (z ), z = Ax + Bt; ξ = xt−
βn+1 2 ;

w(x, t) = (At + B )−1/n G(x); w(x, t) = tβ H (ξ ), w(x, t) = e−2t U (η ), η = xent ; ζ = x + C ln(At + B ),

w(x, t) = (At + B )−1/n V (ζ ),

where A, B , C , and β are arbitrary constants. The first solution is of the traveling-wave type, the second is a solution in multiplicative separable form, and the third is self-similar. 19. ∂w = ∂ aw2n + bwn ∂w + (cwn + t ) ∂w ∂x .

∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution:

w(x, t) = ϕ(t)x + (s t + C1 )ϕ(t) +

b ϕ ( t) n

1/n

ϕ(t) dt

,

where C1 is an arbitrary constant and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the first-order separable ordinary differential equation a(n + 1) 3 ϕ + cϕ2 . ϕt = n

1.1.15. Other Equations
1. . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6.16.3 with f (w) = aw 2 + bw4 . 1◦ . Self-similar solutions: w(x, t) = u where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

∂w

= (aw2 + bw4 )

∂2w

a (x + C 1 ) 2 − 2a(t + C2 ) b

1/2

,

1.1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES

47

2◦ . Functional separable solutions: w(x, t) = v ϕ(t)(x2 + C1 x + C2 ) − a b
1/2

,

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the first-order separable equation 2 3 ϕt = −2aϕ2 + 1 2 b(4C2 − C1 )ϕ , whose solution can be written out in implicit form. 2. ∂w ∂t ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: = (aw2 + bw4 ) ∂2w + cw + kw–1 .

w(x, t) = v

ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t),

where the functions ϕ(t), ψ (t), and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations 2 ϕt = 1 2 bϕ(4ϕχ − ψ ) + 2cϕ,
1 bψ (4ϕχ − ψ 2 ) + 2cψ , ψt = 2 1 (bχ + a)(4ϕχ − ψ 2 ) + 2cχ + 2k . χt = 2

It follows from the first two equations that ϕ = Cψ , where C is an arbitrary constant. Remark. The above remains true if the equation coefficients are arbitrary functions of time: a = a(t), b = b(t), c = c(t), and k = k (t). 3. . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6.16.4 with f (u) = auk . The transformation w(x, t) = xu(z , t), z = 1/x ∂2u ∂u = auk 2 . ∂t ∂z 4. . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of this equation. Then the function
k 2−n w1 = C1 w(C2 x, C1 C2 t + C3 ),

∂w

= ax4–k wk

∂2w

leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1.9.18:

∂w

= axn wk

∂2w

where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . The substitution u = w 1−k leads to an equation of the form 1.1.15.6:
k ∂u ∂ ∂u = axn u 1−k . ∂t ∂x ∂x

3◦ . The transformation

w(x, t) = xu(z , t),

z = 1/x

leads to an equation of the similar form ∂2u ∂u = az 4−n−k uk 2 . ∂t ∂z
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

48 5. ∂w = ax
3m+4 m+1

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE

∂w ∂ wm . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1.15.6. The transformation 1 w(x, t) = x m+1 u(z , t), leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1.10.7:

z=

1 x

∂ ∂u ∂u =a um . ∂t ∂z ∂z 6. . ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation occurs in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer and is a special case of equation 1.6.17.16 with f (w) = aw m . For n = 0, see equation 1.1.10.7. wm
m 2−n w1 = C1 w(C2 x, C1 C2 t + C3 ),

∂w

= axn

∂w

1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Solutions: w(x) = (Ax + B ) m+1 ,
2−n 1 w(x, t) = k (λt + A)− m x m , 1 1 m

mλ k= a(n − 2)(2 + m − n − nm)
2−n

,

w(x, t) = t

(1−n)β

mβ xtβ a(2 − n)

+A

1 m

,

β=

1 , nm + n − m − 2
1 m

m λ w(x, t) = exp(−λt) (m + 1)2 x m+1 exp(λmt) + A a

,

n=

m+2 , m+1

where A, B , and λ are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, t) = (λt + A)−1/m f (x), where the function f = f (x) is expressed via solutions to the Emden–Fowler equation
1 λ(m + 1) −n x F m+1 = 0, F = f m+1 . (1) am To the power-law particular solution of this equation there corresponds the second solution of the original equation in Item 1◦ . The order of equation (1) can be reduced; the equation is analyzed in detail in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003), where its exact solutions for 26 different pairs of values of the parameters n and m are presented.

Fxx +

4◦ . Self-similar solution for n ≠ −2: w = w(z ), a(2 − n) wm wz z = xt n−2 , + z 1−n wz = 0. (2)
1

where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation
z

The book by Zaitsev and Polyanin (1993) presents the general solution of equation (2) for m = −1 and any n.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

This equation is homogeneous. β= . Zaitsev and A. t). ζζ 1 ζ 2 (5) where A1 = β/a and A2 = α(m + 1)/a. 1 m ξ = ln |x| − λt. and. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 49 mα + 1 . 1 z= leads to an equation of the similar form 4+3m−n−nm ∂ ∂u ∂u m+1 = az um . the change of variable G = g m+1 brings (3) to the equation 1 m G = A ζ 1−n G− m+1 G + A ζ −n G m+1 . α= nm + n − m − 2 nm + n − m − 2 a first integral of equation (3) is given by ag m gζ = βζ 1−n g + C . with (5). t) = x m+1 u(z . which are defined implicitly by wm dw = ξ + C2 . Exact analytical solutions of equation (5) for various values of the parameters n and m can be found in the books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. λ is any. 6◦ . t) = a m+1 where C is an arbitrary constant. β= aζ n g m gζ ζ 5◦ . D. (4) To C = 0 in (4) there corresponds the third solution in Item 1◦ . m+2 . α is any. C1 . 2003). 7◦ . hence. F. In the special case 1 1−n . its order can be reduced (thereafter it can be transformed to an Abel equation of the second kind). To the special case C1 = 0 there corresponds the solution a(m + 1) m mλ λ(m + 1) + C |x| m+1 exp − t w(x. In the general case. and C2 are arbitrary constants. The transformation w(x. (6) where the function ϕ(u) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aun (ϕm ϕu )u = λmuϕu + λ(n − 2)ϕ. so its order can be reduced (thereafter it can be transformed to an Abel equation of the second kind). For n = 2. Self-similar solution: = βζgζ + αg . the change of variable Φ = ϕm+1 brings (6) to an equation that coincides. equation (6) has the first integral In the special case n = m+1 1 aϕm ϕ = λmu− m+1 ϕ + C . (3) This equation is homogeneous. 1 x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . n−2 where the function g (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = tα g (ζ ). ζ = xtβ . awm+1 − λ(m + 1)w + C1 where λ.1. In the general case. ∂t ∂z ∂z w¤x Reference: V.1. up to notation. 8◦ . Polyanin (1996). there are solutions of the form w = w(ξ ). Generalized self-similar solution: w = eλ(n−2)t ϕ(u). . u To C = 0 there corresponds the last solution in Item 1◦ . u = xeλmt .

a ∂ ∂w ∂w = n xn w m . ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 4◦ .10.10. and to n = 2 there correspond spherically symmetric problems. Feix (1981). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1.7.1. t). To n = 1 there correspond two-dimensional problems with axial symmetry. For n = 0. t) = x m+1 u(ξ . In the special case of n = 2 and m = −2. ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 1−n 2m−2n−nm+3 m+1 ξ=x (1) where A = a 2m − 2n − nm + 3 m+1 2 . ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ so it coincides with equation 1. ∂t x ∂x ∂x This equation occurs in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer. The transformation w(x. C2 . where C1 . In the special case n = 2m + 3 notation. t) is a solution of the equation in question. leads to an equation of the similar form 3m−3n−2nm+4 ∂ ∂u ∂u =A ξ 2m−2n−nm+3 um .1.10. 9.10.7: ∂ ∂u ∂u =A um . ∂t ∂x ∂x y¤z Reference: A. J. the transformed equation is very simple and coincides. C1 C2 t + C3 ). E. Equation with n = 5 are encountered in the theory of static turbulence. Let m ≠ −1 and 2m − 2n − nm + 3 ≠ 0. the transformed equation becomes ∂ ∂u ∂u =A u−2 . with equation 1. 2◦ .3: ax + b ∂ ∂u ∂u = u−2 . 1◦ . Then the function m 2−n w1 = C1 w(C2 x. R. This is a special case of equation 1. J. 8. Polyanin (1996). F.1. Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x xn w m ∂w ∂x . y¤z Reference: V. Gutierres.50 7.6. is also a solution of the equation. up to 3◦ .3 (which can further be reduced to the linear heat equation). D. Burgan. Munier. and M. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ax + b cw + k 2 ∂w ∂x .5 with f (x) = axn . see equation 1.17. The substitution u = cw + k (c ≠ 0) leads to an equation of the form 1. R. Zaitsev and A. 3m + 4 . Fijalkow.

F. Zel’dovich and Yu. c = 1. ξ= . t) = u(z . t) = A exp − m where A. P. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 51 Solutions: w(x) = Ax1−n + B w(x. 1 m . G. 2◦ . ∂t ∂z ∂z 4 − 2m 2 . (4) ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ where the function F (ξ ) is defined parametrically by dx k . (2) 4 b )u ∂t ∂z which has a traveling-wave solution u = u(z + λt) and a multiplicative separable solution u = f (t)g (z ).11. Barenblatt (1952. ∂t ∂ξ v 2 ∂ξ ∂ ∂v =k ∂t ∂ξ ∂ ∂v =k ∂t ∂ξ cosh2 ξ ∂v . Sedov (1993). c = 1. m= a = −1. t) = w(x. Ya.5: 4−2m ∂v ∂ ∂v = F (ξ )v 2m−3 .16. Zel’dovich and A. The transformation √ w(x. ∂ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ =k ϕn + pϕn+1 . v 2 ∂ξ ξ −3/2 ∂v . (ax2 + bx + c)m (3) {¤| 1 . k = 2a(nm + m + 2). B . p = k (2m − 3)(ac − 1 n= 4 b ). L. t) = v (ξ . S.6. V. 1◦ . Samarskii. m 4aλ t + λx2 w(x. t) = mx2 A − kt 1 m 1 m+1 . 2 Reference: V. . 10. A. one obtains from (2) an equation of the form 1. By the transformation w(x. b = 0. Raiser (1966). Galaktionov. S. t) 1 2m+3 .17.8. leads to the equation z= dx ax2 + bx + c (1) ∂w = k(ax2 + bx + c)m w4–2m ∂2u ∂u 2 5−2m = ku4−2m 2 + k (ac − 1 . b = 0.1. cos ξ ∂ξ m = 1.1. I. Kompaneets (1950). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . dx . c = 1. Polyanin (1996). and λ are arbitrary constants. m(n+1) mx2 A|kt + B |− nm+m+2 − kt + B 1 m . k = 2a(nm + m + 2). I. 1989). b = 0. t) ax2 + bx + c. Kurdyumov. a = −1. P. (5) F (ξ ) = 2 m 2 (ax + bx + c) (ax + bx + c)m Note some special cases of equation (4) where the function F = F (ξ ) can be written out in explicit form: ∂ cos2 ξ ∂v ∂v =k . and A. Mikhailov (1995). ξ= the original equation can be reduced to equation 1. B. {¤| ∂2w . P. Zaitsev and A.6. A. B. Using the change of variable ϕ = u2m−3 . A. m+2 . a = 1. n=− References: Ya.1.5 with f (u) = ku−2m . 2m − 3 which admits a wide class of exact solutions. D. m = 1.

F. P. that satisfy the autonomous equation µ2 wzz − σwz + a + beλw = 0. A. f (τ ) = λ τ2 + k and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. aλ2 ~¤ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . λ t where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 auξξ + ξuξ + + beλu = 0. A. and C3 are arbitrary constants. z = kx + βt. Samarskii. A.1. P. The solutions of Item 1◦ are special cases of the traveling-wave solutions z = } µx + σt. V. 3◦ . Galaktionov. ∂t ∂x2 This equation occurs in heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. w(x. 1◦ . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . w(x. Traveling-wave solution (k and β are arbitrary constants): w = w(z ). Traveling-wave solutions: 2 1 aλt . 2. Suppose w(x. Polyanin (1996). 2◦ . µ= a aλ . S.2. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x 1.2. ∂w = ∂2w β= b − . H. Mikhailov (1995). t) = − ln −β + C exp } µx − 2 λ where C is an arbitrary constant. C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. Ibragimov (1994). Kurdyumov. (1) σ = µ2 . k= 4b . are also solutions of the equation. Reference: V. w1 = w ( } C 1 where C1 . ξ = √ . the general solution of equation (1) can be written out in parametric form as 2 fτ (τ ) dτ + C1 . and A. Then the functions λ 2λ x + C2 . x 1 ln t. Zaitsev and A. t) is a solution of this equation. Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities 2 + b0 + b1 eλw + b2 e2λw 1. t) = − ln β + C exp } µx − 2 λ 2 1 aλt . 2 2◦ . 2 λ ~¤ w = u (ξ ) − + a + beλw . D. z=2 λ f (τ ) λτ f (τ ) + 2 where the function f (τ ) is defined by √ C2 − 2 ln τ + τ 2 + k √ . C2 . ∂2w ∂w =a + beλw . Solution: References: N. where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ak 2 wzz − βwz + beλw = 0. w = w(z ). w = ln |f (τ )|.52 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1. For µ= 1 2 aλ.

The substitution u = e−λw u √ 1 ln € −cλ x − bλt + C . Solutions (1) and (2) are special cases of a wider class of traveling-wave solutions w = w(x + σt).1. ln √ λ B − 2at 1 1 w(x. Polyanin (1996).2. t) = − ln C − 2aλµt + ln λµx2 + Ax + B . where the function w(y ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(eλw wy )y + 1 2 ywy = 0. F. Then the function w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . t) = − 3◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: x + βt + C1 = a 4◦ . λ leads to an equation with quadratic nonlinearity: ∂u ∂x 2 (2) ∂ 2u ∂u =u 2 − ∂t ∂x − aλu2 − bλu − cλ. 1 ln β + C exp(€ µx − aλt) . βw + C2 √ y = x/ t. Traveling-wave solutions for a = 0: w(x. 2◦ . EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 53 3. ¤‚ 4 . Self-similar solution: w = w(y ). Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ eλw ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x 1.2. Zaitsev and A. = ∂t ∂x2 Equations of this form are encountered in problems of heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . C 3 t + C 4 ) + where C1 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. D. λ C1 1◦ . ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation governs unsteady heat transfer in a quiescent medium in the case where the thermal diffusivity is exponentially dependent on temperature. t) = − µ= (1) where C is an arbitrary constant and the parameter β is determined by solving the quadratic equation 2◦ . ∂2w ∂w + a + beλw + ce2λw . eλw dw .2. ∂w =a ∂ eλw ∂w + f (w ) . Suppose w(x. β 1◦ . B . C4 are arbitrary constants. 1. The first solution is self-similar and the second one is an additive separable solution. The particular solution u = β + C exp(λt + µx) of this equation generates a solution (1). λ aβ 2 + bβ + c = 0. ◦ Reference: V. Traveling-wave solutions for a ≠ 0: w(x. w(x. t) = 3◦ . . λ λ where A. . C3 1 ln 2 . Solutions: € x + A 2 . . C . and µ are arbitrary constants. 1√ −cλ. is also a solution of the equation.

w(x. Suppose w(x. t) = G(θ) − ∂2ϕ ∂ϕ = aϕ 2 . and the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2k − kλξUξ = a(eλU Uξ )ξ . t) = U (ξ ) + 2kt. is also a solution of the equation. … a exp[2(… ax + B )] + 2 exp(… ax + B ) + A 2a2 (t + C ) where A. + b. Solution: ƒ¤„ References: L. θ = xtb .1: w(x. and the function G = G(θ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2b + 1 + bθGθ = (aeλG Gθ )θ . Galaktionov. P. Mikhailov (1995). N. t) = ln † ∂t ∂x Solutions: ax − B . Then the function 2. t) = 2 ln | … x + C1 | − ln C2 e−bt − The first solution is degenerate. b ∂w =a ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂u ∂u =a eu . − λ 8◦ .2. and A. ∂t ∂x 7◦ . t + C3 ) − 2 ln |C1 |. leads to an equation of the form 1. S. ζ = x + β ln t. w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. Solution: 6◦ . t) = ln |C1 x + C2 | + bt + C3 . where k is an arbitrary constant. V. 1982). and the function F = F (ζ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant) w(x. B . V. Additive separable solutions: w(x. ∂τ ∂x ∂x 3. Solution: PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w(x.1.9. A. Ovsiannikov (1959. 3◦ . H. ξ = xe−kλt . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . A. Samarskii. A. where C1 . λ where b is an arbitrary constant.54 5◦ . t) = F (ζ ) − −ζ + βλF = aλeλF Fζ + C . C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Ibragimov (1994). and C are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1: τ= 1 bt e + const b 2a . 2b + 1 ln t. The substitution ϕ = eλw leads to an equation of the form 1. P. ew w1 = w(C1 x + C2 .2. 2◦ . 1 ln t. λ where β is an arbitrary constant. The transformation w = bt + u(x. ∂w = ∂ ew ∂w ∂x – a 2 ew . Kurdyumov. τ ).

w1 = w ( ‡ C 1 where C1 .2.2. and C3 are arbitrary constants. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation b uxx + (ux )2 + C1 e−u − = 0. Solution for λ ≠ 0: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . a ≠ 0.3 for a solution). C2 . C2 . Then the functions ∂w w1 = w(‡ x + C1 . t) = u(z ) − 2aλe−z 2(eu uz )z − eu uz + bλeλu = (1 − λ)uz − 1. where C1 . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t ∂x 5. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . τ ). where C1 . ∂ ∂w ∂w =a ew + beλw . C2 t + C3 ) + ln C2 . so the solution can be rewritten in explicit form (if a = 1 and b > 0. w(x. τ= 1 bt e + const b + aeu . λ λ where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x.9. 3◦ . The integral is computable. leads to an equation of the form 1. are also solutions of the equation. Suppose w(x.2.9: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 − bu2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . z = 2 ln x + ln t. 3◦ .1.2. C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. and C3 are arbitrary constants. see 1.1. are also solutions of the equation. The substitution u = ew leads to an equation of the form 1. 2◦ . Additive separable solution for a = −k 2 < 0: w(x. ∂ ∂w =a ew – bew . The transformation w = bt + u(x. a Integrating yields the general solution in implicit form: C3 e−2u − 2C1 e−u + b a −1/2 du = ‡ x + C4 . Additive separable solution for a = k 2 > 0: ∂w b ≠ 0. ∂ ∂w = ew + aew + b. Suppose w(x. t) = ln C1 cos(kx) + C2 sin(kx) + bt + C3 . EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 55 4. t) = ln C1 cosh(kx) + C2 sinh(kx) + bt + C3 . 2◦ . Additive separable solution: w(x. C2 . t) = u(x) − ln(aC1 t + C2 ). Then the functions λ−1 2λ x + C2 .2. t) is a solution of this equation. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 1−λ 1 ln t.4: ∂ ∂u ∂u = eu ∂τ ∂x ∂x 6. 2◦ .

∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x Traveling-wave solution: =a ∂ weλw ∂w . if abλ < 0. λ λ w(x. t) = ‰¤Š where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: w= bλ 2 1 ln cλt − x + C1 x + C2 .4 with f (t) = c and g (t) = s . λ 2a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.2. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w =a eλw + b + ce–λw .56 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC b (x + C 2 ) 2 . Kurdyumov. Reference: V. Functional separable solutions: =a eλw 1 ln eαt C1 cos(x β ) + C2 sin(x β ) + γ λ 1 w = ln eαt C1 cosh(x −β ) + C2 sinh(x −β ) + γ λ w= Here. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g (w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. V. ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: w(x. A. P. β = bλ/a.3. Posashkov (1989). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 1. 2 λ bλ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Samarskii. 8. ∂ ∂w =a weλw + b. Mikhailov (1995). A. t) = 2 aC1 1 ln C1 ebλt x + e2bλt + C2 ebλt .6. ‰¤Š ∂w ∂ ∂w if abλ > 0. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a wew + b(w + 2). C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and α = λ(bγ + c).14.2 are roots of the quadratic equation bγ 2 + cγ + s = 0. 2a . t) = ln C1 e2bt − where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. A. a 2 1 ln C1 x + C1 t + C2 . and A. Reference: A. S. P. ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: 2. A. ∂w w(x. Galaktionov. 3. Galaktionov and S. where γ = γ1. + beλw + c + ˆ e–λw .

2 bn λ2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = 1 ln z λ 1/n . 9. z = C1 ebnλt x + 2 aC1 e2bnλt + C2 ebnλt . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x ae2λw + bweλw ∂w ∂x + c. ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solutions: w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Generalized traveling-wave solutions: w(x. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x weλw ∂w ∂x + b + ce–λw .5: ∂ ∂u ∂u = ae−bλ/a ueλu ∂t ∂x ∂x 7.1. ϕ ( t) = C2 e−2cλt − a cλ −1/2 . 6. t) = 1 ln λ ‹ ϕ ( t) x + C 1 ϕ ( t) + b ϕ ( t) λ ϕ(t) dt . λ bλ2 b where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ‹ + b + cebλ/a e−λu . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x aweλw + beλw ∂w ∂x + b + ce–λw . − w(x. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x. t) = 1 ln C1 x + λ 2 aC1 + bλ t + C2 . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x weλw ∂w ∂x + be–λw . ∂ ∂w ∂w =a wn exp λwn + bw1–n . 5. Self-similar solutions: b x + C1 1 . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x ae2λw + bweλw ∂w ∂x . t) = ln √ λ C2 − 2at aλ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. The substitution w = u − b/a leads to an equation of the form 1. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.2.3. 8. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 57 4. t) = 2 aC1 c 1 ln C1 ebλt x + e2bλt + C2 ebλt − .2.

58 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1. 2λ x ξ= √ . aw2 + 2βw + C1 where C1 . one arrives at a simpler equation of the form 1.4. This is a special case of equation 1. Then the function 2 w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . C 1 t + C3 ) + ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + beλw ∂w 1 ln C1 . ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ .7 with f (w) = beλw . t) is a solution of this equation. C2 .3. ∂x2 1◦ .6. and C3 are arbitrary constants. there is also an exact solution of the form w = ϕ (ξ ) − 3. Suppose w(x. 2◦ . t) = u(z ) + au − z − 1 a uz + = b(eλ uuz )z . z = x + βt. z = − ln t. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2b eλw dw = x + βt + C2 . 4. t) is a solution of the equation in question. e C1 t + C 3 − C1 . Then the function ∂w w1 = w eC1 x + 1 a C1 eC1 t + C 2 . x to the new variables t. λ λ 3◦ . +β ∂t ∂x2 ∂x On passing from t. 2◦ .6.3: ∂w ∂ 2 w = + a + beλw + ce2λw . t . is also a solution of the equation. and β are arbitrary constants. . The substitution a λw e dw u = exp λ leads to the linear heat equation ∂t u = ∂xx u.6. ∂t ∂z 2 1. Solution: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . x a 1 ln t.1. λ t λ where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. ∂w = 2. Suppose w(x. is also a solution of the equation. Apart from the traveling wave w = w(x + λt). C2 .2.8 with f (w) = aeλw . λ where C1 . ∂w ∂ ∂w + aw =b eλw .2. and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . Other Equations Explicitly Independent of x and t ∂w + a + beλw + ce2λw . λ λ where C1 . ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + aeλw ∂w ∂x 2 1 ln t.

t) = G(θ) − 2b + 1 ln t. and the function F = F (ζ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation βλFζ − 1 = aλeλF Fζζ . 4◦ . Then the function w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . t) = F (ζ ) − w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ . − λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 7◦ . C2 . ln 2 (at + C ) λ 2C2 1 cosh2 (C2 x + C3 ) 1 ln . Suppose w(x. = aeλw ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . √ y = x/ t. ln 2 (at + C ) λ 2C2 1 sinh2 (C2 x + C3 ) 1 . θ = xtb . C 3 t + C 4 ) + C3 1 ln 2 . t) = w(x. t) = U (ξ ) + 2kt. w(x. Additive separable solutions: w(x. λ where b is an arbitrary constant. C2 . . C4 are arbitrary constants. 2 (C − at) λ 2C2 1 where C1 . EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 59 5. k .1. and the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2k − kλξUξ = aeλU Uξξ . t) = cos2 (C2 x + C3 ) 1 . ζ = x + β ln t. Traveling-wave solution: w(x. note that ln(A/B ) = ln |A| − ln |B | for AB > 0. . is also a solution of the equation. 6◦ . ∂2w ∂w . . and the function G = G(θ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2b + 1 + bθGθ = aeλG Gθθ . Solution: w(x. t) = C1 1 z ln C2 exp λ ak 2 + β . where the function w(y ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aeλw wyy + 1 2 ywy = 0. Solution: . Solution: 1 ln t. t) = w(x. 3◦ . and β are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . C1 z = kx + βt. Self-similar solution: w = w(y ). where k is an arbitrary constant. . λ where β is an arbitrary constant. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ξ = xe−kλt . where C1 . λ C1 where C1 .2.

Additive separable solution for λ = 1: w(x. z = 2 ln x + ln t. and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the first-order separable ordinary differential equation ϕt = aϕ3 + cϕ2 . 5◦ . where C1 is an arbitrary constant. 2 a − C1 e−bt 2C2 b sinh2 (C2 x + C3 ) . whose general solution can be written out in implicit form. we have ϕ(t) = (C2 − 2at)−1/2 ϕ(t) = (C2 − ct) −1 if c = 0. ξ = kx + βt. and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ak 2 ew wξξ − βwξ + beλw = 0. t) = u(z ) − 2aλeu−z 2uzz − uz + bλeλu = (1 − λ)uz − 1. w1 = w ( Œ C 1 where C1 . if a = 0. 2◦ . Additive separable solutions for λ = 0: w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . = aew ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . In special cases. Traveling-wave solution: w = w(ξ ). ∂ ∂w ∂w = ae2w + bwew + cew +  ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: 7. C2 . ∂w . t) is a solution of this equation. are also solutions of the equation. 4◦ . where k and β are arbitrary constants. and C3 are arbitrary constants. λ λ where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. note that ln(A/B ) = ln |A| − ln |B | for AB > 0. 2 a − C1 e−bt 2C2 b cosh2 (C2 x + C3 ) . 3◦ . where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aϕxx + b + ke−ϕ = 0. 2 C1 e−bt − a 2C2 where C1 . t) = ln w(x. Then the functions λ−1 2λ x + C2 . ∂x w(x. t) = ln w(x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w + beλw . C2 . C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. t) = ln ϕ(t)x + (s t + C1 )ϕ(t) + bϕ(t) ϕ(t) dt . t) = − ln(kt + C ) + ϕ(x). and C3 are arbitrary constants.60 6. Suppose w(x. t) = ln b cos2 (C2 x + C3 ) . Solution for λ ≠ 0: 1−λ 1 ln t.

1. t) ≡ 0 and g (x. 1 ln(λt + C ) + ϕ(x). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.4. =a eλw ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x Additive separable solution: =a ∂ eλw ∂w + (bx + c)eλw . Equations Explicitly Dependent on x and/or t 1. 7. t) = be βx+µt . ∂w ∂ =a eλw + beλw + ceµt .2 with f (z . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w ∂w =a ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w =a eλw + beµt .2.14. eλw 4. 10. 5.14. . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. =a 2. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. w=− ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂w 9. + beµt + ce–λw+νt . 3. + btn .6.6.2 with f (t) = 0 and g (t) = bt n .5.14.2 with f (t) = beµt and g (t) = ceνt .4 with f (t) = ceµt and g (t) = 0. + be–λw+µt .1 with f (t) = btn .6.6. + ceλw+bx+ct .14.14. λ where C is an arbitrary constant and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation aψxx + λbeµx ψ + λ = 0.14.2 with f (t) = 0 and g (t) = be µt . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w =a eλw + btn e–λw . ∂w =a ∂2w + aλ ∂w 2 ∂w ∂2w + beβx+µt–λw . w) = cez+λw . λ where C is an arbitrary constant and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation aψxx + λ(bx + c)ψ + λ = 0.6. =a eλw 8. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.2. 1 ln(λt + C ) + ϕ(x). ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x Additive separable solution: =a ∂ eλw ∂w + beλw+µx . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 61 1. w=− ψ = eλϕ . 6.6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ψ = eλϕ .1 with f (t) = beµt .6.1.9 with f (x.

8. w) = β coshk (z + λw).6. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + β coshk (λw + bx + ct).6.6.1 with f (w) = b coshk (λw). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.17. 6. 2.1.62 11.6.6.12 with f (x) = aeµx .3. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a cosh2 (βw) .1. .15. 4. t) = arcsinh √ β C2 − 2at where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = + b coshk (λw) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 2 + c coshk (βt) ∂w .1 with f (w) = a cosh2 (βw). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.14. 3.4 with f (t) = c coshk (βt) and g (t) = b. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.12 with f (x) = axn . ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x eλw ∂w ∂x + 2b cosh(λw) + c coshk (βt). 5. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + (bx + c) + Ž coshk (λw). This is a special case of equation 1.17.6.6. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a coshk (βw) . w(x.6. and h(t) = c coshk (βt).1 with f (w) = a coshk (βw). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1 with f (w) = s coshk (λw). Self-similar solutions:  x + C1 1 . ∂w =a ∂ eλw+µx ∂w 1. 12.6.1. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Cosine 1.3. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w =a xn eλw .8 with f (w) = b coshk (λw).6.2. 7. g (t) = 0.15. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.10 with f (w) = b coshk (λw). + b coshk (λw). This is a special case of equation 1.6.2 with f (z . ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + b coshk (λw) ∂w ∂x 2 .

∂ ∂w ∂w =a eλw ∂t ∂x ∂x + 2b sinh(λw) + c sinhk (βt).2 with f (z .2. g (t) = 0. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6. ∂2w ∂w =a + b tanhk (λw). 6. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x sinh2 (βw) ∂w ∂x . 2.1.6.6.1.3. +  sinhk (λw). 2. w) = β sinhk (z + λw). ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x sinhk (βw) ∂w ∂x . ∂2w ∂w ∂w = + b sinhk (λw) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 2 + c sinhk (βt) ∂w .14. This is a special case of equation 1.2. 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Tangent 1.1 with f (w) = b sinhk (λw).1 with f (w) = a sinhk (βw). This is a special case of equation 1.8 with f (w) = b sinhk (λw). and h(t) = c sinhk (βt).1.1 with f (w) = a sinh2 (βw). Equations Involving Hyperbolic Sine 1. This is a special case of equation 1. 8. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + β sinhk (λw + bx + ct).3.3.6. w) = β tanhk (z + λw).2 with f (z .1. t) = arccosh √ β C2 − 2at where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂w =a ∂2w + β tanhk (λw + bx + ct).15. ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + b sinhk (λw) ∂w ∂x 2 ∂w =a ∂2w + (bx + c) ∂w .6. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. This is a special case of equation 1.6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. 7.15.6. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6. Self-similar solutions: ‘ x + C1 1 .6. 5. w(x. + b sinhk (λw).1 with f (w) = s sinhk (λw).4 with f (t) = c sinhk (βt) and g (t) = −b.6.1 with f (w) = b tanhk (λw).1. EQUATIONS WITH HYPERBOLIC NONLINEARITIES 63 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. 3.3. ∂x2 4.6.10 with f (w) = b sinhk (λw).

10 with f (w) = b tanhk (λw).8 with f (w) = b tanhk (λw).6. and h(t) = c tanhk (βt). ∂ ∂w ∂w =a tanhk (βw) . 1.6.6.6.1 with f (w) = s cothk (λw). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1 with f (w) = a cothk (βw). ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂t = + b cothk (λw) ∂w ∂x 2 + c cothk (βt) ∂w ∂x . This is a special case of equation 1. 6.10 with f (w) = b cothk (λw).15.1 with f (w) = a tanhk (βw). t. This is a special case of equation 1.6. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w ∂w + (bx + c) =a + ’ tanhk (λw). 4.6. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities 2 + f (x.3.1 with f (w) = s tanhk (λw). 6.6.6. 5. =a cothk (βw) ∂w ∂x .1. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + β cothk (λw + bx + ct). 1. ∂w + (bx + c) + ’ cothk (λw).2 with f (z . ∂w ∂t = + b tanhk (λw) ∂w ∂x + c tanhk (βt) ∂w ∂x . ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w ∂x2 + b tanhk (λw) ∂w ∂x 2 2 .8 with f (w) = b cothk (λw).64 3. ∂w =a 4.6.1. g (t) = 0.2. 3.1.6. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. This is a special case of equation 1. 5.6. This is a special case of equation 1. This is a special case of equation 1.6.4.2. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. + b cothk (λw). ∂2w ∂w ∂w = + b cothk (λw) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂2w ∂x2 ∂ ∂x 2 ∂2w . 2. g (t) = 0.6.4. w ) 1.1 with f (w) = b ln w.1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.15. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. Equations Involving Hyperbolic Cotangent 1. w) = β cothk (z + λw). + b ln w. and h(t) = c cothk (βt).6.4.6.1 with f (w) = b cothk (λw). ∂w =a ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.

EQUATIONS WITH LOGARITHMIC NONLINEARITIES 65 2. t) = exp 1 2 A2 2at e + Beat . A. 3◦ . 6. t + C3 ). 3. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ .1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6. C2 . where the function f (x) is defined implicitly by 1 a Be−2f − af + 2 −1/2 (1) df = “ x + C . Functional separable solutions: w(x. 4◦ . Suppose w(x. S. + aw ln w + (bx2 + cx + k)w.6. (2) Relations (1) and (2) involve three arbitrary constants. A. t) = exp Aeat x + w(x. B .9. = ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. + aw ln w + (bx + c)w.4.1. 1982). − at 4(1 + Be ) 2B 1 −4 a(x + A)2 + Beat . = ∂w ∂2w ∂w = ∂2w ∂w = ∂2w ∂w = ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. A. References: V. Galaktionov. ∂2w ∂w + aw ln w.2: ∂u ∂ 2 u = + au ln u. + aw ln w + (bx + ct + k)w. P. A. V. ∂t ∂x2 The substitution w = e−b/a u leads to an equation of the form 1. 5. w1 = exp(C1 eat )w(“ x + C2 .1 with f (w) = aw ln w.6. + aw ln w + bw. and C . Dorodnitsyn (1979. P. A. t) = exp Aeat + f (x + bt) .1. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. and C are arbitrary constants. and A. There are more complicated solutions of the form w(x. t) is a solution of the equation in question. B .1. Then the functions where C1 .1. where the function f (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation fξξ + (fξ )2 − bfξ + af = 0.6. where A. t) = exp Aeat + f (x) . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equations 1. ∂t ∂x2 4.1. 1◦ . t) = exp − ”¤• 1 at a(x + A)2 + e ln(1 + Be−at ) + Ceat . Mikhailov (1995).7. Kurdyumov. are also solutions of the equation.7. a w(x. Samarskii.5 and 1.4.

Other Equations + bw ln w.4. one obtains a simpler solution of the form 1. A.1. t) = C1 exp −at – x −a .2. = Reference: V.2. 8.2. x to the new variables t. and p(t) = s (t) = 0. u(x.2: ∂w ∂ 2 w = + bw ln w. √ √ if a > 0. Polyanin and V. A.4: ∂u ∂ 2 u = + ∂t ∂x2 2◦ . —¤˜ + (1 + kw) a ln2 (1 + kw) + b ln(1 + kw) + c .4. 4. t) is a solution of the equation in question. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . respectively. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) A sin(x a ) + A cos(x a ) —¤˜ ∂u ∂x 2 + au2 . t + C2 ). g (t) = 0.66 7. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.1. u(x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w + a(w + b) ln2 (w + b). 3◦ .4. + cw ln w. ∂w ∂2w 1. and p(t) = s (t) = 0. = ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . D. Solutions of equation (1) for a < 0: √ u(x. h(t) = c. are also solutions of the equation. ∂x2 3. h(t) = c.1. see 1. Equation (1) has also generalized separable solutions of the following forms: √ √ u(x. References: V. ∂t ∂x On passing from t. g (t) = bt. ∂t x ∂x ∂x The values k = 1 and k = 2 correspond to problems with axial and central symmetry. ∂x2 2. Posashkov (1989). Then the functions w1 = exp(C1 ebt ) w(– x. t) = 2 C1 − at (C1 − at) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.6.4. ∂t ∂z 2 1. z = x + at. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev (2002).10.7.6.6 with f (t) = b. ∂w 1◦ . The first solution is a traveling-wave solution and the second one is a generalized separable solution. F. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6 with f (t) = 0. Posashkov (1989). Galaktionov and S. Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. (1) For details. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂x2 + bx ∂w ∂w =a ∂2w + bt ∂w ∂w = ∂2w +a ∂w + cw ln w. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) A exp(x −a ) + A exp(x −a ) if a < 0.6. A.1. A. √ C2 1 + exp −at – x −a . The substitution w = eu − b leads to an equation of the form 1. a ∂ ∂w = k xk + bw ln w. A. Galaktionov and S.

2◦ . 2◦ . is also a solution of the equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = exp C1 exp − x + b2 C2 t + 1 − aC2 − a b where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation.6. This is a special case of equation 1. where A is an arbitrary constant and the function θ(x) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation dθ a d xk + bθ ln θ = 0. Functional separable solution: w(x. Kurdyumov. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Mikhailov (1995). where C1 . t) = exp √ a C1 − 2at where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . P. a a+b C2 x − .1 with f (w) = a ln w + b. Traveling-wave solution: c b .15. ∂w = ∂ (a ln w + b) ∂w where C1 . Suppose w(x.6. ◦ 3 . Galaktionov. Solutions: › w(x. t) = exp 6. The first solution represents a traveling wave and the second one is self-similar. ∂t ∂x 1◦ . and A. Reference: A. S. t) = exp Aebt θ(x). − bt 4a(1 + Ae ) 2A where A and B are arbitrary constants. . t) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 7. EQUATIONS WITH LOGARITHMIC NONLINEARITIES 67 2◦ . t) = exp 2t + C − 2C1 x + 2aC1 2 › b .8 with f (w) = a lnk (bw). A. t) = exp − ™¤š 1 bx2 + Bebt + (k + 1)ebt ln(1 + Ae−bt ) . xk dx dx 5. V. t + C3 ). ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + a lnk (bw) ∂w ∂x 2 ∂w =a ∂2w + (b ln w + c) ∂w a ln |t + C2 | c C1 − x + 2 − .6. 1◦ . w(x. . P. Samarskii.1. b(t + C2 ) b t + C2 b . Then the function 2 w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . C 1 t + C3 ). C2 . Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x. Then the function ∂x2 w1 = eC1 w(x + bC1 t + C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . w(x. A.

6.5.1 with f (w) = b cosk (λw).6. w) = β cosk (z + λw). ϕ ( t) . 3.1 with f (w) = s cosk (λw).1. Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 1.1. and h(t) = c cosk (βt). 5. + 1 ∂x ∂w = a cos2 (λw + β ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 6.6. t) = exp √ a C1 − 2at 3a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. + b cosk (λw).13.6. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. g (t) = 0. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.6. ∂t ∂x2 The substitution u = tan(λw + β ) leads to an equation of the form 1.5. ∂w + (bx + c) +  cosk (λw). 1.2: ∂ ∂u =a ∂t ∂x u2 1 ∂u . Equations Involving Cosine 1. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = + b cosk (λw) ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂2w + c cosk (βt) ∂w . ∂w =a ∂2w ∂2w ∂w =a + β cosk (λw + bx + ct).6. w(x. This is a special case of equation 1.2 with f (z . 2. 9.8 with f (w) = b cosk (λw).1. ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. t) = exp ϕ(t)(C1 œ x) + (a + b)ϕ(t) ϕ ( t) = C2 e−2ct − a c −1/2 ϕ(t) dt + s ϕ(t) dt . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: = ∂ (a ln w + b) ∂w + cw ln w +  w.68 8. ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: c a+b C2 œ x − (C1 − 2at) − . . ∂w =a 4.2. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w = (a ln w + b) + cw. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.10 with f (w) = b cosk (λw). ∂w ∂t = ∂2w ∂x2 + b cosk (λw) ∂w ∂x 2 2 ∂2w .1. w(x.6.

and h(t) = c sink (βt). g (t) = 0.1.15.6. w(x. .6.6.6. ∂t ∂x2 The substitution u = cot(λw) leads to an equation of the form 1.2 with f (z .2.1 with f (w) = a sin2 (βw).2. 7.1 with f (w) = a cosk (βw).6. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. 5. EQUATIONS WITH TRIGONOMETRIC NONLINEARITIES 69 ∂ ∂w =a cos2 (βw) . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 3.1 with f (w) = b sink (λw). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. Self-similar solutions: ž x + C1 1 √ .1 with f (w) = a cos2 (βw). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. . ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + β sink (λw + bx + ct). t) = arccos β 2at + C2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.6.5. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.1. + b sink (λw). w) = β sink (z + λw). t) = arcsin √ β 2at + C2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1 with f (w) = a sink (βw). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.2: ∂ 1 ∂u ∂u =a . 6. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.5.6. ∂t ∂x u2 + 1 ∂x ∂w =a ∂ sin2 (βw) ∂w ∂w = a sin2 (λw) ∂2w + c sink (βt) ∂w 7.1. .6.6.13. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 2. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.15. .15. Self-similar solutions: ž x + C1 1 . ∂w =a ∂ cosk (βw) ∂w 1.15. 4. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + (bx + c) + Ÿ sink (λw). ∂w 8.6.8 with f (w) = b sink (λw). ∂w =a ∂ sink (βw) ∂w 8. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1. ∂w = ∂2w ∂x2 + b sink (λw) ∂w 2 ∂w = ∂2w + b sink (λw) ∂w 2 . w(x. Equations Involving Sine 1. .1 with f (w) = s sink (λw).10 with f (w) = b sink (λw).

4.6.15. and h(t) = c tank (βt). .6. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w =a ∂2w + β cotk (λw + bx + ct).6.1 with f (w) = s cotk (λw). ∂w = ∂2w + b cotk (λw) ∂w 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂w ∂w k = + b cot ( λw ) + c cotk (βt) .1 with f (w) = b cotk (λw).1. 1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.2 with f (z .70 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1. 6. 3.1. .6. Equations Involving Tangent ∂2w ∂w =a + b tank (λw).3.1. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. ∂w = ∂2w + b tank (λw) ∂w 2 ∂w =a ∂2w ∂w = ∂2w + b tank (λw) ∂w 2 .2 with f (z .6. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + (bx + c) +   tank (λw). 5. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 3. ∂w =a ∂ cotk (βw) ∂w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6.15.6. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. and h(t) = c cotk (βt). w) = β tank (z + λw). w) = β cotk (z + λw). .5.10 with f (w) = b tank (λw). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. 2.1 with f (w) = a tank (βw).6. + b cotk (λw).1. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.2. Equations Involving Cotangent 1.6. ∂w =a 4.1 with f (w) = s tank (λw).1 with f (w) = a cotk (βw). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.5.6. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 2.4.1 with f (w) = b tank (λw).6. 6.6. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. + β tank (λw + bx + ct). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. g (t) = 0. ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1.10 with f (w) = b cotk (λw). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.8 with f (w) = b cotk (λw). ∂w =a ∂ tank (βw) ∂w + c tank (βt) ∂w 1. ∂w + (bx + c) +   cotk (λw).8 with f (w) = b tank (λw). 5. g (t) = 0.6.2. .6.6.

1.1.2. see Subsections 1. Gazizov. t.7.1 to 1. equations 1. or logarithmic form. For f = f (w) having power-law. or equations 1.5.1.3. 2 −1 1 2 kzu uz where the function u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 2 2k 2 z 2 uuzz − k 2 z (3zuz − 2u)uz − 4u2 − 1 2 (k z uz + 4u )uz exp k arctan = 0. Ibragimov (1989). exponential. w = w(z ). EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 71 1. Equations Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions ∂t ∂x 1 + w2 ∂x Solution in parametric form: 1. w ) 1. w = tan ϕ(z ) + arctan 2zϕz − x2 = z cos2 ϕ(z ) + 1 ln t . 1◦ . w 2 = u (z ) − x 2 . combustion theory. λ 1 ln t .3.1. z = £ x + λt. 1.1.8. ∂w =a ∂2w 2◦ .4. 1.1.6.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 + f (x. and 1. ∂w = ∂w ∂x 2 –1 +1 exp k arctan ∂w ∂x ∂2w ∂x2 . Stationary solution in implicit form: C1 − 3◦ . f (w ) C is an arbitrary constant. respectively.5. ∂t Solution: 2.3. and N. k ≠ 0. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 1. z = t exp −k arctan(x/w) .4.1 to 1. Akhatov. λ where z is the parameter and the function ϕ = ϕ(z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant) ϕz = ¡¤¢ 1 1 C −z 1 tan ln −ϕ − . ∂t ∂x2 Kolmogorov–Petrovskii–Piskunov equation. The equation has an implicit nonstationary solution independent of the space variable: dw = t + C.6. Equations of this form are often encountered in various problems of heat and mass transfer (with f being the rate of a volume chemical reaction).1. R.4.1. + f (w). biology.2.4.1.6. Sh. Traveling-wave solutions: 2 a −1/2 f (w) dw dw = C2 £ x. 2z λ 2 λ (C − z ) Reference: I. ∂w = ∂ eλ arctan w ∂w .2. K. H. and ecology.

Then the function where C is an arbitrary constant. t w1 = w(Cx. brings (1) to the Abel equation U (w ) = w ξ (2) U Uw − U + aλ−2 f (w) = 0.. The function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz − λwz + f (w) = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC a 2 2bt A e + ebt b e−bt f (t) dt . C 2 t).w . are also solutions of the equation. w). 3.5. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x. ∂w =a ∂2w x + C2 . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . ◦ ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + 1 t f x √ . ξ = bx + ct. is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Suppose w(x. w) = 0. t) = exp Aebt x + Bebt + where A and B are arbitrary constants. Subsection S.2 (e. + bw ln w + f (t)w. t) is a solution of this equation. ∂2w ∂w + f (bx + ct. see Example 1) presents an exact solution of this equation with f (w) defined parametrically.72 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE where λ is an arbitrary constant. ∂τ ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ which admits exact solutions of the form w = w(ξ ). (1) The transformation ξ = (λ/a)z . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) presents a considerable number of solutions to equation (2) for various f = f (w). 2. Then the functions w1 = exp C1 ebt w ¤ 4. leads to the equation x ξ= √ t ∂ 2 w 1 ∂w ∂w =a 2 + ξ + f (ξ . The transformation τ = ln t. . w). Suppose w(x. 2◦ . =a ∂t ∂x2 Solution: w = w(ξ ). where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ab2 wξξ − cwξ + f (ξ .g. t . 1 .

where the functions ϕ2 (t). 2◦ . A − 4aebt ψ (t) = Bebt + ebt e−bt 2aϕ(t) + f (t) dt.1.2: ∂2u ∂u = a 2 + bu ln u. and ϕ0 (t) are determined by a system of ordinary differential equations (see equation 1. t) = exp Aebt + ebt e−bt f (t) dt + Φ(x + λt) . + bw ln w + f (x) + g (t) w. and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + bϕ ln ϕ + f (x)ϕ = 0.4. 6◦ . Here. ∂t ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC e−bt g (t) dt u(x. where A and λ are arbitrary constants. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Solution: w(x. t) = exp ebt one arrives at the simpler equation ∂2u ∂u = a 2 + bu ln u + f (x)u. t) . With the substitution w(x.1.6. the order of which can be reduced by one. t) = exp Cebt + ebt e−bt g (t) dt ϕ(x). EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 73 3◦ . ∂t ∂x 5. the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are given by ϕ ( t) = bebt . t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) . There are also functional separable solutions of the more general form w(x.9) that can be integrated. where A and B are arbitrary constants. Functional separable solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . 5◦ . 4◦ . ∂w =a ∂2w e−bt f (t) dt u(x.6. ϕ1 (t). and the function Φ = Φ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aΦzz + a(Φz )2 − λΦz + bΦ = 0. The substitution w(x. t) = exp ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) .1. t) where C is an arbitrary constant. t) = exp ebt leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.

∂w =a ∂2w e−F g dt. Functional separable solution: w(x. which can be integrated. where the functions ϕ2 (t). t) = exp ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) . ¥¤¦ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 3◦ . ϕ1 (t). e−F (2aϕ + g ) dt. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . and ϕ0 (t) are determined by a system of ordinary differential equations (see equation 1. Generalized traveling-wave solution: 7. Reference: V. e−F (aϕ2 + h) dt.9). t) = exp Φ(t)x + Ψ(t) . ¥¤¦ + f (t)w ln w + g (t)x + h(t) w. Polyanin (1996). t) = exp ϕ(t)x + ψ (t) .74 6. F = f dt.1.6. Polyanin (1996). =a ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . F = f dt.9). PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w + f (t)w ln w + g (t)w. w(x.6. t) = exp ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) . Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are given by ϕ(t) = eF A − 4a ψ (t) = BeF + eF and A and B are arbitrary constants. and A and B are arbitrary constants. D. Zaitsev and A. F = f dt. where the functions ϕ2 (t). 2◦ . ϕ1 (t). Ψ(t) = BeF + eF e−F (aA2 e2F + g ) dt. D. Zaitsev and A. Reference: V. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are given by ϕ(t) = AeF + eF ψ (t) = BeF + eF and A and B are arbitrary constants. There are also functional separable solutions of the form w(x. which can be integrated. 2◦ . −1 eF dt . where the functions Φ(t) and Ψ(t) are given by Φ(t) = AeF . F.1. and ϕ0 (t) are determined by a system of ordinary differential equations (see equation 1. There are also functional separable solutions of the more general form w(x. F. t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) .

t) ∂w + g (x. Zaitsev and A. D. ∂2w ∂w + f (x)w ln w + bf (x)t + g (x) w. Equation (1) for ϕ2 = ϕ2 (t) is a Riccati equation. the arguments of the functions f . which has exponential and sinusoidal solutions with respect to x. =a ∂t ∂x2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. g . w ) 1.1. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + (bx + c) + f (w).6. ϕ1 = 4aϕ2 ϕ1 + f ϕ1 + h. Here. For f . where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + a(ϕx )2 + f (x)ϕ + g (x) + b = 0. 2 + f (x. 2. t. Given a solution of equation (1). Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of solutions to this equation for various f and g . and s are not specified. the solutions of equations (2) and (3) can be constructed successively. (1) (2) (3) ∂w ∂2w ϕ0 = f ϕ0 + aϕ2 1 + 2aϕ2 + s . where the functions ϕn (t) (n = 1.6. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation governs unsteady mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in an inhomogeneous fluid flow. §¤¨ + f (t)w ln w + g (t)x2 + h(t)x + © (t) w.2: + bku2 + bf (t)u + bg (t). F. 10. so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. g = const. this equation can be reduced by the substitution u(ϕ) = (ϕ x )2 to a first-order linear equation. The books by Kamke (1977). t) = exp ϕ2 (t)x2 + ϕ1 (t)x + ϕ0 (t) . h. Reference: V. 3) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕ2 = 4aϕ2 2 + f ϕ2 + g . t) = e−bt exp ϕ(x) .6. ∂t ∂x2 Functional separable solution: 9. and the prime denotes a derivative with respect to t. Polyanin (1996). ∂2u ∂u ∂u =a 2 +a ∂t ∂x ∂x 2 u = u(x. bw + c = exp u. ∂w ∂t ∂x2 The substitution =a ∂2w + (bw + c) k ln2 (bw + c) + f (t) ln(bw + c) + g (t) . =a w(x. due to the linearity of each of them in the unknown.2. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 75 8.6. t) leads to an equation of the form 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .

z = x + f (t) dt. On passing from t. Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 e−bt . x to the new variables t. w). ∂t ∂z which has a traveling-wave solution w = w(kz + λt).76 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1◦ . we obtain ϕ(t) = eF A − 4a −1 eF dt . ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (t) ∂w ∂x + g (t. x to the new variables t. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation awzz + (bz + c)wz + f (w) = 0. 4. ϕe−F dt. the arguments of the functions f and g are not specified. t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) . one obtains a simpler equation ∂2w ∂w = a 2 + g (w). one obtains a simpler equation On passing from t. Integrating the first equation and then the second. ψ (t) = BeF + 2a(n + 1)eF where A and B are arbitrary constants. t + C2 ). f (t) dt. ψt = 2a(n + 1)ϕ + f ψ . F = f dt. w). ∂ 2 w an ∂w ∂w =a 2 + + f (t)w ln w. is also a solution of the equation. z = x + ∂2w ∂w = a 2 + g (t. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (t) ∂w ∂x + g (w). ∂t ∂x x ∂x Functional separable solution: w(x. 3. z = x + C1 e−bt . ∂t x ∂x ∂x This equation can be rewritten as 2. a ∂ ∂w ∂w = n xn + f (t)w ln w. ∂t ∂z © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Suppose w(x. t) is a solution of the equation in question. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4aϕ2 + f ϕ. 2◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ).

equation (1) for ϕ = ϕ(t) is a Riccati equation. 6. so it is easy to integrate. h. ψt = (4aϕ + f + h)ψ + 2gϕ + p. w(x.6.6. and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4aϕ2 + (2f + h)ϕ + r. and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x)ϕx + bϕ ln ϕ + g (x)ϕ = 0. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: 7. where C is an arbitrary constant.7 with r(t) = 0. See equation 1. ψ = ψ (t). we obtain (C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants) ϕ ( t) = C 1 E ( t) + E ( t) ψ ( t) = C 2 H ( t) + H ( t) p(t) dt. The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of solutions to the Riccati equation for various f . E ( t) E (t) = exp f (t) dt + h(t) dt . Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x.1. t) = exp Cebt + ebt e−bt h(t) dt ϕ(x). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. (1) (2) (3) For r ≡ 0. H ( t) H (t) = exp 2◦ . the solutions of equations (2) and (3) can be obtained with ease. ψt = h(t)ψ + aϕ + g (t)ϕ + s (t). EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 77 5. and r. With equation (1) solved. equation (1) is a Bernoulli equation. χt = hχ + 2aϕ + aψ 2 + gψ + s . so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. ∂w ∂2w ∂w + f (x ) =a + bw ln w + g (x) + h(t) w. since these are linear in their unknowns ψ = ψ (t) and χ = χ(t). ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + xf (t) + g (t) ∂w ∂x + h(t)w ln w + xp(t) + ª (t) w. t) = exp x2 ϕ(t) + xψ (t) + χ(t) . t) = exp xϕ(t) + ψ (t) . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + xf (t) + g (t) + h(t)w ln w + x2 r (t) + xp(t) + ª (t) w. h(t) dt . Integrating (1) and then (2).2. 1◦ . In the general case. 2 (1) (2) aϕ2 (t) + g (t)ϕ(t) + s (t) dt. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t). where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = f (t) + h(t) ϕ + p(t).

t). t. where t0 is any number. The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of solutions to the Riccati equation for various f . t0 z =x+b t t0 (t − τ )f (τ ) dτ .4. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + bw + f (x. equation (1) is a Bernoulli equation.6. t) satisfies the linear equation 3. h. In the general case. ψt = hψ + 2(a + g )ϕ + s . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4aϕ2 + (2f + h)ϕ + p. ∂w ∂2w ∂ ∂w + bw =a + f (x. Reference: A. equation (1) for ϕ = ϕ(t) is a Riccati equation. and r. t). ∂2θ ∂θ ∂θ = a 2 + f (x. ∂w ∂2w ∂w + bw =a + f (t). t) dx + g (t) with g (t) being an arbitrary function. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation w = u ( z . so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. With equation (1) solved. (1) (2) ¬¤­ For p ≡ 0. t) .5. the solution of the linear equation (2) can be obtained with ease.6. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Let us substitute ∂u ∂x and then integrate the resulting equation with respect to x to arrive at an equation of the form 1. t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) . Polyanin (2002).78 8. ∂t ∂x ∂x 2. so it is easy to integrate.1. 2 + f (x. 2 ∂t ∂x x ∂x Functional separable solution: w(x. t.3. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x Solution: 2a 1 ∂θ . w ) ∂w + g (x. t)w .3: w= ∂2u b ∂u =a 2 + ∂t ∂x 2 where F (x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE g (t) ∂w ∂2w ∂w + xf (t) + =a + h(t)w ln w + x2 p(t) + « (t) w. Fortsyth (1906). Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. D. t) = ¬¤­ ∂u ∂x 2 + F (x. t) + t f (τ ) dτ . w ) 1. Reference: A.3: ∂ 2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + bu . ∂t ∂x ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = − b θ ∂x where the function θ = θ(x. R. f (x. w(x. leads to the Burgers equation 1.

∂t ∂x ∂x2 Suppose w(x. t + ϕ(t). z = x + λt aϕ(t) + g (t) dt . which can be reduced with the change of variable wz = u(w) to a first-order equation. For exact solutions of the above ordinary differential equation with various f (w) and g (w). 7.6. ∂w =a ∂2w z = x + λt. t) = exp ϕ(t)(x + C1 ) + ϕ(t) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. a = a(t). t) is a solution of this equation. w = w(z ). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). ∂t Traveling-wave solution: are defined implicitly by a dw = z + B. ∂w ∂2w ∂w + f (t) ln w + g (t) =a . Remark. ϕ(t) = C exp g (t) dt . λw − F (w) + A F (w ) = f (w) dw. leads to the Burgers equation 1. t0 z =x+ t t0 f (τ ) dτ + b t t0 (t − τ )g (τ ) dτ . where t0 is any number. 8. ∂w + f (w ) + g (w). Then the function w1 = w x + ψ (t).1. is also a solution of the equation. t) + t g (τ ) dτ . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 4. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Generalized traveling-wave solution: 6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3: ∂ 2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + bu . w(x. .5. where the function w = w(z ) is determined by the second-order autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz + f (w) − λ wz + g (w) = 0. + g (t)w + h(t). This remains true if the equation coefficient a is an arbitrary function of time. ∂w =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (w ) ∂w ∂x . ∂w + f (t)w ∂w =a ∂2w where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t ∂x ∂x 5. see Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003).1. ψ ( t) = − f (t)ϕ(t) dt. where A and B are arbitrary constants. ϕ ( t) = − f (t) dt + C2 −1 . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 79 ∂w ∂2w ∂w + bw + f (t) =a + g (t). w = u ( z .

where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation awzz + f (w) + bz wz + g (w) = 0. t) is a solution of this equation. z = x + Ce−bt + e−bt ebt g (t) dt. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). z = x + 1. ∂t Solution: w = w(ξ ). where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ab2 wξξ + bf (ξ . x to the new variables t. z = x + form 1. where C is an arbitrary constant. we obtain an equation of the form On passing from t. ∂t ∂z ∂z =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (w) + g (t) ∂w ∂x + h(w). 10. ξ = bx + ct. ∂w ∂t On passing from t. w).6. is also a solution of the equation.7: ∂2w ∂w ∂w = a 2 + f (w ) . one obtains a simpler equation of the 11. 13.6. g (t) dt. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. z = x + C1 e−bt .80 9. Suppose w(x. Suppose w(x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w ∂w + f (w) + bx =a + g (w). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂w =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (bx + ct. g (t) dt. 2◦ . w) ∂w ∂x + g (bx + ct. Then the function w1 = w(x + Ce−bt . w) = 0. 2◦ . w) − c wξ + g (ξ .8: ∂2w ∂w ∂w = a 2 + f (w ) + h(w). ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (w) + g (t) ∂w ∂x . Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 e−bt .3. is also a solution of the equation.3. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation awzz + f (w) + bz wz + h(w) = 0. ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a + f (w) + g (t) + bx + h(w). t + C2 ). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂t ∂z ∂z 12. t) is a solution of this equation. x to the new variables t. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). t).

respectively. t. leads to a linear equation for u = u(x. ψt = 4bϕψ + g . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . t) + C2 ect . ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂w ∂x b w a 2 + f (x. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. ∂t ∂x a The substitution u = exp 4.4. Suppose w(x. Additive separable solution: w(x. it can be easily integrated by separation of variables. χt = 2aϕ + bψ 2 + h. w ) 1. and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4bϕ2 + f . + cw + f (t). to a second-order linear equation: b ψ ψxx + ba−2 f (x) − A ψ = 0. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + b ϕx )2 + f (x) − A = 0. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 81 2 2 + b ∂w 1. Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: =a +b w(x. t) = At + B + g (t) dt + ϕ(x). t)u. where the functions ϕ(t). In the special case f = const. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. (1) (2) (3) ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 Equation (1) for ϕ is a Riccati equation. ψ (t). 2.1.6. t): ∂2u b ∂u = a 2 + f (x. 3. t).3. ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 Here. with the change of variable ϕx = a ψx . ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. + f (x) + g (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). are also solutions of the equation. Then the functions w1 = w(® x + C1 . A and B are arbitrary constants. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x + f (x. which are linear in the unknowns ψ and χ. t) is a solution of this equation. which can be reduced.6.4. + f (t)x2 + g (t)x + h(t).4. one finds the solutions of equation (2) and then (3).6.3. Having determined ϕ.

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . F. is also a solution of the equation. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . Polyanin and V. 6.1 with f (t) = b. Reference: A.82 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ . Solution: w(x. t) = Aect + ect e−ct f (t) dt + Θ(ξ ). where A is an arbitrary constant and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + b(ϕx )2 + cϕ + f (x) = 0. Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. + cw + f (x). ξ = x + λt. t + C1 ) + C2 ect . and the function Θ(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aΘξξ + b Θξ 4◦ . 2 − λΘξ + cΘ = 0. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. 7. The substitution w = U (x. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = Aect + ϕ(x). w1 = w(x. 2◦ . t) + ect leads to the simpler equation ∂2U ∂U ∂U =a 2 +b ∂t ∂x ∂x ¯¤° 2a ct c(x + C2 )2 e ln |C1 e−ct − 4b| + C3 ect + ect − − ct C1 e − 4b C1 e−ct f (t) dt. D.2. where A and λ are arbitrary constants. ∂w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Additive separable solution: =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 + cw + f (x) + g (t). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. e−ct f (t) dt 2 + cU .6. ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 + cw2 + f (t)w + g (t). Zaitsev (2002). t) = ϕ(x) + Aect + ect e−ct g (t) dt.6. t) = 3◦ .6.6. + g (t)w + h(t). w(x. Additive separable solution: w(x. 8. ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 where A is an arbitrary constant and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + b(ϕx )2 + cϕ + f (x) = 0. Then the function 5. Suppose w(x.

Suppose w(x.2 are roots of the quadratic equation bλ2 + cλ + k = 0. t)e–λw . is also a solution of the equation. t) + g (x. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ 2 w + b ∂w 2 + f (x.5. t) = ϕ(x) + Cekt + ekt e−kt h(t) dt. w ) ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x 1. 2 ∂ξ which admits an exact solution of the form w = w(ξ ). ∂w =a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. =a + aλ ∂2u ∂u = a 2 + λf (x. t. where λ = λ1. Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x. t) + Cekt .6. t) is a solution of this equation. 3◦ . 3.6. 1. 2◦ . ∂w =a +b ∂w w1 = w(Cx. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(λx). + kw2 + f (t)w + g (t). t. w ) ∂w + g (x. t). ξ = xt−1/2 leads to the equation ∂2w ∂w ∂w =a 2 +b ∂τ ∂ξ ∂ξ 2 ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w 2 + 1 ∂w ξ + f (ξ . Suppose w(x. there is also a exact solution of the form w = Cτ + ϕ(ξ ).6. ∂t ∂x 1 x + f √ . and the function ϕ(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕξξ + b(ϕξ )2 + 1 2 ξϕξ + f (ξ ) − C = 0. The transformation τ = ln t. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x The substitution u = exp(λw) leads to the linear equation 9. t)u + λg (x. 2◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x t t ◦ 1 . ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 + f (t) ∂w + cw2 + g (t)w + h(t). 2. where C is an arbitrary constant. Then the function 10. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂w . w). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x There are generalized separable solutions of the form + cw w(x. ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 + f (x ) ∂w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + b(ϕx )2 + f (x)ϕx + kϕ + g (x) = 0. Additive separable solution: w(x.1.6. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 83 + f (x. C 2 t). + kw + g (x) + h(t). where C is an arbitrary constant. is also a solution of the equation.w . where C is an arbitrary constant.5. In the special case f = f (ξ ).

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. ψt = (4f ϕ + g )ψ . Finally. ∂t ∂x ∂x The substitution u = exp(λw) leads to the linear equation =a ∂x2 + aλ + f (x. w ) ∂w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. t) ∂ 2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + f (x. t) ∂w ∂x + g (x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Zaitsev and A. and A3 are arbitrary constants. t. Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. (1) (2) (3) Equation (1) is a Bernoulli equation for ϕ. t). w ) ∂x + g (t)w + h(t). t)e–λw . t) + C2 exp g (t) dt . Polyanin (1996). A2 . G= g dt. t) + h(x. we have ϕ = e G A1 − 4 ψ = A2 exp −1 eG f dt . t. (4) (4f ϕ + g ) dt . e−G (2aϕ + f ψ 2 + h) dt. are also solutions of the equation. + g (x. D. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . F. and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4f ϕ2 + gϕ. Having determined ϕ. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂w 1. To the limit passage A1 → ∞ in (4) there corresponds a degenerate solution with ϕ ≡ 0. t)u + λh(x. t) + g (x. t)u. t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions w1 = w(± x + C1 . ∂t ∂x ∂x a 5.84 4. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ 2 w + f (x. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). so it can be readily integrated. which are linear in the unknowns ψ and χ. χt = gχ + 2aϕ + f ψ 2 + h. χ = A 3 eG + eG ²¤³ where A1 . respectively. t) + λg (x. 2◦ .6. ∂w =a ∂2w + f (t) ∂w 2 2 + g (x. ψ (t). leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂u b ∂u = a 2 + f (x. w ) ∂w + h(x. Reference: V. we can obtain the solutions of equation (2) and then (3). t. where the functions ϕ(t).6. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 +b PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w 2 ∂x b w The substitution u = exp a + f (x. t).

(2) (3) Equation (2) is a Riccati equation for ϕ = ϕ(t). Generalized separable solution quadratic in : √ ´ w(x. one can find ϕ = ϕ(t) in explicit form. =a + f (t) ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 b < 0. Note two special cases of solution (6) where the exponentials combine to form hyperbolic functions: √ 1 1 . B= 2 . (1) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients (the arguments of f . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . G= g dt. this equation is autonomous and. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh x −b . so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. and h are proportional. where C1 is an arbitrary constant. g . A = 2 √ 1 1 . (5) h = βf (α. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 85 + bf (t)w2 + g (t)w + h(t). Generalized separable solution of a more general form: √ √ w(x. b < 0. A = 2. h = const. (6) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = bf ϕ2 + 4ABψ 2 + gϕ + h. g . 2. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp x −b . Given a solution of (2). 2◦ . (4) f eG dt . On integrating the left-hand side of equation (5) and solving for ϕ. β = const). one arrives at a second-order nonlinear equation for ψ (if f . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . where C2 is an arbitrary constant. Note two special integrable cases of equation (2). ψt = 2bf ϕψ + gψ − abψ . one can solve the linear equation (3) for ψ = ψ (t) to obtain ψ (t) = C exp −abt + where C is an arbitrary constant. g . and h are not indicated) ϕt = bf ϕ2 + gϕ + h. The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of solutions to this equation for various f . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh x −b . If the functions f . g = αf . B = −2 w(x. its order can be reduced). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) A exp x −b + B exp −x −b . w(x. and h.6. hence. then the solution of (2) is given by dϕ = bϕ2 + αϕ + β f dt + C2 .1. Solution of equation (2) with h ≡ 0: ϕ ( t) = e G C 1 − b −1 (2bf ϕ + g ) dt . g . (7) (8) Solving (8) for ϕ to express it in terms of ψ and then substituting the resulting expression into (7). ψt = (2bf ϕ + g − ab)ψ .

this equation is autonomous and.6. b > 0. ψt = 2bf ϕψ + gψ − abψ . F. 4. D. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos x b + c . (9) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = bf ϕ2 + ψ 2 + gϕ + h. A. one arrives at a second-order nonlinear equation for ψ (if f . Suppose w(x.2: ∂2w ∂w ∂w = a 2 + f ( t) ∂t ∂z ∂z =a ∂2w + f (t) ∂w 2 2 ∂w + g1 (t)x + g0 (t) + h(t)w + p(t)x2 + q (t)x + · (t).86 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3◦ . one arrives at an equation of the form + bf (t)w2 + h(t)w + p(t). g . On passing from t. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). its order can be reduced). References: V. Additive separable solution: w(x. V. x to the new variables t. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (t) ∂w ∂x 2 + g (t) ∂w ∂x + bf (t)w2 + h(t)w + p(t). A. 2◦ .2 are roots of the quadratic equation λ2 + bλ + c = 0. ∂w =a ∂2w + f (x ) ∂w 2 ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂w + g (x ) ∂w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x)(ϕx )2 + g (x)ϕx + bϕ + h(x) = 0. is also a solution of the equation.6. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(λx). t) + Cebt . ∂t ∂x ∂x There are generalized separable solutions of the form 3. Galaktionov and S. g . h = const was considered). + bw + h(x) + p(t). Polyanin (1996). where C is an arbitrary constant. Posashkov (1989. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: 6. (10) (11) µ¤¶ Solving (11) for ϕ to express it in terms of ψ and then substituting the resulting expression into (10). Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x. g (t) dt. Zaitsev and A. the case f . t) = ϕ(x) + Cebt + ebt e−bt p(t) dt. Generalized separable solution (c is an arbitrary constant): √ w(x. h = const. + cf (t)w2 + g (t)w + h(t). ∂w w(x. 5. z = x + 1. =a ∂x2 + f (t) + bf (t)w w(x. where λ = λ1. hence. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ .

6. where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . t)w + h(x. equations (2) and (3) can be easily solved. t). for arbitrary g . leads to a linear equation for u = u(x. 7. t) + (1 − k )g (x. ∂w = ∂2w ∂x2 + f (w ) ∂w ∂x 2 ∂t The substitution + xg (t) + h(t) ∂w ∂x . Given a solution of (1). ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 – ak 1 w ∂w ∂x 2 + f (x. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = + f (w ) ∂t ∂x2 ∂x The substitution u= 2 + g (x ) ∂w . so it can be readily integrated. t): ∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u = + xg (t) + h(t) . ψt = (4f ϕ + g1 + h)ψ + 2g0 ϕ + q . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t): ∂u ∂ 2 u = . u= F (w) dw. The substitution u = w 1−k leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂u ∂u = a 2 + f (x. 10. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation can be reduced to the linear heat equation (see Polyanin. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Some exact solutions of this equation. since these are linear in their respective unknowns ψ and χ. where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . (1) is a Bernoulli equation. ψ (t). t): ∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u = + g (x) . For solution of such equations. and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4f ϕ2 + (2g1 + h)ϕ + p. (1) (2) (3) Equation (1) is a Riccati equation for ϕ = ϕ(t) and. χt = hχ + 2aϕ + f ψ 2 + g0 ψ + s . t)u + (1 − k )h(x. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 87 where the functions ϕ(t). leads to a linear equation for u = u(x. ∂t ∂x2 9. t)w k . leads to the linear heat equation for u = u(x. see Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003).1. ∂t ∂x ∂x 8. ∂w ∂t ∂x2 The substitution = ∂2w + f (w ) ∂w ∂x 2 . can be found in Polyanin (2002). F (w) dw. t) ∂w ∂x + g (x. 2002). In the special case p ≡ 0. ∂x where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . hence. can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. u= F (w) dw.

where F (w) = exp ∂u ∂u ∂ 2 u = + g (x. Note that in the special case h ≡ 0. where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t ∂x 1◦ . t) = ϕ(x) + Cebt + ebt e−bt p(t) dt. hence. t) is a solution of this equation. see the book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). The substitution wz = u(w) leads to the first-order equation auuw + f (w)u2 + [g (w) − λ]u + h(w) = 0. where the function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation awzz + f (w)(wz )2 + [g (w) − λ]wz + h(w) = 0. u= leads to the linear equation F (w) dw. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C is an arbitrary constant. can be readily integrated. + bw + g (t).88 11.7. ∂w 1. t) + Cebt . Then the function w1 = w(x. ∂w = ∂2w ∂x2 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + f (w ) ∂w ∂x 2 ∂t The substitution + g (x. Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x. 12. (2) For exact solutions of the ordinary differential equations (1) and (2) for various f (w). 2◦ . Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x f (w) dw . g (w). 2 + f x. Suppose w(x. w . ∂w =a ∂2w + f x. where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x)(ϕx )k + g (x)ϕx + bϕ + h(x) = 0. equation (2) becomes linear and. 2. is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . ∂w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x. and h(w). is also a solution of the equation. t) = ϕ(x) + Cebt + ebt e−bt g (t) dt. t. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂x2 Traveling-wave solution: =a ∂2w + f (w ) ∂w ∂x 2 + g (w ) ∂w ∂x + h(w). ∂2w ∂w k ∂w ∂w =a + f ( x ) + g (x ) + bw + h(x) + p(t). t) . ∂w w = w(z ). t) + Cebt . Additive separable solution: w(x. z = x + λt. Additive separable solution: w(x. t) ∂w ∂x . ϕx ) + bϕ = 0. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . t) is a solution of this equation.6. (1) 1.

t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) . λ) dt . t) = A exp λx + aλ2 t + where A and λ are arbitrary constants. G= g dt. t). f (t) ∂ ∂w ∂w = n xn ∂t x ∂x ∂x + g (t)w ln w. w . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.8. The substitution z = dx √ leads to an equation of the form 1. ∂t ∂x x ∂x Functional separable solution: w(x. 2◦ . This equation can be rewritten in the form ∂ 2 w nf (t) ∂w ∂w = f ( t) 2 + + g (t)w ln w.1. Successively integrating. t.6. 1.1. 2 + g x. the arguments of f and g are omitted. t) ∂ w ∂t ∂x ∂x2 f (t. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 89 3. ∂w ∂t = (ax2 + b) ∂2w ∂x2 + ax ∂w ∂x + f (w). is also a solution of the equation. . =a 2 ∂t ∂x w ∂x 1◦ . ∂t ∂z 2 2. 1 ∂w ∂2w ∂w + wf t. t) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x. ψ (t) = BeG + 2(n + 1)eG where A and B are arbitrary constants. one obtains ϕ ( t) = e G A − 4 −1 f eG dt . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Equations of the Form ∂w = f (x. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4f ϕ2 + gϕ.6.1: ax2 + b ∂w ∂ 2 w = + f (w). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC f ϕe−G dt. Then the function w1 = C1 w(x + C2 . ψt = 2(n + 1)f ϕ + gψ . . ∂w 1.6.

t + C2 ). ∂w ∂ ∂w eλx = f (t) ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: + g (t)w ln w + h(t)w. Having solved equation (1). Integrating yields ϕ ( t) = G ( t) A − λ 2 ψ (t) = BG(t) + G(t) where A and B are arbitrary constants. 2 ∂t ∂x x ∂x Functional separable solution: w(x. s . w(x. and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (f ϕx )x + aϕ ln ϕ = 0. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE h(t) ∂w ∂2w ∂w + xg (t) + = f (t) + ¸ (t)w ln w + x2 p(t) + q (t) w. ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation can be rewritten in the form ∂w = ∂ f (x ) ∂w −1 f (t)G(t) dt h ( t) dt. (1) (2) For p ≡ 0. g . t) = exp ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C is an arbitrary constant. 5. (1) is a Riccati equation for ϕ = ϕ(t). is also a solution of the equation. so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕt = 4f ϕ2 + (2g + s )ϕ + p. t) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = f (x) 2 + fx (x) + aw ln w. t) = exp(Ceat ) ϕ(x). ψt = g (t)ψ + h(t). Suppose w(x. one can find ψ = ψ (t) from the linear equation (2). + aw ln w. Then the function w1 = exp(C1 eat ) w(x. hence. In the general case. and p. t) = exp ϕ(t)e−λx + ψ (t) .90 3. 4. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ψt = s ψ + 2(f + h)ϕ + q . G(t) = exp g (t) dt . where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕ t = λ 2 f ( t) ϕ 2 + g ( t) ϕ . 2◦ . G ( t) . can be easily integrated. The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a considerable number of solutions to this equation for various f . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. equation (1) is a Bernoulli equation and. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ .

∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂w = f (x ) w1 = exp(Ceat )w(x. ∂w w1 = exp(Ceat )w(x. t). where C is an arbitrary constant. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = ϕ(x) + Ceat + eat e−at q (t) dt. is also a solution of the equation. t) is a solution of this equation. Additive separable solution: w(x. Then the function 7. t). Additive separable solution: w(x. Suppose w(x. t) = exp Ceat + eat e−at s (t) dt ϕ(x). 2◦ . Suppose w(x. 2◦ . t) = ϕ(x) + Ceat + eat e−at q (t) dt.1. t) + Ceat . is also a solution of the equation. Suppose w(x. 9. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C is an arbitrary constant. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . 2◦ . ∂w = f (x ) ∂2w + g (x ) ∂w 2 + h (x ) ∂w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕxx + g (x)(ϕx )2 + h(x)ϕx + aϕ + p(x) = 0. Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . t) = exp Ceat + eat e−at h(t) dt ϕ(x). t) is a solution of this equation. where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (f ϕx )x + aϕ ln ϕ + g (x)ϕ = 0. ∂w + g (x ) + aw ln w + h(x) + ¹ (t) w. t) + Ceat . where C is an arbitrary constant. is also a solution of the equation. + aw + p(x) + q (t). 2◦ . Then the function ∂x2 w1 = w(x. Suppose w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. + aw + p(x) + q (t). ∂w = f (x ) ∂2w + g (x ) ∂w k + h (x ) ∂w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕxx + g (x)(ϕx )k + h(x)ϕx + aϕ + p(x) = 0. where C is an arbitrary constant. is also a solution of the equation. ∂2w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕxx + g (x)ϕx + aϕ ln ϕ + h(x)ϕ = 0.6. 8. Then the function 6. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 91 ∂ ∂w = f (x ) + aw ln w + g (x) + h(t) w.

∂t ∂x2 1◦ . Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. = aw 4. 2◦ . ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 1. w ) ∂w + g (x. = f (x ) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . and x0 are arbitrary constants. 3. + f (t)w + g (t). t) = ϕ(x) + Ceat + eat e−at h(t) dt. t. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. B . F (t) = exp where A. t) = t b1 sinh(kx) + b2 cosh(kx) + ϕ(x). where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕxx + g (x. t) = (bx + c)t + Ax + B − ∂w = aw ∂2w 1 a x x0 (x − ξ )f (ξ ) dξ . t) + Ceat . and C are arbitrary constants. and x0 are arbitrary constants. + aw + h(t). Suppose w(x. B . where C is an arbitrary constant.9. Equations of the Form ∂w = aw ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. t) is a solution of this equation. whose general solution is given by x 1 f (ξ ) sinh k (x − ξ ) dξ . where A and B are arbitrary constants. Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x. ϕx ) + aϕ = 0. where A. ∂t ∂x2 Generalized separable solution: w(x. Then the function w1 = w(x. + cw2 + f (t)w + g (t). F ( t) ∂w = aw ∂2w F (t) = exp f (t) dt . Additive separable solution: w(x. + f (x)w + bx + c. t) = ϕ(t)(x2 + Ax + B ) + ϕ(t) ϕ(t) = F (t) C − 2a ∂2w −1 g ( t) dt. F (t) dt . is also a solution of the equation. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w ∂w + g x.1 with b = 0. ϕ(x) = C1 sinh(kx) + C2 cosh(kx) − ak x0 where A. ∂t ∂x2 Generalized separable solution: w(x. w ) 1. Here. 2. t) = F (t)(Ax + B ) + F (t) g ( t) dt. B . the function ϕ(x) is determined by the linear nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients aϕxx − ak 2 ϕ + f (x) = 0. ∂w ∂2w ∂w = aw – ak2 w2 + f (x)w + b1 sinh(kx) + b2 cosh(kx). 2 + f (x.92 10. 2◦ .10.6. t. ϕ ( t) f (t) dt .

leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.1. τ ). where the functions F (t) and G(t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt .1. t) = H (t)u(z .1: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 . t) = G(t)u(z . τ ). whose general solution is given by x 1 f (ξ ) sin k (x − ξ ) dξ .1. w(x. z =x+ f (t) dt. z = xF (t) + where the functions F (t) and H (t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt . G(t) = exp g (t) dt . ∂τ ∂z 7. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = aw + f (t) + g (t)w + h(t).1: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 . ∂w ∂t ∂x2 The transformation = aw ∂2w + xf (t) + g (t) ∂w ∂x + h(t)w. 6. ∂2w ∂w + ak2 w2 + f (x)w + b1 sin(kx) + b2 cos(kx). ∂w = aw ∂2w + xf (t) ∂w ∂x + g (t)w. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = aw + f (t) + g (t)w. = aw ∂t ∂x2 Generalized separable solution: w(x.1. B . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 93 5. z = xF (t). t) = G(t)u(z . τ= F 2 (t)G(t) dt. G(t) = exp g (t) dt leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. and x0 are arbitrary constants. H (t) = exp h(t) dt . leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.9. 8. ∂t ∂x2 The transformation w(x.1: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 . the function ϕ(x) is determined by the linear nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients aϕxx + ak 2 ϕ + f (x) = 0.9.5. g (t)F (t) dt. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.6. Here. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation w(x. ∂τ ∂z 9. τ ). τ= G(t) dt. τ= F 2 (t)H (t) dt.9.6. ∂τ ∂z © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = t b1 sin(kx) + b2 cos(kx) + ϕ(x).10. ϕ(x) = C1 sin(kx) + C2 cos(kx) − ak x0 where A.

aΘxx + f (x)Θx = C . one obtains ϕ ( t) = G ( t) A 1 − C ψ ( t) = A 2 ϕ ( t) + ϕ ( t) Θ(x) = B1 −1 G(t) dt . H (t) = exp h(t) dt . ψt = Cϕ + g (t) ψ + h(t). w ) ∂x + cw2 + f (t)w + g (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 (2) (3) . λ= −c a+b 1/2 . Integrating successively. B1 . F (x) = exp F (x) a f (x) dx . see Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). where C is an arbitrary constant. 1. Here. h ( t) dt. A and B are arbitrary constants. where A1 . t. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w ∂w + f (x )w = aw + g (t)w + h(t).94 10. t. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solution: w(x. (1) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients (the arguments of f and g are not indicated) ϕt = cϕ2 + f ϕ + g . and Θ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = Cϕ2 + g (t)ϕ. and B2 are arbitrary constants. w ) ∂w + h(x. t.6. ∂w = aw ∂2w ∂x2 + f (x )w ∂w + g (x)w2 + h(t)w. t) = ϕ(t)Θ(x) + ψ (t). and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x)ϕx + g (x)ϕ = B . where the functions ϕ(t). 11. Generalized separable solution quadratic in involving an exponential of x: w(x. Equations of the Form ∂w = (aw + b) ∂ 2 w + f (x. For exact solutions of this equation with various f (x) and g (x). ψ (t). −1 ∂t ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ψt = (aλ ϕ + 2cϕ + f )ψ . w ) ∂w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. ∂w = aw ∂2w +b ∂w 2 2 + g (x. ϕ ( t) C dx + B2 + F (x) a F (x) dx dx 1 .10. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(º λx). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . G(t) = exp g (t) dt . A2 . t) = ϕ(x)H (t) A − B H (t) dt .

equation (2) is a Bernoulli equation. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos(λx + A). which is autonomous if f . (5) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients (the arguments of f and g are not specified) ϕt = cϕ2 − bλ2 ψ 2 + f ϕ + g . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh(λx + A). one arrives at a second-order nonlinear equation for ψ . so it can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. 2◦ . In another special case. In particular. its order can be reduced. for g ≡ 0. f . g = const. its order can be reduced. λ= −c a+b 1/2 (aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + f ) dt .6. λ= −c a+b 1/2 . »¤¼ References: V. The substitution u = ϕ − ϕ0 leads to a Bernoulli equation. Generalized separable solution involving hyperbolic cosine (A is an arbitrary constant): w(x. λ= c a+b 1/2 . ψt = (aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + f )ψ . hence. the solution of equation (3) can be obtained in the form ψ (t) = C exp where C is an arbitrary constant. which is easy to integrate. which is a root of the quadratic equation cϕ2 0 + f ϕ0 + g = 0. (9) (10) Solving equation (10) for ϕ to express it in terms of ψ and substituting the resulting expression into (9). 4◦ . ψt = (−aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + f )ψ . ϕ = ϕ 0 . a particular solution of (2) is a number. Polyanin (1996). one arrives at a second-order nonlinear equation for ψ . (4) . Galaktionov (1995). 3◦ . Generalized separable solution involving hyperbolic sine (A is an arbitrary constant): w(x. D.1. ψt = (aλ2 ϕ + 2cϕ + f )ψ . g = const and. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 95 Equation (2) is a Riccati equation for ϕ = ϕ(t). Given a solution of (2). (8) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations ϕt = cϕ2 + bλ2 ψ 2 + f ϕ + g . Zaitsev and A. V. (6) (7) Solving equation (7) for ϕ to express it in terms of ψ and then substituting the resulting expression into (6). The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of solutions to this equation for various f and g . which is autonomous if f . g = const and. F. Generalized separable solution involving a trigonometric function (A is an arbitrary constant): w(x. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh(λx + A). where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations ϕt = cϕ2 + bλ2 ψ 2 + f ϕ + g . hence. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A.

since both are linear in their respective unknowns ψ and χ. In the special case f ≡ 0. where ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the following system of ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant): aϕϕxx + f (x)(ϕx )2 + g (x)ϕϕx + h(x)ϕ2 = Cϕ. t) = ϕ(x)ψ (t). (1) (2) (3) χt = (2aϕ + h)χ + f ψ 2 + gψ + s . Galaktionov (1995). to a second-order linear equation. ψ (t). V. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂x There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. u(z . t) = w(x. where the functions ϕ(t). equation (1) can be reduced. Polyanin (1996).10. and χ(t) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients (the arguments of f . ∂w = (aw + b) ∂2w ∂x2 +c ∂w ∂x 2 b . z =x+ a leads to an equation of the form 1. t). P (t) = exp p(t) dt .96 2. D. A. ¾¤¿ Equation (1) is a Bernoulli equation for ϕ = ϕ(t). ψt = (4f ϕ + 2aϕ + h)ψ + 2gϕ. ∂t The transformation + f (t) ∂w ∂x + kw2 + g (t)w + h(t). The general solution of equation (2) is given by ψ ( t) = P ( t) A − C −1 2 (1) (2) P (t) dt . equation (2) and then (3) can be solved with ease. and χ(t) are determined by a system of first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Zaitsev and A.2 for u = u(z . on dividing it by ϕ. ∂w = aw ∂2w + f (x ) ∂w 2 + g (x )w ∂w ∂x + h(x)w2 + p(t)w. where A is an arbitrary constant. g . F. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . which is not written out here. t) + 5. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). h. After that. w(x. ψ (t). w(x. ∂w = aw ∂2w ∂x2 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + f (t) ∂w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: + g (t) ∂w + h(t)w + ½ (t). f (t) dt ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂w ∂w = (aw + b) + f ( t ) + g1 (t)x + g0 (x) + h(t)w + p2 (t)x2 + p1 (t)x + p0 (t). so it is easy to integrate. for exact solutions of this equation with various g (x) and h(x). where the functions ϕ(t). see Kamke (1997) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). and s are not specified) ϕt = 2(2f + a)ϕ2 + hϕ. ψt = Cψ + p(t)ψ . References: V. 4.6. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: 3.

is also a solution of the equation. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 97 2 + f (x. Suppose u = u(x) is a nontrivial solution of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation auxx + f (x)u = 0. where C and λ are arbitrary constants.11. C1 t + C2 ). =a ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 3◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. m −2 x + C2 . of the linear equation (1).9. F. see Polyanin and Zaitsev. Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ .10. The transformation w(x. w1 = C1 w (  C1 ∂w = awm ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. are also solutions of the equation. Reference: V. w dx . t) is a solution of this equation. Polyanin (1996).18: ∂2u ∂u = aum 2 . 2◦ . and the function g = g (x) is determined by Yermakov’s equation agxx + f (x)g + λg −3 = 0.6. Equations of the Form ∂w = aw m ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. z= u2 u simplifies the original equation bringing it to the form ξ= ∂2z ∂z = az 4 2 . 2003) λ Ag 2 = − u2 + u2 B + A a À¤Á (1) Then the transformation dx u2 2 . 2◦ . w ) 1. D. Suppose w(x. Then the function 4 w1 = C1 w(x. τ ).g.1. the general solution of the nonlinear equation (2) can be expressed as (e. we obtain an equation of the form 1. + f (t)w. where A and B are arbitrary constants (A ≠ 0). ∂t ∂ξ Using the change of variable v = z −3 . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂τ ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. τ= F m (t) dt. ∂2w ∂w = aw4 + f (x )w 5 .6. t) = F (t)u(x. F (t) = exp f (t) dt . t) ∂w + g (x. Then the functions 2.1. t. (2) Given a particular solution. u = u(x). t) = (4λt + C )−1/4 g (x).4: ∂v ∂ ∂v v −4/3 .. t). leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. Zaitsev and A.

t) = u(z . ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in x: w 2 w(x. The first solution is degenerate.9. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. ∂w = awm ∂2w + f (t)x + g (t) ∂w ∂x + h(t)w. t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). t) ∂w +g (x. Zaitsev and A. ∂t ∂x2 The transformation 4. Polyanin (1996). H (t) = exp h(t) dt .18: ∂2u ∂u = aum 2 . C2 . τ )G(t).9. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. (x + C 2 ) 2 + C3 (t + C1 )−1/3 + (t + C1 )−1/3 (t + C1 )1/3 f (t) dt. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w + f (x)wm+1 . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕm ϕxx + f (x)ϕm+1 + λϕ = 0. is also a solution of the equation. + f (t). z = xF (t) + g (t)F (t) dt.1. t. Multiplicative separable solution (C and λ are arbitrary constants): w(x. where the functions F (t) and H (t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w ∂w +f (x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = u(z . τ )H (t). w(x.6. C1 t + C2 ). 6a(t + C1 ) where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = C1 x + aC1 t + C2 + ∂w =a ∂ ∂w f (t) dt. Ã¤Ä ∂t ∂x2 The transformation 5. ∂τ ∂z 1. w(x.98 3. = awm ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . where the functions F (t) and G(t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt . Suppose w(x. G(t) = exp g (t) dt . t) is a solution of this equation. τ= F 2 (t)Gm (t) dt. F. D.1. z = xF (t). t) = − © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .18: ∂2u ∂u = aum 2 . ∂τ ∂z Reference: V. w(x. τ= F 2 (t)H m (t) dt.12. w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1. Then the function m w1 = C1 w(x. 2◦ . ∂w = awm ∂2w + xf (t) ∂w ∂x + g (t)w.

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. τ )G(t).13. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. The transformation 5.5 with m = 1. Suppose w(x.1. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.13. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. C1 t + C2 ). ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. x) = u(z .10. w(x. 2. t) is a solution of this equation. τ= F 2 (t)G(t) dt. ∂t ∂z ∂z 6.6. ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w =a w + f (t) + g (t)w. τ= G(t) dt. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1.1: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u . ∂w 4. G(t) = exp g (t) dt .6.1: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a u . ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation + xf (t) ∂w + g (t)w.13. ∂x z = xF (t). EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 99 ∂ ∂w =a w + f (t)w + g (t). ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w =a w + xf (t) + g (t) + h(t)w. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . w(t.10 with m = 1.6. z =x+ f (t) dt.1. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 1. G(t) = exp g (t) dt . Then the function =a w w1 = C1 w(x.6. 2◦ .1. ∂w ∂ ∂w =a w + bw2 + f (t)w + g (t). τ ).4 with m = 1.13.8 with m = 1.10. is also a solution of the equation. where the functions F (t) and G(t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt . and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation a(ϕϕx )x + f (x)ϕ2 + λϕ = 0. + f (x )w 2 . t) = G(t)u(z . ∂τ ∂z ∂z 7. where λ and C are arbitrary constants. Multiplicative separable solution: w = (λt + C )−1 ϕ(x). 3. ∂w ∂ ∂w leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.

Zaitsev and A. t) ∂w +g (x. Then the function w1 = C1 w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x The substitution u = w m leads to an equation of the form 1.13.10. see 1. Zaitsev and A.2 or 1.1: ∂2v ∂v 5 = av 4 2 − 1 3 f (x)v .1.6. F.2: =a wm ∂2u a ∂u = au 2 + ∂t ∂x m ∂u ∂x 2 ∂w ∂ ∂w + mf (t). + f (t)w1–m . t) = u(x. V.7: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a um . which admits a generalized separable solution of the form u = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t).4: ∂z ∂ ∂z z −4/3 . t) is a solution of this equation.1. w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1. ∂ ∂w =a wm + f (t)w + g (t)w1–m . Galaktionov (1995). τ= F m (t) dt. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w m ∂w +f (x. w(x. =a ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ Reference: V. is also a solution of the equation. 3.1. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Polyanin (1996). Suppose u = u(x) is any nontrivial particular solution of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation auxx − 1 3 f (x)u = 0. D. Æ¤Ç ∂ ∂w =a wm ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 2. ∂t ∂x ∂x The substitution u = w m leads to an equation of the form 1. D.10. Polyanin (1996). ∂t ∂x 3◦ .6. which admits a generalized separable solution of the form u = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t).6. τ )F (t). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. The transformation dx .11. 2◦ . A. The substitution w = v −3 leads to an equation of the form 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .10. ∂w + f (t)w.100 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1.10.2: ∂w ∂2u a ∂u = au 2 + ∂t ∂x m Æ¤Ç ∂u ∂x 2 + mf (t)u + mg (t). F.3 for solutions of this equation. z = wu3 ξ=Å u2 simplifies the original equation.1. bringing it to equation 1. 4. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a w–4/3 + f (x)w–1/3 .10. C1 −4/3 t + C2 ). t.6. F (t) = exp f (t) dt . References: V. ∂τ ∂x ∂x If m = −1 or m = −2. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.10.

the parameter λ is a root of a quadratic equation. and C is an arbitrary constant. For b = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + f (x)w1+m .4: The substitution u = w m leads to an equation of the form 1. Galaktionov (1995). V. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos(λx + C ). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(È λx). ∂w where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C1 is an arbitrary constant) a(ϕm ϕx )x + g (x)ϕm+1 + C1 ϕ = 0. t) is a solution of this equation. Then the function m w1 = C1 w(x. where λ and C are arbitrary constants. The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) presents exact solutions of this equation for various f (x). References: V. which admits generalized separable solutions of the following forms: u(x. 7. u(x. ∂ ∂w =a wm + g (x)wm+1 + f (t)w. 1 ψ = ϕm+1 . see equation 1. D.6. É¤Ê 6. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the equation aψxx + (m + 1)f (x)ψ + λ(m + 1)ψ m+1 = 0. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh(λx + C ). 1◦ .6. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh(λx + C ).1: ∂ 2u a ∂u = au 2 + ∂t ∂x m ∂u ∂x 2 + bmu2 + mf (t)u + mg (t).10. F. ψt − f (t)ψ + C1 ψ m+1 = 0. F = f (t) dt.13. 2◦ . C1 t + C2 ). Multiplicative separable solution: w = (λmt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). Zaitsev and A.6. ∂t ∂x ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: w = ϕ(x)ψ (t).1. Polyanin (1996). u(x. u(x. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by systems of appropriate first-order ordinary differential equations. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + bw1+m + f (t)w + g (t)w1–m . Suppose w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 101 5. The general solution of the second equation is given by (C2 is an arbitrary constant) ψ (t) = eF C2 + mC1 −1/m emF dt . is also a solution of the equation.

Reference: V. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ .1. x) = u(z . τ= F 2 (t)Gm (t) dt. Polyanin (1996).1. Zaitsev and A. ∂τ ∂z ∂z 9. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. ∂x g (t)F (t) dt. + xf (t) + g (t) ∂w + h(t)w.10. + f (t). τ )G(t).14. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. w ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .10.3 for solutions of this equation. where the functions F (t) and G(t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt . G(t) = exp g (t)dt .1.102 8.2 or 1. w(t. τ= Gm (t) dt. t) = u(z . D. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a wm ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation + xf (t) ∂w + g (t)w.1. F. z = xF (t) + where the functions F (t) and H (t) are given by F (t) = exp f (t) dt .10. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. Polyanin (1996). H (t) = exp h(t) dt . D. F. w(x. ∂ ∂w ∂w =a wm ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 10.6.1. is also a solution of the equation.7: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a um . see 1. τ )G(t). this equation can be transformed to the linear heat equation (see 1. Reference: V. ∂x z = xF (t). λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3). τ )H (t). ∂ ∂w =a wm ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation w(x. Zaitsev and A.10. t) − ln |C1 |. t.1. z =x+ f (t) dt. G(t) = exp g (t) dt . ∂τ ∂z ∂z Ë¤Ì If m = −1 or m = −2. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = u(z . 1.7: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a um .7: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a um .10. Suppose w(x. τ= F 2 (t)H m (t) dt. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ eλw ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + f (t) ∂w ∂x + g (t)w.10. Then the function 2 w1 = w(C1 x + C2 . eλw ∂w =a ∂ ∂w + f (x. ∂τ ∂z ∂z Ë¤Ì In the special case m = −2.

6.1. u(x. Additive separable solution: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6.1: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 + bu2 + λf (t)u + λg (t). Î¤Ï Reference: V. ∂t ∂x ∂x For b = 0.1: ∂ ∂u ∂u =a eλu . + beλw + f (t) + g (t)e–λw . ∂t ∂x This equation admits generalized separable solutions of the following forms: u(x. The substitution u = eλw leads to an equation of the form 1.1: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 + λf (x)u + λ(bx + c). Zaitsev and A.6. 4. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . D.10. F ( t) = f (t) dt. The substitution u = eλw leads to an equation of the form 1.9. τ ) + F (t). Polyanin (1996). 1 ln(λt + C ) + ϕ(x).2. τ= exp λF (t) dt. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos(µx + C ).14. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh(µx + C ). F. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. ∂t ∂x This equation admits a generalized separable solution of the form u = λ(bx + c)t + ϕ(x). see equation 1. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x eλw ∂w ∂x + f (x) + (bx + c)e–λw . The substitution u = eλw leads to an equation of the form 1. ∂t ∂x This equation admits a generalized separable solution of the form u = ϕ(t)x 2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). ∂τ ∂x ∂x 2. λ where λ and C are arbitrary constants. 3. F. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w =a eλw + f (x)eλw . µ is a root of a quadratic equation. =a eλw u(x. t) = u(x. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation aψxx + λf (x)ψ + λ = 0. Zaitsev and A. Polyanin (1996).6.6. The transformation w(x. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 103 2◦ . u(x.9. ∂w ∂t =a ∂ ∂x eλw ∂w ∂x + f (t) + g (t)e–λw . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(Í µx). Suppose w(x. ψ = eλϕ . Î¤Ï w=− Reference: V. 5. D. is also a solution of the equation. and C is an arbitrary constant.2.2. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by systems of appropriate first-order ordinary differential equations.2: ∂2u ∂u = au 2 + λf (t)u + λg (t). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh(µx + C ). Then the function 1 w1 = w(x. 2◦ . λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of this equation. C1 t + C2 ) + ln C1 .

(1) λw + C1 where C1 . 1◦ . Self-similar solution: x (0 ≤ x < ∞).2. t) is a solution of the equation in question.1. The general solution of equation (2) is given by (C2 is an arbitrary constant) ψ ( t) = F − 1 ln C2 + λC1 λ eλF dt . as x → ∞ (boundary condition). at z = 0. f (w) = aw . 2◦ . w . . and f (w) = (αw + βw + γ ) .15. w → w0 2 Then the boundary conditions for the ordinary differential equation (2) are as follows: as −1 z → ∞. the general solutions of (2) were obtained by Fujita (1952). C2 . w = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC −2 . w1 = const): w = w0 w = w1 w → w0 w = w1 −1 at at t=0 x=0 (initial condition).2. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = kx + λt + C2 . 1. t. F = f (t) dt. (3) For f (w) = aw . (boundary condition). ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation is frequently encountered in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer (with f being the thermal diffusivity or diffusion coefficient) and the theory of flows through porous media. is also a solution of the equation. and for f (w) = a ln w + b.104 6. Then the function 2 t + C3 ). see equation 1. z= √ t where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(z ). with the change of variable U = e λϕ . Suppose w(x. (2) Solutions of this form usually correspond to constant w in the initial and boundary conditions for the original partial differential equation (w0 .4. C 1 ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w where C1 . f (w )w z z +1 2 zwz = 0. see Subsection 1. see equation 1.10. k .6. To λ = 0 there corresponds a stationary solution. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + g (x)eλw + f (t). for f (w) = eλw . For f (w) = awm . (1) (2) Equation (1) can be reduced. w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . ψt − f (t) + C1 eλψ = 0. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g x. ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1. see also the book by Lykov (1967). ∂ ∂w =a eλw ∂t ∂x ∂x Additive separable solution: where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C1 is an arbitrary constant) a(eλϕ ϕx )x + g (x)eλϕ + C1 = 0.2.7. k2 3◦ .1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. to the linear equation aUxx + λg (x)U + λC1 = 0. C2 . and λ are arbitrary constants.

2φzz (5) where φ = φ(z ) is an arbitrary function. f (w ) = s + φ − zφz . where z = xt −1/2 . 5◦ . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 1 8 1 16 Function f = f (w) n n n w − w2n 2 2(n + 1) n (1 − w)n−1 − (1 − w)2n 2(n + 1) n n w−2n − w−n 2(1 − n) 2 1 2 Solution z = z (w) 1 − wn (1 − w ) n w −n − 1 cos cos2 cos3 1 2 πw 1 2 πw 1 2 πw Conditions n>0 n>0 0<n<1 sin2 1 2 πw sin(πw) πw + sin(πw) sin2 (πw) 5 + cos(πw) cos 1 2 πw 1 +2 πw − 1 1 2 πw cos 1 πw) 1 − sin( 2 w arccos w + 1 1 √ − 2 2 1 − w2 π − 2(1 − w) arcsin(1 − w) 1 √ − 2 4 2w − w2 w arcsin w 1 2 √ + w 4 4 1 − w2 1 2 (1 arccos w arcsin(1 − w) √ 1 − w2 − ln w − ln w) 4◦ .1 for various f = f (w).6. (4) f (w ) = − z w 2 Substituting a specific expression z = z (w) for z on the right-hand side of relation (4). A is an arbitrary constant.1. We now describe a simple method for finding an f (w) such that equation (2) admits an exact solution.15. w1 > w0 ). For example. one obtains a one-parameter family of functions f (w) for which z = z (w) solves equation (2). assuming in (5) that φ(z ) = w0 z + 1 (w0 − w1 )e−λz λ (λ > 0. z = z (w). one can verify that equation (2) is satisfied by w = φz . By direct substitution. we integrate equation (2) with respect to z and then apply the hodograph transformation (where w is regarded as the independent variable and z as the dependent one) to obtain 1 z dw + A . All solutions are written out in implicit form. and are valid within the range of their spatial localization 0 ≤ w ≤ 1. those corresponding to a problem with the initial and boundary conditions of (3) with w0 = 0 and w1 = 1. To this end. No. the explicit representation is obtained by eliminating z . Some of his results. he obtained a large number of exact solutions to the original equation for various f = f (w). EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 105 TABLE 1 Solutions equation 1. and s is an arbitrary constant. There is another way to find an f (w) for which equation (2) admits exact solutions. are listed below in Table 1. The method just outlined was devised by Philip (1960). The explicit form of w = w(z ) is obtained by the inversion of z = z (w).6. Expressions (5) define a parametric representation of f = f (w). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .

w ¯z w=w ¯ (z ).5. Polyanin (1996). V. and A.e. Mikhailov (1995). f (w ) = w n − 2 2(n + 1) for which z = 1 − w n is a solution of equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 1 −2 1 −2 −1 1 + ln(w1 − w0 ) . References for equation 1. the method outlined gives the following one-parameter family of functions: n n w2n + Awn−1 . i. and C = − 2 λ . P. (7) For example. A. t ∂ ¯ ∂w ¯ ∂w ¯ = f (w ¯) . B = 2 λ boundary conditions of (3).13. R. 8◦ . The transformation ¯ = t − t0 . P. Svirshchevskii (1983). Likewise. Ibragimov (1994). Strampp (1982). H. Another conservation law: ∂ ∂w ∂ (xw) + F (w) − xf (w) ∂t ∂x ∂x where F (w) = Ð¤Ñ = 0.6. τ ) ∂x dτ . w (9) In the special case of power-law dependence. Note that this solution satisfies the where A = − 1 2 sλ . in the form of a conservation law. the function w ¯ = bz 2/m . Here is one more method for constructing an f (w) for which equation (2) admits exact solutions. N. For f (w) = a(w 2 + b)−1 . one can construct other f (w).3 (Example 10). The equation in question is represented in conservative form. takes a nonzero solution w(x. Feix. V. t) of the original equation to a solution w ¯ (x ¯. t 1 w(x. τ ) t0 ∂w (x. see equation 1. It follows from (6) and (7) that w ¯ is also a solution of equation (2) with f (w) = aw m + Aw 2 . V. Zaitsev and A. For the first solution presented in Table 1. Burgan. P.. S.1: L. W.15. R. A. one obtains f (w ) = A + B + C ln(w − w0 ). Suppose w ¯ =w ¯ (z ) is a solution of equation (2) with an f (w). 1962. 7◦ . W. Vassiliou (1998). transformation (8) leads to equation (9) where f¯(w) = aw−m−2 .106 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE and eliminating z . A. f (w) = aw m . 6◦ . Kurdyumov. D. 1982). Munier. A. is a particular solution of equation (2) if f (w) is a power-law function. J. Then w ¯ =w ¯ (z ) is also a solution of 1 the more complicated equation [F (w)wz z + 2 zwz = 0 with F (w) = f (w) + Ag (w) (A is an arbitrary constant). Galaktionov. R. Fijalkow (1984). J. 9◦ .1. t x ¯= x x0 t m−2 w(y . f (w) dw. Samarskii. Dorodnitsyn and S. A. f (w) = aw m . Ovsiannikov (1959.2 and Subsection S. x=x 0 ¯) = w ¯ (x ¯. (6) where the function g = g (w) is defined parametrically by g (w ) = 1 . Doyle and P. and E. t) (8) ¯) of a similar equation. where b is some constant. F. w − w0 w = w0 + (w1 − w0 )e−λz . ¯ ∂t ∂x ¯ ∂x ¯ 1 f¯(w) = 2 f w 1 . V. t) dy + f w (x 0 . M.

there is a functional separable solution. Let g = g (w) be arbitrary and let f = f (w) be defined by dw 1 A1 w + A3 Z dw exp −A4 . A4 and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Let now g = g (w) be arbitrary and let f = f (w) be defined by A1 A2 w + B A2 A3 + Z dw. Traveling-wave solutions: Ó¤Ô 3 . ◦ 1◦ . Z = ϕ(t)x + ψ (t). Then there are generalized traveling-wave solutions of the form Ò x + C2 A2 A1 − (2A3 t + C1 ). A2 . A. ϕ ( t) = Ò C1 e2A4 t − −1/2 ψ ( t) = − ϕ ( t) A 1 ϕ(t) dt + A2 dt + C2 . (6) Z= A4 g (w ) A4 where A1 . z = Ò x + λt. Let the function f = f (w) be arbitrary and let g = g (w) be defined by A + B. there are generalized travelingwave solutions of the form w = w(Z ). (3) f (w ) = g (w ) g (w ) dw . D. Polyanin and V. where ϕ(w) = −λ−2 f (w)g (w). A3 .1. and A4 are some numbers (A4 ≠ 0). ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation governs unsteady heat conduction in a quiescent medium in the case where the thermal diffusivity and the rate of reaction are arbitrary functions of temperature. Reference: V. ϕ ( t) Ó¤Ô Reference: A. (5) f (w ) = g (w ) g (w ) dw A2 1 exp −A4 − . ∂w w = w(z ). 2◦ . Zaitsev (2002). where the function w(Z ) is determined by the inversion of (6). and A3 are some numbers. (1) The substitution 1 y (w ) = f (w )w z λ brings (1) to an Abel equation of the second kind: yyw − y = ϕ(w). A3 . which is defined implicitly by 1 f (w) dw = At − Bx2 + C1 x + C2 . (2) The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a considerable number of solutions to equation (2) for various ϕ = ϕ(w). F. and C 1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. g (w ) = f (w ) where A and B are some numbers. A2 . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 107 ∂ ∂w = f (w ) + g (w). 2. In this case. In this case.6. − w = w(Z ). Galaktionov (1994). Z = √ 2A3 t + C1 A3 3A3 where the function w(Z ) is determined by the inversion of (4). 4◦ . (4) Z = −A 2 g (w ) where A1 . where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation [f (w)wz ]z − λwz + g (w) = 0.

8◦ . and a. Reference: V.2. and Ibragimov (1994). if ac < 0. As a result. Elenin.  √ √  C1 sin( ax) + C 2 cos( ax) if a > 0. A. see also Dorodnitsyn and Svirshchevskii (1983).1.13. g (w ) = a w + 2 ϕ (w ) .11 to 1. 9◦ . and A. ϕ (w ) where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function and a. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. References: V. Dorodnitsyn. V. b. f (w) dw = g (t) dt − x x0 ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g (t) (x − ξ )h(ξ ) dξ + C1 x + C2 . Let the functions f (w) and g (w) be as follows: f (w) = ϕ (w). Then there are functional separable solutions defined implicitly by 2 ϕ(w) = C1 e2at − 1 2 a(x + C2 ) . where F (w) is an arbitrary function. √ √ p(x) = C1 e −ax + C2 e− −ax if a < 0.3.1 to 1.  C1 x + C2 if a = 0. A. Then there are functional separable solutions defined implicitly by √ √ b ϕ(w) = eat C1 cos(x ac ) + C2 sin(x ac ) − a √ √ b at ϕ(w) = e C1 cosh(x −ac ) + C2 sinh(x −ac ) − a Õ¤Ö if ac > 0.1 to 1. A. and c are arbitrary constants. S. G. Kurdyumov. 1982). Let f (w) and g (w) be as follows: f (w) = wϕw (w). and Samarskii (1986). ϕ w (w ) where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function and a is any number. 1. and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 6◦ . Reference: V. only a limited number of equations were extracted that possess symmetries other than translations. 1.4. ∂t ∂x ∂x f (w ) Functional separable solution in implicit form: 3. t + e−bt p(x)x F (w) − p(x)(F (w))x + ϕ(x) x = 0.1.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .108 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 5◦ . A. Kurdyumov. Galaktionov. V. A. Samarskii (1986). C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ◦ 7 .1. then there is a conservation law e−bt p(x)w Here. Õ¤Ö where ϕx = cp(x).2. For specific equations of this form. see Subsections 1. Galaktionov (1994). A. Dorodnitsyn (1979). Galaktionov (1994). and c are any numbers (the prime denotes a derivative with respect to w). P. Group classification of solutions to the equation in question was carried out by Dorodnitsyn (1979.1. g (w ) = aϕ(w) + b + c[aϕ(w) + b]. + h(x). If f = dF (w)/dw and g = aF (w) + bw + c. b. G. Elenin. Dorodnitsyn. Galaktionov. and 1.3. and x0 is any number. Õ¤Ö where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.

τ ): ∂ ∂w ∂w = f (w ) . k . a one obtains a simpler equation of the form 1. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). 3◦ . For f (w ) = a and g (w ) = bw . leads to an equation of the similar form ∂ ∂u ∂u ∂u = Φ( u ) + Ψ (u ) . Yortsos (1982). and λ are arbitrary constants. u = 1/w dz = zx dx + zt dt Example. z = x + C1 eat . t) is a solution of the equation in question.15.1. 2a ζ = e−at x + b . 4.5. C2 . 2◦ .1 for w(ζ . where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (w)wz ]z − (az + b)wz = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. the original equation is an unnormalized Burgers equation 1. S. ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w = f (w ) + g (w ) .1. t + C2 ). u Ψ (u ) = 1 1 g u u −G 1 .6. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: k2 f (w) dw = kx + λt + C2 .3. 4◦ . 2◦ . The above transformation brings it to the solvable equation ∂ ∂u = ∂τ ∂z ×¤Ø a ∂u u2 ∂z + b ∂u . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . x to the new variables τ= 1 1 − e−2at . ∂τ ∂z ∂z ∂z where Φ( u ) = 1 f u2 1 . C. Fokas and Y. Functional separable solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = C1 e−at (ax + b) + C2 . ∂τ ∂ζ ∂ζ 5. Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 eat . dτ = dt. On passing from t. is also a solution of the equation. Suppose w(x. 2u2 ∂z Reference: A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This equation governs unsteady heat and mass transfer in an inhomogeneous fluid flow in the cases where the thermal diffusivity is arbitrarily dependent on temperature.6. ∂w 1◦ . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 109 ∂ ∂w ∂w = f (w ) – (ax + b) . where C1 . λw − kG(w) + C1 G (w ) = g (w) dw. u G (w ) = g (w) dw. The transformation dz = w dx + f (w)wx + G(w) dt.

τ ). Polyanin (1996). where C1 is an arbitrary constant. z = xG(t).6. . if A3 = 0. = ∂ f (w ) ∂w ∂x + xg (t) + h(t) ∂w ∂x . whose general solution can be written out in implicit form. where G(t) = B exp g (t) dt . 6. G2 (t) dt. On passing from t.110 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3◦ . z = xG(t) + h(t)G(t) dt. ∂w = ∂ f (w ) one obtains a simpler equation of the form 1. D. solutions of equation (2) are given by ϕ(t) = (C2 − 2A3 t)−1/2 ϕ ( t) = ( C 2 − A 4 t) 4 . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x On passing from t. z ): ∂ ∂w ∂w = f (w ) . ∂w ∂t ∂x The transformation w = U (z . G (w ) = g (w) dw. Z = Z (w ) (1) is a prescribed function (chosen arbitrarily). g (w ) = A 2 + A 4 Z . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x This equation governs unsteady heat conduction in a moving medium in the case where the thermal diffusivity is arbitrarily dependent on temperature. ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w = f (w ) + g (t) . one obtains a simpler equation of ∂ ∂w ∂w = f (w ) .1: ∂ ∂U ∂U = f (U ) .1 for w(τ . Let f (w) and g (w) be defined as f (w ) = Z w A 1 w + A 3 where Z dw . x to the new variables t. ∂t ∂z ∂z ∂w + xg (t) ∂w 7. ∂τ ∂z ∂z Reference: V. F.6.1: g (t) dt. Ù¤Ú leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.15. Dt (w) + Dx −f (w)wx − G(w) = 0. In special cases. Z = ϕ ( t) x + ( A 2 t + C 1 ) ϕ ( t) + A 1 ϕ ( t) ϕ(t) dt. x to the new variables (A and B are arbitrary constants) τ= G2 (t) dt + A. ∂τ ∂z ∂z 8.15. the function w(Z ) is determined by the inversion of (1). Then the original equation has the following generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(Z ). τ= G(t) = exp g (t) dt .15. z = x + the form 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Conservation law: ◦ −1 (2) if A4 = 0. and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the first-order separable ordinary differential equation ϕt = A 3 ϕ3 + A 4 ϕ2 .6. Zaitsev and A.

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x For g ≡ const. where C and λ are arbitrary constants. Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 e−at . 2 1. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 111 ∂ ∂w ∂w = f (w ) + g (w ) + h(w). Equations of the Form ∂w = f (x. where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation [f (w)wz ]z + [g (w) − λ]wz + h(w) = 0. ∂2w ∂w = f (x )w m . ξ = 1/x leads to an equation of the similar form ∂2u ∂u = F (ξ )u m 2 . z = x + C1 e−at . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . (1) The substitution y (w) = f (w)wz brings (1) to the Abel equation yyw + [g (w) − λ]y + f (w)g (w) = 0. ϕ(x) = −λ f (ξ ) x0 where A. is also a solution of the equation. Then the function m w1 = C1 w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. t + C2 ). where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (w)wz ]z + [az + g (w)]wz + h(w) = 0. a solution of equation (1) is given by x (x − ξ ) dξ + Ax + B . 2003) present a large number of solutions to equation (1) for various f (x). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the generalized Emden–Fowler equation −1 ϕxx + λ f (x) ϕ1−m = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.16. C1 t + C2 ). ∂w + h(w). The transformation u = w/x. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). ∂t ∂ξ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 9. Suppose w(x. w ) ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ax + g (w) ∂w 1. g (w). t) is a solution of this equation. F (ξ ) = ξ 4−m f (1/ξ ).1. 2003) present a large number of exact solutions to equation (2) for various f (w). B . The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. (1) For m = 1.6. this equation governs unsteady heat conduction in a medium moving at a constant velocity in the case where the thermal diffusivity and the reaction rate are arbitrary functions of temperature. z = x + λt. 10. 3◦ .6. 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). and h(w). and x0 are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). (2) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. Suppose w(x.

k .112 2. Dt (xu) + Dx (w − xwx ) = 0. z= √ C2 t + C 3 where C1 . dx . 4◦ . where Dt = Item 4◦ . one should eliminate w from the two relations. λF (w) + C1 F (w ) = dw . C2 . ∂ ∂x . Dx = wx is the partial derivative of w with respect to x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . The second equation has a particular solution ψ (x) = ϕ(x).15. The substitution u = dw leads to an equation of the form 1. 3. = ∂t aw + b ∂x2 Generalized separable solution linear in t: 1 ϕ(x)t + ψ (x) − b . and C3 are arbitrary constants. ϕ2 (x) ∂w = f (w ) ∂2w where C1 . C 1 t + C3 ). and u is defined in © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . f (w ) To obtain F = F (u) in explicit form. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE f (x ) ∂ 2 w ∂w . and C3 are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . Then the function 2 w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 . w = U (z ). C2 .6. ∂ ∂t . u= dw . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: k2 dw = kx + λt + C2 . The first equation can be treated independently from the second. Conservation laws: Dt (u) + Dx (−wx ) = 0. is also a solution of the equation. and λ are arbitrary constants.1: f (w ) ∂ ∂u ∂u = F (u ) . . f (x)ψxx − ϕψ = 0. Self-similar solution: x + C1 . 3◦ . and the function U (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (U )Uzz + 1 2 C2 zUz = 0. ∂t ∂x ∂x where the function F is defined parametrically as F (u) = f (w). so its general solution is given by ψ (x) = C1 ϕ(x) + C2 ϕ(x) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. a where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations w(x. f (w ) where C1 . t) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ . C2 . Suppose w(x. t) = f (x)ϕxx − ϕ2 = 0.

D. C2 . one arrives at the simpler equation z= ax2 Û¤Ü ∂2u ∂u 1 2 5 = u4 f (u) 2 + (ac − 4 b )u f (u). and C3 are arbitrary constants. ψ = ψ (t).6.6. ∂w |a| + C2 cos x |a| 2 2 eF C3 + 2a(C1 + C2 ) −1/2 e2F dt . Multiplicative separable solution for a > 0: w(x. = x4 f ∂t x ∂x2 The transformation u = w/x.16. t. – aw3 . Zaitsev and A. C1 . ξ = 1/x leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. ∂t ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: = f (t) w(x. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). w √ ∂t ax2 + bx + c With the transformation ∂w = w4 f ∂2w ∂x2 . w .1. ∂t ∂z which has a traveling-wave solution u = u(z + λt). χt = 2f (t)ϕχ + f (t)ψ 2 + g (t)χ + h0 (t). Multiplicative separable solution for a < 0: w(x. ∂ w ∂w + g (t)w + h2 (t)x2 + h1 (t)x + h0 (t).17.3: 4. dx + bx + c √ w(x. 3◦ . F =a f (t) dt. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 113 w ∂2w ∂w . C2 . Reference: V. 2 + g x. where C1 . f (t) dt. t) = u(z . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t). ∂t ∂ξ 5. t) = C1 ex √ a √ a √ x a+a f (t) dt . F. ∂2u ∂u = f (u ) 2 . ψt = 6f (t)ϕψ + g (t)ψ + h1 (t). Equations of the Form ∂w = f (x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . Polyanin (1996). t) ax2 + bx + c. t. and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = 6f (t)ϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h2 (t). ∂w 1. 2◦ . t) = C1 sin x where F = a 2. t) = C exp where C is an arbitrary constant. + C 2 e −x eF C3 + 8aC1 C2 e2F dt −1/2 .6. Multiplicative separable solutions for a > 0: = f (t) +w Ý ∂w ∂2w ∂w 2 w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. w ) ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1.

Suppose w(x.114 3. 2◦ . ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ where the function F = F (ξ ) is defined parametrically by F = f (x)[ψ (x) 3m+4 m+1 . m+2 m+1 ξ=− ψ (x) dx.3 and 2. and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (x)ϕm ϕx ]x + λϕ = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C1 t + C2 ). t). t) = ψ (x) 1 m+1 u(ξ . is also a solution of the equation. ψ (x) = dx . 4. t) = (x + C1 )ϕ(t). ∂ ∂w = f (x )w m . z= dx . t) = 1 x+ F ( t) g ( t) dt + C1 . f (x) leads to an equation of the similar form ∂ ∂u ∂u = F (ξ )u m . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x. ξ=− ψ (x) m+2 m+1 dx. f (x) 1 The transformation (2) The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003. where C and λ are arbitrary constants. 3◦ .7) presents a large number of solutions to equation (2) for various F = F (z ). ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w + f (t)w = g (t) w2 . t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . (1) dx . Φ = ϕm+1 f (x) brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation z= Φzz + F (z )Φ m+1 = 0. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Then the function ∂w m w1 = C1 w(x. ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂ ∂w + f (t)w = g (t) w . The transformation w(x. f (x ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 5. where the function ϕ = ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕt = 2g (t)ϕ3 − f (t)ϕ2 . where the function F = F (z ) is defined parametrically by F = λ(m + 1)f (x). ψ (x) = dx . Sections 2. F ( t) F ( t) = f (t) dt + C2 .

t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). ∂w ∂ = f (t) wm ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: 7.1. w(x. Then the function m w1 = C1 w(x. Suppose w(x. (2) (1) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. and k . m. ψt = 2f ϕψ + mg . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕm ϕxx + g (x)ϕm+1 + λϕ = 0. F ψ = F − m+2 A + m m gF f dt. equation (1) becomes ϕxx + (b/a)xk−n ϕ + (λ/a)x−n ϕ1−m = 0. is also a solution of the equation. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t) 1/m . Polyanin (1996). Zaitsev and A. C1 t + C2 ). ∂w + g (t)w1–m . 2◦ . Reference: V. t) is a solution of this equation. where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (x)ϕm ϕx ]x + g (x)ϕm+1 + λϕ = 0. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 115 6. 2003) present a large number of solutions to equation (2) for various values of n. = f (x )w m m w1 = C1 w(x. t) = (mλt + C )−1/m ϕ(x). Multiplicative separable solution (C and λ are arbitrary constants): w(x. F =B− Þ¤ß 2(m + 2) m where A and B are arbitrary constants. ϕt = m Integrating yields ϕ= 1 . In the special case of f (x) = axn and g (x) = bxk . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . m m+2 dt . Then the function 8. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (x) are determined by the system of first-order ordinary differential equations 2(m + 2) 2 fϕ . ∂w ∂ ∂w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C1 t + C2 ). F. t) is a solution of this equation. D. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (1) . ∂2w ∂w + g (x)wm+1 . = f (x )w m ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . + g (x)wm+1 . is also a solution of the equation. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ .6. Suppose w(x. Multiplicative separable solution (C and λ are arbitrary constants): w(x.

leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. à¤á Reference: V. 9. The transformation w(x.116 The transformation PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE dx . G(t) = exp g (t) dt . n n 1 n+k n ≠ 1. f (x) 1 z= brings (1) to the equation Φ = ϕm+1 Φzz + F (z )Φ m+1 + G(z )Φ = 0. ∂τ ∂z ∂z 10. z = xG(t) + h(t)G(t) dt. equation (2) becomes Φzz + Az 1−n Φ m+1 + Bz 1−n Φ = 0. z= f (x) G = (m + 1)f (x)g (x). τ= f (t) exp m h(t)dt dt leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. F. and k . t) = u(z .1. where the functions S (t) and G(t) are given by S (t) = exp s (t) dt . ∂τ ∂z ∂z à¤á Reference: V. t) = u(z . τ= f (t)G2 (t)S m (t) dt.10. τ )S (t). ∂w ∂t = f (t) ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + xg (t) + h(t) ∂w ∂x + â (t)w. f (x) (2) In the special case of f (x) = axn and g (x) = bxk . The transformation w(x. Zaitsev and A. m. D. F. 2003) present a large number of solutions to equation (3) for various values of n. Zaitsev and A. The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. dx . τ ) exp h(t) dt .7: ∂ ∂u ∂u = um . dx z= . n+k (3) where A = λa(m + 1) a(1 − n) 1−n and B = ab(m + 1) a(1 − n) 1−n . Polyanin (1996).1. ∂w ∂t = f (t) ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + g (t) ∂w ∂x + h(t)w.10. z =x+ g (t) dt.7: ∂ ∂u ∂u = um . where the functions F = F (z ) and G = G(z ) are defined parametrically by F = λ(m + 1)f (x). Polyanin (1996). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . D.

∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x f (x)eβw ∂w ∂x + g (x)eβw .15. f (x) where A. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x f (x)eβw ∂w ∂x . leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. β where β and C are arbitrary constants. Then the function w1 = w(x. C1 t + C2 ) + 1 ln C1 . Polyanin (1996). z = xG(t). 1◦ . F. The transformation w(t. Suppose w(x. Then the function w1 = w(x. Zaitsev and A. ∂w ∂t = xk f (t) ∂ ∂x wm ∂w ∂x + xg (t) ∂w ∂x + h(t)w. Polyanin (1996). 13. 2◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. t) = − 1 1 ln(βt + C ) + ln β β A − βx dx + B . β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev and A. Additive separable solution: w(x.6: ∂u ∂ ∂u um . τ )H (t). B .6. t) is a solution of this equation. τ= f (t)G2−k (t)H m (t) dt. is also a solution of the equation. C1 t + C2 ) + 1 ln C1 . Additive separable solution: w(x. D. t) = − 1 ln(βt + C ) + ϕ(x). and C are arbitrary constants. H (t) = exp h(t) dt . Reference: V. 1◦ . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 117 11.1. where the functions G(t) and H (t) are given by G(t) = exp g (t) dt . is also a solution of the equation. x) = u(z . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 12. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation [f (x)ψx ]x + βg (x)ψ + β = 0. = zk ∂τ ∂z ∂z ã¤ä Reference: V. ã¤ä ψ = eβϕ . 2◦ . D. F.1. Suppose w(x.

t + C2 ). see equation 1. z = xt− n+1 1 (0 ≤ x < ∞).6. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Self-similar solution for n ≠ −1: w = w(z ). Suppose w(x. and for f (w) = aw m .6.1.15. The general solution of equation (1) with f (w) = a(w + b)−1 and arbitrary n can be found in Zaitsev and Polyanin (1993). where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (n + 1)[f (w)wz ]z + z n wz = 0. z = x + C1 e−at . t) is a solution of this equation. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (w)wzz + [az + g (w)]wz + h(w) = 0. t) = ϕ(t)x + ψ (t) 1/n . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE f2 (t)w2n + f1 (t)wn ∂w ∂x + g1 (t)w + g2 (t)w1–n . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . is also a solution of the equation. is also a solution of the equation. Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 e−at .2. Then the function n+1 w1 = w(C1 x. Suppose w(x. For n = 1. 2◦ .6.1.1.6.15. 16. defined by equation 1. C1 t + C2 ). 2◦ .15. Nonlinear problems of the diffusion boundary layer. see equation 1. 15.118 14. ∂w ∂t = x1–n ∂ ∂x f (w ) ∂w ∂x . ψt = n n which is easy to integrate (the first equation is a Bernoulli equation and the second one is linear in ψ ). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.19. (1) which is often accompanied by the boundary conditions of (3) in 1. Generalized traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). ∂2w ∂w ∂w = f (w ) + ax + g (w) + h(w). where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = (n + 1) f2 (t)ϕ3 + ng1 (t)ϕ. n 1 (n + 1) f2 (t)ϕ2 ψ + ng1 (t)ψ + f1 (t)ϕ2 + ng2 (t). are reducible to equations of this form. 1◦ .

there is a functional separable solution defined implicitly by 2 ϕ(w) = Ce2at − 1 2 ax . D. A. n+1 (A is any). An explicit form of the solution. + g (w). (3) (4) For example. For example. ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a nonlinear equation of heat and mass transfer in the radial symmetric case (n = 1 corresponds to a plane problem and n = 2 to a spatial one). Reference: V. with b being a constant. xn 1◦ . It follows from (3) and (4) that w ¯ is also a solution of equation (1) with f (w) = aw m + Aw m−n−1 n+1 .1. Galaktionov (1994). 5◦ . where the function w(ξ ) is defined implicitly by f (w) dw = ξ + C2 . 4◦ . w = w(z ). F (w ) = f (w) dw. one obtains from (2) the corresponding f (w): f (w) = A(1 − w)k−1 − k (1 − w)k(n+1) . It involves the following. one obtains a one-parameter family of functions f (w) for which z = z (w) solves equation (1).6. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 119 3◦ . then w ¯ = bz m is a solution of equation (1). is determined by the inversion of z = z (w). setting z = (1 − w)k . C1 . Zaitsev and A. ϕ w (w ) ∂w = 1 ∂ x n f (w ) ∂w where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function. and C2 are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . To λ = 0 there corresponds a stationary solution. Reference: V. if f (w) is a power-law function of w. g (w) = a(n + 1)w + 2a ϕ (w ) . 17. F. (2) Substituting a specific z = z (w) for z on the right-hand side of (2). å¤æ where C is an arbitrary constant. Let us integrate (1) with respect to z and then apply the hodograph transformation (with w regarded as the independent variable and z as the dependent one) to obtain f (w ) = − 1 z n+1 w z n dw + A . f (w) = aw m . In this case. λw + F (w) + C1 å¤æ ξ = ln |x| + λt. There is another way to construct f (w) for which equation (1) admits exact solutions. We now describe a simple way to find functions f (w) for which equation (1) admits exact solutions. Polyanin (1996). (n + 1)(nk + 1) A is any. A is any. Let w ¯ =w ¯ (z ) be a solution of equation (1) with some function f (w). where λ. w ¯z w=w ¯ (z ). there is an exact solution of the form w = w(ξ ). Let f (w) and g (w) be defined by f (w) = wϕw (w). For n = −1. Then w ¯ =w ¯ (z ) is also a solution of the more complicated equation (n + 1)[F (w)wz ]z + z n wz = 0 with F (w) = f (w) + Ag (w) where the function g = g (w) is defined parametrically by g (w ) = 1 .

∂w k ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂w =a + f (t)x + g (t) + h(t)w. G(t) = exp g (t) dt . t) = u(z . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 18. τ= F k+2 (t)H k (t) dt. τ= f (t)G2 (t) dt. fw is the partial derivative of f with respect to w. ∂w z = xG(t) + + xg (t) + h(t) ∂w ∂x . Zaitsev and A. ∂t f w (x . 2 + g x. F. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ϕ (w ) = − Ce bt − 4a where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = f (t)ϕ(w) + xg (t) + h(t) .6. Equations of the Form ∂w = f x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3: ∂2w ∂w = ϕ (w ) 2 .120 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ . w ) + g (t) (x − ξ )h(ξ ) dξ + C1 x + C2 . leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. z = xF (t) + g (t)F (t) dt. D.6. h(t)G(t) dt.1: ∂ ∂w ∂w = ϕ (w ) . In this case. + h(x).15. leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. Functional separable solution in implicit form: 20. τ= f (t)G2 (t) dt. ∂τ ∂z ∂ ∂w = f (t) ϕ( w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 19. G(t) = exp g (t) dt . and x0 is any number. ∂w 1.6. w ) Here. w . ∂x2 f (x. g (w ) = b ϕ . there is a functional separable solution defined implicitly by bx2 .16. w . ∂τ ∂z ∂z ç¤è Reference: V.18. τ )H (t). Let f (w) and g (w) be defined as follows: f (w) = aϕ− n+1 2 ϕ ϕ n+1 2 dw. w) = g (t) dt − x x0 ∂w = ∂2 f (x . Polyanin (1996). t. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x With the transformation w(x. z = xG(t) + h(t)G(t) dt. ϕ where ϕ = ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function. ∂w ∂ w ∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂x 1.

B .6. C1 . (3) ϕ=k λu + Ak λu + Ak where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. where A. C2 . Then the function k w1 = C1 w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. z = k 2 + C2 . The general solution of equation (2) can be rewritten in parametric form as f (u) du uf (u) du + C1 . the special case 1. and C2 are arbitrary constants. . w(x. Solution: A(k + 1) exp A k+1 dx + C1 dx + C2 f (x) dx dx + C2 f (x) 1 if k ≠ −1. t) = At + B + ϕ(z ). t) = (Akt + B )−1/k Θ(x) + C . k . (1) where A. it governs also the motion of a nonlinear viscoplastic medium. H (t) = exp ∂2u . . B . and λ are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation. 2.1. t) is a solution of this equation. Additive separable solution: w(x. C1 t + C2 ) + C3 . . ∂w = f (x ) ∂w k k f (t) dt . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2◦ . −1 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 . 2◦ . if k = −1. . ∂z 2 h(t) dt . . C4 are arbitrary constants. A. Then the function where C1 . is also a solution of the equation.18. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 121 where the functions F (t) and H (t) are given by F (t) = exp one arrives at the simpler equation ∂u ∂u =a ∂τ ∂x See equation 1. 3. Suppose w(x. and the function Θ(x) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation k f (x) Θx Θxx + AΘ = 0. w(x. B . t) is a solution of the equation in question. and C are arbitrary constants.3. ∂t ∂x ∂x2 This equation occurs in the nonlinear theory of flows in porous media. C 1 t + C3 ) + C4 . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . where the function ϕ(x) is given by ϕ(x) = ϕ(x) = C1 3◦ .6. Suppose w(x. t) = At + B + ϕ(x). 1◦ . ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w =f . ∂2w where C1 . Solution: . Relations (1) and (3) define a traveling-wave solution for A = 0 and an additive separable solution for λ = 0. z = kx + λt. and the function ϕ(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (2) k 2 f kϕz )ϕzz = λϕz + A.

C1 C2 t + C 4 ) + C 5 . t where the function Θ(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2f Θξ Θξξ + ξ Θξ − Θ = 0. . 4◦ . a ∂2w ∂w = 2 . t x ¯ = β 1 x + β2 w + γ 2 . 2. x ξ= √ . Then the function k k+2 w1 = C1 w (C2 x + C3 . takes the original equation to an equation with the same form.1: ∂x ∂ ∂u ∂u = f (u ) . and the γi are arbitrary constants such that α ≠ 0 and β1 β4 − β2 β3 ≠ 0. Solution: w (x. leads to an equation of the similar form ∂w ¯ ∂w ¯ = f¯ ∂t ∂x ¯ 6◦ .15. ∂2w ¯ . ∂x2 k ≠ 0. is also a solution of the equation. t) = x 3◦ . ∂t wx + b2 ∂x2 w (x. C5 are arbitrary constants.122 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w(x. where C1 . t) = (t + C1 )−1/k u(x) + C2 . The transformation ¯ = αt + γ1 . t) = é wx = ∂w . β4 − β 2 w ¯x ¯ where the subscripts x and x ¯ denote the corresponding partial derivatives. The hodograph transformation x ¯ = w(x. The substitution u(x. k ∂2w . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. b2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . We have 1 (β1 + β2 wx )2 f (wx ). f¯(w ¯x ¯) = α Special case 1. . the general solution of which can be written out in the implicit form as C3 − Special case 2. Suppose w (x. w ¯ = β 3 x + β4 w + γ 3 . z w ¯ (x ¯ . t) is a solution of this equation. C2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x 5◦ . and u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ak (u x )k uxx + u = 0. Equation ∂w ∂w =a ∂t ∂x wx = β1 w ¯x ¯ − β3 . the βi . and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = ∂w leads to an equation of the form 1. Self-similar solution: where α. 1◦ . Equation k+2 2 u 2ak − k1 +2 du = x + C4 .6. b2 é z = x2 cos−2 1 z − arctan ψ (z ) 2 a t+C . Solution: C1 − b2 (x + C2 )2 − 2at + C3 . 2 ∂x ¯ 1 f¯(z ) = 2 f z 1 . . ∂x 1. t) = √ t Θ(ξ ). where C1 . t). . Solution: w = bx tan é 1 z − arctan ψ (z ) 2 é é a t+C . 2◦ .

C at cos−2 ϕ(z ) + ln 2 . Solution: w = bx tan ϕ(z ) + z= b 2 x2 at C ln 2 2 b . C2 . ϕz = 2z 2 2 2 z The function z = z (x. 2◦ . leads to the linear equation x= ∂u . t) is a solution of this equation. The function z = z (x. ∂t ∂y 5. 3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂ξ t=η ∂2u ∂u = − f (η . Special case 3. and N. Then the function −1 2 C3 w1 = C1 w (C1 x + C2 . ∂w where h(z ) = z −2 h(1/z ). ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂x2 = f t. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS where C is an arbitrary constant. w = y . and the function ψ = ψ (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ψz = 1 (1 + ψ 2 ) 2 ê 123 1− ψ z . Akhatov. C5 are arbitrary constants. I.3: E.6. t): ∂2u ∂u = g (y )f (u)h(uy ) 2 . Then the function −1 w1 = C1 w ( C 1 x + C 2 . (x + B )2 + A2 ë¤ì References for equation 1. 2◦ . Lenskii (1966). t) in the solution is defined implicitly. . R. Sh. Equation ∂w = k exp ∂t ∂w ∂x ∂2w . . V. 4. ξ ) 2 .18. C1 e t + C4 ) + C3 x + C5 . t) = 2A arctan − (x + B ) ln kt + C − (2 + ln 2)x + D . . B . Suppose w(x. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The hodograph transformation. . N.6. ∂2w ∂w ∂w = f (x )g (w )h (w x ) . η ) = xξ . ∂x2 1◦ . The Euler transformation w(x. Gazizov. where C1 . and the functions ϕ(z ) and ψ (z ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 1 C ψ ψ ψ . t) in the solution is defined implicitly. K. Ibragimov (1994). Ibragimov (1989). is also a solution of the equation. H. see Subsection S. Solution: x+B A where A. t) is a solution of this equation. according to which x is taken to be the independent variable and w the dependent one. and C3 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . Suppose w (x.1. and D are arbitrary constants. t) + u(ξ .2. t) + C 3 . ∂η ∂ξ for details. at 2 b where C is an arbitrary constant. H. w (x.3 (Example 7). . wx = . x = u. ∂t ∂x 1◦ . is also a solution of the equation. ψz = (1 + ψ 2 ) − − . C . leads to a similar equation for u = u(y .

w → a. Gupalo. D. Solving the original partial differential equation with simple boundary conditions of the first kind. D. w = b. convective diffusion to a flat plate and that in liquid films). V. y → ∞. V. w = b.6.19. and Yu. where h(x) = B exp − g (x ) dx . (2) 2◦ . Polyanin. [ϕ (w )w ξ ] ξ + 1 2 ξf (ξ ) − (1) g (ξ ) wξ = 0. w = a. or bubbles and the ambient medium. Polyanin (1980. Nonlinear Equations of the Thermal (Diffusion) Boundary Layer ∂w ∂ ∂w + g (x )y = ϕ( w ) . respectively. 1982). √ x ∂x x x ∂y ∂y ∂y This is a generalization of the linear equation of the thermal boundary layer on a flat plate. D.15. f (x) ∂w t= h2 (x) dx + A. 3. y = 0. the coordinates x and y are reckoned along and normal to the interphase surface. respectively. the coordinates x and y are reckoned along and normal to the body surface. Zaitsev and A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ξ → ∞. The transformation (A and B are arbitrary constants) 2. Self-similar solution: y ξ= √ . where h(x) = B exp − g (x ) dx . F. x where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(ξ ).17. The value n = 2 corresponds to a solid particle and n = 1. x = 0. to a drop or a bubble.124 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1.6. ∂t ∂z ∂z í¤î References: A. D.6. f (x) z = yh(x). ∂w 1 y ∂w ∂ ∂w y + √ g √ = ϕ( w ) . Polyanin (1996). ∂t ∂z ∂z í¤î References: Yu.1: ∂ ∂w ∂w = ϕ (w ) . f (x ) leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. P. is reduced to solving equation (2) with the boundary conditions ξ = 0. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w + g (x )y n = ϕ( w ) . S.16: ∂ ∂w ∂w = z 1−n ϕ (w ) . f (x) z = yh(x). drops. F. Zaitsev and A. w → a. Ryazantsev (1985). f (x) leads to a simpler equation of the form 1. A. where a are b are some constants. ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y This equation is encountered in nonlinear problems of the steady diffusion boundary layer (mass exchange between solid particles. The transformation (A and B are arbitrary constants) 1. ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y This equation is encountered in nonlinear problems of the steady diffusion boundary layer (mass exchange between drops or bubbles and a flow). . Polyanin (1996). f 1◦ . f (x)y n–1 t= hn+1 (x) dx + A.

F. bt = −2aβ − 2bα. Solution: ◦ w(x. The third solution describes the motion of a soliton in a rapidly decaying case. Then the functions 1◦ . k cosh(Ax − 2ABt + C2 ) (x + C 2 ) 2 C1 2 + i(kC1 ln t + C3 ) . The plus or minus signs in the expression of w1 are chosen arbitrarily. B . and Pr is the Prandtl number (x the coordinate along the plate and y the coordinate normal to the plate surface). including nonlinear optics. The classical thermal boundary layer equation is defined by 1 Pr ξFξ (ξ ) − F (ξ ) . Equations of the Form i ∂w + ∂ w ∂t ∂x2 Arbitrary Parameters Throughout this subsection. 3 . ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. Reference: A. Polyanin and V. βt = 2kab − 4αβ .1. t) = ñ C1 w(x. + ¨ dinger equation in question.7. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 125 Remark. and λ are arbitrary real constants. t) = ñ A 2 t + C2 )] 2 exp[i(C1 . ¨ 1. f (ξ ) = Pr Fξ (ξ ). 2 ∂w ∂2w w(x. F. A2 . t) = (ax + b) exp i(αx2 + βx + γ ) . t) is a solution of the Schro w1 = ñ A 1 w ( ñ A 1 x + A 2 . i 2 = −1. i + k|w|2 w = 0. β = β (t). and plasma physics. α = α(t). w is a complex functions of real variables x and t. where A1 . Zaitsev (2002). A. w(x. Suppose w(x. t). B . and γ = γ (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations at = −6aα. A3 . k cosh(C1 x + C3 ) 2 exp[iBx + i(A2 − B 2 )t + iC1 ] . C1 . k is a real number. Zaitsev (2002). A.7. D. Solutions: 2 2 w(x. 2◦ . ï¤ð References: H. Takhtadjan (1987). C2 . where the functions a = a(t). A 2 1 t + A3 ). ï¤ð Reference: L. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = C1 exp i [C2 x + (kC1 − C2 )t + C 3 ] . Schlichting (1981). t) = √ exp i 4t t where A. αt = ka2 − 4α2 .¨ 1. w2 = e−i(λx+λ t+B ) w(x + 2λt. are also solutions of the equation. ï¤ð γt = kb2 − β 2 . b = b(t).7. superconductivity. The second and third solutions are valid for k > 0. D. This equation occurs in various chapters of theoretical physics. Here. D. Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations and Related Equations 2 + f (|w |)w = 0 Involving 1. Faddeev and L. g (ξ ) = 2 where F (ξ ) is the Blasius solution in the hydrodynamic problem on the longitudinal homogeneous translational flow of a viscid incompressible fluid past a flat plane. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. 1. Polyanin and V.

Pitaevskii. t) with a column on the right and a row at the bottom. see equation 1. Lamb (1974). C3 = ∞ −∞ ∂w ∂x 2 + |w|4 − 1 dx. N Rn. N . Shabat (1972). t) . t) is of order N + 1. ó¤ô 7◦ . . M(x. D. C2 . t) = √ C1 t + C 2 x + C3 z= √ .k (x. w(x. t) = 1 + g n (x. f1 = w − w . 4 . Ibragimov (1985). t) = gn (x. the bar over a symbol denotes the complex conjugate. References: V. t) for n = 1. A. t) n. V. . The first three integrals for k = −2: C1 = ó¤ô ∞ −∞ 1 − |w|2 dx.1 with f (u) = ku 2 . It is assumed here that the initial distribution w(x. ∂x ∂x 2 ∂w ∂ w ∂w ∂ w 1 − = g1 + ∂t ∂t 2 ∂x ∂x Here. . 6◦ . i ∂w ∂ w − = iaf1 − f2 g1 . for n = 1. . S. 2 2 det R(x. P. N RN +1. S. Auto-B¨ acklund transformations preserving the form of the equation (with k = 1): − ag2 + i f 1 |f 1 | 2 + |f 2 | 2 .N +1 (x. t) = 0 ó¤ô (bulk of the matrix).5. and C3 are arbitrary constants. and the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation uzz + k |u|2u − 1 2 iC1 (zuz + u) = 0. g1 = iε b − 2|f1 |2 1/2 where a and b are arbitrary real constants and ε = ò 1. C2 = − ∞ −∞ w ∂w ∂w −w ∂x ∂x dx. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . N -soliton solutions for k > 0: w(x. . . C3 = ∞ −∞ 2 ∂w ∂x 2 − |w|4 dx. . B. The square matrix R(x. L. t) .126 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 4◦ . 0) decays quite rapidly as |x| → ∞. Self-similar solution: 1 u(z ). The entries of R are defined as Rn. References: G. t) is an N × N matrix with entries Mn. N. B. ◦ 8 . it is obtained by augmenting M(x. for t → ò ∞. t) = γn ei(λn x−λn t) . Takhtadjan (1987). H. where the λn and γn are arbitrary complex numbers that satisfy the constraints Im λn > 0 (λn ≠ λk if n ≠ k ) and γn ≠ 0. . . E.n (x. N The above solution can be represented. t) for n. C1 t + C 2 where C1 . The Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity admits infinitely many integrals of motion. L. t) = Here.7. . 1 f2 g1 . Reference: L.k (x. λ n − λk gn (x. . k det M(x. (rightmost column). as the sum of N single-soliton solutions. (bottom row). . and V. C2 = ∞ −∞ w ∂w ∂w −w ∂x ∂x dx. For other exact solutions. E. Novikov. t) = Mn.N +1 (x. . t)gn (x. Faddeev and L. . ◦ 5 . k = 1. k = 1. The bar over a symbol denotes the complex conjugate. g2 = i af1 − 2 f2 = w + w . t) = 1 RN +1. . Manakov. (lower right diagonal entry).k (x. The first three integrals for k = 2: C1 = ∞ −∞ |w|2 dx. Zakharov (1984). . Zakharov and A.

Korepin. Zakharov and A. t) = (ax + b) exp i(αx2 + βx + γ ) . C2 . Solution: w(x. β = β (t). β = β (t). 3◦ . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. Sulem and P. N. E. Suppose w(x. V. Then the functions 1◦ . Izergin (1993). B2 . α = α(t). and λ are arbitrary real constants. M. t) = (ax + b) exp i(αx2 + βx + γ ) . are also solutions of the equation. Shabat (1972). βt = 2Aab − 4αβ . Solutions: 2 2 )t + C 3 ] . G. Morris (1982). γt = Ab2 − β 2 + B . Dodd. and γ = γ (t) are real functions of a real variable. see equation 1. The numbers A and B are assumed real. i + (A|w|2 + B |w| + C )w = 0.7. w(x. where the functions a = a(t). ∂w ∂ 2 w + + (A|w|2 + B )w = 0. S. Sulem (1999). L. C. b = b(t). The numbers A and n are assumed real. Takhtadjan (1987). Pitaevskii. where B1 . bt = −2aβ − 2bα. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . J. Bogoliubov. B . w1 = ÷ B 1 w ( ÷ B 1 ∂w ∂2w w2 = e−i(λx+λ 2 t+C ) w(x + 2λt. E. B. 3. Zakharov (1984). V. Ankiewicz (1997).5. For other exact solutions. t). ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. t) = √ exp i 4t t where C1 . C. αt = Aa2 − 4α2 . Segur (1981). 2◦ . see the literature cited below. and A. 2◦ . and C are assumed real. i 1◦ . + 1◦ . Akhmediev and A. D. Manakov. + B − C2 w(x. i ¨ dinger equation in question. see equation 1. K.7. A. t) = C1 exp i [C2 x + (AC1 (x + C 2 ) 2 C1 2 + i(AC1 ln t + Bt + C3 ) .-L. Novikov.¨ 1. D. J. References: V. t) is a solution of the Schro n 2n x + B2 . where a = a(t). N. B. The numbers A. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. Eilbeck. ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. b = b(t).1 with f (u) = Au 2 + B . B 1 t + B3 ). E. S. and γ = γ (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations at = −6aα.5. P. R. N. and H. Faddeev and L. B3 . Ablowitz and H. J. N. ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation with a power-law nonlinearity. For other exact solutions. 2. 4. and V. Gibbon. α = α(t). C. The plus or minus signs in the expression of w1 are chosen arbitrarily. C . L. The Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity is integrable by the inverse scattering method.7.1 with f (u) = Au 2 + Bu + C . NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 127 õ¤ö 9◦ . ∂w ∂ 2 w + + A|w|2n w = 0.

2◦ . C2 . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. t) = √ exp i 4t 1−n t 1 where C1 . w(x. Then the functions 1◦ . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. Self-similar solution: w(x. t) = ø 2 A cosh (C1 nx + C2 ) 2n (x + C 2 ) 2 AC1 C1 +i t1−n + C3 . Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity.7. z= √ C1 t + C 2 where C1 . and the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 uzz + k |u|2n u − iC1 zuz + u = 0. t) = C1 exp i [C2 x + (A|C1 |2n − C2 )t + C 3 ] . t) is a solution of the Schro 2 t + C3 ).128 2◦ . and the function U = U (y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation Uyy + AU 2n+1 = 0. To ¨ dinger equation with axial symmetry and to n = 2. 2 2n (n + 1)C1 2 exp[i(C1 t + C3 )]. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. C2 . Equations of the Form i ∂w + 1 ∂t xn ∂x ∂x Involving Arbitrary Parameters + f (|w |)w = 0 Throughout this subsection. are also solutions of the equation. w1 = C1 eiC2 w(ø C1 x.1 with f (u) = Au 2n .2. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . 1. where C and λ are arbitrary constants. 1 x + C3 . and C3 are arbitrary real constants. w(x. see equation 1. n = 1 there corresponds a two-dimensional Schro a three-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with central symmetry. t) . For other exact solutions.5. ϕ(x. i 2 = −1. i ∂w ∂t + 1 xn ∂ ∂x xn ∂w ∂x + A|w|2 w = 0. ∂ xn ∂w 1. 4◦ . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x−n (xn ux )x − C1 u + Au3 = 0. C1 where C1 . w is a complex function of real variables x and t. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = e−i(λx+λ 2 t+C ) U (x + 2λt).7. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) = C1 t + C2 dx x n u 2 (x ) + C3 . ¨ dinger equation in question. 3◦ . t) = (C1 t + C2 )− 2n u(z ). 2 n 5◦ . Solutions: PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2 w(x. Solution: w(x. 3◦ . C2 . Solution: w(x. Its solution can be represented in implicit form.

4(t + C2 ) n(t + C2 )n where C1 . t) = C1 (t + C2 )− n+1 2 exp iϕ(x. x n u 2 (x ) 1◦ . w(x. Multiplicative separable solution: where C1 . 4◦ . The plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. t) = C1 (t + C2 )− n+1 2 exp iϕ(x. Solution: w(x. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. are also solutions of the equation. 4(t + C2 ) n(t + C2 )n where C1 . i 1 ∂ ∂w ∂w + n xn + (A|w|2 + B )w = 0. ∂t x ∂x ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. t) = 2 AC1 x2 − + C3 . ϕ(x. 2◦ .¨ 1. C2 . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 −2n −3 x − n (x n u x ) x − C 1 u − C 2 x u + (Au2 + B )u = 0. C1 t + C3 ). This is a special case of equation 1. 2◦ . t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . t) . 3◦ . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 −2n −3 x − n (x n u x ) x − C 1 u − C 2 x u + Au3 = 0. t) is a solution of the Schro 2 iC2 k 2k e w ( ù C1 x. Then the functions 1◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. t) .7. C2 . C2 . C2 . w1 = ù C1 ∂w ∂ ∂w where C1 . C2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation with power-law nonlinearity. i ∂w ∂t + 1 ∂ xn ∂x 1 xn ∂w ∂x + (A|w|2 + B |w| + C )w = 0. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . and C3 are arbitrary real constants. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. t) . Suppose w(x. 2. and C3 are arbitrary real constants.2 with f (u) = Au2 + Bu + C . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants.5.7. Solution: w(x. t) = C1 t + C2 dx + C3 . 4. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Solution: w(x. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x−n (xn ux )x − C1 u + (Au2 + B )u = 0. 3. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 129 where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary real constants. + A|w|k w = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . i + xn xn ¨ dinger equation in question. ϕ(x. t) = 2 AC1 x2 − + Bt + C3 . ϕ(x. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x−n (xn ux )x − C1 u + A|u|k u = 0.

+ Reference: R. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. t) = C1 (t + C2 )− ϕ(x. i + ∂x2 + ia ¨ dinger equation in question. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. C4 are arbitrary real constants. t)w|w|2 + g (x. . t) is a solution of the Schro 2 4 w 1 = C 1 w (C 1 x + C2 . This is a special case of equation 1. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. For another solution. t) = C1 t + C2 2 −2n −3 x − n (x n u x ) x − C 1 u − C 2 x u + A|u|k u = 0. x n u 2 (x ) where C1 . . K. i + (1 + ia) Reference: L. ψ= . 2◦ .130 3◦ . 1. Reference: F.7.5 f1 (x) = 1 and f2 (x) = a.7.4. 3◦ . t)].5. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. Bullough (1977.7.5. a is a real number.3. is also a solution of the equation. u= √ 4(t + C1 ) 4(t + C1 ) t + C1 where C1 .5 with f (z ) = a(1 + z 2 )−1/2 . ∂w ∂2w ∂ where C1 . C2 . Garnon and P. t) are listed in Table 2. i + a 1 – e–k|w| w = 0. see Item 2◦ of equation 1. ϕ(x. Calogero and A. C 1 t + C3 ). t) and g (x.4.5.4 with f (z ) = az 2 .7. C2 . 2 1 C3 − 2aC2 ln |t + C1 | C2 . . Solution: Here. 3. w(x. Degasperis (1982). t)w = 0. ∂w ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Suppose w(x. t) = u(t) exp[iv (x.4 with f1 (t) = 1 and f2 (t) = a. 4◦ . 2. Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1.1 with f (u) = a 1 − e−ku . ∂t ∂x2 This equation is encountered in plasma theory and laser physics. 2−k−nk 2A|C1 |k x + (t + C 2 ) 2 + C3 . ∂w ∂2w ú¤û |w|2 w = 0. Solution: w(x. Winternitz (1993). 1978). Solution: PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE dx + C3 . 4. ϕ= .7. and equation 1. ∂t ∂x2 Exact solutions of this equation for some specific f (x. Then the function 1◦ . This is a special case of equation 1. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. ∂t ∂x This equation is encountered in plasma physics (propagation of Alfven and radio waves). ú¤û + f (x. i ú¤û ∂w ∂t +a ∂2 ∂x2 w 1 + |w | 2 = 0. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). v (x. C2 .7. t) . t) . . See also Calogero and Degasperis (1982). 4(t + C2 ) 2 − k − nk where C1 . t) = 2 n+1 2 exp iϕ(x. χ=− ψ 2 + aψu2 ) dt + C4 . See also equation 1.

Solution: C1 w(x. t) = √ exp iϕ(x. i + 1◦ . z = x2/t w = ϕ(t) exp w = ϕ(t) exp 1 2x 2 2 iht(t)x 0 ic x + ic (c1 + ic2)x−2 c1xt−3/2 − ic2t−1 1 2 kx + ixt w = x(k−2)/2 ψ (z ). t 3◦ . ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. t)w|w| + g (x. z = x2/t √1x . z = x2/t w = ψ (z )/x. Solution: ϕ(x.4. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . f (t) and g (t) are real functions of a real variable.¨ 1. ∂w ∂2w where C1 . t) = C2 x − C2 t+ 2 C1 f (t) + g (t) dt + C3 . z = x2/t 1. t) = C1 exp iϕ(x.7. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. C2 . t) . 2 ϕ(x. Solution 2: w = ψ (z )/x. w(x. z = x2/t w = ϕ(t) exp −h(t)x w = ψ (z )/x. w is a complex function of real variables x and t. Solution 2: w = ψ (z )/x. t where C1 . 2◦ . i 2 = −1. Equations with Cubic Nonlinearities Involving Arbitrary Functions Throughout this subsection. t) Solution 1: w = ϕ(t) exp ix 4t . t) 0 ic/t (c1 + ic2)/x2 1 −3/2 + βt−1 4 αxt Solution structure w(x. t)w = 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 arbitrary arbitrary arbitrary arbitrary arbitrary f (x. z = x2/t √ w = ψ (z )/ x. Solution 1: w = ϕ(t) exp − 2ic t Solution 2: w = ψ (z )/x. Here. + f (t)|w|2 + g (t) w = 0. t) = (x + C 2 ) 2 + 4t 2 C1 f (t) + tg (t) dt + C3 .7. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. t) 1+ ib 1+ ib (1+ ib)/x (1+ ib) exp αxt−1/2 f1(t) + if2(t) exp 2h(t)x 1+ ib (1+ ib)e−x (1+ ib)e−kx (1+ ib)x−k 1+ ib g (x. t) = (ax + b) exp i(αx2 + βx + γ ) . t) . Solution: w(x. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 131 TABLE 2 ¨ dinger type Structure of exact solutions for the Schro ∂ 2w ∂w 2 equation i ∂t + (1 + ia) ∂x2 + f (x. 1. z = x2/t Solution 1: w = ϕ(t) exp ix 4t . C2 .

α = α(t). G(t) = ln t + 2 g2 (t) dt. t) = ü u(t) exp[iϕ(x. ϕ(x. Polyanin and V. t)]. ∂t ∂x2 Solutions: w(x. w(x. t)]. G ( t) = 2 g2 (t) dt. βt = 2f (t)ab − 4αβ . uxx − C1 u − u(θx )2 + f1 (x)u3 + g1 (x)u = 0. t) = C1 x − C1 t+ ∂w ∂2w [f1 (t)u2 (t) + g1 (t)] dt + C2 . Here. t) = ü u(t) exp[iϕ(x. αt = f (t)a2 − 4α2 . Solutions: w(x. 2. b = b(t). ϕ(x. t)]. i + 1◦ . β = β (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where the function u = u(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation u t + f 2 ( t) u 3 + g 2 ( t) + Integrating yields u(t) = C3 eG(t) + 2eG(t) ý¤þ 1 u = 0. ∂t Solutions: 3. F. Zaitsev (2002). Reference: A. γt = f (t)b2 − β 2 + g (t). bt = −2aβ − 2bα. t) = (x + C 1 ) 2 + 4t [f1 (t)u2 (t) + g1 (t)] dt + C2 . e−G(t) f2 (t) dt −1/2 . i ∂2w ∂w + [f1 (t) + if2 (t)] + [g1 (t) + ig2 (t)]w|w|2 + [h1 (t) + ih2 (t)]w = 0. where the functions u = u(x) and θ = θ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2ux θx + uθxx + f2 (x)u3 + g2 (x)u = 0. t) = ü u(x) exp[iC1 t + iθ(x)]. D.132 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE where the functions a = a(t). and γ = γ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations at = −6aα. t) = ü u(t) exp[iϕ(x. 2t e−G(t) f2 (t) dt −1/2 . 2 ϕ(x. + [f1 (t) + if2 (t)]w|w|2 + [g1 (t) + ig2 (t)]w = 0. 4. ∂t ∂x2 Equations of this form occur in nonlinear optics. whose general solution is given by u(t) = C3 eG(t) + 2eG(t) 2◦ . i ∂w + ∂2w ∂x2 + [f1 (x) + if2 (x)]w|w|2 + [g1 (x) + ig2 (x)]w = 0. Solutions: w(x. the function u = u(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation ut + f2 (t)u3 + g2 (t)u = 0. t) = C1 x + 2 [− C 1 f1 (t) + g1 (t)u2 (t) + h1 (t)] dt + C2 .

hn = const. ∂w ∂2w Here. D. Reference: A. F. Polyanin and V. ∂w + [f1 (x) + if2 (x)] ∂2w ∂x2 e−F (t) g1 (t) dt −1/2 . Reference: A. ∂2w ∂w + [f1 (x) + if2 (x)] + [g1 (x) + ig2 (x)]w|w|2 + [h1 (x) + ih2 (x)]w = 0. the function u = u(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation 2 u t + g 2 ( t) u 3 + [ h 2 ( t) − C 1 f2 (t)]u = 0. t)]. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where the functions u = u(x) and θ = θ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations f1 uxx − f1 u(θx)2 − f2 uθxx − 2f2 ux θx + g1 u3 + h1 u = 0. the function u = u(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation 2 f1 (t)]u = 0. 5. t) = u(t) exp[iϕ(x. 6. t) = u(x) exp[iC1 t + iθ(x)]. + [f1 (t) + if2 (t)] ϕ(x. F ( t) = 2 2 h 2 ( t) − C 1 f2 (t) dt.7. ∂t ∂x2 With fn . + [g1 (t) + ig2 (t)]w|w|2 + [h1 (t) + ih2 (t)]w = 0.¨ 1. f2 uxx + C1 u − f2 u(θx)2 + f1 uθxx + 2f1 ux θx + g2 u3 + h2 u = 0. F. this equation is used for describing two-component reaction-diffusion systems near a bifurcation point. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 133 Here. see Kuramoto and Tsuzuki (1975). Solutions: ¢ w(x. i where the functions u = u(x) and θ = θ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2f1 ux θx + f1 uθxx + f2 uxx − f2 u(θx )2 + g2 u3 + h2 u = 0. ∂t Solutions: + [g1 (x) + ig2 (x)]w|w|2 + [h1 (x) + ih2 (x)]w = 0. whose general solution is given by u(t) = C3 eF (t) + 2eF (t) ÿ¡  e−F (t) g2 (t) dt −1/2 . Zaitsev (2002). ÿ¡  f1 uxx − C1 u − f1 u(θx)2 − 2f2 ux θx − f2 uθxx + g1 u3 + h1 u = 0. Zaitsev (2002). t) = u(x) exp[iC1 t + iθ(x)]. ∂t ∂x2 Solutions: ¢ w(x. ¢ w(x. t) = C1 x + 2 [C 1 f2 (t) − g2 (t)u2 (t) − h2 (t)] dt + C2 . 2 h 1 ( t) − C 1 f1 (t) dt. D. Polyanin and V. u t + g 1 ( t) u 3 + [ h 1 ( t) − C 1 whose general solution is given by u(t) = C3 eF (t) + 2eF (t) F ( t) = 2 7. gn .

F (U ) = U f (|U |) dU . f (u) is a real function of a real variable. 2 ∂w ∂2w t+C1 ) w(x + 2λt + C2 . C1 . t) . where C1 . C4 are arbitrary real constants. ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. . B . t) = ψ (z ) exp i(Axt − 2 3 A t + Bt + C ) . C2 .134 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1. where the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation Uξξ + f (|U |)U − (A2 + B )U = 0. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. Suppose w(x. u2 (x) where C1 . C3 . t) = (x + C 2 ) 2 + 4t f |C1 t|−1/2 dt + C3 . t) = C2 x − C2 t + f (| C 1 | )t + C 3 . . Solution: w(x. ξ = x − 2At. 1.7. 4◦ . Equations of General Form Involving Arbitrary Functions of a Single Argument Throughout this subsection. where the function u = u(x) is defined implicitly by du C1 u2 − 2F (u) + C3 Here. and λ are arbitrary real constants. Then the function 1◦ . + f (|w|)w = 0. C . t) = £ √ C1 t 7◦ . w(x. 2 ϕ(x. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. (1) = C4 £ x. is also a solution of the equation. 5◦ . t) = U (ξ )ei(Ax+Bt+C ) . w(x. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . . C2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C1 . i 2 = −1. Integrating yields the general solution in implicit form: dU (A 2 + B )U 2 − 2F (U ) + C1 = C2 £ ξ . 3◦ . z = x − At2 . ϕ(x. t) . Solution: ϕ(x. F (u ) = uf (|u|) du. where the function ψ = ψ (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ψzz + f (|ψ |)ψ − (Az + B )ψ = 0. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. B . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 −3 uxx − C1 u − C2 u + f (|u|)u = 0. C 1 . 6 . t) = C1 t + C2 dx + C3 . (2) Relations (1) and (2) involve arbitrary real constants A. t + C3 ). and C2 . C2 . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. and C are arbitrary constants): 2 3 w(x. t) . . t) is a solution of the Schro w1 = e−i(λx+λ 2◦ . Solution (A. w is a complex function of real variables x and t. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. Solutions: ◦ 1 exp iϕ(x. i + ¨ dinger equation in question. t) = C1 exp iϕ(x.5.

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . i 1◦ . F. t) is a solution of the generalized Landau–Ginzburg equation. Zaitsev (2002). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) . t) = x2 + 4t f |C 1 |t − n+1 2 dt + C2 . z = kx + λt. t) . 1◦ . where C1 . C2 . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. t) = C1 exp iϕ(x. where A. 1 ∂ ∂w ∂w + n xn + f (|w|)w = 0. f (u) is a real function of a real variable. ϕ(x. k . Polyanin and V. C2 .7. Polyanin and V. ∂t ∂x2 Generalized Landau–Ginzburg equation. Suppose w(x. t) . Then the function w1 = eiC1 w(x + C2 . ∂t x ∂x ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. 1950) and to describe two-component reactiondiffusion systems near a point of bifurcation (Kuramoto and Tsuzuki. Reference: A. D. and the functions u = u(z ) and ϕ = ϕ(z ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations k 2 uϕzz + 2k 2 uz ϕz + λuz = 0. Solution: w(x. F. Reference: A. ϕ(x. a threecorresponds a two-dimensional Schro dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with central symmetry. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. To n = 1 there ¨ dinger equation with axial symmetry and to n = 2. f (u) and g (u) are real functions of a real variable. 1975). NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 135 8◦ . and λ are arbitrary real constants. t) = C1 t + C2 dx x n u 2 (x ) + C3 .¨ 1. ¤¡¥ k 2 uzz − k 2 u(ϕz )2 − λuϕz − Au + f (|u|)u = 0. 2◦ . t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. 2. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. 3. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x−n (xn ux )x − C1 u + f (|u|)u = 0. t) = ¦ x b f (| C 1 | ) + t g (|C1 |) − f (|C1 |) + C2 . a and b are real numbers. Equations of this form are used for studying second-order phase transitions in superconductivity theory (see Landau and Ginzburg. a a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. 3◦ . where C1 . D. ∂2w ∂w = (a + ib) + f (|w|) + ig (|w|) w. Solution: w(x. t) = C1 t− ¤¡¥ n+1 2 exp iϕ(x. t) = u(z ) exp iAt + iϕ(z ) . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 −2n −3 x − n (x n u x ) x − C 1 u − C 2 x u + f (|u|)u = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. Solution: w(x. is also a solution of the equation. t + C3 ). Zaitsev (2002). ϕ(x.

Then the functions 2 t + C4 ). Integrating yields C2 . Solution: ϕ= 1 . w(x. and the functions U = U (z ) and V = V (z ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations λUz + k 2 (U Vz )z + k 2 Uz Vz + k [f (U )U ]z = 0. χt + ψ 2 + ψf (u) = 0. i ∂2 ∂w + f (|w|)w = 0. t) = U (z ) exp[iβt + iV (z )]. where C1 . §¡¨ References: V. t) = u(t) exp[iv (x. t) = u(t) exp iϕ(x. β . t) . t) = C1 x − C1 bt + g (|u|) dt + C2 . χ=− ψ 2 + ψf (u) dt + C4 . and λ are arbitrary real constants. ϕt + 4ϕ2 = 0. 2 where u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ut = f (|u|)u − aC1 u. Polyanin and V. ∂t 1◦ . The plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily. t) is a solution of this equation. −U (β + λVz ) + k 2 Uzz − k 2 U (Vz )2 − kf (U )U Vz = 0. Solution: PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w(x. 5. aU θzz − bU (θz )2 + bUzz + 2aUz θz − λU θz − C1 U + g (|U |)U = 0. C2 where C1 .136 3◦ . are also solutions of the equation. t) = U (z ) exp iC1 t + iθ(z ) . z = x + λt. S. C4 are arbitrary real constants. . Danilov (1981). 2 ϕ(x. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). . and the functions U = U (z ) and θ = θ(z ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations aUzz − aU (θz )2 − bU θzz − 2bUz θz − λUz + f (|U |)U = 0. Berman and Yu. F. w1 = © eiC1 w(© C2 x + C3 . ψ = ψ (t). u= √ t + C1 2◦ . i ∂w + ∂2w ∂x2 +i ∂ ∂x f (|w|)w = 0. v (x. A. . w(x. . t)]. D. where k . A. . . z = kx + λt. ψt + 4ϕψ + 2ϕf (u) = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Suppose w(x. where the functions u = u(t). Solution: 4. . Solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . where C1 and λ are arbitrary real constants. ϕ = ϕ(t). Zaitsev (2002). . and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ut + 2ϕu = 0. 4(t + C1 ) ψ = −2ϕ f (u) dt + C3 ϕ. 2u f (|u|)u − aC1 4◦ . C4 are arbitrary real constants. whose general solution can be represented in implicit form as du = t + C3 .

Polyanin and V. t) = U (z ) exp[iβt + iV (z )]. |u|)u = 0. ¡ Reference: A. ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. Zaitsev (2002). |u|)u = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. 4◦ . D. t) = C1 t + C2 dx + C3 . Integrating yields ϕ = C 1 u2 . F. and the function u = u(t) is defined implicitly as (C4 is an arbitrary constant) du + 2C1 t + C4 = 0. z = kx + λt. β . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. + 1◦ . f (x. Solution: w(x. where ξ = x2/t. u2 (x) ∂w ∂2w where C1 . ψ = ψ (t). ϕt + 4ϕ2 f (u) = 0. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . There is a solution of the form w(x. Equations of General Form Involving Arbitrary Functions of Two Arguments Throughout this subsection. ψt + 4ϕψf (u) = 0. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). i 2 = −1. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. t)]. There is a self-similar solution of the form w(x. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. 2◦ . |w|)w = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . v (x. t) = u(t) exp[iv (x. i + f (x. u 3 f (u ) 3◦ . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation uxx − C1 u + f (x. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 137 2◦ .6. C2 . and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ut + 2uϕf (u) = 0. and C3 are arbitrary real constants.¨ 1.7. t) . and the functions U = U (z ) and V = V (z ) are determined by an appropriate system of ordinary differential equations (which is not written out here). u) is a real function of two real variables. and λ are arbitrary real constants. ϕ(x. 2 χ = −C 2 u4 f (u) dt + C3 . χt + ψ 2 f (u) = 0. where C1 . ϕ = ϕ(t). t) = V (ξ ). where the functions u = u(t). w is a complex function of real variables x and t. C2 . ψ = C 2 u2 . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 −3 uxx − C1 u − C2 u + f (x.7. where k . Solution: w(x. 1. 1.

Reference: A. there corresponds a two-dimensional Schro a three-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with central symmetry. 3. F. is also a solution of the equation. and λ are arbitrary real constants. ∂w + g (x ) + Φ(x. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. ϕ(x. u) is a real function of two real variables. Polyanin and V. f t. Then the function 1◦ . + f (t. ∂t ∂x ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. f (x. f (t. t) = (x + C 2 ) 2 + 4t where C1 . Zaitsev (2002). t) = x2 + 4t f t. Reference: A. D. ∂w 1 ∂ ∂w where C1 . i ∂w + f (x ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w . Polyanin and V. ∂t ∂x ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. i + xn xn 1◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. D. t). u) is a real function of two real variables. t) . ¨ dinger equation in question. t) . 5. |C1 |t−1/2 dt + C3 . ϕ(x. + f (x. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. Reference: A. | C 1 | t − n+1 2 dt + C2 . and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ¡ 2 −2n −3 x − n (x n u x ) x − C 1 u − C 2 x u + f (x. f (t. C2 . |u|)u = 0. 2 ϕ(x. t) = C2 x − C2 t+ 2 t+C1 ) w(x + 2λt + C2 . i PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂ 2 w + f (t. t) . |C1 |) dt + C3 . t) is a solution of the Schro w1 = e−i(λx+λ 2◦ . and C3 are arbitrary real constants. Solution: w(x. |w|)w = 0. |w|)w = 0. |w|)w = 0. F. Zaitsev (2002). |u|)u = 0. D. t) = C1 t + C2 dx x n u 2 (x ) + C3 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) = C1 exp iϕ(x. t) = C1 t−1/2 exp iψ (x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. Suppose w(x. u) is a real function of two real variables. C2 . F. 2◦ . Solutions: w(x. w(x. Solution: 4. ∂t ∂x2 ∂x Schr¨ odinger equation of general form. t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . Zaitsev (2002). To n = 1 ¨ dinger equation with axial symmetry and to n = 2. Polyanin and V. t) = C1 t− ¡ ∂w 1 ∂ ∂w n+1 2 exp iϕ(x. + ∂t ∂x2 Schr¨ odinger equation of general form.138 2. |w|)w = 0. t) . f (t. The case g (x) = fx (x) corresponds to an anisotropic medium. u) is a real function of two real variables. ¡ ψ (x. C2 . i + xn xn w(x. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x−n (xn ux )x − C1 u + f (x. Φ(x. where C1 .

Here. . 6. fn = fn (x. ϕ= . 2. and the function u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 uf1 (t. Integrating yields 1 C2 . |u|). and C3 are arbitrary real constants. |w|) w. |w|)w = 0. ϕ(x. n = 1. u) = 0. u) dt + C3 ϕ.7. χ = − u= √ 4 ( t + C1 ) t + C1 where C1 . v (x. and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)uxx + g (x)ux − C1 u + Φ(x. w(x. t) = u(t) exp iϕ(x. t) = u(x) exp iϕ(x. . ∂2w ∂w = f1 (t. |U |)U = 0. ϕ = ϕ(t). . 7. ϕ(x. t) . and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ut + 2ϕu = 0. ψ = −2ϕ f (t. f (x) where C1 . |w|) + g1 (t. |u|) dt + C2 . ϕt + 4ϕ2 = 0. ∂t ∂x2 Solution: w(x. Solution: w(x. |u|)u = 0. u) dt + C4 . t) = u(t) exp[iv (x. |w|) + ig2 (t. ψt + 4ϕψ + 2ϕf (t. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 139 1◦ . where the functions u = u(t). χt + ψ 2 + ψf (t. 2◦ . u) = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. U 2 (x) R(x) = exp − g (x ) dx . f1 uθxx − f2 u(θx )2 + f2 uxx + 2f1 ux θx − C1 u + g2 (|u|)u = 0. |w|) w. 8. ϕ(x. |u|) − C1 ∂2w ∂w = f1 (x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ψ 2 + ψf (t. . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. |w|) + if2 (x. t) = C1 x + 2 g 2 ( t. C4 are arbitrary real constants. | u | ) − C 1 f2 (t. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. t) = C1 t + C2 R(x) dx + C3 . t) = u(x)ei(C1 t+C2 ) . |w|) + if2 (t.¨ 1. and the function U = U (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 f (x)Uxx + g (x)Ux − C1 U − C2 f (x)R2 (x)U −3 + Φ(x. ∂t ∂x2 Solution: w(x. |w|) + ig2 (x. ψ = ψ (t). |w|) + g1 (x. |u|). C2 . t) . t) . gn = gn (x. . t) = C1 t + θ(x). where the functions u = u(x) and θ = θ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations f1 uxx − f1 u(θx )2 − f2 uθxx − 2f2 ux θx + g1 (|u|)u = 0. t)]. |u|). ut = ug1 (t. t) = U (x) exp iϕ(x. i ∂w ∂t Solution: + ∂2w ∂x2 +i ∂ ∂x f (t.

ϕ = ϕ(t). t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). v (x. ψt + 4ϕψf (t. 10. i ∂w + ∂ ∂x f (t. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Solution: w(x. ϕt + 4ϕ2 f (t. t) = U (x) exp[iβt + iV (x)]. | w | ) ∂w = 0. w(x. ψt + 4ϕψf (t. u) dt + C3 .140 9. u) = 0. Integrating yields ϕ = C 1 u2 . |w|)w = 0. where C1 . ∂t Solution: 11. t)]. C2 . w(x. u) = 0. C2 . and u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ut + 2C1 u3 f (t. u) = 0. u) = 0. u) = 0. and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ut + 2uϕf (t. and u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ut + 2C1 u3 f (t. ψ = C 2 u2 . t) = u(t) exp[iv (x. and the real functions U = U (x) and V = V (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations (U Vx )x + Ux Vx + [f (x. |w|) ∂w ∂x = 0. and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ut + 2uϕf (t. ψ = ψ (t). ϕ = ϕ(t). and the functions U = U (z ) and V = V (z ) are determined by an appropriate system of ordinary differential equations (which is not written out here). Integrating yields ϕ = C 1 u2 . t) = U (x) exp[iβt + iV (x)]. ϕt + 4ϕ2 f (t. where C1 . t)]. ψ = C 2 u2 . where the functions u = u(t). w(x. u) = 0. i PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w ∂ 2 w +i + f (x. 2 χ = −C 2 u4 f (t. χt + ψ 2 f (t. ∂t ∂x ∂x There is a solution of the form 12. where β is an arbitrary real constant. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). u) = 0. |w|)w = 0. v (x. where β is an arbitrary real constant. χt + ψ 2 f (t. where the functions u = u(t). −βU + Uxx − U (Vx )2 − f (x. i ∂w + ∂ f (x . U )U ]x = 0. u) = 0. u) dt + C3 . 2 χ = −C 2 u4 f (t. U )U Vx = 0. ψ = ψ (t). t) = u(t) exp[iv (x. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . i ∂w ∂t Solution: + ∂2 ∂x2 f (t. u) = 0. and C3 are arbitrary real constants. u) = 0.

Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + aw p ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y + cwp . t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) = U (r. λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t). 1 w(x. 1 r2 = y 2−m x2−n + . z2 ). t).1. Suppose w(x.4. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities 2. C12−m y . is also a solution of the equation. y . y .1. 2◦ . z2 ). z2 = y + 1 ln t. C1 p−1 p−1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. y . y . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beλy ∂w ∂y z2 = yt m−2 . Suppose w(x.2. t) = U (r. t) = t 1−p V (z1 . 1◦ .1 with f (w) = cw p . + cwp . y + p−1 1−p p−1 ln C1 .4. Then the function p−1 t + C2 .3 with f (w) = cw p . 2◦ .Chapter 2 Parabolic Equations with Two or More Space Variables 2. 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 z1 = xt n−2 . 1 w(x. C1 t + C2 . 1 r2 = e−λy x2−n + . t) = t 1−p V (z1 . y . w1 = C1 w C12−n x. y . 2. 1 This is a special case of equation 2. a(2 − n)2 bλ2 z1 = xt n−2 . is also a solution of the equation. 1◦ . This is a special case of equation 2.2. λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x.1. t) is a solution of the equation in question.

2◦ . 2. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x w ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y w ∂w ∂y . e−βx e−λy + .1 with c = 0.4. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. λwξ = (k1 The solution of this equation can be written out in implicit form: ξ=B+ where A and B are arbitrary constants. y . Boussinesq equation. β λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. z1 = x + ln t. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y + b ∂ w k ∂w ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2. y + ln C1 . Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ w n ∂w ∂t ∂x ∂x 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 2 k1 + k2 λw − A ln |A + λw| . Suppose w(x. t) = Ax + By + (A2 + B 2 )t + C . where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 + k2 )(wwξ )ξ .2. 1◦ .1. and C are arbitrary constants.2.2 with f (w) = cw p . 2◦ . ξ = k1 x + k2 y + λt. 1◦ . λ2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. k2 . β r2 = z2 = y + 1 ln t. y . aβ 2 bλ2 1 1 w(x. 3◦ . This is a special case of equation 2.1. C1 t + C2 . Solution linear in all independent variables: w(x. where A. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 . t). Then the function w1 = C1 w x + 1−p 1−p p−1 ln C1 . z2 ). t) = U (r. y .3.4 with n = 1. Traveling-wave solution (k1 . ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x aeβx ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beλy ∂w ∂y + cwp .3. B . t) = t 1−p V (z1 .2. Generalized separable solution quadratic in the space variables: w(x. It arises in nonlinear heat conduction theory and the theory of unsteady flows through porous media with a free surface (see Polubarinova–Kochina. is also a solution of the equation. y . y . This is a special case of equation 2.1. 1962). λ 2. ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂w =a +b w . and λ are arbitrary constants): w = w(ξ ).

we eliminate h from (2) and (3) to obtain a nonlinear ordinary differential equation for g (t): 3ggtt − 5gt2 − 36(1 + A2 )g 4 = 0. 6t 2 5◦ . Titov and V.   (1) (2) (3) It follows from (1) and (3) that ft − ht = 6(f + h)(f − h). its solution can be written out in implicit form. y . gt = 6(f + h)g . the solution can be represented in explicit form (C is an arbitrary constant): f ( t) = µ+A . and D. On solving this equation with the change of variable u(g ) = (gt )2 . V. In the special case B = 0. There is a “two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form: w(x. where the functions f (t). 3. Kazenin (1998). and χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ft = 6f 2 + 2f h + g 2 . Zhurov. using (2) and assuming g 0. where A and B are arbitrary constants.1. and. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and h can be solved independently (see Item 3 ◦ ). A. ht = 6h2 + 2f h + g 2 . C − µt h ( t) = µ−A . 2(C − µt) g ( t) = 1 . S. I. ψt = 2gϕ + 2(f + 3h)ψ .where the functions f (t). A. Pukhnachov (1995). With this relation. 2 2 ϕt = 2(3f + h)ϕ + 2gψ . 2(C − µt) µ=¡ √ 1 + A2 . ψ (t). we obtain (B is an arbitrary constant) Bg 4/3 + 36(1 + A2 )g 2 . Further. Solution: w (x. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). References: S. where A is an arbitrary constant. Φ( g ) = ¡ 1 1 1 1 Ag . g . ht = 6h + 2f h + g . g (t). we find that f = h + Ag . ∂t ∂x w ∂x ∂y w ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4 with n = −1. The first three equations for f . t) = − where C is an arbitrary constant. y . ¢¤£ ∂ 1 ∂w ∂ 1 ∂w ∂w =α + . t) = (At + B )−1 Θ(x. V. h = 12 Φ(g ) − 2 Ag . Vyazmin. χt = ϕ2 + ψ 2 + 2(f + h)χ. V. D.2. Polyanin. A. 4◦ .2.4 with n = α = 1. hence. y ). and h(t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ft = 6f 2 + 2f h + g 2 . 3 y2 + Cxt−1/3 + C 2 t1/3 . gt = 6(f + h)g . f = 12 Φ(g ) + 2 (4) where the first equation is separable. gt = g Φ(g ). g (t). ϕ(t). h(t). A.1. Ustinov (1985). Generalized separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 3 ◦ ): w(x. and the function Θ is determined by the stationary equation written out in Item 4◦ of equation 2. A. Example.

w(x. . ∆Θ − AeΘ = 0. −1 w(x. B . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . t) = 2αt + B . t) = A cos θ(t) § . sinh2 (αt + C ) + (y + B )2 cosh2 (αt + C ) −1 sin(µy + η0 ) 1 + B (A + αµ2 t)eµx § A + αµ2 t A + αµ2 t sin(µy + η0 ) sinh θ(t) −1 . 3◦ . t) = e2x sinh2 Ae−x sin y + B w(x. Kazenin (1998). t) = w(x. y . y ) is a solution of the stationary equation ∂2 ∂2 + . and S. t) = e2x cosh2 C − 2A2 αt . t) = A coth θ(t) + B sinh θ(t) eµx § A w(x. A. k1 . t) = w(x. Vyazmin. Zhurov. For solutions of this equation. y . y . y . t) = (x + A) 2 2 sinh(αt + C ) cosh(αt + C ) .144 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 1◦ . B . D. ¥¤¦ 4◦ . k2 . and C are arbitrary constants. −1 A sinh θ(t) 1 + cosh θ(t) 1 − cosh θ(t) cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ) 2 sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) . y . and the function Θ(x. (sin y + Aex )2 2A2 αt + C . I. y . y . t) = A cos θ(t) § A A § 1 + sin θ(t) 1 − sin θ(t) cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ) 2 cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) . t) = − A sinh θ(t) A 1 − cosh θ(t) 1 + cosh θ(t) cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ) 2 sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) . y . Solutions: 2 2 α (k 1 + k2 ) . −1 sin(µy + η0 ) sin θ(t) A § 1 − sin θ(t) 1 + sin θ(t) cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ) 2 cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) . see 5. R. V. Knyazeva. y . t) = A cot θ(t) + B sin θ(t) eµx § A w(x. λξ 2 + k2) αA(k1 2 −1 A + B exp . Ae−x sin y + B 2A2 αt + C . Dorodnitsyn. λ ( ξ + A) ξ = k1 x + k2 y + λt. References: V. Svirshchevskii (1983). y . y . I. Traveling-wave solutions: w (ξ ) = − w (ξ ) = 2◦ . The exact solutions specified in Item 2◦ are special cases of a more general solution having the form of the product of two functions with different arguments: w(x. where A. A. ∆= ∂x2 ∂y 2 which is encountered in combustion theory. and λ are arbitrary constants. e2x cos2 Ae−x sin y + B where A.1. t) = (Aαt + B )eΘ(x. Other exact solutions: w(x. Polyanin. V. A.2. A.y) . −1 w(x. A.1. and D. y . w(x. −1 w(x. where A and B are arbitrary constants. t) = − w(x.

k2 . η0 . C1 . and the function Θ(x. αt + C2 where r = ◦ x2 + y 2 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. µ. k1 . A and B are arbitrary constants. . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . The plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional heat and mass transfer equation with power-law temperature-dependent thermal conductivity (diffusion coefficient). 6 . fractional. where C1 . and s is a parameter that admits the values 1 or −1 (the first solution was indicated by Pukhnachov. 1◦ . and λ are arbitrary constants.3 with f (w) = αw n . in the above relations.1. 1995). and negative. where n can be integer. t). 5◦ . 4◦ . . one can obtain another group of solutions (not written out here). t) = ¨¤© ϕ= λ .4. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 145 where θ(t) = αµ2 At + τ0 . C2 . ξ0 . and λ are arbitrary constants. this equation can be reduced to ∆u + A(n + 1)u n+1 = 0. C2 . Here. Suppose w(x. Aristov (1999). t) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂w =α ∂ wn ∂w + ∂ wn ∂w ∂U ∂x 2 + ∂U ∂y 2 . t) = C1 + rϕ (ϕ ln r − 1) w ( r . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y If n ≠ −1. ∂x2 ∂y 2 u = Θn+1 . rλ + Ceαt λϕrϕ−2 .1.  C1 y + C4 . k1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. y . k2 .4. This is a special case of equation 2. y . x y . C2 t + C5 ). w ( r . . x sin β + y cos β . By swapping the variables. B . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. 1 ∆= ∂2 ∂2 + . and τ0 are arbitrary constants. are also solutions of the equation. y ) is a solution of the two-dimensional stationary equation ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ Θn + Θn + AΘ = 0. C .2. . A. Solutions with axial symmetry: λ2 rλ−2 . w1 = C1 −2/n 1/n C2 w( C1 x + C3 . . f (t) = (Aαnt + B )−1/n . where C . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): 2 2 α (k 1 + k2 ) wn dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 . Traveling-wave solution: w= nλ(k1 x + k2 y + λt + C ) 2 + k2) α (k 1 2 1/n . N.3 with β = 0: ∂U = αU ∆U − α ∂t 4.3. 3◦ . λw + C1 where C1 . Then the functions w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . The transformation w = 1/U leads to an equation of the form 2. Reference: S. y ). t) = f (t)Θ(x. 2◦ .

t) = tk U (ξ . and λ are arbitrary constants. t) = F (z . References: V. ξ = xt− 2 (kn1 +1) . t) = G(r. V. y . t) = F (ξ1 . I. B . C2 . z1 = xe−βn1 t .4 with f (w) = a1 wn1 and g (w) = a2 wn2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily). ξ2 ). ζ2 = ye−βnt .5 and 2. t). Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 n1 2 n2 a1 k1 w + a2 k2 w dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 . z2 ) is determined by the differential equation 2βV − βn1 z1 ∂V ∂ ∂V ∂V − βn2 z2 = a1 V n1 ∂z1 ∂z2 ∂z1 ∂z1 + a2 ∂ ∂V V n2 . ∂z2 ∂z2 5◦ . Ustinov (1985). w(x. k1 .5. and β are arbitrary constants. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. y . t). Pukhnachov (1995). k2 . y . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. and γi are arbitrary constants. t) = e2βt V (z1 . t) = H (ξ1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and S.5. βi . A. k2 . y . w(x. Suppose w(x. 1 η = yt− 2 (kn2 +1) . y . ζ1 = xe−βnt . w(x. C1 . J. η2 = yt− nβ +1 2 . Samarskii and I. ¤ ξ 1 = α 1 x + β 1 y + γ 1 t. Knyazeva. where the αi . Then the functions w1 = A2 w( A−n1 Bx + C1 . z2 ).146 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 5◦ . A.5. 1 where k is an arbitrary constant and the function U (ξ . y . where β is an arbitrary constant and the function V (z1 . 4◦ . y . λ2 . y . Reference: A. ◦ 3 . η ) is determined by the differential equation kU − 1 2 (kn1 + 1)ξ ∂ ∂U ∂U 1 ∂U − 2 (kn2 + 1)η = a1 U n1 ∂ξ ∂η ∂x ∂x + a2 ∂ ∂U U n2 ∂y ∂y . λw + C1 ¤ where C1 . ¤ 6◦ . B 2 t + C3 ). ξ 2 = k 2 y + λ 2 t. λ1 . 2◦ . Titov and V. R. t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) = e2βt V (ζ1 . V. and S. A. V.4. M. ξ 2 = α 2 x + β 2 y + γ 2 t. z2 = ye−βn2 t . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. Dorodnitsyn. S. S. Svirshchevskii (1983). where A. I. R. Dorodnitsyn. ξ 1 = k 1 x + λ 1 t. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2. H. y .  A−n2 By + C2 . r = x2 + y 2 . R. ξ2 ). V. η1 = xt− nβ +1 2 . Ibragimov (1994). and C3 are arbitrary constants. Knyazeva. ζ2 ). ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w = a1 w n1 + a2 w n2 . 5. η2 ). “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. η ).3. Svirshchevskii (1983). z = k 1 x + k2 y . N. A. King (1993).6 for the case of two space variables.5. Sobol’ (1963). w(x. See also equations 2. 1◦ . t) = tβ U (η1 . C2 . References: V. where k1 .

and h = h(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 2 2 bk2 w + (ak1 + ck2 − C1 bk2 ) ln |w + C1 | = λ(k1 x + k2 y + λt) + C2 . which can be integrated by quadrature. gt = agxx + 6bf g . Generalized separable solution linear in y (a degenerate solution): w = F (x. one can reduce this equation to a homogeneous one. t) are determined by the system of differential equations ft = afxx + 6bf 2 . ∂t ∂x (1) (2) Equation (1) is a linear homogeneous heat equation. C2 . t) is a solution of this equation. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = f (x. 3◦ . 2 bC1 where C1 . g = g (x. and C3 are arbitrary constants and the function u(z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 z + C4 . 1◦ . z = y + bC1 x2 + bC2 x + C3 t. Suppose w(x.1. ht = ahxx + bg 2 + 2bf h + 2cf . where the functions f = f (x. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t).2. C5 are arbitrary constants. Given F = F (x. the subscripts denote partial derivatives. equation (2) can be treated as a linear nonhomogeneous heat equation. k1 . k2 . Then the functions 2 −2 t + C5 ) + w1 = C1 w (  C 2 x + C3 . Here. . t)y + G(x. t).  C 1 C2 y + C 4 . 4◦ . where C1 . 5◦ . and λ are arbitrary constants. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily). ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂ ∂y (bw + c) ∂w ∂y . t)y + h(x. (bu + c + ab2 C2 )uz + (2abC1 − C3 )u = 8a2 bC1 With appropriate translations in both variables. C2 .1. where C1 . t)y 2 + g (x. t). C 2 2 c(1 − C1 ) . y . t). t).3. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 147 2. Solution: 2 2 w = u(z ) − 4abC1 x − 4abC1 C2 x. ∂t ∂x ∂2G ∂G − a 2 = bF 2 . where the functions F and G are determined by solving the one-dimensional equations ∂2F ∂F − a 2 = 0. For these equations. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w + h(w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. . .

3 for U = U (x. ∂w = ∂ 1 ∂w + ∂ 1 ∂w ∂w = ∂ (αw + β ) ∂w + ∂ (αw + β ) ∂w 1◦ .10. β where C is an arbitrary constant. t) − c . y .1.1. In Zhuravlev (2000). ∂ ∂w =α ∂t ∂x 1 ∂w w ∂x + ∂ ∂y 1 ∂w w ∂y + βw. y . y . t). “Two-dimensional” solution: w = |y + C |1/2 θ(x. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂V ∂ ∂V 2 ∂V 2 = (bV + c + ab2 C2 ) + 2abC1 − 8a2 bC1 . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (ξ . η = y + bC1 x2 + bC2 x. . t) − 2 2 aC1 + cC2 .1. t) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂2θ ∂θ =a 2. ∂t ∂x αw + β ∂x ∂y αw + β ∂y This is a two-dimensional heat and mass transfer equation with a hyperbolic temperature-dependent thermal conductivity (diffusion coefficient). ∂t ∂η ∂η ∂η 2. b where the function θ(x. ∂t ∂x 7◦ . some exact solutions are also specified there. y . The substitution U = αw + β leads to an equation of the form 2.2. t). = bC2 ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 8◦ . τ ). 4. t) − 4abC1 x − 4abC1 C2 x. t) = eβt u(x. τ =C− 1 −βt e . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 bC2 ξ = C 1 x + C2 y .1. 2◦ . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional heat and mass transfer equation with a linear temperature-dependent thermal conductivity (diffusion coefficient). 3.1: ∂U ∂U 2 ∂ U . “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U ( ξ . a nonlinear superposition principle is presented that allows the construction of complicated multimodal solutions of the original equation. leads to a simpler equation of the form 2.2.2.2 for U = U (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 2 w = V (η . The transformation w(x.148 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 6◦ . . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function V (η . t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 1. The substitution U = αw + β leads to an equation of the form 2.3: ∂ ∂u =α ∂τ ∂x 1 ∂u u ∂x + ∂ ∂y 1 ∂u u ∂y .

Suppose w(x. A. Bakirova. V. N. y . ∂w =α ∂ wn ∂w + ∂ wn ∂w + βw. C 1 C 2 t + C5 ).1.1. . ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . A. R. t) is a solution of this equation.  Ak−n2 −1 y + B2 . Ibragimov (1994). A2k−2 t + B3 ). A. H. where λ1 and λ2 are arbitrary constants. N. Suppose w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t). A. t) = eβt U (x. Galaktionov and S. Posashkov (1989). Then the functions w1 = A2 w( Ak−n1 −1 x + B1 . Ibragimov (1994). 2◦ . 3◦ . . and B3 are arbitrary constants. . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = a1 w n1 + a2 w n2 + bwk . Svirshchevskii (1983). y . ∂w References: V. where the function F = F (ξ . Dorodnitsyn. Dorodnitsyn. A. Dimova. y . 2 w 1 = C 1 w (C 2 x + C 3 . Then the functions 1. Svirshchevskii (1988). and the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation n1 n2 k uz = [(a1 λ2 + a 2 λ2 1u 2 u )uz ]z + bu . 1 n1 −k+1 2(k−1) n2 −k+1 2(k−1) ξ = x(αt + β ) . C 2 y + C 4 . and S. ∂t ∂x w ∂x ∂y w ∂y The substitution w = 1/U leads to an equation of the form 2. leads to a simpler equation of the form 2. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily).1. z = t − λ 1 x − λ2 y . N. P. C5 and β are arbitrary constants.2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Kurdyumov. 2. S. t) = (αt + β ) 1−k F (ξ . I. y . B1 . A. t) = u(z ).2. and S. References: V. Other Equations . t). x sin β + y cos β . I. R. M. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y The transformation (C is an arbitrary constant) w(x. where A. η ) is determined by the differential equation n1 − k + 1 ∂F n2 − k + 1 ∂F ∂ ∂F α F +α ξ +α η = a1 F n1 1−k 2(k − 1) ∂ξ 2(k − 1) ∂η ∂ξ ∂ξ ¤ + a2 ∂ ∂F F n2 ∂η ∂η + bF k . ∂w 6. ∂w = aw ∂2w + ∂2w where C1 . t) is a solution of this equation. B2 . w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 149 ¤ ∂ 1 ∂w ∂ 1 ∂w =α + + βw2 . V. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ .4: ∂ ∂U ∂U =α Un ∂τ ∂x ∂x 7. η ). H. τ ). Knyazeva. η = y (αt + β ) . y . 5.1. τ= 1 βnt e +C βn + ∂ ∂U Un ∂y ∂y . y . S.4. Samarskii. are also solutions of the equation. . y .4.3 for U = U (x.

w(x. t) = f (t) + g (t)Θ(x. η1 = x2 t−β −1 . On finding f (t). w(x. C7 are arbitrary constants. y ) . a∆Θ + B = 0. t). y . ∂w ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution: = (α + βw) ∂2w + ∂2w + γw2 + δw + ε. ξ 2 = k 2 y + λ 2 t. y . t) = ϕ(t)(C1 x2 + C2 xy + C3 y 2 + C4 x + C5 y + C6 ). w(x. The functions f (t) and g (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ft = γf 2 + δf + ε. (2) gt = (γf + δ − ακ )g . 4◦ . λ2 . . k1 . which is linear in g (t). y ) satisfies the two-dimensional Poisson equation ∂2 ∂2 + . λ ln |w| + C1 where C1 . ∆= ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. . ζ1 = xe−t . t) = t U (η1 . λ1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∆= ∂2 ∂2 + . y . w(x. Here. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). ξ2 ). η2 = y 2 t−β −1 . y . and λ are arbitrary constants. Θ(x. The equation has “two-dimensional” solutions with following the forms: w(x. C2 . 2. k2 . y ) is any solution of the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation ∆Θ + κ Θ = 0. t) = H (ξ1 .150 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . w(x. The first equation in (2) is independent of g (t) and is separable. and the function Θ = Θ(x. t). . β z = k 1 x + k2 y . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 3◦ . y . where k1 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 (1) where κ = γ/β (β ≠ 0). ξ 1 = k 1 x + λ 1 t. and β are arbitrary constants. t) = e2t V (ζ1 . w(x. C7 − 2a(C1 + C3 )t dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 . y . t) = A + Bt where A and B are arbitrary constants. one can solve the second equation in (2). y . t) = G(r. ζ2 ). 5◦ . k2 . t) = F (z . For solutions of the linear equation (1). η2 ). . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 a(k1 + k2 ) ϕ ( t) = 1 . r= x2 + y 2 . y ). where C1 . ζ2 = ye−t . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. y . The equation admits a more general solution in the form of the product of functions with different arguments: Θ(x.

Below are five possible cases. . A w(x. in the above relations. For γ ≠ 0 and δ 2 − 4γε = µ2 > 0 (µ > 0). y . x y . w(x. For γ = 0 and δ ≠ 0. . Generalized separable solution: 1 βt2 eµx+νy . Posashkov (1989). w(x. t) = −  sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) where A. and C2 are arbitrary constants. y . y . w(x. g ( t) = exp f ( t) = − 2γ C1 + γt C1 + γt 5◦ . C1 . Solutions for β = 0: sin(µy + η0 ) 1 + B (A + αµ2 t)eµx  . Then the functions 3.2. N. . C1 t + C4 ).2 = 1 2δ − ακ t . η0 . Galaktionov and S. ∂w = αw ∂2w –α ∂w + ∂w 2 2◦ . For γ = δ = 0. 1 C2 δ − . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ν . and τ0 are arbitrary constants. t) = A coth θ(t) + B sinh θ(t) eµx  A sinh θ(t) sin(µy + η0 ) . – β. y . References: V. ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 1◦ . w(x. δ g ( t) = C 2 e − α κ t . µ tan 2γ ∂2w 1 2 µt + C1 − δ . y . µ. 3◦ . For γ ≠ 0 and δ 2 − 4γε = −µ2 < 0 (µ > 0). −δ  µ . t) = C1 − βt + C2 exp α(µ2 + ν 2 ) C1 t − 2 where µ. A w(x. A. where C1 . C4 and β are arbitrary constants. .  A w(x. θ(t) = αµ2 At + τ0 . y .1. C1 y + C3 . t). w(x. one can obtain another group of solutions (not written out here). f ( t) = 1 + C1 eµt 1 + C1 eµt 4◦ . For γ ≠ 0 and δ 2 − 4γε = 0. A. w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . H. ε . 2γ 3◦ . Ibragimov (1994). g ( t) = e −( γ s 2 +α κ ) t . g ( t) = C 2 e ( δ − α κ ) t . C2 s1 + s2 C1 eµt . y . x sin β + y cos β . t) is a solution of this equation. f ( t) = ¤ s1. f (t) = C1 eδt − f (t) = C1 + εt. are also solutions of the equation. 2γ 2 g ( t) = C 2 exp cos 1 2 δ − ακ 1 2 µt + C1 t . y . t) = A cot θ(t) + B sin θ(t) eµx  A sin θ(t) 1 − sin θ(t) 1 + sin θ(t) A  A cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ). By swapping the variables. 2◦ . 1◦ . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 151 The functions f (t) and g (t) have different forms depending on the values of the equation parameters. y . + −1 w1 = C1 w(C1 x + C2 . C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. B . ξ0 . Suppose w(x. t) = sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) 2 sinh θ(t) 1 − cosh θ(t) 1 + cosh θ(t) A cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ). t) = − cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) 1 + cosh θ(t) 1 − cosh θ(t) A cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ). t) = cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) 2 cos θ(t) 1 + sin θ(t) 1 − sin θ(t) A  cosh(µx + ξ0 ) + s A sin(µy + η0 ). and s is a parameter that can assume the values 1 or −1. t) = A + αµ2 t A + αµ2 t sin(µy + η0 ) .

θxx = νθ. A2 . then a3 = A1 . one can set in (2) for ν = µ2 > 0 ϕ(x) = A1 cosh 2µx + A2 sinh 2µx ψ (y ) = B1 cos 2µy + B2 sin 2µy θ(x) = C1 cosh µx + C2 sinh µx χ(y ) = D1 cos µy + D2 sin µy for ν = −µ2 < 0 ϕ(x) = A1 cos 2µx + A2 sin 2µx ψ (y ) = B1 cosh 2µy + B2 sinh 2µy θ(x) = C1 cos µx + C2 sin µx χ(y ) = D1 cosh µy + D2 sinh µy The functions f (t). C1 C2 ≠ 0. then the system becomes f = Φ(h). ht = −ανhΦ(h). The functions f (t). t) = f (t) + g (t)ϕ(x) + h(t)ψ (y ). where s = sign ν . If C1 = 0 (C2 ≠ 0). where ν is an arbitrary constant. and χyy = −νχ. If D2 = 0 (D1 ≠ 0). and a4 are defined by 2 2 2 2 2 D 2 − s D2 C 2 − s C2 D 2 + s D2 C1 + s C2 . B1 . 2 2 2 )u . The arbitrary constants A1 . a2 = 1 . (1) Here. A2 . 2 C 1 + (A 2 1 − s A2 ) 5◦ . If D1 = 0 (D2 ≠ 0). (2) For ϕxx = 4νϕ. then one should set a1 = C1 C2 /A2 . solutions in explicit form may be obtained in some cases (see Item 3◦ ). D1 . then a2 = D1 D2 /B2 . y . and h(t) in (1) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2 2 2 2 2 ft = αν (A2 1 − s A2 )g − αν (B1 + s B2 )h − β . gt = ανf g . y . B1 ≠ 0. If B1 = 0 (B2 ≠ 0). A1 . If A1 = 0 (A2 ≠ 0). g (t). There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. if ϕxx = νϕ and ψyy = −νψ . ψyy = −4νψ . a1 = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2A1 2B1 C1 C2 D1 D2 provided A1 ≠ 0. and u(t) are determined by the following system of ordinary differential equations (s = sign ν ): 2 2 2 2 2 ft = −4αν (A2 1 − s A2 )g + 4αν (B1 + s B2 )h − β . + ln |h| + (B1 2 2 h αν C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. g (t). For β = 0. we have ϕ(x) = A1 cosh µx + A2 sinh µx. a3 . and B2 are arbitrary constants. 2A1 C1 C2 = A2 (C1 + s C2 2 2 2B1 D1 D2 = B2 (D1 − s D2 ). a2 . and D2 are related by the two constraints 2 2 ). ψ (y ) = B1 cos µy + B2 sin µy ϕ(x) = A1 cos µx + A2 sin µx. The order of this system can be reduced by 2. (ν = −µ2 < 0). h(t). where ν is an arbitrary constant. There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. If C2 = 0 (C1 ≠ 0).152 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 4◦ . C2 . The coefficients a1 . In particular. ht = −ανf h. a 4 = B2 1 . 2 2β C2 2 + s B 2 )h 2 . B2 . a 3 = A2 1 . where Φ( h ) = ! g = C2 /h. C1 . and D1 D2 ≠ 0. B1 . then a4 = −B1 . then a3 = −A1 . t) = f (t) + g (t)ϕ(x) + h(t)ψ (y ) + u(t)θ(x)χ(y ). 2 2 2 gt = −4ανf g + ανa1 (D1 + s D2 )u . then a4 = B1 . ψ (y ) = B1 cosh µy + B2 sinh µy (ν = µ2 > 0). ht = 4ανf h − ανa2 (C1 − s C2 ut = −2αν (a3 g − a4 h)u.

α References: V. Kazenin (1998). Polyanin and V. and D. Then the functions w1 = C1 w($ x + C2 . t). 4. 7◦ . $ y + C3 . and χ(t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ft = α(2f h − 2f 2 − g 2 ). 3◦ . t) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y α 4◦ . y . α µ= A . t) = U (ξ . . κ= β . where C1 . Posashkov (1989). h(t).3: V. the functions f (t). and λ are arbitrary constants. y ). A. . y ). the functions f (t) and g (t) are given by f ( t) = 1 . A. D. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution: w(x.4. t) = f (t) + g (t)Θ(x. y . In the special case ϕ(t) = ψ (t) ≡ 0. g (t). (B − βt)[A + C (B − βt)] where A. Here. −1 η = C 4 x + C 5 y + C 6 t. where k1 . Suppose w(x. y . N. and the function Θ(x. "¤# ht = α(2f h − 2h2 − g 2 ). y ). Vyazmin. η ). Zhurov. ξ = C 1 x + C 1 y + C 3 t. C1 − βt (C1 − βt)2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. A. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution: w(x. A. w(x. B . χt = 2α(f + h)χ − β . and the function F (x. y . H. The equation admits a traveling-wave solution: w = w(k1 x + k2 y + λt). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily). F. gt = −2αg (f + h). . B − βt g ( t) = β . Here. C1 t + C4 ). Zaitsev (2002). V.1. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 153 6◦ . κ = sign C2 . Ibragimov (1994). Galaktionov and S.1. w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . t) = (C1 t + C2 ) V (x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. y . which can be completely integrated. I. y . x sin β + y cos β . Posashkov (1989). 2◦ . and C are arbitrary constants. Galaktionov and S. t) = C2 1 + F (x. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). ∂x ∂y 1◦ . . y ) is any solution of the stationary equation ∂F ∂ ∂F β ∂ |∇F | + |∇F | + κ F 2 = 0. C4 and β are arbitrary constants.2. A. A. k2 . A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . References for equation 2. |∇w|2 = ∂w ∂w + . There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. Polyanin. y ) is any solution of the stationary equation ∂Θ ∂ |∇Θ| ∂x ∂x "¤# + ∂ ∂Θ |∇Θ| ∂y ∂y $ κ Θ 2 = µΘ . A. A. ∂w ∂t =α ∂ ∂x |∇w| 2 ∂w ∂x + 2 ∂ ∂y |∇w| ∂w ∂y + βw2 . D.

154

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

2.2. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities
2.2.1. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + aeλw ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
1. ∂ ∂w ∂w = axn ∂t ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂w by m ∂y ∂y + ceλw .

This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.1 with f (w) = ceλw . 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function 1 ln C1 , λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. w1 = w C12−n x, C12−m y , C1 t + C2 + 2◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = U (r, t), r2 = y 2−m x2−n + ; 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 z1 = xt n−2 , + ceβw .
1 1 1

w(x, y , t) = V (z1 , z2 ) − 2. ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y

1 ln t, λ ∂w ∂y

z2 = yt m−2 .

1

beλy

This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.3 with f (w) = ceβw . 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function w1 = w C12−n x, y −
1

1 1 ln C1 , C1 t + C2 + ln C1 , λ β

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = U (r, t), r2 = e−λy x2−n + ; 2 a(2 − n) bλ2 z1 = xt n−2 ,
1

w(x, y , t) = V (z1 , z2 ) − 3. ∂w = ∂ aeβx ∂w + ∂

1 ln t, β

z2 = y +

1 ln t. λ

+ ceµw . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.2 with f (w) = ceµw . beλy 1 1 1 ln C1 , y − ln C1 , C1 t + C2 + ln C1 , β λ µ

∂w

1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function w1 = w x −

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = U (r, t), r2 = e−βx e−λy + ; aβ 2 bλ2 z1 = x + 1 ln t, β z2 = y + 1 ln t. λ

w(x, y , t) = V (z1 , z2 ) −

1 ln t, µ

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.2. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES

155

2.2.2. Equations of the Form ∂w = a ∂ eβw ∂w +b ∂ eλw ∂w +f (w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
1. . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional nonstationary heat (diffusion) equation with exponential temperaturedependent thermal diffusivity (diffusion coefficient). This is a special case of equation 2.4.3.3 with f (w) = αeµw . eµw eµw C2 1 ln 2 , µ C1 ∂w =α ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w

1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 3 , C 1 y + C 4 , C 2 t + C 5 ) +

w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t), where C1 , . . . , C5 and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form:
2 2 α (k 1 + k2 )

eµw dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 , λw + C1

where C1 , C2 , k1 , k2 , and λ are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” additive separable solution: w(x, y , t) = f (t) + 1 ln Θ(x, y ), µ f ( t) = − 1 ln(Aαt + B ). µ

Here, A, B , and µ are arbitrary constants, and the function Θ(x, y ) is any solution of the Poisson equation ∂2 ∂2 + . ∆Θ + A = 0, ∆= 2 ∂x ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation, see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 4◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = F (z , t), w(x, y , t) = G(r, t), w(x, y , t) = G(ξ1 , ξ2 ), z = k 1 x + k2 y ; r= x2 + y 2 ; η2 = y 2/t; ζ2 = ye−t , ξ 1 = k 1 x + λ 1 t, ξ 2 = k 2 y + λ 2 t;

w(x, y , t) = H (η1 , η2 ), η1 = x2/t, 2 w(x, y , t) = t + U (ζ1 , ζ2 ), ζ1 = xe−t , µ
%¤&

where k1 , k2 , λ1 , and λ2 are arbitrary constants.
Reference: V. A. Dorodnitsyn, I. V. Knyazeva, and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983).

. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 2. eβw eλw
β λ 2 y + C4 , C1 t + C5 ) − 2 ln |C2 |, w 1 = w (C 1 C 2 x + C3 , ' C 1 C2

∂w

=a

∂w

+b

∂w

where C1 , . . . , C5 are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

156

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

2◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x, y , t) = u(θ, t), θ = c 1 x + c2 y , where c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants, and the function u = u(θ, t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ ∂u βw λw ∂w = ac2 + bc2 . 1e 2e ∂t ∂θ ∂θ 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x, y , t) = u(ζ1 , ζ2 ), ζ 1 = k 1 x + m 1 t, ζ 2 = k 2 y + m 2 t, where k1 , k2 , m1 , and m2 are arbitrary constants, and the function u = u(ζ1 , ζ2 ) is determined by the differential equation m1 ∂u ∂w ∂u 2 ∂ + m2 = ak1 eβw ∂ζ1 ∂ζ2 ∂ζ1 ∂ζ1 w(x, y , t) = U (ξ , η ) + 2kt,
2 + bk2

∂ ∂w eλw . ∂ζ2 ∂ζ2 η = ye−kλt ,

4◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: ξ = xe−kβt , where k is an arbitrary constant, and the function U = U (ξ , η ) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂U − kλη =a eβU +b eλU . 2k − kβξ ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂η ∂η 5◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: y + C2 x + C1 , z2 = √ , w(x, y , t) = V (z1 , z2 ), z1 = √ t + C3 t + C3 where C1 , C2 , and C3 are arbitrary constants, and the function V = V (z1 , z2 ) is determined by the differential equation 1 ∂V ∂ ∂w 1 ∂V − z2 =a eβw − z1 2 ∂z1 2 ∂z2 ∂z1 ∂z1 6◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution (β = 1): w(x, y , t) = u(z , t) + 2 ln |x|, ∂ 2u ∂u = aλ2 z 2 eu + beλu + λ aλz 2 eu + beλu ∂t ∂z 2
(¤)

+b

∂ ∂w eλw . ∂z2 ∂z2

z = x −λ y ,
2

where the function u = u(z , t) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ∂z + aλ(λ − 3)zeu ∂u + 2aeu . ∂z

References: V. A. Dorodnitsyn, I. V. Knyazeva, and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983), N. H. Ibragimov (1994).

∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w =a eλ1 w +b eλ2 w + ceβw . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 3.
β −λ 1 β −λ 2 2β x + C2 , 0 C 1 y + C3 , C1 t + C4 ) + 2 ln |C1 |, w1 = w ( 0 C 1

where C1 , . . . , C4 are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs can be chosen arbitrarily). 2◦ . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x, y , t) = U (ξ , η ) −
(¤)

1 ln t, β

ξ = xt

λ 1 −β 2β

,

η = yt

λ 2 −β 2β

.

References: V. A. Dorodnitsyn, I. V. Knyazeva, and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983), N. H. Ibragimov (1994).

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.3. OTHER EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS

157

4.

∂w ∂t

∂ ∂x

eµw

∂w ∂x

+

∂ ∂y

eµw

∂w ∂y

+ βeµw + γ + δe–µw .

The substitution w =

1 ln U leads to an equation of the form 2.1.4.2: µ ∂U = αU ∂t ∂ 2U ∂ 2 U + ∂x2 ∂y 2 + βµU 2 + µγU + µδ .

1¤2

References: V. A. Galaktionov and S. A. Posashkov (1989), N. H. Ibragimov (1994).

2.3. Other Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Parameters
2.3.1. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
– kw ln w. ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a nonstationary equation with a logarithmic source arising in heat and mass transfer theory and combustion theory. This is a special case of equation 2.4.1.1 with f (w) = −kw ln w. 1. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions w1 = exp(C1 e−kt )w(x + C2 , 3 y + C3 , t + C4 ), w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t), where C1 , . . . , C4 and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . “Two-dimensional” multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = exp(C1 e−kt )Θ(x, y ), where the function Θ(x, y ) is a solution of the stationary equation a ∂ 2Θ ∂ 2 Θ + ∂x2 ∂y 2 − k Θ ln Θ = 0. ∂w =a ∂2w + ∂2w

This equation has a particular solution of the form Θ = exp(A1 x2 + A2 xy + A3 y 2 + A4 x + A5 y + A6 ), where the coefficients Ak are determined by an algebraic system of equations. 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution with incomplete separation of variables (the solution is separable in the space variables x and y , but is not separable in time t): w(x, y , t) = ϕ(x, t)ψ (y , t), where the functions ϕ(x, t) and ψ (y , t) are determined by solving two independent one-dimensional nonlinear parabolic differential equations: ∂2ϕ ∂ϕ = a 2 − kϕ ln ϕ, ∂t ∂x ∂2ψ ∂ψ = a 2 − kψ ln ψ . ∂t ∂y For solutions of these equations, see 1.6.1.4 with f (t) = 0. 4◦ . There are exact solutions in the form of the product of functions representing two independent traveling waves: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(ξ )ψ (η ),
1¤2

ξ = a 1 x + b 1 t,

η = a 2 y + b 2 t,

where a1 , b1 , a2 , and b2 are arbitrary constants. This solution is a special case of the solution presented in Item 3◦ .
References: V. A. Dorodnitsyn, I. V. Knyazeva, and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983), V. K. Andreev, O. V. Kaptsov, V. V. Pukhnachov, and A. A. Rodionov (1999), A. D. Polyanin and V. F. Zaitsev (2002).

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

158 2. ∂w

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = axn + by m + cw ln w + 4 w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.1 with f (w) = cw ln w + s w and a special case of equation 2.4.2.4 in which a should be renamed c and b renamed s and then the functions f (x) and g (y ) should be substituted by axn and by m , respectively. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: 4 4 x2−n + y 2−m ; 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 w(x, y , t) = exp(Aect )G(x, y ); w(x, y , t) = H1 (x, t)H2 (y , t), w(x, y , t) = F (ξ , t), ξ2 = where A is an arbitrary constant. + cw ln w + 4 w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.2 with f (w) = cw ln w + s w and a special case of equation 2.4.2.4 in which a should be renamed c and b renamed s and then the functions f (x) and g (y ) should be substituted by eβx and beλy , respectively. There are exact solutions of the following forms: 3. aeβx beλy 4 4 −βx e + 2 e−λy ; aβ 2 bλ w(x, y , t) = exp(Aect )G(x, y ); w(x, y , t) = F (ξ , t), ξ2 = w(x, y , t) = H1 (x, t)H2 (y , t), where A is an arbitrary constant. 4. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w = axn + beλy + cw ln w + 4 w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.3 with f (w) = cw ln w + s w and a special case of equation 2.4.2.4 in which a should be renamed c and b renamed s and then the functions f (x) and g (y ) should be substituted by axn and beλy , respectively. There are exact solutions of the following forms: 4 4 x2−n + 2 e−λy ; a(2 − n)2 bλ w(x, y , t) = exp(Aect )G(x, y ); w(x, y , t) = H1 (x, t)H2 (y , t), w(x, y , t) = F (ξ , t), ξ2 = where A is an arbitrary constant. ∂w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w

2.3.2. Equations with Trigonometrical Nonlinearities
1. + c sin(kw + 4 ). ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.1 with f (w) = c sin(kw + s ). There is an exact solution of the form axn by m w(x, y , t) = U (ξ , t), ξ2 = 4 4 x2−n + y 2−m . 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 ∂w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.4. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

159

2.

∂w ∂t

=

∂ ∂x

aeβx

∂w ∂x

+

∂ ∂y

beλy

∂w ∂y

+ c sin(kw + 5 ).

This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.2 with f (w) = c sin(kw + s ). There is an exact solution of the form w(x, y , t) = U (ξ , t), 3. ∂ ∂w ∂w = axn ∂t ∂x ∂x + ξ2 = 4 4 −βx e + 2 e−λy . aβ 2 bλ

∂ ∂w beλy ∂y ∂y

+ c sin(kw + 5 ).

This is a special case of equation 2.4.2.3 with f (w) = c sin(kw + s ). There is an exact solution of the form w(x, y , t) = U (ξ , t), ξ2 = 4 4 x2−n + 2 e−λy . a(2 − n)2 bλ

2.4. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions
2.4.1. Heat and Mass Transfer Equations in Quiescent or Moving Media with Chemical Reactions
1. ∂w ∂t =a ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 + f (w).

This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat/mass transfer or combustion in a quiescent medium. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions w1 = w(6 x + C1 , 6 y + C2 , t + C3 ), w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t), where C1 , C2 , C3 , and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 can be chosen independently of each other). 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution: w = w(ξ ), ξ = Ax + By + λt,

where A, B , and λ are arbitrary constants, and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation a(A2 + B 2 )wξξ − λwξ + f (w) = 0. For solutions of this equation, see Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995, 2003). 3◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = F (z , t), z = k 1 x + k2 y ;

w(x, y , t) = G(r, t), r = x2 + y 2 ; w(x, y , t) = H (ξ1 , ξ2 ), ξ1 = k1 x + λ1 t, ξ2 = k2 y + λ2 t, where k1 , k2 , λ1 , and λ2 are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

160 2.

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

∂w ∂w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w + – f (w). +a +b = ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat/mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a steady translational fluid flow. The transformation w = U (ξ , η , t), ξ = x − at, η = y − bt leads to a simpler equation of the form 2.4.1.1: ∂2U ∂2U ∂U = + − f (U ). ∂t ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 – f (w). ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat/mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a steady translational-shear fluid flow. 3. ∂x2 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions w1 = w x + Cb1 eλt , y + C (λ − a1 )eλt , t , where C is an arbitrary constant and λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation λ2 − (a1 + b2 )λ + a1 b2 − a2 b1 = 0, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Solutions: w = w(z ), z = a2 x + (λ − a1 )y + Ceλt , (1) ∂w + (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w = ∂2w + ∂2w

where λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation (1), and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation
2 λz + a2 c1 + (λ − a1 )c2 wz = a2 2 + (λ − a1 ) wzz − f (w ).

3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = U (ζ , t), ζ = a 2 x + (λ − a 1 )y , where λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation (1), and the function U (ζ , t) is determined by the differential equation
2 ∂U ∂U 2 ∂ U + λζ + a2 c1 + (λ − a1 )c2 = a2 − f (U ). 2 + (λ − a 1 ) ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ 2

Remark. In the case of an incompressible fluid, the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 = 0. 4. – g (w). ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 This equation describes mass transfer with volume chemical reaction in an unsteady translational fluid flow. The transformation w = U (ξ , η , t), ξ =x− f1 (t) dt, η=y− f2 (t) dt, ∂w + f1 (t) ∂w + f2 (t) ∂w = ∂2w + ∂2w

leads to a simpler equation of the form 2.4.1.1: ∂2U ∂2U ∂U = + − g (U ). ∂t ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.4. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

161

2.4.2. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + h(w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
1. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w axn + by m + f (w). = ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat (mass) transfer or combustion in an anisotropic case with power-law coordinate-dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients). Solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(ξ , t), ξ2 = 4 4 x2−n + y 2−m , 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 − nm . (2 − n)(2 − m)

where the function w(ξ , t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation ∂w ∂ 2 w A ∂w + = + f (w), ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ A=

For solutions of this equation with A = 0 and various f (w), see Subsections 1.1.1 to 1.1.3 and equations 1.2.1.1 to 1.2.1.3, 1.4.1.2, 1.4.1.3, 1.4.1.7, and 1.4.1.8. 2. + f (w). ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat (mass) transfer or combustion in an anisotropic case with exponential coordinate-dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients). Solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: aeβx beλy w = w(ξ , t), ξ2 = 4 4 −βx e + 2 e−λy , aβ 2 bλ ∂w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w

where the function w(ξ , t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation ∂w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂w = − + f (w). ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 3. ∂w = ∂ axn ∂w + ∂ ∂y beλy ∂w ∂y + f (w).

∂t ∂x ∂x Solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0:

w = w(ξ , t),

ξ2 =

4 4 x2−n + 2 e−λy , a(2 − n)2 bλ

where the function w(ξ , t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation n 1 ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w = + + f (w). ∂t ∂ξ 2 2 − n ξ ∂ξ 4. + aw ln w + bw. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional equation of unsteady heat (mass) transfer or combustion in an anisotropic case with arbitrary coordinate-dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) and a logarithmic source. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function w1 = exp(C1 eat )w(x, y , t + C2 ), where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

∂w

=

f (x )

∂w

+

g (y )

∂w

162

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

2◦ . “Two-dimensional” multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = exp(C1 eat )U (x, y ), where the function U (x, y ) is determined by the stationary equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ f (x) + g (y ) + aU ln U + bU = 0. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution with incomplete separation of variables (the solution is separable in the space variables x and y , but is not separable in time t): w(x, y , t) = ϕ(x, t)ψ (y , t), where the functions ϕ(x, t) and ψ (y , t) are determined from the two independent one-dimensional nonlinear parabolic differential equations ∂ϕ ∂ ∂ϕ f (x) + aϕ ln ϕ + C (t)ϕ, = ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂ ∂ψ ∂ψ = g (y ) + aψ ln ψ + bψ − C (t)ψ , ∂t ∂y ∂y and C (t) is an arbitrary function. 7¤8
Reference: A. D. Polyanin (2000).

2.4.3. Equations of the Form ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w +h(t, w ) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
1. + f (t)w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 9 9 n n −2 x + C2 , C 1 y + C3 , t , w1 = C1 w C1 wn wn ∂w =a ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w

w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t), where C1 , C2 , C3 , and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 can be chosen independently of each other). 2◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = exp f (t) dt Θ(x, y )
1 n+1

,

(1)

where the function Θ(x, y ) is a solution of the Laplace equation ∂2 ∂2 + . ∆Θ = 0, ∆≡ ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear stationary equation, see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 3◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) Θ(x, y ) n+1 , where the function ϕ(t) is a solution of the Bernoulli equation ϕt − f (t)ϕ + Aaϕn+1 = 0, A is an arbitrary constant, and the function Θ(x, y ) is determined by the stationary equation 1 ∂2 ∂2 + . ∆≡ ∆Θ + A(n + 1)Θ n+1 = 0, ∂x2 ∂y 2 The general solution of equation (3) is given by ϕ(t) = exp F (t) Aan exp nF (t) dt + B
−1/n 1

(2) (3)

,

F ( t) =

f (t) dt,

where B is an arbitrary constant.
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2.4. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

163

4◦ . The transformation w(x, y , t) = F (t)U (x, y , τ ), τ= F n (t) dt, F (t) = exp f (t) dt

leads to a simpler equation of the form 2.1.2.4: ∂ ∂U ∂U =a Un ∂τ ∂x ∂x 2. ∂w =a ∂ eµw ∂w + ∂ eµw ∂w + ∂ ∂U Un ∂y ∂y .

+ f (t). ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 2 ln |C1 |, µ w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t), w1 = w C1 x + C2 , @ C 1 y + C 3 , t −

where C1 , C2 , C3 , and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Additive separable solution: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + 1 ln Θ(x, y ), µ (1)

where the function ϕ = ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕt + A(a/µ) exp(µϕ) − f (t) = 0, and the function Θ(x, y ) is a solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation ∆Θ + A = 0, ∆≡ ∂2 ∂2 + . ∂x2 ∂y 2 (2)

The general solution of equation (1) is given by ϕ ( t) = F ( t) − 1 ln B + Aa µ exp µF (t) dt , F ( t) = f (t) dt. (3)

For solutions of the linear stationary equation (2), see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). Note that equations (1), (2) and relation (3) involve arbitrary constants A and B . 3◦ . The transformation w(x, y , t) = U (x, y , τ ) + F (t), τ= exp[µF (t)] dt, F ( t) = f (t) dt,

leads to a simpler equation of the form 2.2.2.1: ∂ ∂U ∂U =a eµU ∂τ ∂x ∂x 3. ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ ∂U eµU ∂y ∂y .

. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional nonlinear heat and mass transfer equation for an anisotropic medium.
2 w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 , C 1 y + C 3 , C 1 t + C4 ), w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β , x sin β + y cos β , t),

1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions

where C1 , . . . , C4 and β are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation.
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164

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: f (w) dw 2 2 = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 , (k 1 + k2 ) λw + C1 where C1 , C2 , k1 , k2 , and λ are arbitrary constants. x2 + y 2 , t where the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x, y , t) = U (ξ ), ξ= [ξf (U )Uξ ]ξ + 1 4 ξUξ = 0. 4◦ . “Two-dimensional” solutions (for the axisymmetric problems): w(x, y , t) = V (r, t), r= x2 + y 2 , where the function V = V (r, t) is determined by the differential equation ∂V 1 ∂ ∂V rf (V ) . = ∂t r ∂r ∂r
A¤B

3◦ . Solution:

5◦ . For other “two-dimensional” solutions, see equation 2.4.3.4 with g (w) = f (w).
Reference: V. A. Dorodnitsyn, I. V. Knyazeva, and S. R. Svirshchevskii (1983).

. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a two-dimensional unsteady heat and mass transfer equation in an anisotropic case with arbitrary coordinate-dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients). 4. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions
2 t + C4 ), w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 2 , C C 1 y + C 3 , C 1

∂w

=

f (w )

∂w

+

g (w )

∂w

where C1 , . . . , C4 are arbitrary constants, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form:
2 2 k1 f (w ) + k 2 g (w ) dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 , λw + C1 where C1 , C2 , k1 , k2 , and λ are arbitrary constants.

3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x, y , t) = U (z , t), ∂ ∂U ∂U = ϕ (U ) , ∂t ∂z ∂z w(x, y , t) = V (ζ1 , ζ2 ), 5◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution: z = k 1 x + k2 y ,
2 2 ϕ (U ) = k 1 f (U ) + k 2 g (U ).

where the function U = U (z , t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 1.6.15.1:

4◦ . There are more complicated “two-dimensional” solutions of the form ζ 1 = a 1 x + a 2 y + a 3 t, ζ 2 = b 1 x + b 2 y + b 3 t.

y x ξ= √ , η= √ , at at where a ≠ 0 is any number and the function W = W (ξ , η ) is determined by the differential equation w(x, y , t) = W (ξ , η ), ∂W ∂ f (W ) ∂ξ ∂ξ + ∂ ∂W g (W ) ∂η ∂η + a ∂W a ∂W ξ + η = 0. 2 ∂ξ 2 ∂η

6◦ . For group classification of the equation in question, see Dorodnitsyn, Knyazeva, and Svirshchevskii (1983).
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2.4. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

165

2.4.4. Other Equations Linear in the Highest Derivatives
∂2w ∂2w ∂w + + f (w ) = ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 The substitution 1. U= F (w) dw, ∂w ∂x
2

+

∂w ∂y

2

.

where F (w) = exp

f (w) dw ,

∂ 2U ∂ 2 U ∂U = + . ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this equation, see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 2. ∂2w ∂2w ∂w = aw + f (t) + + bw2 + g (t)w + h(t), ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x, y ), where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = bϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h(t), ψt = bϕ − βf (t) + g (t) ψ , ∆Θ + β Θ = 0, ∆≡ β = b/a, (1) (2) a ≠ 0.

leads to the linear heat equation

and the function Θ(x, y ) is any solution of the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation ∂2 ∂2 + . (3) 2 ∂x ∂y 2 The first equation (1) is independent of ψ and is a Riccati equation for ϕ. In Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003), many exact solutions of equation (1) for various g (t) and h(t) are presented. Solving equation (1) followed by substituting the expression of ϕ = ϕ(t) into (2), we arrive at a linear equation for ψ = ψ (t), which is easy to integrate. In the special case B = 0, a solution of system (1), (2) is given by ϕ(t) = exp G(t) A+ h(t) exp −G(t) dt , F ( t) = f (t) dt, G ( t) = g (t) dt,

ψ (t) = B exp G(t) − βF (t) ,

where A and B are arbitrary constants. For solutions of the linear stationary equation (3), see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 3. ∂w ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ◦ 1 . Generalized separable solution: = aw ∂2w + ∂2w –a ∂w ∂x
2

+

∂w ∂y

2

+ f (t).

w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)eβx+γy , where β and γ are arbitrary constants and the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = f (t), Solving this system yields the solution w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + A exp βx + γy + a(β 2 + γ 2 ) where A and B are arbitrary constants.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

ψt = a(β 2 + γ 2 )ϕψ . ϕ(t) dt , ϕ(t) = f (t) dt + B ,

166

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

2◦ . There are generalized separable solutions of the following forms: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)(A1 cosh µx + A2 sinh µx) + χ(t)(B1 cos µy + B2 sin µy ), w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)(A1 cos µx + A2 sin µx) + χ(t)(B1 cosh µy + B2 sinh µy ), where A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , and µ are arbitrary constants, and the functions ϕ(t), ψ (t), and χ(t) are determined by a system of ordinary differential equations (not written out here). 3◦ . There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)F (x) + χ(t)G(y ) + η (t)H (x)P (y ), where F (x) = A1 cos 2µx + A2 sin 2µx, H (x) = C1 cos µx + C2 sin µx, G(y ) = B1 cosh 2µy + B2 sinh 2µy , P (y ) = D1 cosh µy + D2 sinh µy ,

where the constants A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 , D1 , D2 , and µ are related by two constraints, and the functions ϕ(t), ψ (t), χ(t), and η (t) are determined by a system of ordinary differential equations (not written out here). . ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This equation describes unsteady anisotropic heat/mass transfer in a steady translational-shear fluid flow. 4. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the functions w1,2 = w x + Cb1 eλt , y + C (λ − a1 )eλt , t , where C is an arbitrary constant, and λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation λ2 − (a1 + b2 )λ + a1 b2 − a2 b1 = 0, are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . Solutions: w = w(z ), z = a2 x + (λ − a1 )y + Ceλt , (2) (1) ∂w + (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w

where λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation (1), and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation λz + a2 c1 + (λ − a1 )c2 wz = [ϕ(w)wz ]wz , 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = U (ζ , t), ζ = a 2 x + (λ − a 1 )y , (3)
2 ϕ (w ) = a 2 2 f (w ) + (λ − a1 ) g (w ).

where λ = λ1,2 are roots of the quadratic equation (1), and the function U (ζ , t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂U + [λζ + a2 c1 + (λ − a1 )c2 ] = ϕ (U ) , ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ
2 ϕ (U ) = a 2 2 f (U ) + (λ − a1 ) g (U ).

Remark 1. A more general equation, with an additional term h(w) on the right-hand side, where h is an arbitrary function, also has solutions of the forms (2) and (3). Remark 2. In the case of an incompressible fluid, the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 = 0.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.4. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS

167

5.

∂w = f (w)L [w] + g (t)w + h(t). ∂t Here, L is an arbitrary linear differential operator with respect to the space variables x, y (the operator is independent of t). “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution: w(x, y , t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x, y ), where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are given by ϕ(t) = eG(t) A + h(t)e−G(t) dt , ψ (t) = BeG(t) , G ( t) = g (t) dt,

A is an arbitrary constant, and the function Θ(x, y ) is a solution of the linear stationary equation L [Θ] = 0. Remark 1. In the equation under consideration, the order of the linear operator L and the number of space variables can be any. The coefficients of L can be dependent on the space variables. Remark 2. The above remains valid if f (w) in the equation is substituted by a function f (x, y , t, w). In the special case f (x, y , t, w) = f1 (t) + αw, L [w] = ∆w + βw, where ∆ is the Laplace operator, α and β are some constants, we obtain an equation of the form 2.4.4.2. + kw ln w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is an equation of unsteady heat (mass) transfer or combustion in an anisotropic case with arbitrary coordinate-dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) and a logarithmic source. 6. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, y , t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function w1 = exp(C1 ekt )w(x, y , t + C2 ), where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = exp(C1 ekt )Θ(x, y ), where the function U (x, y ) satisfies the stationary equation ∂U ∂ f (x, y ) ∂x ∂x 7. ∂w = ∂ f1 (x, t) ∂w + ∂ + ∂ ∂U g (x, y ) ∂y ∂y ∂w + kU ln U = 0. ∂w = ∂ f (x , y ) ∂w + ∂ g (x , y ) ∂w

+ g1 (x, t) + g2 (y , t) w + h(t)w ln w. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Exact solution with incomplete separation of variables (the solution is separable in the space variables x and y , but is not separable in time t): w(x, y , t) = ϕ(x, t)ψ (y , t).

f2 (y , t)

Here, the functions ϕ(x, t) and ψ (y , t) are determined from the two one-dimensional nonlinear parabolic differential equations ∂ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ = f1 (x, t) + g1 (x, t)ϕ + h(t)ϕ ln ϕ + C (t)ϕ, ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂ ∂ψ ∂ψ = f 2 ( y , t) + g2 (y , t)ψ + h(t)ψ ln ψ − C (t)ψ , ∂t ∂y ∂y where C (t) is an arbitrary function.
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

168 8.

PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w + f ( x , y ) = f 1 (x , y ) + f ( x , y ) 2 3 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂w ∂w + g 2 (x , y ) + h(x, y ) + D (t) w + kw ln w. + g 1 (x , y ) ∂x ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x, y , t) = exp Aekt + ekt e−kt s (t) dt Θ(x, y ),

where A is an arbitrary constant, and the function Θ(x, y ) is a solution of the stationary equation f1 (x, y ) ∂2Θ ∂2Θ ∂2Θ + f ( x , y ) + f ( x , y ) 2 3 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂Θ ∂Θ + g2 (x, y ) + h(x, y )Θ + k Θ ln Θ = 0. + g1 (x, y ) ∂x ∂y f (x, t) ∂w + ∂ g (x, t)w + h(x, t) ∂w

9.

. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y There are “two-dimensional” generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in y : w(x, y , t) = ϕ(x, t)y + ψ (x, t), w(x, y , t) = ϕ(x, t)y 2 + ψ (x, t)y + χ(x, t).

∂w

=

2.4.5. Nonlinear Diffusion Boundary Layer Equations
∂w ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w + f (x, t) + g (x, t)y = h(x, t) k (w ) . ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y This equation arises in nonlinear problems of the unsteady diffusion boundary layer (mass exchange of drops and bubbles with a flow, convective diffusion in fluid films), where the coordinates x and y are longitudinal and normal to the interphase surface, respectively. The transformation 1. w = U (ζ , τ , ψ ), ζ = yϕ(x, t), τ = τ (x, t), ψ = ψ (x, t), where the functions ϕ(x, t), τ (x, t), and ψ (x, t) are determined by the system of first-order partial differential equations ∂ϕ ∂ϕ + f (x, t) = −g (x, t)ϕ, ∂t ∂x ∂τ ∂τ (1) + f (x, t) = h(x, t)ϕ2 , ∂t ∂x ∂ψ ∂ψ + f (x, t) = 0, ∂t ∂x leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.6.15.1: ∂ ∂U ∂U = k (U ) . ∂τ ∂ζ ∂ζ (2)

The cyclic variable ψ does not appear in equation (2); however, it can be involved in the transformed initial and boundary conditions as a parameter. Integrating system (1) is reduced to solving a single ordinary differential equation: x t = f (x, t). In particular, if the functions f , g , and h are only dependent on x, the general solution of system (1) is given by ϕ = Φ1 (z )E (x), τ = Φ2 1 (z ) h(x) 2 E (x) dx + Φ2 (z ), f (x) ψ = Φ3 (z ),

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

2.5. EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES

169

where Φ1 (z ), Φ2 (z ), and Φ3 (z ) are arbitrary functions, and z =t−
E¤F

dx , f (x)

E (x) = exp −

g (x) dx . f (x)

Reference: A. D. Polyanin (1982).

2. f (x, y )z n–1

∂w ∂x

+ g (x, y )z n–1

∂w ∂y

+ h (x , y )z n

∂w ∂z

=

∂ ∂z

k (w )

∂w ∂z

.

This equation arises in nonlinear problems of the steady three-dimensional diffusion boundary layer (mass exchange of solid particles, drops, and bubbles with a flow, convective diffusion in fluid films), where z is a normal coordinate to the particle surface. To a solid particle there corresponds n = 2 and to drops and bubbles, n = 1. The transformation w = U (ζ , τ , ψ ), ζ = zϕ(x, y ), τ = τ (x, y ), ψ = ψ (x, y ),

where the functions ϕ(x, y ), τ (x, y ), and ψ (x, y ) are determined by the system of first-order partial differential equations ∂ϕ ∂ϕ + g (x, y ) = −h(x, y )ϕ, ∂x ∂y ∂τ ∂τ + g (x, y ) = ϕ2 , f (x, y ) ∂x ∂y ∂ψ ∂ψ + g (x, y ) = 0, f (x, y ) ∂x ∂y f (x, y ) leads to a simpler equation of the form 1.6.17.16: ∂ ∂U ∂U = ζ 1−n k (U ) . ∂τ ∂ζ ∂ζ (4) (1) (2) (3)

The cyclic variable ψ does not enter into equation (4); however, it can appear in the transformed initial and boundary conditions as a parameter. Suppose an integral of the ordinary differential equation f (x, y )y x = g (x, y ) has the form Ξ(x, y ) = C . Then the general solution of equation (3) is given by ψ = F (Ξ), where F is an arbitrary function. On passing in (1)–(2) from x, y to the new variables x, Ξ, one arrives at ordinary differential equations with independent variable x where Ξ appears as a parameter.

2.5. Equations with Three or More Space Variables
2.5.1. Equations of Mass Transfer in Quiescent or Moving Media with Chemical Reactions
1. ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w = + + – f (w). ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2

This equation describes unsteady mass or heat transfer with a volume reaction in a quiescent medium. The equation admits translations in any of the variables x, y , z , t. 1◦ . There is a traveling-wave solution, w = w(k1 x + k2 y + k3 z + λt).
© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

∂w + a1 ∂w + a2 ∂w + a3 ∂w = ∂2w + ∂2w + ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t). η . t) is determined by the ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u 1 ∂u + + ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 η ∂η − f (u). t) = ϕ(t)Θ(x. y . ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . 2 ∂t C ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂η Remark. B . A is an arbitrary constant.1. For f (t) = b = const. η . ∂w =a ∂2w + ∂2w + ∂2w η = (Bx − Ay )2 + (Cy − Bz )2 + (Az − Cx)2 . z ). “Three-dimensional” solution: w = u(ξ . ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 This equation describes unsteady mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a steady translational fluid flow. z . ξ = y + . η = (C 2 − 1)x2 − 2Cxy + C 2 z 2 . where A. t)Φ2 (y . ∂t ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 ∂ζ 2 3. and C are arbitrary constants equation ∂u = (A 2 + B 2 + C 2 ) ∂t 2. x1 = x. 2◦ . ◦ 3 . There is a functional separable solution of the form 3 3 w(x. “Three-dimensional” solution: x w = u(ξ . η . y . y .1: ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U ∂U = + + − f (U ). ζ . η = y − a2 t. The transformation w = U (ξ . t)Φ3(z . x3 = z . ξ = Ax + By + Cz . t) is determined by the equation 1 ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u ∂u ∂u = 1+ 2 − 4ξ + 4C 2 (ξ 2 + η ) 2 + 2(2C 2 − 1) − f (u).170 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . t). x2 = y . y . 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ 3◦ .5. ξ = x − a1 t. respectively: ∂w ∂2w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂ + + = ρ + . η . and the function u = u(ξ . t). the Laplace operator on the right-hand side of the equation takes the following forms in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. where ϕ(t) is given by ϕ(t) = exp Aebt + ebt e−bt g (t) dt . r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . t).m=1 ϕnm (t)xn xm + n=1 ψ n ( t) x n + χ ( t) . For axisymmetric case. The solution specified in Item 3◦ can be used to obtain other “three-dimensional” solutions by means of the cyclic permutations of the space variables. z ) is a solution of the stationary equation ∂ 2Θ ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2 Θ + + + bΘ ln Θ = 0. C where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). There is a incomplete separable solution of the form w(x. 4◦ . the equation also has a multiplicative separable solution of the form w(x. ρ = x2 + y 2 . + f (t)w ln w + g (t)w. ζ = z − a3 t leads to a simpler equation of the form 2. and the function u = u(ξ . and Θ(x. z . t) = exp n. t) = Φ1 (x. η . a ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 – f (w). z . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂z 2 1 ∂ ∂w 1 ∂ ∂w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + = 2 r2 + 2 sin θ . y .

t .1: ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U ∂U = + + − g (U ). The transformation 4. t) is determined by the differential equation 2 ∂U ∂U 2 2 ∂ U + (λζ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 ) = (A 2 − f (U ). In the case of an incompressible fluid. ζ =z− f3 (t) dt leads to a simpler equation of the form 2. where the function U (ζ . c1 A1 + c2 A2 + (c3 − λ)A3 = 0. b1 A1 + (b2 − λ)A2 + b3 A3 = 0. Suppose w(x.5. λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). t) is a solution of the equation in question. η . and A 1 . 1◦ . Let λ be a root of the cubic equation (1) and let A1 . where C is an arbitrary constant. t). A2 . where C is an arbitrary constant. ξ = A1 x + A2 y + A3 z + Ceλt . and A3 be the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). since it is a consequence of the other two. ∂w ∂t + (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 ) ∂w ∂x + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) ∂w (2) 3◦ . ζ = A 1 x + A2 y + A 3 z . “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (ζ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . + f1 (t) + f2 (t) + f3 (t) = ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 This equation describes unsteady mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in an unsteady translational fluid flow. One of these equations can be omitted.5. (1) c1 c2 c3 − λ and let the constants A1 . A2 . and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 + c3 = 0. and A3 solve the degenerate system of linear algebraic equations (a1 − λ)A1 + a2 A2 + a3 A3 = 0. A2 . y .2. Then the function w1 = w x + A1 Ceλt . ξ =x− f1 (t) dt. A2 . z . 5. = + (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 This equation describes unsteady mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a threedimensional steady translational-shear fluid flow. η=y− f2 (t) dt. Let λ be a root of the cubic equation a1 − λ a2 a3 b1 b2 − λ b3 = 0.1. EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 171 ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w + + – g (w). t). y + A2 Ceλt . ∂t ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 ∂ζ 2 ∂y ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w + + – f (w). Solution: w = w(ξ ). 1 + A2 + A3 ) ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 Remark. A 1 . and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 (λξ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 )wξ = (A2 1 + A2 + A3 )wξξ − f (w ). and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). is also a solution of the equation. w = U (ξ . z + A3 Ceλt .

and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). One of these equations can be omitted. where g is an arbitrary function. A2 . Let λ be a root of the cubic equation a1 − λ b1 c1 a2 b2 − λ c2 a3 b3 = 0. 2◦ . (3) where C is an arbitrary constant. λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (ζ .172 6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t . 2 2 ϕ (w ) = A 2 1 f1 (w ) + A2 f2 (w ) + A3 f3 (w ). and A 1 . ζ = A 1 x + A2 y + A 3 z . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂U + (λζ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 ) = ϕ (U ) . y + A2 Ceλt . since it is a consequence of the other two. also has solutions of the forms (3) and (4). c3 − λ (1) and the constants A1 . A2 . is also a solution of the equation. A2 . and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (λξ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 )wξ = [ϕ(w)wξ ]ξ . z + A3 Ceλt . the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 + c3 = 0. and A 1 . z . and A3 solve the degenerate system of linear algebraic equations (a1 − λ)A1 + a2 A2 + a3 A3 = 0. Solution: w = w(ξ ). where C is an arbitrary constant. 1◦ . (2) 3◦ . A more general equation. y . Then the function w1 = w x + A1 Ceλt . ξ = A1 x + A2 y + A3 z + Ceλt . Suppose w(x. λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). A2 . Let λ be a root of the cubic equation (1) and let A1 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 2 ϕ (U ) = A 2 1 f1 (U ) + A2 f2 (U ) + A3 f3 (U ). (4) where the function U (ζ . c1 A1 + c2 A2 + (c3 − λ)A3 = 0. = ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This equation describes unsteady anisotropic mass or heat transfer in a three-dimensional steady translational-shear fluid flow. b1 A1 + (b2 − λ)A2 + b3 A3 = 0. with an additional term g (w) on the right-hand side. Remark 2. In the case of an incompressible fluid. and A3 be the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w + (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) + (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ f 1 (w ) + f 2 (w ) + f 3 (w ) . t). Remark 1. and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2).

A is an arbitrary constant. y . and Laplace operator in Cartesian coordinates x. F ( t) = f (t) dt. ∂t This is a special case of equation 2. z . t) = F (t)U (x. t) = ϕ(t) Θ(x. z . z ) ϕt − f (t)ϕ + Aαϕn+1 = 0. 1. EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 173 2. z ) is a solution of the stationary equation ∆Θ + A(n + 1)Θ n+1 = 0. z . z (cylindrical.5. the symbols div. ∂t 1◦ .6. = ∆(wm ). where B is an arbitrary constant. 2◦ . ∂w ∂w (1) where the function Θ(x. (2) (3) where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation .5. y . For solutions of this linear equation.5. y . ∂t The substitution U = w n leads to a special case of equation 2. y . gradient operator.4. Here. and other three-dimensional orthogonal systems of coordinates can be used instead of the Cartesian coordinates).2. and Θ(x. t) = exp f (t) dt Θ(x. 3◦ . = α div wn ∇w + f (t)w. w(x. y .5. spherical. y . y .2. and ∆ stand for the divergence operator. y . Heat Equations with Power›Law or Exponential Temperature›Dependent Thermal Diffusivity Throughout this subsection. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). y . ∇.5. ∂w τ= F n (t) dt. z . Using the transformation w(x. F (t) = exp f (t) dt . ∂τ = α div(wn ∇w) + f (t)w + g (t)w1–n . one arrives at the simpler equation 3. τ ). ∂U = α div(U n ∇U ). ∂t n © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z ) satisfies the Laplace equation ∆Θ = 0. Multiplicative separable solution: 2. z ) 1 n+1 . The general solution of equation (3) is given by ϕ(t) = exp F (t) Aαn exp nF (t) dt + B −1/n 1 1 n+1 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.4: α ∂U = αU ∆U + |∇U |2 + nf (t)U + ng (t).

7. Using the transformation w(x. y .1. one arrives at the simpler equation 5. F (t) = f (t) dt.4. t) = ϕ(t) + 3◦ . z ) is a solution of the Poisson equation ∆Θ + A = 0. the original equation was studied in Galaktionov and Posashkov (1989) and Ibragimov (1994). Solution for m ≠ 2 and n ≠ 2: 1. 1. y .5 for U = U (x.3. y . z . µ For solutions of the linear stationary equation (2).1.2. 1. A is an arbitrary constant.8. ∂t 1◦ . 2 a b(2 − m) c(2 − n)2 where the function w(ξ . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). see Subsections 1. t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation 2(4 − m − n) ∂w ∂ 2 w A ∂w = + + f (w). z .4.174 4. z . w(x. (1) Here.1. y . τ ) + F (t). Note that equations (1). µ where the function Θ = Θ(x. z .1. the original equation has solutions of the form 1 w(x. ξ2 = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ (2 − m)(2 − n) For solutions of this equation with A = 0 and various f (w). F ( t) = f (t) dt. y . z . with g (t) ≡ const and h(t) ≡ const.3.1.1 to 1. (2) The general solution of equation (1) is given by 1 (3) ϕ(t) = F (t) − ln B + Aα exp µF (t) dt .4.4.1. z ) is any solution of the Laplace equation ∆Θ = 0.4. y .5. (2) and relation (3) contain arbitrary constants A and B . µ Note that. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 1 ln Θ(x.1. t): ∂U = aU ∆U + bµU 2 + µg (t)U + µh(t).2.1. z )].3 and equations 1. ∂t Hence. y .2. 2. ∂w = α div(eµw ∇w + f (t). 4 y 2−m 4 z 2−n x2 + + . z ). t). y . y . t) = f (t) dt + 2◦ .3. t) = ln[ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x. w(x. A= . t) = U (x. z ). y . Equations of Heat and Mass Transfer in Anisotropic Media ∂ ∂w + by m ∂t ∂x2 ∂y ∂y ◦ 1 . ∂τ = a div eµw ∇w + beµw + g (t) + h(t)e–µw . and 1. ∂w =a w = w(ξ . y . and the function Θ = Θ(x. Additive separable solution: 1 ln Θ(x. µ where the function ϕ = ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕt + A(α/µ) exp(µϕ) − f (t) = 0. ∂w τ= exp[µF (t)] dt. Additive separable solution: ∂U = α div(eµU ∇U ).1 to 1. ∂2w + ∂ ∂z cz n ∂w ∂z + f (w). 1.5. z . ∂t The substitution U = eµw leads to an equation of the form 2.

y 2−m e−νz x2−n + + . t). and ν ≠ 0: w = w(ξ . t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation ξ2 = 4 4 − nm ∂w ∂ 2 w A ∂w = + + f (w). 3.1. t). µ ≠ 0. ξ ) is determined by the two-dimensional nonstationary equation w = w(x. t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation 1 1 1 ∂w ∂ 2 w A ∂w + − 1.3. 1.1. = + f (w).1. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = axn + by m ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Solution for n ≠ 2. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y Solution for n ≠ 2.4. ξ2 = 4 + ∂ ∂z A= cz l 4 − mn . 5. 1. Solution for m ≠ 2 and n ≠ 2: 4 z 2−n 4 y 2−m + . t). A=2 + + ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 2−n 2−m 2−l For solutions of this equation with A = 0 and various f (w).3 and equations 1.4.1.1 to 1.1.2. ξ2 = 4 + ∂ ∂w ceνz ∂z ∂z + f (w).4. t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation ξ2 = 4 n 1 ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w = + + f (w). and 1. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂w = aeλx + beµy ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Solution for λ ≠ 0. 2 ∂t ∂ξ 2 − n ξ ∂ξ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . a(2 − n)2 bµ2 cν 2 where the function w(ξ . 1.2.2. ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y Solution for n ≠ 2. 1. ∂w ∂z y 2−m z 2−l x2−n + + . e−µy e−νz x2−n + + . ∂t ∂x ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 2.1.8.1. 4.4.2. see Subsections 1. m ≠ 2.1. 1.1 to 1.2.1 to 1.4. and l ≠ 2: ∂w w = w(ξ . ∂w = ∂ axn ∂w + ∂ beµy ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z ceνz ∂w ∂z + f (w).2.3. b(2 − m)2 c(2 − n)2 where the function w(x. 1. and 1.3.1. ∂w = ∂ axn ∂w + ∂ by m ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z ceνz ∂w ∂z + f (w). a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cν 2 where the function w(ξ . e−λx e−µy e−νz + + . t).5.8.7.7.1.1. µ ≠ 0. see Subsections 1.2.4.1. ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ (2 − n)(2 − m) For solutions of this equation with A = 0 and various f (w).3 and equations 1.1 to 1.1. t) is determined by the one-dimensional nonstationary equation ∂w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂w = − + f (w).4.1. ξ . and ν ≠ 0: w = w(ξ . aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 where the function w(ξ . and ν ≠ 0: w = w(ξ .4. (2 − m)(2 − n) + f (w). EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 175 2◦ . ξ2 = ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w A ∂w ∂w =a 2 + + + f (w).1. m ≠ 2. 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − l)2 where the function w(ξ . A= .1. t).3.

c1 A1 + c2 A2 + (c3 − λ)A3 = 0. 2◦ . Solution: w = w(ξ ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . (4) where the function U (ζ . see Dorodnitsyn. ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 2 ϕ (U ) = A 2 1 f1 (U ) + A2 f2 (U ) + A3 f3 (U ). t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂U + (λζ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 ) = ϕ (U ) . Suppose w(x. 2 2 ϕ (w ) = A 2 1 f1 (w ) + A2 f2 (w ) + A3 f3 (w ). b3 c3 − λ (1) and let the constants A1 . A2 . Let λ be a root of the cubic equation (1) and let A1 . Let λ be a root of the cubic equation a1 − λ b1 c1 a2 b2 − λ c2 a3 = 0. and A3 be the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). ξ = A1 x + A2 y + A3 z + Ceλt . = ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This equation describes unsteady anisotropic heat or mass transfer in a three-dimensional steady translational-shear fluid flow. A2 . also has solutions of the forms (3) and (4). ∂w PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = f 1 (w ) + f 2 (w ) + f 3 (w ) + g (w). with an additional term g (w) on the right-hand side. b1 A1 + (b2 − λ)A2 + b3 A3 = 0. and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). 1◦ . A2 . In the case of an incompressible fluid. t). z . and A 1 . Remark 2. Knyazeva. y . λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). y + A2 Ceλt . and A3 solve the degenerate system of linear algebraic equations (a1 − λ)A1 + a2 A2 + a3 A3 = 0. A2 . where g is an arbitrary function. ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w + (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) + (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ f 1 (w ) + f 2 (w ) + f 3 (w ) . Then the function w1 = w x + A1 Ceλt . λ is a root of the cubic equation (1). where C is an arbitrary constant. t . and A3 are the corresponding solution of the algebraic system (2). 7. and Svirshchevskii (1983). A more general equation. t) is a solution of the equation in question. One of these equations is redundant and can be omitted. and A 1 . the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 + c3 = 0. 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = U (ζ . and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (λξ + A1 d1 + A2 d2 + A3 d3 )wξ = [ϕ(w)wξ ]ξ . (3) (2) where C is an arbitrary constant.176 6. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z For group classification and exact solutions of this equation for some f n (w) and g (w). Remark 1. z + A3 Ceλt . ζ = A 1 x + A2 y + A 3 z . is also a solution of the equation.

m=1 ∂2w + ∂xn ∂xm 3 c n ( t) n=1 ∂w ∂xn 2 3 + n=1 s n ( t) ∂w + g ( t) w + h ( t) ∂xn has solutions of the same form.5. See 2. ∂t For solutions of this equation. t) = k. x 2 . t) = A − βt + B exp α(κ 2 + µ2 + ν 2 ) At − 1 2 βt ∂w where A.2. gradient operator. ∂t There is a generalized separable solution of the form 3 3 ∂w w ( x 1 . B . The more general equation ∂w = ∂t 3 anm (t) n. 3. µ. cylindrical. ∂t 1◦ .5. κ . and Laplace operator in Cartesian coordinates x. spherical.l=1 ϕkl (t)xk xl + k=1 ψk (t)xk + χ(t). EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 177 2. the symbols div. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). D. z . = ∆w + f (w)|∇w|2 . ∇. ∂t There are generalized separable solutions of the form 3 3 ∂w w ( x 1 . Solutions: w(x. where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . 1. x 2 .5. ∂w leads to the linear heat equation ∂U = ∆U . t) = Ax + By + Cz − [α(A2 + B 2 + C 2 ) + β ]t + D. w(x.l=1 ϕkl (t)xk xl + k=1 ψk (t)xk + χ(t).4 with f (t) = −α. x 3 . = a∆w + f (t)|∇w|2 + g (t)w + h(t). z . 2◦ .4. y . = αw∆w – α|∇w|2 – β . z . Remark. 2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .m=1 ∂2w + ∂xn ∂xm 3 b n ( t) n=1 ∂w ∂xn 2 3 + n=1 c n ( t) ∂w + g ( t) w + h ( t) ∂xn has solutions of the same form. ∂t The substitution U= F (w) dw. and ∆ stand for the divergence operator. = αw∆w + f (t)|∇w|2 + g (t)w + h(t). y . Other Equations with Three Space Variables Throughout this subsection. The more general equation ∂w = ∂t 3 anm (t)w + bnm (t) n. y . g (t) = 0. t) = k. C . x 3 . 2 eκ x+µy+νz . and other three-dimensional orthogonal systems of coordinates can be used instead of the Cartesian coordinates. Remark. and h(t) = −β . and ν are arbitrary constants.4. 4.

(1) (2) (3) and the function Θ(x1 . z only (and is independent of t).m=1 pnm (x) ∂2w + ∂xn ∂xm 3 qn (x) n=1 ∂w . L [w] is an arbitrary linear differential operator of the second (or any) order that depends on the space variables x1 = x. ∂xn x = {x1 . and h(t) ≡ const. y . x3 ). 6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂w τ= f (t)Gβ −1 (t) dt..5. ∂τ which has a multiplicative separable solution U = ϕ(τ )Θ(x. ∂w = [aw + f (t)]L [w] + bw2 + g (t)w + h(t). Note that. x3 = z only and satisfies the condition L [const] ≡ 0: 3 L [w ] ≡ n.6 with L [w] ≡ ∆w. where A and B are arbitrary constants. In the special case L ≡ ∆. x2 .178 5. g (t).e. On solving (1) and substituting the resulting ϕ = ϕ(t) into (2). Nβ [w] is an arbitrary homogeneous nonlinear differential operator of degree β with respect to w (i. x2 . f (t). A large number of exact solutions to equation (1) for various g (t) and h(t) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). This is a special case of equation 2. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x1 . β = b/a. (1) . z ). with f (t) ≡ const. (2) is given by ϕ(t) = exp G(t) A+ h(t) exp −G(t) dt . ∂t Here. y . τ ). t) = G(t)U (x. this equation was studied in Galaktionov and Posashkov (1989) and Ibragimov (1994). and h(t) are arbitrary functions. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w = [aw + f (t)]∆w + bw2 + g (t)w + h(t). ∂t Here. x3 . L [Θ] + β Θ = 0. y . y . and h(t) are arbitrary functions. x2 . Using the transformation w(x. G ( t) = g (t) dt. which is easy to integrate. x3 }. a and b are arbitrary parameters (a ≠ 0). z . x2 . F ( t) = f (t) dt. one obtains a linear equation for ψ = ψ (t). x2 = y . where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = bϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h(t). a and b are arbitrary parameters (a ≠ 0). ∂t Here. ψ (t) = B exp G(t) − βF (t) . In the special case b = 0. f (t). α = const) that depends on the space variables x. z . Nβ [αw] = αβ Nβ [w]. the solution of system (1). There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x1 . G(t) = exp g (t) dt .4. 7. g (t) ≡ const. one arrives at the simpler equation ∂U = Nβ [U ]. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002) for solutions of the linear stationary equation (3). = f (t)Nβ [w] + g (t)w. x3 ) is a solution of the linear stationary equation Equation (1) is independent of ψ and represents a Riccati equation for ϕ. g (t). ψt = bϕ − βf (t) + g (t) ψ .

Equations with n Space Variables Notation: x = (x1 . c.5. Nβ [w] = a div(|∇w|β −1 ∇w) + bwµ |∇w|β −µ . x3 ). ∂t This is a special case of equation 2. where F (w) = exp ∂U = ∆U .5. G¤H Reference: S. w3 } and wn = wn (x1 . then equation (1) has also a traveling-wave solution. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). xn ). ∂t Vector Burgers equation. Nerney. E. ∂t F (w) dw. ∂w + (v ⋅ ∇)w = a∆w + a|∇w|2 + f (x. 2. Below are two examples of such operators: Nβ [w] = a div(wβ −1 ∇w) + b|∇w|β + cwβ . θ where θ is a solution of the linear heat equation 10. w = {w1 . |∇w|2 = ∂x2 k n k=1 ∂w ∂xk 2 .5. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). The Hamilton operator ∇ and Laplace operator ∆ can be represented in any orthogonal system of coordinates. ∂θ = a∆θ.8 with n = 3. ∂t This is a special case of equation 2. ∂w 9.9 with n = 3. J. 8. x2 . where a. leads to the linear heat equation The substitution U = For solutions of this equation. . . ∆w = ∇⋅v = n k=1 n k=1 ∂vk . ∂xk ∂ 2w . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and µ are some constants. (v ⋅ ∇)w = n k=1 vk ∂w . The order of the nonlinear operator Nβ (with respect to the derivatives) and the number of the space variables in the original equation can be any. b. The coefficients of N β can be dependent on the space variables.5. Solution: 2a w = − ∇θ . Schmahl. . . E. ∂t f (w) dw . ∂w = ∆w + f (w)|∇w|2 . U = U (ξ ). w2 .5. ∂xk 1. and Z.5. ∂t For solutions of this equation. If Nβ is independent explicitly of the space variables.2. where ξ = k1 x + k2 y + k3 z + λτ . Musielak (1996). t). + (v ⋅ ∇)w = ∆w + f (w)|∇w|2 . ∂w + (w ⋅ ∇)w = a∆w. EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 179 Remark 1. Remark 2.5.

Solution of the instantaneous source type for a = 1:   −n/(nm+2) r2 m 2 K − t 0 w= 2(nm + 2) t2/(nm+2)  0 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1/m if r ≤ K0 t1/(nm+2) . ∂t There is a functional separable solution of the form n n w(x1 . 3. . Reference: A. ∂w ∂t = f1 (t)∆w + f2 (t)|∇w|2 + f3 (t)w + n n gij (t)xi xj + i. Solutions in the radially symmetric case: n 1 2 2 − r + Bet . A. ∂w ∂t = f1 (t)w∆w + f2 (t)|∇w|2 + f3 (t)w + gij (t)xi xj + i. . r = x2 1 + · · · + xn . A < 1. Samarskii. In the radially symmetric case the equation is written as a ∂ ∂w ∂w = n−1 rn−1 wm . where A and B are arbitrary constants. . 5. Let f (t) = 1. Let f (t) = 1. . and A. t) = exp i. if r > K0 t1/(nm+2) . t) = i. ∂t r ∂r ∂r r= 2 x2 1 + · · · + xn . .j =1 ϕij (t)xi xj + i=1 ψi (t)xi + χ(t). 1◦ .1. . Kurdyumov.j =1 ϕij (t)xi xj + i=1 n ψi (t)xi + χ(t). n 4. 2◦ .180 2. Galaktionov.9. A > 1. Example 2. where A and B are arbitrary constants. S. . g (t) = −1.j =1 i=1 hi (t)xi + p(t). this equation describes the flow of a polytropic gas through a homogeneous porous medium (w is the gas density). ∂w Its exact solutions are given in 1.15. x n . The first solution is a special case of the second solution as A → 0. g (t) = 1. ∂t For m > 1.j =1 ϕij (t)xi xj + i=1 ψ i ( t) x i + χ ( t) . . t) = i. xn . V. .j =1 i=1 hi (t)xi + p(t). 2 4 n 1 ln(1 − Ae−t ) w = exp − r 2 (1 − Ae−t )−1 + et B − 4 2A w = exp . There are exact solutions of the following forms: n n w ( x 1 . and h(t) = 0. where n should be substituted by n − 1. P. and h(t) = 0. There are exact solutions of the following forms: n n w ( x 1 . Solution in radially symmetric case: n 1 ln(Aet − 1) w = exp − r 2 (Aet − 1)−1 + e−t B − 4 2A I¤P . A. x n . = a∇ ⋅ (wm ∇w). P. . Example 1. . Mikhailov (1995). . PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w = f (t)∆w + g (t)w ln w + h(t)w. .

6. 1 m−1 3◦ . n 1−m ϕk k=1 .5. n ∂w w= k=1 −1 n ϕk A− k=1 x2 k ϕ2 k 1 m−1 . Zel’dovich and A. Ustinov (1985). G.5: ∂w = m∇ ⋅ (wm−1 ∇w). J. Solution for 0 < m < 1: n n w= k=1 ϕk A+ k=1 x2 k ϕ2 k . V. R¤S where A is an arbitrary constant. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t 1◦ . A. ◦ −1 1 m−1 2 . and the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations (1). The function ϕn = ϕn (t) is defined in implicit form by (the Cj are assumed to be positive) ϕn n−1 z B m j =1 (z + C j ) 2 m−1 2 dz = 2mt . 0) = E0 δ (x). E0 = const . . R¤S 1/m m/(nm+2) . m−1 R¤S where B is an arbitrary constant.5. satisfying the condition of constant energy: w(x. S. Rudykh and E.5. R.5. n − 1. . Semenov (2000). Reference: G. A. S. Pukhnachov (1995). (2) where the Cj are arbitrary constants. Barenblatt (1952). . t) dx = E0 = const > 0. B. Solution for m > 1: 6. . I. and the remaining ϕj (t) are determined by the positive roots of the quadratic equations (2). King (1993). References: Ya. I.j =1 i=1 bi (t)xi + c(t) . Titov and V. References: S. this equation describes the flow of a polytropic gas through a homogeneous porous medium (w is the gas density). It can be rewritten in the form of equation 2. There is an exact solution of the form n n w= R¤S aij (t)xi xj + i. Pukhnachov (1995). King (1993). See also equation 2. R. in which m should be substituted by m + 1. V. 2. References: J. Rn = ∆(wm ). EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 181 where K0 = π −n/2 Γ(n/m + 1 + 1/m) 2(nm + 2) E0 m Γ(1/m + 1) This is the solution of the initial-value problem with initial function w(x. V. V. 3◦ .2.5. and the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕ1 dϕn 2m dϕ1 = · · · = ϕn = dt dt m−1 2 ϕ2 j = ϕn + C j . other exact solutions are also given there. (1) System (1) admits n − 1 first integrals: j = 1. Kompaneets (1950). ∂t For m > 1. where A is an arbitrary constant (A > 0). x Q Rn .

. v is a prescribed vector function dependent on the space coordinates and time (but independent of w). and the function Θ(x1 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. . . xn ) is a solution of the Helmholtz equation (3) Equation (1) is independent of ψ and represents a Riccati equation for ϕ. . xn ). . ∂w ∂w (1) where the function Θ(x) satisfies the Laplace equation ∆Θ = 0. where F (w) = exp f (w) dw .182 7. Θ= F (w) dw. . xn . . A large number of exact solutions to equation (1) for various g (t) and h(t) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). . + (v ⋅ ∇)w = ∆w + f (w)|∇w|2 . g (t). one obtains a linear equation for ψ = ψ (t). a and b are arbitrary parameters (a ≠ 0). t) = exp f (t) dt Θ(x) 1 m+1 . The substitution Θ = ew leads to the linear equation ∂Θ + (v ⋅ ∇)Θ = a∆Θ + f (x. ∂t Here. There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x1 . For solutions of this linear equation. t). The substitution 8. . . . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). + (v ⋅ ∇)w = a∆w + a|∇w|2 + f (x. and h(t) are arbitrary functions. . ∂t 9. ∂t Here. f (t). ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕt = bϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h(t). which is easy to integrate. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∆Θ + β Θ = 0. On solving (1) and substituting the resulting ϕ = ϕ(t) into (2). ∂t 10. ψt = bϕ − βf (t) + g (t) ψ . . ∂t 1◦ . . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). where the functions ϕ(t). = α∇ ⋅ wm ∇w + f (t)w. ∂t Here. xn . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x1 . v is a prescribed vector function dependent on the space coordinates and time (but independent of w). . For solutions of the linear stationary equation (3). t)Θ. β = b/a. . ∂w (1) (2) leads a linear convective heat and mass transfer equation for Θ = Θ(x 1 . PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w = [aw + f (t)]∆w + bw2 + g (t)w + h(t). t): ∂Θ + (v ⋅ ∇)Θ = ∆Θ.

EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 183 2◦ . A(nm + 1) t∗ = (nm + 2)3 and decreases on the interval (t∗ . F (t) = exp f (t) dt . Kersner (1978). where A(nm + 1) T0 = (nm + 2)2 nm+2 nm+1 ∂w nm+2 2(nm+1) . w= m  0 if V < 0. The general solution of equation (3) is given by ϕ(t) = exp F (t) 3◦ . Aαm exp mF (t) dt + B −1/m 1 1 (2) (3) . r = x2 V = At2/(nm+2) − 1 + · · · + xn . K. B. leads to a simpler equation: τ= F m (t) dt. Martinson and K. The transformation w(x. References: R. K. The solution has a compact support. where 11. T0 ). t) = ϕ(t) Θ(x) m+1 . where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the Bernoulli equation ϕt − f (t)ϕ + Aαϕm+1 = 0. [g (t)]−n/(nm+2) w= e 2 / ( nm +2 ) 2(nm + 2) [g (t)]  0 if r > r∗ (t). F. Martinson (1979). D. r∗ (t) = η0 1 + . where (nm + 2)2 2 2 t − r 2 . ∂τ 1 βm 1/(nm+2) < ∞. ∂t Solution in the radially symmetric case:  1/m  −βt/m r2 m 2 η0 − if r ≤ r∗ (t). A is an arbitrary constant and the function Θ(x) satisfies the stationary equation ∆Θ + A(m + 1)Θ m+1 = 0.2. For α = 1. The diameter of the support increases with t on the time interval (0. A.5. Polyanin and V. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. = ∇ ⋅ (wm ∇w) – w1–m . ∂t Solution in the radially symmetric case for 0 < m < 1:   2(nm + 2) −1/m 1/m t V if V ≥ 0. Example. τ ). t∗ ). where B is an arbitrary constant. we have ∂w = ∇ ⋅ (w m ∇w ) − βw . t) = F (t)U (x. where 1 − e−βmt 1/(nm+2) 1 − e−βmt 2 . Here. βm βm The diameter of the support of this solution is monotonically increasing but is bounded now by the constant L = lim |r∗ (t)| = η0 1 + t→∞ T¤U ∂U = α∇ ⋅ (U m ∇w). F ( t) = f (t) dt. References: L. nm + 1 A is an arbitrary constant (A > 0). Pavlov (1972). L. T¤U The solution vanishes at t = T0 . The perturbation is localized in a ball of radius L. g (t) = 1 + r = x2 1 + · · · + xn . f (t) = −β < 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Zaitsev (2002).

t) = 1 ln ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x) . V¤W © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A.184 12. a where the function U (x) is determined by the Helmholtz equation f (w) = eat U (x) − ∆U + acU = 0. λ ψ (t) = exp λ bϕ(t) + f (t) dt . (2) (1) For details about the Riccati equation (1). Galaktionov (1994). For solutions of the linear equation (2). V¤W 14. Solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = at + U (x). 15. ∂w ∂t = ∇ ⋅ [f (w )∇ w ] + g (t) f (w ) + h(x). Solution in implicit form: b . Reference: V. 13. where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the Riccati equation ϕt = bλϕ2 + λf (t)ϕ + λg (t). and the function Θ = Θ(x) is a solution of the Helmholtz equation a∆Θ + bλΘ = 0. A. Galaktionov (1994). where the function U (x) is determined by the Poisson equation ∆U + b = 0. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). ∂w ∂t = ∆ f (w ) + af (w) + b f (w ) + c[af (w) + b]. For details about this equation. For details about this equation. where the function U (x) is determined by the Poisson equation ∆U + h(x) = 0. Solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = g (t) dt + U (x). Reference: V. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). see Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). ∂w ∂t = ∇ ⋅ [f (w )∇ w ] + a f (w ) + b. ∂t Functional separable solution: w(x. PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w = a∇ ⋅ (eλw ∇w) + beλw + f (t) + g (t)e–λw .

L is an arbitrary linear differential operator of the second (or any) order with respect to the space variables with coefficients independent of t. w)] + af (x. a where the function U (x) is determined by the linear equation 17. the operator satisfies the condition L [const] = 0. w) + b]. EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 185 16. w) = g (t) dt + U (x). the operator satisfies the condition L [const] = 0. L is an arbitrary linear differential operator of the second (or any) order with respect to the space variables with coefficients independent of t. w) + b where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the Riccati equation ϕt = bϕ2 + f (t)ϕ + g (t). ∂t f w (x . Solution in implicit form: ∂w f (w ) = g (t) dt + U (x). and the function Θ = Θ(x) is a solution of the stationary equation a∇ ⋅ (|∇Θ|∇Θ) + bΘ2 = 0. 20. ∂w = L [f (w)] + af (w) + b where the function U (x) is determined by the linear equation L [U ] + h(x) = 0. ∂w ∂w = L [f (x.5. Solution in implicit form: f (x. ∂t f (w ) Here. + g (x)[af (x. g (t) = L [f (w)] + + h(x). ∂t f w (x . the operator satisfies the condition L [const] = 0. where the function U (x) is determined by the linear equation L [U ] + h(x) = 0. L [U ] + ag (x)U = 0. L [U ] + ag (x)U = 0. w ) Here. ∂t f (w ) Here. and fw stands for the partial derivative of f with respect to w. a where the function U (x) is determined by the linear equation 19. Solution in implicit form: b f (x. Solution in implicit form: b f (w) = eat U (x) − .2. t) = ϕ(t) + exp 2bϕ(t) + f (t) dt Θ(x). w)] + + h(x). L is an arbitrary linear differential operator of the second (or any) order with respect to the space variables with coefficients independent of t. the operator satisfies the condition L [const] = 0. 18. ∂t Generalized separable solution: w(x. = a∇ ⋅ (|∇w|∇w) + bw 2 + f (t)w + g (t). g (t) ∂w = L [f (x. L is an arbitrary linear differential operator of the second (or any) order with respect to the space variables with coefficients independent of t. + g (x)[af (w) + b]. w) = eat U (x) − . w ) Here. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .

i + + ¨ dinger equation in question. where the functions fk = fk (t). 2 2 h3 + h 2 1 + h2 − Af3 = 0. . t) = (f1 x + f2 y + f3 ) exp i(g1 x2 + g2 xy + g3 y 2 + h1 x + h2 y + h3 ) . λ2 . Two›Dimensional Equations + A|w|2 w = 0. ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 Two-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity.6. x sin β + y cos β . t). C 1 ∂w ∂2w ∂2w w2 = e−i[λ1 x+λ2 y+(λ1 +λ2 )t+C5 ] w(x + 2λ1 t. where C1 .6. 2 2 2 + g2 − Af1 = 0. λ1 .6. Solutions: 2 2 2 − C3 )t + C 4 ] . g1 + 4g1 g2 + 4(g1 + g3 )g2 − 2Af1 f2 = 0.1. y . The plus or minus signs in the expression for w1 are chosen arbitrarily. . y + 2λ2 t.3 with f (u) = Au2 . y ) is determined by the stationary equation ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u + + Au3 − C1 u = 0. gk = gk (t). . . g3 + g2 h1 + 4g1 h1 + 2g2 h2 − 2Af1 f3 = 0. C5 . Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations 2. w3 = w(x cos β − y sin β . t) = C1 exp i [C2 x + C3 y + (AC1 − C2 2 (x + C2 )2 + (y + C3 )2 − 4AC1 C1 exp i + iC4 . 1. Then the functions 1◦ . . f2 + 2(g1 + 3g3 )f2 + 2f1 g2 = 0. are also solutions of the equation. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x.186 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ¨ 2. h2 + 2g2 h1 + 4g3 h2 − 2Af2 f3 = 0. t) = where C1 . This is a special case of equation 2. f3 + 2(g1 + g3 )f3 + 2(f1 h1 + f2 h2 ) = 0. y . w(x. t) = ei(C1 t+C2 ) u(x. X C 1 y + C 3 . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary real constants. and β are arbitrary real constants. Solution: w(x. C4 are arbitrary real constants. ∂x2 ∂y 2 4◦ . 3◦ . and hk = hk (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations f1 + 2(3g1 + g3 )f1 + 2f2 g2 = 0. y ). and the function u = u(x. w1 = X C1 w ( X C 1 x + C2 . t). 2 2 2 + 4g3 − Af2 = 0. The prime denotes a derivative with respect to t. . 2◦ . y . Suppose w(x. t 4t 2 2 w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . t) is a solution of the Schro 2 t + C4 ).1. . y . y .

ξ2 )ei(k1 x+k2 y+at+b) . where k1 . C5 . . .1. k2 . where k1 . . a.1: ∂2U ∂2U 2 2 + + A| U | 2 U − ( k 1 + k2 + a)U = 0.4. t) = Φ(z1 .1. This is a special case of equation 2. z2 ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. . t). C1 t + C 2 where C1 . and the function u = u(ξ . . The plus or minus signs in the expression for w1 are chosen arbitrarily. where C1 . y . y . . t) = U (ξ1 . ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 2 ∂ξ ∂η 2. t) is a solution of the Schro n n 2n x + C2 .¨ 2. y + 2λ2 t. k2 . ξ2 = y − 2k2 t.1: ∂2Φ ∂2Φ + + A|Φ|2 Φ − (k1 z1 + k2 z2 + a)Φ = 0.3 with f (u) = Au2n .3 with f (w) = Aw 2n . 2◦ . η ) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ∂u ∂2u ∂2u 1 + − iC1 ξ +η + u + A|u|2 u = 0. Then the functions 1◦ . and the function Φ = Φ(z1 . 3◦ . w3 = w(x cos β − y sin β .6. y . t) = √ C1 t + C 2 x + C3 ξ= √ . and the function U = U (ξ1 . 2 2 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 6◦ . 2n (x + C 2 ) 2 + (y + C 3 ) 2 AC1 C1 exp i +i t1−2n + iC4 . t 4t 1 − 2n 2 2 w(x. . t) = C1 exp i [C2 x + C3 y + (A|C1 |2n − C2 − C3 )t + C 4 ] . w1 = Y C1 w ( Y C 1 w2 = e−i[λ1 x+λ2 y+(λ1 +λ2 )t+C5 ] w(x + 2λ1 t. are also solutions of the equation. β . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. Y C 1 y + C3 .6. η ). C4 are arbitrary real constants. C1 t + C 2 y + C4 η= √ . 2 2 ∂z1 ∂z2 7◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. . C1 t + C4 ). see equation 2. y . Suppose w(x. z 2 = y − k 2 t2 . x sin β + y cos β .1. w(x. z2 ) exp i(k1 xt + k2 yt − 3 z 1 = x − k 1 t2 . and λ2 are arbitrary real constants. t). “Two-dimensional” solution: 1 u(ξ . A and n are real numbers. y .1. . . w(x. y . i ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + + A|w|2n w = 0. a. ξ1 = x − 2k1 t. NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS 187 5◦ . ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 Two-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with a power-law nonlinearity. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Solutions: 2 2 w(x. . and b are arbitrary constants. λ1 . For other exact solutions. ¨ dinger equation in question. “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 2 3 2 2 3 k1 t − 3 k2 t + at + b) .6.4. ξ2 ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. and b are arbitrary constants. . t) = where C1 .

2 with n = 1. i ∂t r ∂r ∂r which is a special case of equation 1. ξ = x − 2A1 t. . and the function Φ = Φ(z1 . are also solutions of the equation. and β are arbitrary real constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . η )ei(A1 x+A2 y+Bt+C ) . y . 2 2 ∂z1 ∂z2 7◦ . z 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. where A and B are arbitrary real constants. Suppose w(x. and C are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . 2◦ . y . η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. y ).1.4. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 6◦ . where C1 . + ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ¨ dinger equation of general form. z2 ) exp i(k1 xt + k2 yt − 3 z 1 = x − k 1 t2 .7. and the function U = U (ξ . For group classification of the original equation.1. η = y − 2A2 t. 3◦ .1: ∂ 2u ∂ 2u + + f (|u|)u − Au = 0. λ1 . where A. y + 2λ2 t + C2 . z 1 = a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 t. Two-dimensional nonlinear Schro ¨ dinger equation in question. C1 . t + C3 ). y . see Gagnon and Winternitz (1988) and Ibragimov (1995).1: ∂2U ∂2U 2 + + f (| U | )U − (A 2 1 + A2 + B )U = 0. λ2 . 2 2 − C3 . and the function u = u(x.4. where k1 . t) = ei(At+B ) u(x. i PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + f (|w|)w = 0. . a. t) = Φ(z1 . A2 . “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 2 3 2 2 3 k1 t − 3 k2 t + at + b) . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. C3 . w(x. t). C4 are arbitrary real constants. t) is a solution of the Schro w1 = e−i[λ1 x+λ2 y+(λ1 +λ2 )t+A] w(x + 2λ1 t + C1 . C2 . y ) is determined by a stationary equation of the form 5. . y . x sin β + y cos β . t) = C1 exp i (C2 x + C3 y + λt + C4 ) . y . y . t) = U (z1 . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. Exact solutions depending only on the radial variable r = x2 + y 2 and time t are determined by the equation ∂w ∂w 1 ∂ + r + f (|w|)w = 0. Then the functions 1◦ . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. and b are arbitrary constants. B . z 2 = y − k 2 t2 . t) = U (ξ . 8◦ .188 3. . z2 ) is determined by the differential equation ∂2Φ ∂2Φ + + f (|Φ|)Φ − (k1 z1 + k2 z2 + a)Φ = 0.5. k2 . w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. z2 ). ∂x2 ∂y 2 5◦ . λ = f (| C 1 | ) − C 2 2 2 where A1 .

¨ 2. Then the function 1◦ . where fk = fk (t). a. λ2 . Then the functions 1◦ . Suppose w(x. y . There is an exact solution of the form w = (f1 x + f2 y + f3 z + f4 ) exp i(g1 x2 + g2 y 2 + g3 z 2 + g4 xy + g5 xz + g6 yz + h1 x + h2 y + h3 z + h4 ) . . ξ3 ) is determined by the differential equation ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U 2 2 2 + + + A| U | 2 U − ( k 1 + k2 + k3 + a)U = 0. N. . ζ ) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u 1 + + − iC1 ξ +η +ζ + u + A|u|2 u = 0. gk = gk (t). ξ1 = x − 2k1 t.2. η . t) = U (ξ1 . y + 2λ2 t + C2 . ¨ dinger equation in question. Ibragimov (1995). . Winternitz (1988. 2 2 2 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 4◦ . C5 are arbitrary constants. 2. and λ3 are arbitrary real constants. The plus or minus signs in the expression for w1 are chosen arbitrarily. ξ3 = z − 2k3 t. ξ3 )ei(k1 x+k2 y+k3 z+at+b) . is also a solution of the equation. y . ` C 1 y + C 3 .2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 2 2 . It admits translations in any of Three-dimensional nonlinear Schro the independent variables. i ¨ dinger equation in question. ` C 1 z + C 4 . Exact solutions depending only on the radial variable r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 and time t are determined by the equation 1 ∂ ∂w ∂w + 2 r2 + f (|w|)w = 0.6. y .5. where A. 2◦ . . t) = √ C1 t + C 2 x + C3 ξ= √ . k3 . and hk = hk (t). t + C4 ). i ∂t r ∂r ∂r which is a special case of equation 1. Krasil’shchik (1997). k2 . 3◦ . S. . y + 2λ2 t. y . ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Three-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. and the function u = u(ξ . i ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + + + A|w|2 w = 0. Suppose w(x. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + + + f (|w|)w = 0. ∂t ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ¨ dinger equation of general form. ζ ). z + 2λ3 t. η . NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATIONS 189 2. Gagnon and P. t). z . A. z . C1 . C1 t + C 2 2 2 2 where C1 . 2◦ .6. C1 t + C 2 y + C4 η= √ . .2 with n = 2.2 with f (u) = Au2 . are also solutions of the equation. This is a special case of equation 2. w1 = ` C1 w ( ` C 1 x + C2 . . . z . M.6. and the function U = U (ξ1 . λ1 . λ1 . ξ2 . w(x. Three and n›Dimensional Equations 1.7. Solution: w(x. z + 2λ3 t + C3 . t) is a solution of the Schro w1 = e−i[λ1 x+λ2 y+λ3 z+(λ1 +λ2 +λ3 )t+A] w(x + 2λ1 t + C1 . Vinogradov and I. where k1 . . ξ2 . . ξ2 = y − 2k2 t. . and b are arbitrary constants. . λ2 . C6 . “Three-dimensional” solution: 1 u(ξ . where C1 . t) is a solution of the Schro 2 t + C5 ). C4 . C1 t + C 2 z + C5 ζ= √ . and λ3 are arbitrary real constants. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 ∂ζ 2 2 ∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ a¤b References: L. 1989). H. C 1 w2 = e−i[λ1 x+λ2 y+λ3 z+(λ1 +λ2 +λ3 )t+C6 ] w(x + 2λ1 t.

“Three-dimensional” solution: w = U (ξ . ∂z 2 + ρ= x2 + y 2 . Vinogradov and I. η . ξ=y+ x . M. i ∂t ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 η ∂η References: L. x2 + y 2 + z 2 . C η = (C 2 − 1)x2 − 2Cxy + C 2 z 2 .190 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 3◦ . = ∆w + | w | 2 w . H. Krasil’shchik (1997). z . y . 4◦ . Gagnon and P. ∂t This is an n-dimensional Schr¨ odinger equation with a cubic nonlinearity. η . Ibragimov (1995). r= r2 sin θ ∂θ ∂θ where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). “Three-dimensional” solution: w(x. Axisymmetric solutions in cylindrical and spherical coordinates are determined by equations where the Laplace operator has the form ∂w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂ + + = ρ 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ 1 ∂ ∂w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + = 2 r2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 r ∂r ∂r respectively. y . 1 ∂ ∂w sin θ . S. “Three-dimensional” solution: w = V (ξ . t) = ei(At+B ) u(x. and the function u = u(x. + ∂2w . Winternitz (1988. 5◦ . z ) is determined by the stationary equation ∆u + f (|u|)u − Au = 0. c¤d where A. y . t). i |w | 2 |∇w| − c¤d ∂w t 2 + i∇ ⋅ w ¯ ∇w − w∇w ¯ 4 1 2 |w | t x = 0. The bar over a symbol denotes the complex conjugate. and C are arbitrary constants and the function V = V (ξ . t) is determined by the differential equation i 1 ∂U + 1+ 2 ∂t C ∂2U ∂U ∂2U ∂ 2U 2 2 − 4 ξ + 2(2C 2 − 1) + 4 C ( ξ + η ) + f (|U |)U = 0. 1989). N. and the function U = U (ξ . ξ = Ax + By + Cz . t) is determined by the equation ∂2V ∂2V 1 ∂V ∂V + (A 2 + B 2 + C 2 ) + + + f (|V |)V = 0. where A and B are arbitrary real constants. η . z ). Conservation laws: 3. 2 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂η 6◦ . x + i∇ ⋅ (∆w + |w|2 w)∇w ¯ − (∆w ¯ + |w | 2 w ¯ )∇ w = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Reference: A. η= (Bx − Ay )2 + (Cy − Bz )2 + (Az − Cx)2 . η . B . t).

.1. + awn . t) = G(ξ ). Solutions: w(x.1 with f (w) = aw n . t) = (t + C1 ) 1−n u(ξ ). t) = F (z ). C2 .4. 4◦ . C 1 t + C3 .1.1. . x sinh λ + t cosh λ). Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities The general properties of equations of this type are outlined in 3.1. t + C1 ξ= where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (1 − ξ 2 )uξξ + The transformation 2(1 + n) 2(1 + n) ξuξ − u + aun = 0. w(x.1. Then the functions 2 w1 = C1 w   2 2 = ∂ w + aw + bw n + cw 2n–1 3. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). and λ are arbitrary constants. x + C2 . 1◦ . 1. w(x.Chapter 3 Hyperbolic Equations with One Space Variable 3. ξ = (t + C 1 ) 2 − (x + C 2 ) 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ξ = tanh θ . t) = b x + C1 t + C2 2 1−n 2 2(1 + n)(C1 − 1) b= a(1 − n)2 1 1−n 1 n−1 . 2 z = x + C 1 t + C2 . 2◦ .   w2 = w(x cosh λ + t sinh λ. C3 .4. Suppose w(x.1. 1−n (1 − n ) 2 2 u = (cosh θ) n−1 U (θ). k= 4 3◦ . traveling-wave solutions and some other solutions are also presented there. t) = k (t + C1 )2 − k (x + C2 )2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of the equation in question. The solutions of Item 2◦ are special cases of solutions of the following forms: w(x. 1 a(1 − n)2 . Self-similar solution: w(x. where C1 . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂2w = ∂2w n−1 n−1 C1 x + C2 .

(1 − n ) 2 Integrating yields the general solution in implicit form 2a n+1 4 U2 − U + C3 (n − 1)2 n+1 where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants. if b(n + 1) < 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Traveling-wave solutions for a > 0: 2b sinh2 z w(x. z= . ∂2w = ∂2w . Solutions: b(n + 1) a(1 − n)2 (x sinh C1 ¡ t cosh C1 + C2 )2 − w(x. z= √ a (1 − n)(x sinh C2 ¡ t cosh C2 ). t) = 2(n + 1) 2an w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.192 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE brings this equation to the autonomous form Uθθ − 4 U + aU n = 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . in which b should be renamed −a(n + 1) and c renamed b. Traveling-wave solutions: = w(x. t) = − a(n + 1) 3. t) = λ + C1 exp z 1 1−n ∂2w ∂2w . ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . Traveling-wave solutions for a < 0 and b(n + 1) > 0: 2b cos2 z w(x. t) = b 1 a(1 − n)2 (t + C1 )2 − (x + C2 )2 − 4 an 1 1−n 1 1−n .1 with f (w) = aw + bw n . z= 1 2 |a| (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¡ t cosh C1 ) + C2 .5. 2. where λ = λ1. + aw – a(n + 1)wn + bw2n–1 . z= 1 2 √ a (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¡ t cosh C1 ) + C2 a (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¡ t cosh C1 ) + C2 if b(n + 1) > 0.4. t) = − a(n + 1) 1 1−n −1/2 dU = C4 ¡ θ. + aw + bwn . .2 are roots of the quadratic equation aλ2 − a(n + 1)λ + b = 0.1. See also equation 3. 1 1−n 1 2 √ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1 with f (w) = aw n + bw2n−1 . 2◦ .1. t) = a(n + 1) 2b cosh2 z w(x.4. + awn + bw2n–1 .1.1. 4. ∂2w = ∂2w 1 1−n .

w) = az n wk . A=− c b2 − .1. + a(x2 – t2 )(xt)n wk . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. t.4 with f (z .4. 2 2 = a∂ w + f (x. Traveling-wave solutions for a < 0: w(x. The substitution u = w 1−n leads to an equation with a quadratic nonlinearity: u ∂2u ∂2u − ∂t2 ∂x2 + n 1−n ∂u ∂t 2 − ∂u ∂x 2 = a(1 − n)u2 + b(1 − n)u + c(1 − n). 3◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.4.4.1. Functional separable solutions: √ a β (k − 1) (t ¢ x) + (1 − k )eβt/2 w(x.4. 4.3. + a (x 2 – t 2 )w k . B=¢ − 2 . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.1.1 with f (w) = aw + bw n + cw2n−1 . w ) 3. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 1−k . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. a(n + 1) an a (n + 1)2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants (the expressions in square brackets must be nonnegative). B=¢ − . = ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = + aeβt wk .2 with f (w) = aw k . = ∂2w =a ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w + c(x + bt)n wk . 3.2. A=− b .4. For b = ¢ 1.4. 2 1−k . a(n + 1) 1 B=¢ w(x.5 with f (z . 1/2 1/2 b2 c b . 2 a (n + 1)2 an √ z = a (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¢ t cosh C1 ) + C2 . Traveling-wave solutions for a > 0: 1 √ w(x. w) = cz n wk .1.14 with f (ξ ) = cξ n and g (w) = wk . . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 193 5.1. t) = (A + B sinh z ) 1−n . see also equations 3.1. z = a (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¢ t cosh C1 ) + C2 .1.1. t) = C exp 4(k + 1) β √ a β (k − 1) (t ¢ x) − (1 − k )eβt/2 w(x.13 and 3. t) = (A + B cos z ) 1−n . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. 1◦ . 1/2 c b2 b . t) = (A + B cosh z ) 1−n .7 with f (w) = aw k . 2.1.4. A=− 1 z= |a| (1 − n)(x sinh C1 ¢ t cosh C1 ) + C2 . 2◦ . t) = C exp 4(k + 1) β where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂2w ∂2w = + aw + bwn + cw2n–1 . 2 a(n + 1) a (n + 1)2 an where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.

k 2a βt e +b . t) = w(x. A. Polyanin. Zhurov. and D. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w(x. V. ¤¦¥ . Reference: A. t) = w(x. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = + aw + beβt wk . Zhurov. A. D.194 5. ∂t2 = ∂x2 + k2 £ ∂2w ∂2w β2 k ≠ 0. 2 1−k where C is an arbitrary constant. and D. D. D. +4 Functional separable solutions: 7. ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: 6. Kazenin (1998). A. k 2a βt e +b . ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. Kazenin (1998). Vyazmin. Polyanin. ¤¦¥ Reference: A. A. ¤¦¥ Reference: A. A. t) = £ βkx C exp βt + √ k2 + 4 βkx C exp βt − √ k2 + 4 £ + + − − w(x. t) = √ k2 + 4 β √ k2 + 4 β √ k2 + 4 β √ k2 + 4 β 2a βt e +b . . I. k−1 4β (k + 1) £ [β 2 − (k − 1)2 a][β 2 − (k + 3)2 a] x − (k − 1) b eβt/2 β 2 − (k − 1)2 a 2 1−k + [β + (k − 1)(k + 3)a] t where C is an arbitrary constant. Zhurov. A. A. I. Polyanin. A. w + a2 e2βt + abkeβt – b2 w–3 . Vyazmin. k where C is an arbitrary constant. t) = C exp 2 . and D. w(x. V. V. I. t) = £ βkx C exp βt + √ k2 + 4 βkx C exp βt − √ k2 + 4 w(x. Kazenin (1998). k 2a βt e +b . + eβt (a + beβt )wk . Vyazmin. t) = C exp 2 k−1 4β (k + 1) £ [β 2 − (k − 1)2 a][β 2 − (k + 3)2 a] x + (k − 1) b eβt/2 β 2 − (k − 1)2 a 2 1−k + [β + (k − 1)(k + 3)a] t w(x. t) = 1 β (k − 1) 1 (t x) + √ a + 2 (1 − k )beβt C exp 2(k + 1) β b 1 β (k − 1) 1 (t x) − √ a + 2 (1 − k )beβt C exp 2(k + 1) β b £ £ ∂2w = ∂2w 2 1−k . A.

1.6 with f (w) = −aw k . A. A. k−1 4β (k + 1) § [β 2 − (k − 1)2 a][β 2 − (k + 3)2 a] t − (k − 1) b eβx/2 β 2 − (k − 1)2 a 2 1−k + [β + (k − 1)(k + 3)a] x where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.3. and D. Functional separable solutions: w(x. D. t) = § w(x. t) = C exp 2 k−1 4β (k + 1) § [β 2 − (k − 1)2 a][β 2 − (k + 3)2 a] t + (k − 1) b eβx/2 β 2 − (k − 1)2 a 2 1−k + [β + (k − 1)(k + 3)a] x w(x. . Kazenin (1998). ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂2w ∂x2 – aw – beβx wk . t) = § w(x. k 2a βt e +b . Vyazmin. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = C exp 2 . I. k 2a βt e +b . 10. Functional separable solutions: w(x. 2 1−k where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂2w ∂2w = – aeβx wk .4. . Polyanin. t) = § w(x. k where C is an arbitrary constant. V. k 2a βt e +b .1. t) = √ a β (k − 1) ( x § t) + (1 − k )eβx/2 C exp 4(k + 1) β √ a β (k − 1) ( x § t) − (1 − k )eβx/2 C exp 4(k + 1) β 2 1−k . A. t) = § βkx C exp βt + √ k2 − 4 βkx C exp βt − √ k2 − 4 βkx C exp βt + √ k2 − 4 βkx C exp βt − √ k2 − 4 + + − − √ k2 − 4 β √ k2 − 4 β √ k2 − 4 β √ k2 − 4 β 2a βt e +b . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 195 8. 9. ∂2w β2 ∂2w = – w + a2 e2βt + abkeβt + b2 w–3 . t) = w(x. Functional separable solutions: w(x. Zhurov. ¨¦© Reference: A. ∂t2 ∂x2 k2 – 4 |k| > 2.

t) is a solution of the equation in question. 12. r2 = A a(t + C )2 − x2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Solution (1) is a special case of the wider family of exact solutions w = w(r). t. Suppose w(x.196 11. Functional separable solution: w(x. ∂2w = a ∂ ∂w For n = 1 and n = 2. a > 0.  C1 t + C2 .1. 3◦ . There is a self-similar solution of the form w = t 1−m f (ξ ).4. 1◦ . 2◦ . t) = w(x. and the function w = w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + b m n+1 wr = w . r Aa (2) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. 4◦ .3. 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to equation (2) for specific values of the parameters n and m. this equation describes nonlinear waves with axial and central symmetry. w . Then the functions 2 w1 = C1 w  k−1 k−1 C1 x. respectively. t) = where C is an arbitrary constant. 2 1−k where C is an arbitrary constant. + ceax+bt wk . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 . where ξ = x/t. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = – eβx (a + beβx )wk . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. + bwm . .8 with f (w) = cw k . ∂w 3. t) = 1 β (k − 1) βx ( x  t) + √ a + 1 C exp 2 (1 − k )be 2(k + 1) β b 1 β (k − 1) βx ( x  t) − √ a + 1 C exp 2 (1 − k )be 2(k + 1) β b 2 1−k . Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂2w ∂2w 1. = 2 2 = a∂ w + f x. b(1 − m)2 a(t + C )2 − x2 2a(2 + n − nm) 1 1−m . ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. ∂x ∂x This equation can be rewritten in the equivalent form ∂t2 xn xn ∂ 2 w n ∂w ∂2w = a + ∂t2 ∂x2 x ∂x + bwm . (1) where the sign of A must coincide with that of the expression in square brackets.

2◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. and h(t) = s . and λ are arbitrary constants. Then the functions w1 = w( x + C1 . 2. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.  t + C2 ) + C3 cos(kt) + C4 sin(kt) if c = −k 2 < 0. t) = bm(x + λt + C ) (m + 1)(a − λ2 ) −1/m .1. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 197 ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = a + bwm . Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. C . 4b 2b c C3 cosh(kt) + C4 sinh(kt) if c = k 2 > 0. Then the functions m m t + C3 . 1◦ .  t + C2 ) + C3 cosh(kt) + C4 sinh(kt) if c = k 2 > 0.10 with f (t) = c. ∂2w =a ∂2w +c ∂w 2 5.4. 3. 3◦ . g (t) = k . ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w = a + b + cw +  tn . ∂2w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 3◦ . C3 cos(kt) + C4 sin(kt) if c = −k 2 < 0.2. Suppose w(x. where C1 .3. . 4.2. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Traveling-wave solution: w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ .4 with f (t) = s tn . Suppose w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. are also solutions of the equation. . + cw +  . w2 = w( x + C1 . C2 .4. and C3 are arbitrary constants.  C 1 where C1 . t) = − U ( t) = s 1 c 2 (  x + C 1 t + C 2 )2 + (a − C 1 ) − + U (t). + cw +  xn .2.5 with f (x) = s xn .4. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. There is a self-similar solution of the form w = t−1/m f (x/t).3 with f (w) = bw m .4 with f (t) = s .2.4. see 3. t) is a solution of this equation. m +1 A + bw (m + 1)(λ2 − a) where A. . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).4. 6. w1 = C1 w C1 x + C2 . 2◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.2. (1) where C and λ are arbitrary constants. Solution (1) is a special case of the wider class of traveling-wave solutions x + λt + C dw = . . For other solutions. ∂2w =a ∂2w +b ∂w 2 + bcw2 + kw +  .

there are generalized separable solutions √  w(x.1.8 with f (x) = bxn . V. and h(t) = ptk . ∂x ∂x There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in x: ∂t2 ∂x2 w = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). A. t) = s a(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − 4(x + β )2−n 1 1−m ∂2w = a (x + β ) n ∂2w . ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = a + bxn 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 2 + cxm +  tk .2. Then there are generalized separable solutions √  w(x. This is a special case of equation 3. t) = A + C1 exp(σt) + C2 exp(−σt) exp x −b . Galaktionov (1995. 7. ∂w 3. References: V.4. and h(t) = s tk . 2a(2 − n)(nm − 3n + 4) where C is an arbitrary constant.4. s= b(1 − m)2 . D. r2 = k (x + β )2−n 1 (t + C ) 2 − .4.2. 4 a(2 − n)2 where k and the expression in square brackets must have like signs.4. This is a special case of equation 3. Functional separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 1 ◦ ): w = w(r). t. ∂t2 ∂x2 This equation describes the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. kn2 (1) The substitution ξ = r 2−n leads to the Emden–Fowler equation wξξ = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (2) . w . 8.10. and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + n 4b m 2(1 − n) 1 wr = w . ¦ For more complicated solutions. 9. 2◦ . 1◦ . g (t) = s tm . ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = a + ctn 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 2 + bctn w2 +  tm w + ptk . . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w(x. 1◦ .2. + bwm . t) = A + C1 cos(σt) + C2 sin(σt) exp x −b .10 with f (t) = ctn . 2◦ . the case a = c was considered). 2 2 = f (x) ∂ w + g x. 2−n r k 4b(2 − n)2 4(1−n) m ξ n w . If 2Abc + k − ab = −σ 2 < 0. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x ∂2w =a ∂2w + btn ∂w 2 + ctk x ∂w 1. a > 0.198 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE Let A be a root of the quadratic equation bcA2 + kA + s = 0. see 3. F. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Polyanin (1996). Suppose that 2Abc + k − ab = σ 2 > 0. Zaitsev and A. g (x) = cxm .

1 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). Polyanin (1996). Zaitsev and A. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w(x. Special case. U Uw − U = a2 B 2 1 whose general solutions for m = −2. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ¦ 4◦ . There is a self-similar solution of the form w = t 1−m f (ξ ). − 2 . and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4b m 2 1 wr = w . wrr + 2−n r k The substitution ξ = r n−2 leads to the Emden–Fowler equation 4b(2 − n)2 − 4 m ξ nw . (1) wξξ = kn2 The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. t) is a solution of the equation in question. D.1. and the function w = w(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wyy − aBwy + bwm = 0. Reference: V. are also solutions of the equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC n 1 1−m m−1 m−1 2 t ∂2w = ∂ ∂w + C2 . (3) √ The solution of equation (3) with A =  B a is given by b(1 − m) y+C w (y ) = aB 1 1−m . the general solution of equation (1) is written in explicit form as C1 + where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . w = w(r). 2. t) = s a(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − 4x2−n where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂x ∂x This equation describes the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. r 2 = k (t + C ) 2 − 4 a(2 − n)2 where k and the expression in square brackets must have like signs. 8b w m+1 k (m + 1) −1/2 dw =  r + C2 . 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to equation (2) for specific values of the parameters n and m. 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to equation (1) for specific values of the parameters n and m. ∂t2 axn 1◦ . b(1 − m)2 . 3◦ . 2a(2 − n)(4 − n − nm) . where A and B are arbitrary constants.  C1 2◦ . 2 2 + bwm . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 199 The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. Functional separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): x2−n 1 . Solution for n = 2: w = w(y ). −1. Then the functions w1 = C1 w C12−n x. where C is an arbitrary constant. the substitution U (w) = aB b(A2 − aB 2 ) m w . y = At + B ln |x + β |. where ξ = (x + β )t n−2 . F. √ aB 2 − A2 wy brings (3) to the Abel equation For A ≠  B a. Suppose w(x.3. 0. s= . a > 0. For n = 1.

F. Solution for n = 2: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w = w(z ). 4◦ . 0. Then the functions 2−n 2 t + C2 ). √ The solution of equation (2) with A = ! B a is given by b(m − 1) z+C w (z ) = aB 1 1−m (2) . where C is an arbitrary constant. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. 2◦ . B . 2003). Integrating yields a solution in implicit form: 1 dw = ln z + C2 . Suppose w(x. Integrating yields Bξ dw =− . where A and B are arbitrary constants. whose exact solutions for m = −2. (1) wzz + a(2 − n)z The substitution u(w) = zwz leads equation (1) to a first-order separable ordinary differential equation. t) is a solution of the equation in question. ! C1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wzz + aBwz + bwm = 0. Solution for n = 2: ζ = xt n−2 . and the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wξξ + B (bwm − a)wξ = 0. m +1 bw − a(m + 1)w + C1 (m + 1)(aB 2 − A2 ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . "¦# Reference: V. 2 ∂w ∂2w n∂ w = ax + bxn–1 wm .5 with f (w) = bw m . − 2 5◦ . Zaitsev and A. z = a(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − 4x2−n 1/2 . and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 a(1 − n) + bwm wz = 0. z = At + B ln |x|. There is a self-similar solution of the form w = t 1−m f (ξ ). z = At + B ln |x| + C . the substitution U (w) = aB b(A2 − aB 2 ) m w . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(z ). w 1 = w (C 1 x. 2 2 3. 2b a ( 2 − n) wm+1 + C1 anw − m+1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. D. −1. 2 w = w(ξ ).200 4◦ . where ξ = xt n−2 . There is a self-similar solution of the form w = U (ζ ). 1 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. 3◦ . and C are arbitrary constants. √ A2 − aB 2 wz brings (2) to the Abel equation For A ≠ ! B a. where C is an arbitrary constant. are also solutions of the equation. 1◦ . U Uw − U = a2 B 2 1 . where A. a > 0. Polyanin (1996).3.4.

Integrating yields the general solution in implicit form C1 − 2c wm+1 k (m + 1) −1/2 dw = C2 $ r. $ C1 2 t + C2 .6 with f (w) = bw m and g (w) = cwk . ∂2w = ∂ aeλx ∂w ∂2w = aeλx ∂2w + cwm . 6. 4◦ . 7.3. (1) wzz + aλ z z akλ2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 3◦ . λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Functional separable solution for m ≠ $ 1 and λ ≠ 0: c(m − 1)2 (r + C 1 ) 2 w= − 2k (1 + m) where C1 . Then the functions w1 = C1 w x + m−1 1−m ln C1 .3. + cwm . 2◦ . aλ2 4 1 1−m .9 with b = aλ and f (w) = cw m . 1◦ . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. 5. where C is an arbitrary constant.4. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. a > 0. are also solutions of the equation. This is a special case of equation 3. 201 4. Suppose w(x. 2 ∂w ∂2w λx ∂ w = ae + beλx + cwm . aλ2 4 where the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + ck −1 wm = 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is an equation of the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. t) is a solution of the equation in question. r2 = 4k e−λx 1 − (t + C ) 2 . k = $ 1. and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation c 2(aλ − b) 1 w + wm = 0.9 with b = 0 and f (w) = cw m .4. z = 4ke−λx − akλ2 (t + C )2 1/2 . 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: 2 z =x+ a > 0. C2 .1. r2 = 4k e−λx 1 − (t + C 2 ) 2 . and k are arbitrary constants. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 2 ∂w ∂2w n∂ w = ax + bxn–1 wm + cwk . Functional separable solution for λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). a > 0.4. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.3.3. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. λ w = w(z ). 2 ln |t|. t) = |t| 1−m F (z ).

2 k (2b − aλ) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. w= 1◦ . . . and the function f = f (t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ftt = 2af 2 .5.5 with n = 1. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 1. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Solution: 2 2 w = U (z ) + 4aC1 t + 4aC1 C2 t.5. . . a > 0. Generalized separable solution: w = ( x 2 + C 1 x + C 2 ) f ( t) + ( C 3 x + C 4 ) f ( t) dt .1. D.1. ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 (U − aC2 )Uzz − 2C1 Uz = 8C1 . C4 are arbitrary constants. . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . For b = aλ. a(t + C3 )2 where C1 . f 2 ( t) &¦' where C1 .4.10 with f (w) = bw n . Zaitsev (2002). ∂t2 = aeλx ∂x2 + beλx wn ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 2 = aw n ∂ w + f (x. w = C1 xt + C2 x + C3 t + C4 . Reference: A. 8. F. 3◦ . the substitution ξ = z wξξ + brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation (2) 4(aλ−b) ac ξ 2b−aλ wm = 0. 2 ∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. For b ≠ 1 2 aλ. . . . 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to equation (2) for specific values of the parameter m. z = x + aC1 t2 + aC2 t.202 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE This equation has the exact solution w (z ) = 2kλ aλ(m − 3) + 2b(1 − m) c(1 − m)2 z 2 1 m−1 . The first solution is degenerate and the second one is a generalized separable solution.3. ∂2w ∂2w = aw . Solutions: 3x2 + C1 x + C2 + C4 (x + C5 )(t + C3 )3 . the general solution of equation (1) is given in implicit form by C1 − 2c wm+1 akλ2 (m + 1) 2b−aλ aλ −1/2 dw = % z + C2 . . w ) 3. 2◦ . Polyanin and V. C5 are arbitrary constants.

a > 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. 4.2 with f (x) = bxn . + beλx w5 . C1 t + C3 ). where the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2u − 2ξuξ + 4ξ 2 uξξ = auuξξ + b. t) = t2 u(ξ ). Then the functions 5. . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). ( C2 t + C4 ).3. 4◦ .4.1. )Uzz − 2aC1 Uz = 8aC1 (aU − a2 C2 5◦ . 2◦ . at2 t t 4 The first solution is degenerate and the second one is a generalized separable solution (another arbitrary constant can be added. (1) where A.4.4. C4 are arbitrary constants. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . + bxn w5 .4. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . 1 n ∂2w = aw4 ∂2w ∂2w = aw4 ∂2w ∂2w = awn ∂2w A2 (n + 2) k= a(2 − n) . where C1 . t) is a solution of this equation. ξ = xt−2 . . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) = k (x + 2 C1 ) n (At 2 + C 2 )− n . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 203 2. Self-similar solution: w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. and C3 are arbitrary constants. . w= 3◦ . 2◦ . Suppose w(x. C1 .2 with f (x) = beλx . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w = (C 1 t + C 2 )x + 2 C2 C4 1 3x2 + C1 t3 + 2 x + C3 t3 + 2 − bt2 . Solutions: 1 2 bt + C3 t + C4 . Then the functions −2 2 w ( ( C1 x + C2 . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 − b. The second solution in Item 2◦ is a special case of the generalized separable solution w(x. Solution: 2 2 w = U (z ) + 4aC1 t + 4aC1 C2 t. ∂2w ∂2w = aw + b. w1 = ( C1 where C1 . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. . C2 . Suppose w(x. 3. z = x + aC1 t2 + aC2 t. since the equation is invariant under translation in t). and C2 are arbitrary constants. w1 = (C2 /C1 )2/n w(( C1 x + C3 . . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)x + h(t).

it follows that g (t) = (At + C )−2/n .5 with n = 1. Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x.1. df = C4 ) x. t) = ) 0¦1 A(x + aλt) + B + aλ2 . where A. w(x. Solutions: 1 aA2 t2 + Bt + Ax + C . 1◦ . t) = (At + B )−2/n V (ξ ). C4 are arbitrary constants. . C . Tomotika. D. . Expression (1) is a special case of a wider family of multiplicative separable solutions w = f (x)g (t). t) = 2 w(x. . 2 x+A . and λ are arbitrary constants.6. k . −1/2 where C1 . t) = e−2λt U (y ). K. Tamada (1950). 1 a w(x. There are also solutions with the following forms: w(x. y = (x + A)eλnt . 2(n + 2) 4◦ . t) = w(x. t+B √ w(x. In particular. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂ ∂x w ∂w ∂x . A=) aλn2 . t) = (t + A)− 2k+2 n F (z ). t) = (At + B ) Cx + D. Reference: S. with C1 = 0. ξ = x + k ln(At + B ) + C . The general solutions of equations (2) and (3) can be written out in implicit form: C1 + C3 + 2aλ n+2 g n+2 2λ 2−n f 2−n −1/2 (2) (3) dg = C2 ) t.6. z = (x + B )(t + A)k . where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (t) are determined by solving the equations gtt − aλg n+1 = 0. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x + f (w ) 1. This is a special case of equation 3. . B . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)x + h(t). t) = −2 1 12 aA (At + B )4 + Ct + D + x(At + B ). w(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. where A.204 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3◦ . ◦ 2 . B . 2 = a ∂ w n ∂w 3. fxx − λf 1−n = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C .1. w(x.

and C3 are arbitrary constants. t2 h= 2 aC1 C3 1 1 + + C4 t2 + aC1 C2 t3 + aC 2 t8 . w1 = C1 w ( 2 C1 where C1 . C1 t + C3 ). g = g (t).2. Self-similar solution: w(x. k . the equation is integrable by quadrature. . t) is a solution of the equation in question. 3◦ .1. and. 2◦ . . ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + b. 4◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: ak 2 w2 − 2λ2 w = −b(kx + λt)2 + C1 (kx + λt) + C2 . htt = 2af h + ag 2 . Then the functions 2 −2 x + C2 . are also solutions of the equation. z = x + aC1 t2 + aC2 t.3. the equation can be made homogeneous. ξ = xt−2 . 1◦ . A particular solution of this system is given by f= 1 . and. hence. Solution: 2 2 w = U (z ) + 4aC1 t + 4aC1 C2 t. Another arbitrary constant can be inserted in this solution through the shift in t. t) = t2 u(ξ ). z = x + aC1 t2 + aC2 t. and λ are arbitrary constants. gtt = 6af g .1. where the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2u − 2ξuξ + 4ξ 2 uξξ = a(uuξ )ξ + b. Solution: 2 2 w = U (z ) + 4aC1 t + 4aC1 C2 t. Suppose w(x. the equation is integrable by quadrature. . . 3◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (aU − a2 C2 )Uz − 2aC1 U = (8aC1 − b)z + C3 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (U − aC2 )Uz − 2C1 U = 8C1 z + C3 . 2. v ) = au2 + b. C4 are arbitrary constants. at2 g= C1 + C 2 t3 . the equation can be made homogeneous. By appropriate translations in both variables. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 205 where the functions f = f (t). and h = h(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ftt = 6af 2 . This is a special case of equation 8. C2 . By appropriate translations in both variables.3 with F (u. hence. C2 . 2 4t t 2 54 2 where C1 . where C1 .

g = + C t .206 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 5◦ . C5 . where C1 . . and λ are arbitrary constants. w(x. htt = 2af h + ag 2 + b. ∂2w =a ∂ 1 ∂w 1◦ . A particular solution of this system is given by 2 C1 aC1 C3 1 1 1 1 3 . 2 ∂x a ∂t ∂t 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . The substitution w = u2 leads to an equation of the form 3. t) = (at2 + At + B )(x + C )−2 . √ ∂x w ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. where the functions f = f (t). t) = a 3 ∂2w 2 1 2 2 A ax + Bx + Aat + C . t) = where A. ∂t2 =a ∂ 1◦ . . B . Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. by substituting t + C5 for t. + B )4 + Cx + D + t(Ax + B ) . C . t) = (aA2 t2 + Bt + C ) cos−2 (Ax + D). and λ are arbitrary constants.6. t) = (aA2 t2 + Bt + C ) sinh−2 (Ax + D). t) = (Ax + B )2 (Ct + D). gtt = 6af g . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)x + h(t).1.5 with n = −1/2. C4 are arbitrary constants. Multiplicative separable solutions: where A.1. t) = w(x. h = + + C4 t2 + aC1 C2 t3 + aC 2 t8 + bt2 3 ln |t| − 1 . k .2: ∂u ∂2u 1 ∂ = u . w(x. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: λ2 w = ak 2 ln |w| + C1 (kx + λt) + C2 . . A(t + λx) + B + aλ2 . t) = (−aA2 t2 + Bt + C ) cosh−2 (Ax + D).4. .6. w(x. D. C . Another arbitrary constant. t) = (At + B )eCx . . 2◦ . 1 ∂w . 4. t) = w(x. C2 . w(x. ∂t2 w(x. 2 2 −2 −1 1 12 A a (Ax 4 t+A 2 x+B . can be inserted in the solution. w(x. since the system is translation invariant in t.1. and D are arbitrary constants. Solutions: w(x.5 with n = −1. ∂x w ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. and h = h(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ftt = 6af 2 . 2 at2 t2 4t2 t 2 54 2 9 where C1 . 2◦ . w(x. g = g (t). f= 3. B .

If C ≠ 0. EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 207 ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a2 wn . C4 are arbitrary constants. (3) where w = w(z ) is defined implicitly by (A and B are arbitrary constants) λ2 w − a2 wn+1 = Az + B . . t) is a solution of the equation in question. by treating w in (5) as the independent variable.4. This is a special case of equation 3. one obtains a Riccati equation for ξ = ξ (w): Cξw = ξ 2 − a2 wn .3. and s are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . 4 C2 t + C4 ). B . 1. Self-similar solution: . (5) w = w(ξ ). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation is encountered in wave and gas dynamics. 4 bx + c abt + s 2/n . The functions f = f (x) and g = g (t) defined by (1) and (2) can be represented in explicit form if C1 = 0 and C3 = 0. . Multiplicative separable solution: w = f (x)g (t). (6) The general solution of equation (6) is expressed in terms of Bessel functions. (1) (2) −1/2 dg = C4 4 t. . . Suppose w(x. 1 f n df = C2 4 x. 5. Degenerate solution: where A. To the special case C1 = C3 = 0 there corresponds w(x.6 with f (w) = a2 wn . Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 5◦ . .4. C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. z = x 4 λt. t+B where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant): ξ 2 − a 2 w n wξ = C . 2. 3◦ . t) = where b. . ξ= To the special case C = 0 there corresponds the solution w = (ξ/a)2/n . see formula (3). equation (4) can be solved for w to give an explicit expression of w = w (z ). and D are arbitrary constants. c. . n+1 (4) If n = − 1 2 . Then the functions w1 = (C2 /C1 )2/n w(4 C1 x + C3 . 1◦ . . 4◦ . see Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. and C1 . or 3. where f = f (x) and g = g (t) are defined implicitly by C1 + C3 + 2λ n+2 f n+2 2a2 λ n+2 g n+2 −1/2 w = (At + B )(Cx + D) n+1 . where C1 . 2003). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).1. C . x+A .

N. Its order can be reduced. ζ = t. the change of variable H (ψ ) = ψu brings (7) to a first-order equation.208 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 6◦ . Adams (1981). F. Generalized self-similar solution (µ is an arbitrary constant): w = e−2µt ϕ(y ). J. H. Ames. There are more complicated self-similar solutions of the form w = (t + β )2k F (z ). u = x + b ln(5 t + A) + c. Polyanin (1996). Ibragimov (1994). V = wn+1 brings the original equation to an equation of the similar form n ∂V ∂ ∂2V = a−2 V − n+1 2 ∂τ ∂ζ ∂ζ . R. Lohner. the transformation τ = x. where the function ψ = ψ (u) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation b(n + 4) 2(n + 2) ψ− ψu + b2 ψuu = a2 (ψ n ψu )u . For n ≠ −1. References for equation 3.5: W. V. the transformation τ = x. and c are arbitrary constants): w = (5 t + A)−2/n ψ (u). equation (7) can be reduced to a first-order linear equation. β . For n = −4. F. z= x+α . For n = −1. 8◦ . and E.2. V = ln w brings the original equation to an equation of the form 3. Solution (A.3: ∂ ∂V ∂2V = a−2 eV 2 ∂τ ∂ζ ∂ζ 6¦7 . where the function ϕ = ϕ(y ) is determined by solving the generalized-homogeneous ordinary differential equation 4µ2 ϕ + µ2 n(n − 4)yϕy + (µn)2 y 2 ϕyy = a2 (ϕn ϕy )y . with the change of variable G(ψ ) = (ψu )2 .4.6. b. y = xeµnt .1. In the general case. Its order can be reduced. 9◦ . and k are arbitrary constants. ζ = t. and the function F = F (z ) is determined by solving the generalized-homogeneous ordinary differential equation 2k (2k − 1)F + (nk + 1)(nk − 4k + 2)zFz + (nk + 1)2 z 2 Fzz = a2 (F n Fz )z . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 n n (7) Note two special cases where the equation obtained is integrable by quadrature. Zaitsev and A. (t + β )nk+1 where α. equation (7) admits a first integral that represents a separable equation. D. For n = −2. 7◦ .

2◦ . 1◦ . w1 = C1 w ( 8 C1 where C1 . 1 n+1 1 n+1 1 n+1 1 n+1 if b(n + 1)/a = k 2 > 0. are also solutions of the equation. B1 . Multiplicative separable solution: w = ϕ(x)ψ (t). Other Equations 1. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations (K is an arbitrary constant) a(ϕn ϕx )x + bϕn+1 + Kϕ = 0. C2 . v ) = bun + c. C2 .2.3 with F (u.3. 1◦ . and B2 are arbitrary constants. and C3 are arbitrary constants. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). if b(n + 1)/a = −k 2 < 0. t) = 2 t 1−k z = λx + βt ξ= k−n−1 xt 1−k traveling-wave solution. Multiplicative separable solutions for c = λ2 > 0: w = A1 eλt + A2 e−λt B1 cos(kx) + B2 sin(kx) w = A1 eλt + A2 e−λt B1 ekx + B2 e−kx where A1 . and B2 are arbitrary constants. if b(n + 1)/a = −k 2 < 0. C1 t + C3 ). This is a special case of equation 8. Then the functions 2 −2 x + C2 . 3. Then the functions k−n−1 k−1 2 x + C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂t2 = aw ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂w ∂x n + c. 8 C 1 t + C3 ). There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. 3◦ .1. A2 . 2◦ . 7.1. ψtt − cψ + Kψ n+1 = 0. if b(n + 1)/a = k 2 > 0. t) = U (z ). EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 209 6. Suppose w(x. Suppose w(x. w(x. 1◦ . B1 . t) is a solution of this equation. t) is a solution of the equation in question. self-similar solution.1. ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a wn 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + bwn+1 + cw. V (ξ ). Multiplicative separable solutions for c = −λ2 < 0: w = A1 cos(λt) + A2 sin(λt) B1 cos(kx) + B2 sin(kx) w = A1 cos(λt) + A2 sin(λt) B1 ekx + B2 e−kx where A1 .7. w1 = C1 w ( 8 C1 where C1 . ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a wn 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + bwk . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A2 .

∂2w = axn wm ∂2w . see also equation 3. with C1 = 0. Multiplicative separable solution: 2 m 2C1 (m + 2) k= . 2◦ . w1 = C1 w C2 x. In particular. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 (aU − a2 C2 )Uzz + b(Uz )n − 2aC1 Uz = 8aC1 − c. are also solutions of the equation. a > 0. t). Expression (1) is a special case of a wider family of multiplicative separable solutions w = f (x)g (t). y = xtk . Self-similar solution: w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. equation (4) is greatly simplified to become 2 ∂2u m∂ u = au ∂t2 ∂z 2 and admits a traveling-wave solution u = u(kz + µt). and C3 are arbitrary constants. where the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2u − 2ξuξ + 4ξ 2 uξξ = a(uuξ )ξ + b(uξ )n + c. t) = a(2 − n)(2 − n − m) 3◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . 9 C1 where C1 . 2(m + 2) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. z = x + aC1 t2 + aC2 t. where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (t) are determined by solving the equations gtt − λg m+1 = 0. −1/2 dg = C2 9 t. C2 .210 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ .1. 4◦ . 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to the Emden–Fowler equation (3) for specific values of the parameter m.5. The transformation u ( z . t) = 1 w(x. x z= 1 z (n−2)k−2 m F (y ). Solution: 2 2 w = U (z ) + 4aC1 t + 4aC1 C2 t. 2−n kx m 2 (C 1 t + C 2 ) − m . 5◦ . t) = t2 u(ξ ). Suppose w(x. 1 (1) (2) (3) fxx − (λ/a)x−n f 1−m = 0. There is a self-similar solution of the form w=t where k is an arbitrary constant. leads to an equation of the similar form ∂2u ∂2u = az 4−n−m um 2 . Then the functions m 2−n 2 2 C2 t + C 3 . The general solution of equation (2) can be written out in implicit form as 2λ m+2 g m+2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. it follows that C1 + g (t) = (At + C )−2/m . 2 ∂t ∂z In the special case n = 4 − m. A=9 λm2 .6. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (4) . ξ = xt−2 . ◦ 3 . 2. w(x.

C2 t + C3 . Then the functions m 2−n 2 2 C2 t + C 3 . 4. 2◦ . EQUATIONS WITH POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 2 ∂2w λx m ∂ w = ae w . Suppose w(x. t) = 2−n kx m 2 (C 1 t + C 2 ) − m . C2 . see equation 3. 2◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. and λ are arbitrary constants.5. C3 .4. In particular. (1) 3◦ . −1/2 (2) (3) The general solution of equation (2) can be written out in implicit form as C1 + 2λ m+2 f m+2 df = C2 @ t. fx )x − λf = 0. For other solutions. Generalized traveling-wave solution: 2 ln |t|. t) = U (z ). brings (3) to the Emden–Fowler equation 1 λ(m + 1) n z 1−n ϕ m+1 . 1◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a xn w m .2 with f (x) = axn . and C3 are arbitrary constants. where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (t) are determined by solving the equations a(x f n m+1 gtt − λg m+1 = 0. the transformation z = x1−n . w1 = C1 w C2 x. @ C1 where C1 . it follows that f (t) = (At + C )−2/m .4. λ where the function U (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. Expression (1) is a special case of a wider family of multiplicative separable solutions w = f (x)g (t). a > 0. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.3. C2 . a > 0. is also a solution of the equation. t) is a solution of the equation in question.5. 3◦ . with C1 = 0. λ C2 211 3.1. 2(m + 2) ϕ = um+1 ϕzz = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. where C1 . 2003) give more than 20 exact solutions to equation (4) for specific values of the parameter m. Suppose w(x. Then the function 1 Cm w1 = C1 w x + ln 12 . 2 2C1 (m + 2) k= a(2 − n)(m − n + 2) 1 m . (4) 2 a(1 − n) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. A=@ λm2 . For n ≠ 1 and m ≠ −1. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . z =x+ (aλ2 eλz U m − 4)Uzz + 2λUz = 0.1 with f (x) = aeλx . are also solutions of the equation.

1◦ .4. b = 0. m = 1.5: ∂ ∂u ∂ 2u =A um . 2 ∂t ∂z which has a traveling-wave solution u = u(z + λt) and a multiplicative separable solution u = f (t)g (z ). The transformation √ w(x. t) = u(z . a = 1. 2 ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ 1−n (n−2)k−2 m F (y ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . The transformation w(x.1.4. 1 ξ= dx (ax2 + bx + c)m (1) the original equation can be reduced to the divergence form 4−2m ∂v ∂ ∂ 2v = F (ξ )v 2m−3 . t) = v (ξ . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.4. c = 1. t) = x m+1 u(ξ . cos ξ ∂ξ m = 1. leads to an equation of the form 3. 2 ∂t ∂ξ v 2 ∂ξ F (ξ ) = (ax2 ∂ ∂2v =k ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ ∂2v =k 2 ∂t ∂ξ cosh2 ξ ∂v . leads to an equation of the similar form 3m−3n−2nm+4 ∂ ∂u ∂2u =A ξ 2m−2n−nm+3 um . b = 0. In the special case n = 2m + 3 with equation 3. 2◦ . a = −1.212 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 4◦ . ξ= . equation (5) is greatly simplified and coincides. ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ (2) where the function F (ξ ) is defined parametrically by dx k . There is a self-similar solution of the form w = (t + b) where b and k are arbitrary constants. t). t)] 2m+3 . Suppose m ≠ −1 and 2m − 2n − nm + 3 ≠ 0. up to notation. c = 1. 5◦ . m+1 3m + 4 . (3) m 2 + bx + c) (ax + bx + c)m Note some special cases of equation (2) where F = F (ξ ) of (3) can be represented in explicit form: ∂ cos2 ξ ∂v ∂2v =k .4 with f (u) = ku−2m .8: z= ax2 dx + bx + c ∂2u ∂2u 1 2 5−2m = ku4−2m 2 + k (ac − 4 b )u . m= 1 2 . a = −1. . ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂2w = k(ax2 + bx + c)m w4–2m ∂2w 2 5. y = xtk .5. By the transformation w(x. c = 1. ξ=x 2m−2n−nm+3 m+1 (5) where A = a 2m − 2n − nm + 3 .6. v 2 ∂ξ ξ −3/2 ∂v . b = 0. t) ax2 + bx + c.

1.2. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 213 3. 1◦ .1. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. t) = 8a2 C 1 ln β bβ 2 − ln (x + A)2 − a2 (t + B )2 + C . Then the functions 2 ln |C1 |.1 with f (w) = beβw . and C are arbitrary constants. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 1. t) = − ln β w(x. w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. 2◦ . 3◦ . 2aλ √ −2bβ C1 eaλt A sinh(λx + C2 ) . The change of the independent variables z = x − at. ∂z∂y © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC y = x + at .2: ∂2w 1 −2 = −4 a b exp(βw). A C 1 t + C 3 ) + ∂2w = a2 ∂2w where C1 . β √ 2bβ λx C1 e A sinh(aλt + C2 ) . B . and λ are arbitrary constants. 2aλ √ 2bβ C1 eaλt A cosh(λx + C2 ) . β bβ (Ax + Bt + C )2 2(a2 A2 − B 2 ) 1 .1. Suppose w(x. t) = − 2 ln β 2 w(x. β w2 = w(x cosh λ + at sinh λ.2. t) = ln β bβ cos2 (Ax + Bt + C ) where A. C3 . ln β bβ cosh2 (Ax + Bt + C ) 2(B 2 − a2 A2 ) 1 . C2 . t) = w(x.2. t) is a solution of the equation in question.5. t) = − 2 ln β 2 w(x. 4◦ . leads to the Liouville equation 3. C . C2 . 2aλ w(x. 2aλ √ −2bβ C1 eλx A cosh(aλt + C2 ) . t) = − ln β where A. t) = 2(B 2 − a2 A2 ) 1 ln . C1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. Functional separable solutions: w(x. w(x. B .3. t) = ln β bβ sinh2 (Ax + Bt + C ) 2(B 2 − a2 A2 ) 1 . t cosh λ + a−1 x sinh λ). w1 = w ( A C 1 x + C2 . Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities 2 2 = a∂ w + beβw + ceγw 3.4. + beβw .

Kaptsov. one obtains separable equations.3. V. exp g (y ) dy . Grundland and E. y = x + at.1. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ .1: √ ∂2u ∂2u = + 2 ab sinh(βu). M. A. 2 2 ∂t ∂x 4. (ψt )2 = 2aβψ 3 + C1 ψ 2 + C2 ψ + C3 . Rodionov (1999). t) + k . the general solution of the original equation is expressed as w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. Andreev. J. References: A. B¦C where C1 . Solving these equations for the derivatives. and A. Polyanin (1996). 2◦ . References: J. t) = 2 bβ 1 f (z ) + g (y ) − ln k exp f (z ) dz − 2 β β 8a k z = x − at. C2 . B¦C where f = f (z ) and g = g (y ) are arbitrary functions and k is an arbitrary constant. 2 2 C2 − C1 ∂2w ∂2w = + aeβw – be–βw . = w(x. Bullough and P. Traveling-wave solution for bβ > 0: 2. Functional separable solution: = w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Zhdanov (1994). R. Caudrey (1980). 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 β C1 − C2 4C3 (C1 − C2 ) where C1 . Zaitsev and A. V. Liouville (1853). aβ 1 + ln 2 2 β C2 − C1 2 2 a2 β 2 + bβ (C2 − C1 ) sin(C1 x + C2 t + C3 ) . t) = − 3. V. Pukhnachov. t) = − 2 2 aβ a2 β 2 + bβ (C1 − C2 ) 1 ln 2 + C exp( C x + C t ) + exp(−C1 x − C2 t) . F. k= b 1 ln 2β a leads to an equation of the form 3. D. t) = − b 1 ln − + C1 exp a β a β x sinh C2 D t cosh C2 b . R. + aeβw – be–2βw . t) = u(x. t) = 1 ln[ϕ(x) + ψ (t)]. K. Infeld (1992). Z. O. K. Traveling-wave solution (generalizes the solution of Item 1◦ ): w(x. V. V. 3◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 The substitution w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. β ∂2w ∂2w where the functions ψ (t) and ϕ(x) are determined by the first-order autonomous ordinary differential equations (ϕx )2 = −2aβϕ3 + C1 ϕ2 − C2 ϕ + C3 − bβ .214 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE Hence. C2 . + aeβw + be2βw .

2.5.3. C2 . and σ are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . A. λ 8σ 2 C1 where C1 .8 with f (w) = ceλw .1. w= 1 b 1 U+ ln β 3β a leads to an equation of the form 3. A. Fordy and J. F.1.2. This is a special case of equation 3. This is a special case of equation 3. t) = − x − λ 2 2 − 1 λa x . C2 . The transformation t = (a2 bβ 3 )−1/6 (ξ + η ).1. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 215 2◦ . t) = − x − λ β w(x. P. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂2w ∂x2 + aeβx eλw . 2 2 = a∂ w + f (x. and σ are arbitrary constants. The equation can be integrated with the inverse scattering method. Solutions: β w(x.1: ∂ 2U ∂2U = + aλeλU . Degasperis (1982). t. t) = − t − λ 2 2 + 1 λa t . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂2w ∂x2 + aeβt eλw .2.2. Calogero and A. V. 1◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 2. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 1. E¦F References: A. The substitution λU = λw + βx leads to an equation of the form 3. w ) 3. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂2w ∂x2 + ceax+bt eλw . ln C1 + C2 x G C2 2 λ 2 λa σt ln C1 e−σt + C2 eσx − e . Solutions: β w(x.1.4. 2 ∂t ∂x2 3. The substitution λU = λw + βt leads to an equation of the form 3. λ 8σ 2 C1 where C1 .4.1: ∂ 2U ∂2U = + aλeλU . ∂ξ∂η 3◦ .1. 1◦ . 2◦ . ln C1 + C2 t G C2 2 λ 2 λa σx ln C1 e−σx + C2 eσt + e .7 with f (w) = aeλw . x = (a2 bβ 3 )−1/6 (ξ − η ). Gibbons (1980).1.2.4. This is a special case of equation 3.6 with f (w) = aeλw .3: ∂2U = eU − e−2U . Mikhailov (1979). t) = − t − λ β w(x.

A. and D. A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Functional separable solutions for k 2 γ − β 2 λ ≠ 0: = w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. t) = − I¦P β2λ α2 1 1 . 6. Vyazmin. V. ∂2w ∂2w = + βeλw + (αx + γ )e2λw . Functional separable solutions for k 2 γ + β 2 λ ≠ 0: w(x. t) = − I¦P αk λβ 1 ln Cekt + (t H x)ekt − 2 . t) = − β2λ α2 1 1 ln C exp (x H t) − (αx + γ ) − 3 . A. ∂2w ∂2w = + βeλw + (αekx + γ )e2λw . A. Zhurov. 2◦ . Kazenin (1998). A. A. ln C exp − (t H x) − (αt + γ ) + 3 λ 2α β β λ where C is an arbitrary constant. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = + βeλw + (αt + γ )e2λw . Zhurov. I. V. λ 2β k k2γ − β 2 λ αβλ γ k2γ + β 2 λ t+ x − 2 ekx − . Polyanin. V. Generalized traveling-wave solutions for k 2 γ − β 2 λ = 0: w(x. I. D. and D. t) = − I¦P αk λβ 1 ln Cekx + (x H t)ekx + 2 . λ 2β k Reference: A. λ 2β k Reference: A. 2kγ 2kγ k γ − β2λ β where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . t) = − where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . A. w(x. A. t) = − 1 ln C exp λ H α λβ 1 ln Cekt + (t H x)ekt − . Polyanin. Vyazmin. ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: 5. Kazenin (1998). + βeλw + (αekt + γ )e2λw . ∂t2 ∂x2 Generalized traveling-wave solutions: 7. D.216 4. D. Zhurov. I. A. t) = − 1 ln C exp λ H ∂2w ∂2w k2γ + β 2λ αβλ γ k2γ − β 2λ x+ t + 2 ekt − . Reference: A. Generalized traveling-wave solutions for k 2 γ + β 2 λ = 0: w(x. λ 2α β β λ where C is an arbitrary constant. 2◦ . ∂2w ∂2w = + kβeλw + (αekt + λβ 2 )e2λw . Kazenin (1998). 2kγ 2kγ k γ + β2λ β where C is an arbitrary constant. Vyazmin. 8. Polyanin. w(x. and D.

Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. A. 2◦ . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. t. A. This is a special case of equation 3.3. 2 2 = f (x) ∂ w + g x.2. t © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . I. C2 . λ where C1 . and B are arbitrary constants. 10. 11. t) = − 1 ln C exp λ Q β2λ βγλ α 4k 2 α − β 2 λ x− t + 2 e−kt − ekt . w . 1◦ . ∂2w ∂2w = – kβeλw – (αekx + λβ 2 )e2λw . ∂w 3. 4kα 4kα 4k α + β 2 λ β where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. R¦S Reference: A. V. t) is a solution of the equation in question.4. 4kα 4kα 4k α − β 2 λ β where C is an arbitrary constant. Vyazmin. ∂t2 ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: = w(x. Kazenin (1998). 3◦ . D.3. λ A( a − µ 2 ) where µ. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + beλw ∂w ∂x . Zhurov. λ z= x . and D. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Traveling-wave solution: w=− exp(Ax + Aµt + B ) − b 1 ln . Q C 1 t + C 3 + 1 ln C1 . EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 217 9. A.2. t) = F (z ) − 1 ln |t|. Then the functions w1 = w C1 x + C2 . Suppose w(x. t) = − α λβ 1 ln Cekx + (x Q t)ekx − . λ 2β k where C is an arbitrary constant. Polyanin. 2 ∂t ∂x2 Functional separable solutions: w(x. A.2. ∂2w ∂2w = + βekt eλw + (αe2kt + γ )e2λw . t) = − 1 ln C exp λ Q ∂2w ∂2w β2λ βγλ α 4k 2 α + β 2 λ t+ x − 2 e−kx − ekx . + βekx eλw + (αe2kx + γ )e2λw . are also solutions of the equation.3 with f (w) = beλw .

are also solutions of the equation. respectively. Suppose w(x. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: w=− cλ 2 1 ln x − a(t + C )2 λ 2an . λ z = x|t| n−2 . 2◦ . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. the equation describes the propagation of nonlinear waves with axial and central symmetry.2. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + ceλw . λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions w1 = w C1 x. are also solutions of the equation. xn 1◦ . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. There is an exact solution of the form w(x.3. r2 = 4k where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 A A= . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r).5 with b = an. t) is a solution of the equation in question. 1◦ . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0: w=− 2cλ(2 − n) x2−n 1 1 ln − (t + C ) 2 λ n a(2 − n)2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . ∂2w ∂t2 = a ∂ xn ∂w 2 ln |t|. ∂x ∂x For n = 1 and n = 2. a > 0. Functional separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). r2 = k x2 − a(t + C )2 . where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation c λw n+1 wr + e = 0. a(2 − n)2 4 . T C1 t + C2 + 2 ln C1 . T C1 t + C2 + 2◦ .218 2. λ z= x . wrr + wr + ck −1 eλw = 0. a > 0. t) = F (z ) − 3. Then the functions w1 = w C12−n x. 3◦ . λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 + ceλw . t) is a solution of the equation in question. wrr + r ak 4◦ . 2 2 ln C1 . r 2−n 4◦ . t) = F (z ) − 2 ln |t|. Suppose w(x. 3◦ .

2 2 2−n . 5. which corresponds to b = 1 2 an. an exact solution of equation (1) is given by A= w (ξ ) = 1−A 1 ln . which corresponds to b = a(n − 1). ∂x 1◦ . EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 219 2 ∂2w n∂ w = a ( x + β ) + ceλw . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is an equation of the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium.2. ξ= 1 4 a(2 − n) (t + C ) − x ∂2w = axn ∂2w + bxn–1 ∂w Here. 2a(2 − n)2 1 ln . a > 0. exact solutions of equation (1) are expressed as w (ξ ) = w (ξ ) = w (ξ ) = where p and q are arbitrary constants. λ λBξ For A = 1. solutions of equation (2) are given by −a(2 − n)2 1 . λ cλξ cos2 (p ln |ξ | + q ) −2ap2 (2 − n)2 1 .3. t) is a solution of this equation. ∂2w ∂ 2w = az n 2 + ceλw . w (z ) = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . are also solutions of the equation. and the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ + Awξ = Beλw . The substitution z = x + β leads to a special case of equation 3. ln λ 2kcλ cosh2 (pz + q ) −ap2 (2 − n)2 1 . Suppose w(x. λ cλξ (ln |ξ | + q )2 2ap2 (2 − n)2 1 ln . U C1 λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. B= . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ). Then the functions 4 − 2n 2−n 2 ln C1 . (1) where c a(4 − 3n) + 2b . C is an arbitrary constant. (2) wzz = 2 ( 1 − A) In the special case A = 1 2 . ∂t2 ∂x2 2◦ . 2a(2 − n) a(2 − n)2 For A ≠ 1. 2 ∂t ∂z + ceλw . t + C2 + w1 = w C1 x.2. w(z ) = ln λ 2kcλ cos2 (pz + q ) where p and q are arbitrary constants.3.5 with b = 0: 4. a > 0. w(z ) = ln λ 2kcλ(z + q )2 ap2 (2 − n)2 1 . ln λ cλξ cosh2 (p ln |ξ | + q ) 1 For A ≠ 1. the substitution ξ = kz 1−A (k = U 1) brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation 2A−1 kB z 1−A eλw .

Solution for n = 2: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w = w(y ). λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . are also solutions of the equation. + ceµw . ln λ cλ cosh2 (py + q ) 2p2 (A2 − aB 2 ) 1 . Functional separable solution for λ ≠ 0: e−λx 1 − (t + C 1 ) 2 . ∂t2 aeλx ∂2w = ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn ∂2w + bxn–1 eλw ∂w 1◦ . and the function w = w(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wyy + (b − a)Bwy + ceλw = 0. λ µ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.9 with b = aλ.5 with f (w) = beλw . − ln −   2  µ 2 kC  2    cµ 1   − ln cosh2 (C2 r + C3 ) if ckµ > 0. a > 0. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. t) = F (z ) − 2 ln |t|. There is an exact solution of the form w(x. where A. Suppose w(x.  − µ ln − 2 2kC2 w= cµ 1   sinh2 (C2 r + C3 ) if ckµ < 0. 7. B . w(y ) = ln λ cλ cos2 (py + q ) where p and q are arbitrary constants. − ln − (r + C3 )2    µ 2k     cµ 1   sin2 (C2 r + C3 ) if ckµ < 0. 2◦ .3. r2 = 4k 3◦ . w(y ) = − ln λ B (b − a) Solutions of equation (3) with b = a: 2(A2 − aB 2 ) 1 . y = At + B ln |x| + C . µ z =x+ 2 ln |t|. aλ2 4 where C1 and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + ck −1 eµw = 0.4. and C are arbitrary constants. 2 µ 2kC2 where C2 and C3 are arbitrary constants. w (y ) = 6. w = w(r). . V C1 t + C2 + ln |C1 |.2.3. (3) √ Solution of equation (3) with A = V B a: cλ 1 y + C1 . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. a > 0. Its general solution is expressed as  cµ 1  if ckµ < 0. Then the functions 2 2 w1 = w x − ln |C1 |. w(y ) = ln λ cλ(y + q )2 2p2 (aB 2 − A2 ) 1 .220 3◦ . t) is a solution of the equation in question.

where C is an arbitrary constant and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation c µw 2(aλ − b) 1 wz + e = 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 w1 = w x − 2 2 ln |C1 |.2.10 with f (w) = beµw . are also solutions of the equation. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 221 8. if b = aλ. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 ∂2w λx ∂ w = ae + ceµw . Then the functions 9.2. + ceµw . z = 4ke−λx − akλ2 (t + C )2 1/2 . and g (w) = ceβw . µ cµz 2 Note some other exact solutions of equation (1): w (z ) = w (z ) = −2akλ2 1 ln µ cµ(z + B )2 if b = aλ. if b = 1 2 aλ. 2aA2 kλ2 1 ln µ cµ cosh2 (Az + B ) −2aA2 kλ2 1 w(z ) = ln µ cµ sinh2 (Az + B ) −2aA2 kλ2 1 w(z ) = ln µ cµ cos2 (Az + B ) w (z ) = 8ABakλ2 1 ln µ cµ(Az 2 + B )2 where A and B are arbitrary constants.4. 10.3. a > 0. Suppose w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is an equation of the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. a > 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂2w ∂t2 = aeλx ∂2w ∂x2 + beλx+µw ∂w ∂x + ceβw . if b = aλ. a > 0. This is a special case of equation 3. k = W 1. Functional separable solution: w = w(z ).9 with b = 0. (1) wzz + aλ z akλ2 A solution of equation (1) has the form w (z ) = 2kλ(aλ − 2b) 1 ln . ∂x 1◦ . . 2◦ .11 with f (w) = beµw . λ µ ∂2w = aeλx ∂2w + beλx ∂w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. if b = aλ. ∂2w = aeλx ∂2w + beλx+µw ∂w 11.3.3.3. a > 0. This is a special case of equation 3.4. W C1 t + C2 + ln |C1 |. t) is a solution of this equation. ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.

and k are arbitrary constants. ln λ aA2 cosh2 (Ct + D) C 2 cos2 (Ax + B ) 1 . X C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. ln w(x. . 2◦ . ln ln λ a(Beβt + Ce−βt )2 λ 4aABβ 2 (t + C )2 where A. ) − 2 ln |C2 |. λ where k is an arbitrary constant. D. t) = 1 C 2 cosh2 (Ax + B ) . . w= 2. t) is a solution of this equation. w ( x . Suppose w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . U (ξ ) = zwz . C2 . C . ζ = . t+B where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(z ). The first solution is degenerate. F. t) is a solution of this equation. x + C2 2(k − 1) ln(t + C1 ) + f (ζ ). Solution: ∂2w = aeλw ∂2w where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions β −λ β x + C2 .222 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3. η = x + k ln |t|. Suppose w(x. Other Equations . w ( x . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ln λ aA2 cosh2 (Ct + D) w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . 1 ( x + A) 2 B 1 cosh2 (Ax + B ) 1 . C4 are arbitrary constants. X C1 t + C4 . Then the functions 1. λ w 1 = w (C 1 C 2 x + C3 . z= (aeλw − z 2 )wzz − zwz = 0. and β are arbitrary constants. Self-similar solution: 4◦ . D. Solutions: w(x. B . t ) = . ρ = xet . t) = ln λ a cosh2 (Bt + C ) λ aA2 (t + C ) 2 2 w(x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). There are exact solutions of the following forms: 2 w(x. λ (t + C 1 ) k where C1 . w1 = w ( X C 1 3◦ . t) = F (η ) − ln |t|. t) = w(x. Reference: V. whose order can be reduced with the transformation ξ = z −2 eλw . λ aA2 cos2 (Ct + D) Y¦` 1 4BCβ 2 (x + A)2 (Aeβx + Be−βx )2 1 . t) = w(x. ∂2w = aeλw ∂2w where C1 . t ) = . and the function f = f (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2(k − 1) = aeλf fζζ . t) = Axt + Bx + Ct + D. λ 2 w(x. k 2 ζ 2 fζζ + k (k + 1)ζfζ − λ 5◦ . Zaitsev and A. t) = H (ρ) − t. t) = w(x. x+A . . C2 . ln λ aA2 sinh2 (Ct + D) 1 C 2 cosh2 (Ax + B ) ln . . while the others are representable as the sum of functions with different arguments. + beβw . Polyanin (1996).2. t) = C 2 sinh2 (Ax + B ) 1 .4. are also solutions of the equation. a > 0.

Suppose w(x. . z = x a µt. Self-similar solution: w = u(ξ ).3. C4 are arbitrary constants. and the function u(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 λu (k 1 − ak2 e )uzz = beβu . z = k 2 x + k 1 t. 2 − ak 2 eλu k1 2 3◦ . Additive separable solutions: 1 λ 2 w(x. and q are arbitrary constants. . t) = w(x. ξ= x+A . w(x. Expressions (1) to (6) exhaust all solutions that can be representable in the form of the sum of functions with different arguments. Traveling-wave solution: w = u(z ). t) = ln |Ax + B | + Ct + D. t) = λ w(x. where k1 and k2 are arbitrary constants. EQUATIONS WITH EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 223 2◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ .2. t) = ln(Ax2 + Bx + C ) + ln λ λ aA cosh2 (pt + q ) where A. Solution: w = U (ξ ) − (λ − β ) 2 2 2 (λ − β )(λ − 2β ) + ξU + ξ Uξξ = aeλU Uξξ + beβU . Its solution can be written out in implicit form as du √ = C1 a z . p. √ 2 ln | a A a t + C |. β where the function U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation F (u) = 2b eβu du + C2 . t) = λ 1 w(x. 4◦ . F (u ) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. λ 2 2 2 ln(aA x + Bx + C ) − ln(aAt + D). . λ aA cos2 (pt + q ) ln |Ax + B | − (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1 p2 1 . ∂ ∂w = aeλw . are also solutions of the equation. λ−β 2 ln |t|. ξ = x|t| β . ) − 2 ln |C2 |. a C1 t + C4 . Then the functions λ w 1 = w (C 1 C 2 x + C3 . λ 1 p2 2 ln(Ax + Bx + C ) + ln . D. a > 0. 3◦ . t+B © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C . where w = w(z ) is defined implicitly by (A and B are arbitrary constants) λµ2 w − aeλw = Az + B . ∂t2 ∂x ∂x 1◦ . t) = λ 1 w(x. Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). ln(Ax2 + Bx + C ) + ln λ λ aA sinh2 (pt + q ) 1 −p 2 1 . B . ∂2w where C1 . ξ β β2 β2 3. .

x + C2 2(k − 1) ln(t + C1 ) + f (ζ ). w(x. For C ≠ 0. ζ = . Traveling-wave solution: w = u(z ). Zaitsev (2002). 2◦ . ∂t2 aeλw β −λ β x + C2 . λ where k is an arbitrary constant. t) = F (η ) − b¦c 5◦ . and k are arbitrary constants. which is considered in the book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). λ 2 w(x. R. treating u in (7) as the independent variable. η = x + k ln |t|. There are exact solutions of the following forms: w= 2 ln |t|. η = xet . and the function f = f (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2(k − 1) = a(eλf fζ )ζ . (7) To the special case C = 0 there corresponds a solution of the form (2). and E. k 2 ζ 2 fζζ + k (k + 1)ζfζ − λ 6◦ . β where the function U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 3◦ .4. − ak2 e )Θu − 2ak2 (k 1 λ−β 2 ln |t|. For other solutions. Then the functions 4. see equation 3.4. w1 = w ( d C 1 ∂2w = ∂ ∂w where C1 . one obtains a Riccati equation for ξ = ξ (u). Ames. References: W. A.6 with f (w) = aeλw . The substitution Θ(u) = (uz )2 leads to the first-order linear equation 2 λu 2 2 λeλu Θ = 2beβu. Polyanin and V. C2 . d C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). + beβw . Adams (1981). F. where k1 and k2 are arbitrary constants. ξ β β2 β2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . J. t) = H (ζ ) − t. Lohner. and the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (ξ 2 uξ )ξ = (aeλu uξ )ξ . Solution: w = U (ξ ) − (λ − β ) 2 2 2 (λ − β )(λ − 2β ) + ξU + ξ Uξξ = (aeλU Uξ )ξ + beβU . Solution: 7◦ . λ (t + C 1 ) k where C1 .224 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE Here. C2 . A and B are arbitrary constants. F. ξ = x|t| β . which admits the first integral ξ 2 − aeλu uξ = C . and the function u(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 λu k1 uzz − ak2 (e uz )z = beβu . Cξu = ξ 2 − aeλu . ∂x ∂x 1◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. and C3 are arbitrary constants. z = k 2 x + k 1 t. D. Suppose w(x.

It arises in some areas of physics. t) = arctanh f (t)g (x) . w(x. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂2w ∂x2 + a sinh(βw) + b sinh(2βw). t) = e w(x. Infeld (1992). O. z = 2bβ (1 − k 2 ) (x sinh C1 e t cosh C1 + C2 ) if |k | < 1. w(x. It is assumed that bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) > 0 in both formulas. λ 2 1−z where the functions f = f (t) and g = g (x) are determined by the first-order autonomous ordinary differential equations 2 ft = Af 4 + Bf 2 + C .1 with f (w) = b sinh(λw). Denote: k = 2b Traveling-wave solutions: 1 − k sin z 1 arccosh . M. Functional separable solution: 1 1+z 4 arctanh z = ln . Z.3. λ 2 bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) bλ(kx + µt + θ0 ) 4 . see equation 3. and A. where A. w=e β sin z − k ξ 2 k+1 arctanh tanh . Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 3. R. This is a special case of equation 3. V.3. K.1 with f (w) = b sinh(λw). Double sinh-Gordon equation.4.1. Rodionov (1999). t) = e bλ(kx + µt + θ0 ) 2 ln tan . Pukhnachov. A.1. a > 0. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities 1. 2◦ . f¦g 2 3◦ . ξ= β k−1 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. . ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a eλw 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: + b – ce–2λw . + b sinh(λw). Kaptsov. ∂t2 ∂x2 Sinh-Gordon equation.2. arctanh exp λ bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) ∂2w =a ∂2w 1◦ . a . µ.3.3. V. Grundland and E. References: A. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂2w = aeλx+µt+βw ∂2w 3. Traveling-wave solutions: where k .1.4. Item 2 ◦ . w= 6. and θ0 are arbitrary constants. and C are arbitrary constants.4. Zhdanov (1994). 2. V. ∂t2 ∂x2 The substitution βu = λx + µt + βw leads to an equation of the form 3. For other exact solutions of this equation. B .1: 2 ∂2u βu ∂ u = ae . w=e © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2bβ (k 2 − 1) (x sinh C1 e t cosh C1 + C2 ) if |k | > 1. cλ t − λ 2a where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. √ bλ 2 1 ln x + C1 x + C2 . OTHER EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 225 5. a gx = Cg 4 + (B − bλ)g 2 + A. Andreev. V. .

4. 3. see also equation 3. + k sinh(λw). ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.4. ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. = ∂t2 ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. ∂t2 = ∂w ∂ a sinh(λw) . aψxx + bψ ln ψ = 0. + bwk ln w.6 with f (w) = a sinh(λw).4. this equation is reduced to a simpler equation of 3. ∂t2 xn xn . for k = 1.4.10 with f (x) = cxk and g (t) = s tn . ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. a > 0. = ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w =a ∂2w ∂2w =a ∂2w ∂2w =a ∂2w 4. for k = 1. 2. ∂2w ∂2w ∂ a cosh(λw) ∂w ∂2w = a ∂ ∂w ∂2w = ∂2w 3.3.1. + bw ln w + kw.226 3. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.3.2 with f (w) = a lnk (λw). Hence.4.1. ∂t2 + a(x2 – t2 ) lnk (λw).2. t) = ϕ(t)ψ (x). Hence. a > 0. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.4.6 with f (w) = b sinhk (λw).6 with f (w) = a cosh(λw). Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities 1. whose general solutions can be represented in implicit form.4.4. + bw ln w + cxk + h tn )w. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4.4. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.1 with f (w) = bw ln w + kw.1.2. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.1.1. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.4. 5. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.1. 4. 7. this equation is reduced to a simpler equation of 3.1 with f (w) = k sinh(λw) and n = b/a.1.7 with f (w) = b sinhk (λw). + beβx sinhk (λw).1 with f (w) = bw k ln w.1. 6. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations ϕtt − bϕ ln ϕ − kϕ = 0.3. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = + beβt sinhk (λw).4. For k = 1.9 with f (t) = 0.1.1.1.

9. waves in ferromagnetic materials. OTHER EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 227 5.4. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. dislocations in crystals. 8.2. .1: ∂2U ∂2U = + bU ln U .3.4.3. + b sin(λw). + b lnk (λw).3. It arises in differential geometry and various areas of physics (superconductivity. ∂τ 2 ∂z 2 6. and σ are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂t2 = axn ∂2w ∂x2 + bxn–1 lnk (λw) ∂w = axn . ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (z .3. .4. .1: ∂2U ∂2U = + bU ln U .2.5 with f (w) = b lnk (λw). and others). x √ + t cosh σ .3. laser pulses in two-phase media. Suppose w = ϕ(x. Sine›Gordon Equation and Other Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 1. The plus or minus signs in the first expression are chosen in any sequence. w1 = λ √ sinh σ i w2 = ϕ x cosh σ + t a sinh σ . Then the functions 2πn i i i i i ϕ(C1 x. z= 1 2 β exp 1 2 βt sinh 1 2 βx . 3. τ= 1 2 β exp 1 2 βt cosh 1 2 βx leads to a simpler equation of the form 3.3. ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (z . 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 7. t) is a solution of the sine-Gordon equation. 10. ∂t2 ∂x2 Sine-Gordon equation. τ ). This is a special case of equation 3. a where C1 . n = 0. are also solutions of the equation. C2 .2 with β = 0 and f (w) = b lnk (λw).1 with f (w) = cw k ln w and b = an.3.6 with f (w) = a lnk (λw).2. 1◦ . ∂2w ∂2w = + beβx w ln w. ∂2w ∂2w = + beβt w ln w. 1. τ ). This is a special case of equation 3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w =a ∂2w .3. . ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w = a ∂ xn ∂x ∂2w xn ∂w ∂x + cwk ln w.4. 2. z= 1 2 exp 1 2 βx cosh 1 2 βt . τ= 1 2 exp 1 2 βx sinh 1 2 βt leads to a simpler equation of the form 3. C2 t). ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂ ∂x lnk (λw) ∂w ∂x .4. ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.

Reference: R. Zakharov (1984). Steuerwald (1936). B = k 2 γ 2 > 0. λ µ ekγ (x+B1 ) + e−kγ (x+B1 ) µ2 = ak 2 γ 2 + bλ > 0. t) = 4 arctan f (x)g (t) . and B1 are arbitrary constants. t) = µ sinh(kx + A1 ) 4 arctan √ . A1 . Zakharov (1984). Manakov. J. and C > 0. where k . Pitaevskii. Manakov. 3. we have w(x. t) = arccos 1 − 2 F = det Mij .228 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2◦ . and V. Pitaevskii. An N -soliton solution is given by (a = 1. µ. w(x. t) = − + arctan exp λ λ bλ(ak 2 − µ2 ) 4 w(x. G. Lamb (1980). B. K. For A = 0.1. S. and θ0 are arbitrary constants. E. arctan √ λ k a cosh(µt + B1 ) µ2 = bλ − ak 2 > 0. A1 . 3. λ (1) where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (t) are determined by the first-order autonomous separable ordinary differential equations fx gt 2 2 = Af 4 + Bf 2 + C . where k . t) = q¦r γ eµ(t+A1 ) + ak 2 e−µ(t+A1 ) 4 arctan . S. and λ = 1) w(x. Mij = ai + aj 2 p zi = x − µi t + C i 1− µ2 i . V. and B1 are arbitrary constants. where k . Reference: R.3. and C > 0. S. P. t) = arctan exp λ p bλ(kx + µt + θ0 ) if bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) > 0. E. Novikov. w(x. and C are arbitrary constants. Novikov. V. 3. S. The first expression corresponds to a single-soliton solution. B. if bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) < 0. (2) where A. and V. λ k a cosh(µt + B1 ) µ2 = ak 2 + bλ > 0. 3◦ . b = −1. B = −k 2 < 0. and γ are arbitrary constants. and C = 0. L. L. L. 4◦ . Traveling-wave solutions: bλ(µ2 − ak 2 ) p bλ(kx + µt + θ0 ) π 4 w(x. B . Caudrey (1980). p ∂2 ∂2 − 2 (ln F ) .2. For A = k 2 > 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 1 + µi q¦r where µi and Ci are arbitrary constants. t) = µ sin(kx + A1 ) 4 . Bullough and P. For A = 0. ai = 1 − µi . = −aCg 4 + (aB + bλ)g 2 − aA. A1 . B1 . Note some exact solutions that follow from (1) and (2). P. 2 ∂x ∂t zi + zj 2 cosh . Functional separable solution: w(x. B = k 2 > 0. (3) where k . Formula (3) corresponds to the two-soliton solution of Perring–Skyrme (1962).

w(x. t) = arctan λ 2b − c 4 bλ(ak 2 − µ2 ) √ √ λ c2 − 4b2 (kx + µt + θ0 ) c2 − 4b2 4 tan w(x. M.1. b = 1. E. k = µ + 4 2. V. R. Steuerwald (1936). Pitaevskii. For a = 1. For a = 1. Krichever (1980). Ablowitz and H. see the book by Novikov. λ λ if c2 < 4b2 . A.4. and L. δ is any. Takhtajan. Ablowitz. Segur (1973). and V. µ. Newell. 2. C1 . t) = 4 arctan eθ−∆ + 4 arctan eθ+∆ . It arises in nonlinear optics (propagation of ultrashort pulses in a resonance degenerate medium) and low temperature physics (propagation of spin waves in anisotropic spin liquids). Note some special cases of interest that arise in applications.3. Novikov. 6◦ . t) = A + 4 4 arctan B1 eθ + C1 + arctan B2 eθ + C2 . Manakov. OTHER EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 229 5◦ . ∂2w =a ∂2w 1◦ . J. k =µ+ 15 −1 16 µ . c = 1 2 . Clarkson (1991). 2. C2 . References: R. leads to an equation of the form 3. B.5. J. w(x. b = −1. y = x + at s¦t 1 −2 a sin w. Caudrey (1980). Zakharov (1984). Item 3◦ . b = 1. B1 . Segur (1981). M. b. Bullough and P. t) = δ − 2π + 4 arctan √ eθ + √ 15 15 2. t) = 2π + 4 arctan eθ−∆ − 4 arctan eθ+∆ . B. λ = 1: 1 4 . I. F. Here. Bullough and P. J. Weiss (1984). c = − 1 2 . 2. θ0 is an arbitrary constant.3. For a = 1. J. D. L. c = − 1 2 . G. where the parameters A. M.1 with f (w) = b sin(λw). Whitham (1974). 1 + b sin(λw) + c sin 2 λw . A. ∂t2 ∂x2 Double sine-Gordon equation. Degasperis (1982). δ is any. J. Pitaevskii. L. For other exact solutions of the original equation. Manakov. Calogero and A. K. t) = arctan λ c − 2b 4 bλ(ak 2 − µ2 ) 2◦ .3. w(x. λ = 1: √ 5 −1 µ .1. The transformation z = x − at. For a = 1. Traveling-wave solutions: √ √ λ 4b2 − c2 (kx + µt + θ0 ) 4b2 − c2 4 tanh w(x. J. Belokolos (1995) obtained a general formula for the solution of the sine-Gordon equation with arbitrary initial and boundary conditions.4. Zakharov. and θ0 are arbitrary constants.1: R. J.3. Caudrey (1980). see equation 3. c. if c2 > 4b2 . ∆ = ln 5 + 2 . M. The sine-Gordon equation is integrated by the inverse scattering method. b = −1. K. c = 1 2 . µ. S. and Zakharov (1984).5: ∂zy w = − 4 References for equation 3. k =µ+ 15 −1 16 µ . λ = 1: 1 4 . 7◦ . S. Ablowitz and P. Kaup. and λ of the original equation. D. C. B2 . and H.1. P.3. Traveling-wave solutions: w(x. A. k . −1 k =µ+ 3 4µ . V. E.2. Faddeev (1974). and k are related by algebraic constraints with the parameters a. λ = 1: w(x. t) = 2π − δ + 4 arctan √ eθ − √ 15 15 s¦t ∆ = ln √ 3+2 . It is assumed that bλ(ak 2 − µ2 ) > 0 in both formulas. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . θ = µt u kx + θ0 .

Therefore.1. for k = 1. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3.1.4. the equation is reduced to a simpler equation of 3.1. Therefore.3.3. F.3. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. ∂t2 2 + a ∂w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w 3. a > 0.4.1 with f (w) = k sin(λw) and b = an. C.1. ∂t2 ∂x2 4. a ∂ ∂w = n xn + k sin(λw).1.4. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = a + b cos(λw). ∂2w = ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = + beβx sink (λw).3.4.7 with f (w) = b sink (λw).1: The substitution w = u + 2λ ∂2u ∂ 2u = a − b sin(λu).2. ∂w ∂ ∂w + =a w–2 . Therefore. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.4.3. ∂2w where the subscripts denote the corresponding partial derivatives.3.4. 10. ∂τ 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 v¦w References: C.4. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.1. ∂2w = ∂2w ∂2w = ∂2w + beβx cosk (λw). leads to the linear telegraph equation ∂2u ∂ 2 u ∂u + = a . the equation is reduced to a simpler equation of 3.3.6 with f (w) = b sink (λw).3.3. dz = aw −2 wx dt + (w + wt )dx. + beβt cosk (λw). ∂t2 .3.3. for k = 1. Rogers and W. Rogers and T.230 3. Therefore. for k = 1. 9. the equation reduced to a simpler equation of 3. for k = 1. ∂t2 ∂x2 π leads to an equation of the form 3. u = 1/w (dz = zt dt + zx dx). Ames (1989).6 with f (w) = b cosk (λw). ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3.7 with f (w) = b cosk (λw). 8. a > 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. 6. Ruggeri (1985).4.3. .6 with f (w) = a cosn (λw). the equation is reduced to a simpler equation of 3.4. ∂t2 x ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation τ = t + ln |w|.6 with f (w) = a sinn (λw).4. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂2w ∂2w = ∂ a cosn (λw) ∂w ∂2w = ∂ a sinn (λw) ∂w 1. 7.3. 5. + beβt sink (λw).

. and h(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ftt + kft = 6af 2 . and the function u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2a(n + 2) n+1 u . C4 are arbitrary constants. kλu + C1 where C1 . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)x + h(t) − b. gtt + kgt = 6af g . H. Solution: w(x. t) = 5◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation. = 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x w(x. . 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: w +b 0 bun − λ2 dw = x + λt + C2 . Solution for n ≠ −1: where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3. 3◦ . ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂2w +k a (w + b ) n . its exact solutions are given in the handbook by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). g (t). OTHER EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 231 2. Suppose w(x. t) = (x + C )2/n u(t) − b. 1◦ . C2 . 2at + C1 e−kt + C2 − b. 1◦ . Then the function w1 = w C1 x + C2 . Additive separable solution: w(x. F. Polyanin and V. where the functions f (t). λ where C1 . ∂2w ∂t2 +a ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x beλw ∂w ∂x . t) = 1 ln(C1 x + C2 ) + C3 e−at + C4 . t + C 3 − 2 ln |C1 |. w(x. Generalized separable solution for n = 1: w(x. A. Ibragimov (1994). λ where C1 . k (x + C 3 ) 2 where C1 .3. 2◦ . C2 . Zaitsev (2002). D. utt + kut = n2 This equation is easy to integrate for n = −2 and n = −1. 3. t) = (x + C2 )1/(1+n) (C1 e−kt + C2 ) − b. where C is an arbitrary constant. Solution for n = −1: htt + kht = 2af h + ag 2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. . . References: N. For n = −3/2 and −3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and λ are arbitrary constants. x¦y 4◦ .

C2 . are also solutions of the equation. F. 2◦ . ξ= a(x − at) . and a are arbitrary constants (a ≠ 0. C2 . C 1 t + C3 ). a stationary solution dependent on x alone. Additive separable solution: 1 ln(λC1 x2 + C2 x + C3 ) + u(t). Suppose w(x. 1. 2 + f (w ) ∂w = ∂ g (w ) ∂w 3. t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . λ where C1 . and a are arbitrary constants. Ibragimov (1994). a ≠ 0. ƒ 1). H. t where the function ϕ = ϕ(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = t−1/n ϕ(ξ ). −1: w= n ξ+C n+1 −1/n if n ≠ −1. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: beλw − λ2 dw = x + λt + C2 . Self-similar solution: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . if n = −1.3. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Equations of this form admit traveling-wave solutions w = w(kx + λt). n n n2 3◦ . A. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Traveling-wave solutions for n = 1: w = 2C1 tanh(C1 ξ + C2 ). . aλw + C1 €¦ where C1 . C2 . ξ= (1 − ξ 2 )ϕξξ + ϕn − 1 n+1 2(n + 1) ξϕξ + ϕn+1 + ϕ = 0. C2 . and the function u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation utt + aut = 2bC1 eλu . Traveling-wave solutions in implicit form: a(x − at) (n + 1)dw =− + C2 wn+1 + C1 1 − a2 a(x − at) dw =− + C2 ln |w| + C1 1 − a2 where C1 . . For g (w) = const. to k = 0 there corresponds a homogeneous solution dependent on t alone and to λ = 0.5. Traveling-wave solution for n ≠ 0. ξ= a(x − at) . 1 − a2 x . w = −2C1 tan(C1 ξ + C2 ). Example 1. where C1 . Example 2. and C3 are arbitrary constants.232 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3◦ . Zaitsev (2002). ƒ 1. w(x. Polyanin and V. D. w1 = C1 w ( ‚ C 1 ∂2w + wn ∂w = ∂2w where C1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. C2 . References: N. ‚ 1). Then the functions n n x + C2 . such equations are encountered in the theory of electric field and nonlinear Ohm laws. t) = 4◦ . 1 − a2 where C and a are arbitrary constants (a ≠ 0. where w is the electric field strength.

2◦ . C2 . and a are arbitrary constants (a ≠ † 1). are also solutions of the equation. t) = u(z )t−1/n. H. ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . OTHER EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 233 4◦ . N.5. 2. 1995).1: ∂2w ∂2w n ∂w + w . where C1 . are also solutions of the equation. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . F. t) = u(z )t−1/n . z = xt−1 . C 1 t + C3 ). Zaitsev (2002). where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation n2 (z 2 − b)uzz + nz (2n + 2 − naun )uz + u(1 + n − naun ) = 0. Ibragimov (1994. t) = − ln 2 a −1 w(x. References: Y. = ∂τ 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 3. ϕ2 (x) „¦… Here. Emech and V. the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ϕ xx = ϕ2 . w1 = w(† C1 x + C2 . 2◦ . B. Ibragimov (1994). Taranov (1972). Generalized separable solution for n = 1: w = ϕ(x) t + C1 + C2 dx .3. t) = − ln where C1 . which has a particular solution ϕ = 6(x + C )−2 . t) is a solution of this equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w + ew ∂w = ∂2w −1 . . w(x. Polyanin and V. Suppose w(x. Traveling-wave solutions: C1 1 exp 2 (ax − t) + C2 C1 a −1 1 (ax − t) + C1 .3. . C1 t + C3 ) + ln C1 . 2◦ . 2 where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4bn2 uk − (2n − k )2 z 2 uzz + 4bkn2 uk−1 uz „¦… + (2n − k )(k − 4 − 4n + 2naun )zuz = 4u(1 + n − anun ). Self-similar solution: w(x. C2 . C2 . t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 4. A. z = xt(k−2n)/(2n) .3. Self-similar solution: w(x. Reference: N. Passing to the new independent variables τ = at and z = aβ −1/2 x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 1◦ . D. Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. P. H. . ∂2w ∂2w n ∂w + aw = b . we arrive at an equation of the form 3. Then the functions ∂t2 + awn wk 2n−k 2n 2 x + C2 . w1 = C1 w ( † C1 ∂2w ∂w =b ∂ ∂w where C1 .

2◦ . N. Ibragimov (1994. t) = u(z ) − (µ − 2λ)2 z 2 − 4bλ2 eµu uzz − 4bµλ2 eµu (uz )2 + (µ − 2λ)(µ − 4λ + 2aλeλu )zuz + 4λ(1 − aeλu ) = 0. Taranov (1973). Solution: Reference: N. w2 = w x cosh β + tα1/2 sinh β .5. 3. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . t) is a solution of the equation in question. w1 = w ( ˆ C 1 ∂t2 ◦ 1 . Suppose w = w(x. t) = − ln References: Y. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 1. . we arrive at an equation of the form 3. ∂2w where C1 .4: ∂u ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u + eu . are also solutions of the equation. t) is a solution of this equation. w1 = w(ˆ x + C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants.4. C 1 t + C3 ) + 2 ln C1 . 1 ln t. ∂t2 ∂x2 Nonlinear Klein–Gordon equation. λ where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. and u = λw. w(x. λ where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. Solutions: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE a ‰¦ x+t t + Cx . = 2 ∂τ ∂τ ∂z 2 6. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). z = aβ −1/2 x. Suppose w(x. B. C2 . 1 ln t. H. z = xt(λ−2µ)/(2µ) .4. t) = u(z ) − λ(z 2 − b)uzz + λz (2 − aeλu )uz + 1 − aeλu = 0. t. t cosh β + xα−1/2 sinh β . Passing to the new variables τ = at. C2 .3. P. Then the functions where C1 . ∂2w + aeλw ∂w ∂t =b ∂2w ∂x2 . 1995). Then the functions 2λ−µ 2λ x + C2 . ∂w ∂ ∂w + aeλw =b eµw . ‰¦ 2◦ . + 2a |t2 − x2 | 1 − C2 x−t ‡ 1 x+t x + C (x ˆ t) + (x ˆ t) ln w(x.234 3◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 2 = a∂ w + f (x. H. Solution: 5. Ibragimov (1994). w ) 3.1. and β are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂2w = α + f (w). z = xt−1 . 1◦ . ˆ t + C2 ). Emech and V. t) = − ln 2 4 x−t where C and a are arbitrary constants.

1. “ t). w(z ) = arcsinh sinh k sin f (w ) = − b 2 2 cosh w cosh k λ2 − 1 bz + c tan w √ . k . A. 2◦ . Here. Functional separable solution: w = w(ξ ).1. . t) is a solution of this equation. and the amplitude.1. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w 1 are chosen arbitrarily). .1. Functional separable solution: w = w(ξ ). (1) λ2 − αk 2 where C1 . f (w) = beβw . and 3. + (x2 – t2 )f (w). F (w ) = f (w) dw. Polyanin and V.3. w = w(τ ). 3◦ .1.2. Suppose w = w(x. References: A. For solutions of the original equation with some other f = f (w). whose general solution can be represented in implicit form as C1 + 2F (w) −1/2 3 . Zhdanov (1994).2. τ = xt. 3.3. −1/2 ‘¦’ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. f (w) = b sinh(λw). 2 2 1 ξ= 1 4 α (t + C 1 ) − 4 (x + C 2 ) .1. b. where β is an arbitrary constant. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 235 2◦ . C2 . D. where the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ + wξ + ξf (w) = 0.3. R. Grundland and E. Z.3.5. x sinh β + t cosh β ). and f (w) = b sin(λw). 3. f (w) = bw ln w. the following relationships between the wave speed. and λ are arbitrary constants. Self-similar solution: ◦ dw = C2 “ τ .4. 3.1. λ2 = 1 + b2 cos−2 k .3. F. λ. respectively. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 f (w) dw dw = kx + λt + C2 . and the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 ξwξξ + wξ − f (w) = 0. M. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Then the functions 2. For exact solutions of the nonlinear Klein–Gordon equation with f (w) = bw m . Infeld (1992). w(z ) = arcsin sin k sin f (w ) = − b 2 2 cos w cos k λ2 − 1 where k and c are arbitrary constants. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. see Example 11 in Subsection S. correspond to periodic solutions in z with period 2π : C1 + λ2 = 1 + b2 cosh−2 k . see equations 3. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . α 4◦ . w2 = w(x cosh β + t sinh β . = w1 = w(“ x. ξ= 1 2 ∂2w ∂2w x2 − t 2 . In these cases. Nesterov (1978) indicated several cases where solution (1) can be written out in explicit form (α = µ = 1): bz + c tanh w √ . Zaitsev (2002).1.1.3. the function w = w(τ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wτ τ = f (w).

5. 2 2 z= 1 2 (x + t ). the function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wzz + f (w) = 0. •¦– + (t2 – x2 )n f (w). 4. where C1 .1. whose general solution can be represented in implicit form as C1 − 2F (w) −1/2 dw = C2 ” z . 3. The transformation leads to the simpler equation 1 (x2 + t2 ). ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . 2◦ . = ∂2w ∂2w τ = xt. D. n = 2. and C3 are arbitrary constants. = ∂2w ∂2w = a + f (x + bt. w). w). τ = xt leads to a simpler equation of the form 3. τ ). F (w ) = f (w) dw. + (x2 – t2 )f (xt. ∂t2 ∂x2 Solution: w = w(ξ ). C2 .16 with f (y ) = y n and g (z ) = z n .4. ∂τ 2 ∂z 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂2w ξ = x + bt. Polyanin and V. z= 2 τ = xt ∂2w ∂2w = + f (τ . . Self-similar solution: w = w(τ ).1: ∂2U ∂2U = + f (U ). 6◦ . where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (a − b2 )wξξ + f (ξ .1. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. and the function w = w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 (C 2 − 4C1 )wrr = f (w). Here. 1 (x2 + t2 ). . The transformation w = U (z . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. w) = 0. the function w = w(τ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wτ τ = f (τ . 3. . Functional separable solution (generalizes the solution of Items 3 ◦ and 4◦ ): w = w(r). w). F. w). 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 Reference: A. Zaitsev (2002). 5◦ .4.236 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 4◦ . r = C1 x2 + C2 xt + C1 t2 + C3 . z= 2 Here. Functional separable solution: w = w(z ).

∂2w = ∂2w + eβt f (w). For b ≠ ™ a. There is a solution of the form w = w(ax + bt). 8. ∂t2 ∂x2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.1. ∂τ 2 ∂ξ 2 a −b 3◦ . —¦˜ ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation 7. D.4. ∂2w ∂2w = + eβx f (w). ∂2w ∂2w = a + bw ln w + f (t)w.13 with f (z ) = eaz .1. this equation admits a traveling-wave solution U = U (kz + λτ ) and a solution of the form U = U (z 2 − τ 2 ). ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . ∂τ 2 ∂z 2 For arbitrary f = f (U ). 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 For arbitrary f = f (U ). see equation 3.1.6: 1 ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w = + 2 2 eξ f (w).4. For b = a. τ ). z = exp 1 2 βt sinh 1 2 βx . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 237 6.14 with f (z ) = e−az . leads to an equation of the form 3. this equation admits a traveling-wave solution U = U (kz + λτ ) and a solution of the form U = U (z 2 − τ 2 ). Zaitsev (2002).4. τ = exp 1 2 βx sinh 1 2 βt leads to a simpler equation of the form 3. ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (z . and C is an arbitrary constant. z = exp 1 2 βx cosh 1 2 βt . and for b = −a.4.4. = 2◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w ∂2w τ = bx + at .1: ∂2U ∂2U = + 4β −2 f (U ).4.1. + eax+bt f (w). 9. τ = exp 1 2 βt cosh 1 2 βx leads to a simpler equation of the form 3. Reference: A.1. F. τ ).1: ∂2U ∂2U = + 4β −2 f (U ).3. t) = ϕ(t)ψ (x). w = U (z . where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕtt − b ln ϕ + f (t) + C ϕ = 0. aψxx + b ln ψ − C ψ = 0. see equation 3. the transformation ξ = ax + bt. Polyanin and V.

HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂2w = a + bw ln w + f (x) + g (t) w.1: ∂2U ∂2U = + g (U ). ∂2w = ∂2w + f (t + x)g (w). ∂2w ∂2w = a + f (x)w ln w + bf (x)t + g (x) w. t) = e−bt ϕ(x). ∂t2 ∂x2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t+x a t+x a ∂2w =a ∂2w where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (ξ . Zaitsev (2002).4. τ ). 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 13. aϕxx + f (x)ϕ ln ϕ + g (x) − b2 ϕ = 0. Polyanin and V.1: ∂2U ∂2U = + g (U ). τ ).1. ∂τ 2 ∂z 2 d¦e Reference: A. ∂2w = ∂2w + f (t – x)g (w). leads to an equation of the form 3.4. ∂t2 ∂x2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. F. where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕtt = f (t)ϕ ln ϕ + g (t) + ab2 ϕ. aψxx + b ln ψ + f (x) − C ψ = 0. t) = ϕ(t)ψ (x).1. and C is an arbitrary constant. t) = e−bx ϕ(t). 2 τ= 1 2 f (λ) dλ + 1 (t − x) 2 where a is an arbitrary constant. z= 1 1 (t + x) − 2 2 f (σ ) dσ .238 10. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕtt − b ln ϕ + g (t) + C ϕ = 0. + f (t)w ln w + bf (t)x + g (t) w. leads to an equation of the form 3. t−x a t−x a w = U (z . 12. ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation 14. τ= 1 1 (t + x) + 2 2 f (σ ) dσ where a is an arbitrary constant. z= 1 2 f (λ) dλ − 1 (t − x). D. 11.

EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 239 15. ∂2w ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (z .1. ∂2w ∂2w = + f (t + x)g (t – x)eβw .4. D. respectively. τ ).1: ∂2U ∂2U = + h(U ).4. ∂t2 ∂x2 The transformation w = U (z .1. leads to an equation of the form 3. where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + 2. z= 1 2 t+x a f (λ) dλ − 1 2 t−x b g (σ ) dσ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = ϕ(t)ψ (x). f¦g 2 2 = a∂ w + f x.3. Polyanin and V.2. τ ). 2 ∂τ ∂z 2 Reference: A. τ= 1 2 t+x a f (λ) dλ + 1 2 t−x b g (σ ) dσ . This equation can be rewritten in the form ∂t2 ∂x2 a ∂ ∂w ∂2w = m xm ∂t2 x ∂x ∂x + f (w). z= = ∂2w + f (t + x)g (t – x)h(w). Functional separable solution: w = w(ξ ). ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (x ) ∂w 1 a+b w = f (w). ∂τ 2 ∂z 2 16. where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations aψxx + f (x)ψx + b ln ψ + g (x) − C ψ = 0. aξ ξ ak ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: + bw ln w + g (x) + h(t) w. This is a special case of equation 3. where a and b are arbitrary constants.4.3. a ∂2w =a ∂2w + b ∂w To m = 1 and m = 2 there correspond nonlinear waves with axial and central symmetry. t. leads to an equation of the form 3. x ∂x 1◦ . ξ= ak (t + C )2 − kx2 . where a and b are arbitrary constants. w(x. ϕtt − b ln ϕ + h(t) + C ϕ = 0. F. + f (w). m= b .4 with n = 0. w .2. 1 2 t+x a f (λ) dλ − 1 2 t−x b g (σ ) dσ . Zaitsev (2002). ∂w 3. and C is an arbitrary constant. τ= 1 2 t+x a f (λ) dλ + 1 2 t−x b g (σ ) dσ . Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1.4. 2◦ .1: ∂2U ∂ 2U = + eβU .

f (τ ) sinh k (t − τ ) dτ if c = k 2 > 0. and the functions U (t) and Θ(ξ ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations Utt − cU − f (t) = 0. 2 Equation (2) can be solved with the change of variable z (Θ) = Θξ . t) + C2 cos(kt) + C3 sin(kt) 2◦ . Then the functions w1 = w(h x + C1 . 4. ψtt = (4bϕ + c)ψ . t) = U (t) + Θ(ξ ). are also solutions of the equation. Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. ξ = h x + λt. of (4) linear in x. Particular solution of equation (2): Θ=− 1 c (ξ + C3 )2 + (a − λ2 ). t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). (a − λ )Θξξ + b Θξ The solution of equation (1) is given by U (t) = C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) + 1 U (t) = C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) + k 1 k t 0 t 0 2 2 (1) (2) + cΘ = 0. χtt = cχ + bψ 2 + 2aϕ + f (t). where C1 . (5) (6) (7) Equation (5) has the trivial particular solution ϕ(t) ≡ 0. where λ is an arbitrary constant. and χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = 4bϕ2 + cϕ. 4b 2b (4) 3◦ . C2 . ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w = a + b + cw + f (t). To the stationary solution there correspond λ = 0. t) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x.240 3. to which there corresponds a solution 1 c/b. ψ (t). (3) if c = −k < 0. w(x. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = a + f (w ) . and λ are arbitrary constants. which leads to first-order linear equation. and C3 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . C2 . 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: (λ2 − a) dw = x + λt + C2 . w2 = w(h x + C1 . F (w ) + C 1 F (w ) = f (w) dw. where the functions ϕ(t). Solutions: if c = −k 2 < 0. Another particular solution to equation (5) is given by ϕ = − 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) + C2 cosh(kt) + C3 sinh(kt) if c = k 2 > 0. 2 f (τ ) sin k (t − τ ) dτ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ .

4◦ . Zaitsev (2002). t) + U (t). ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w = a + b + cw + f (x). respectively. equation (1) has exact solutions of the form ϕ = const and. where λ is a root of the quadratic equation bλ2 + cλ + k = 0. C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) if c = k 2 > 0. and C3 are arbitrary constants. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. which are linear in ψ and χ. C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) if c = −k 2 < 0. the general solution to (6) is expressed as ψ ( t) = C 3 ϕ ¯ ( t) + C 4 ϕ ¯ ( t) where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp(λx). i t + C1 ) + C2 cosh(kt) + C3 sinh(kt) if c = k 2 > 0. are also solutions of the equation. if c = −k 2 < 0. C2 . ϕ ¯ 2 ( t) where the function U (t) is defined by formula (3). the general solution to (6) is expressed in terms of exponentials or sine and cosine. t) is a solution of this equation.4. Then the functions 5. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 241 The general solution of the autonomous equation (5) can be represented in implicit form: 3 8 3 bϕ + cϕ2 + C1 −1/2 dϕ = C2 i t. where C1 . w(x. The substitution w = z (x. w(x. where ϕ ¯ (t) is any nontrivial particular solution to (5). w2 = w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . due to its autonomity. Polyanin and V. The functions ψ = ψ (t) and χ = χ(t) can be found by successively integrating equations (6) and (7). ∂2z ∂z ∂2z = a +b ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x j¦k dt . D. Additive separable solution: Here. Suppose w(x. t) = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). hence. Note that equation (6) has a particular solution ψ = ϕ ¯ (t). can be integrated by quadrature. (2) In the special case f (t) = const. Reference: A. with ϕ = const. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x 1◦ . and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 aϕxx + b ϕx + cϕ + f (x) = 0. w1 = w(x. g (t) = const. (1) 2 ψtt = (cλ + 2k )ϕ + f (t) + aλ ψ . F.3. ψ ( t) = ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂w 2 ∂x Generalized separable solution: 6. and the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = kϕ2 + f (t)ϕ + g (t). i t + C1 ) + C2 cos(kt) + C3 sin(kt) 2◦ . leads to the simpler equation 2 + cz . Equation (2) is linear in ψ and. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Hence. + cw ∂w ∂x + kw2 + f (t)w + g (t).

the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations aψxx + f (x)(ψx )2 + bψ + g (x) = 0. the functions ψ = ψ (t) and χ = χ(t) can be obtained by successively solving equations (3) and (4). respectively. ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = a + f (x ) 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Additive separable solution: 2 + bw + g (x) + h(t). where ϕ ¯ (t) is any nontrivial particular solution to (2). ϕ ¯ 2 ( t) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 1 g/f = const. if b = −k 2 < 0. Hence. Note that equation (3) has a particular solution ψ = ϕ ¯ (t). g .242 7. A. t) = 1 2 At + Bt + C + t 0 (t − τ )h(τ ) dτ + ϕ(x). ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. 9. ψtt = (4f ϕ + g )ψ . the general solution to (3) is expressed as ψ ( t) = C 1 ϕ ¯ ( t) + C 2 ϕ ¯ ( t) dt . and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f (x) ϕx )2 + g (x) − A = 0. ϕtt − bϕ − h(t) = 0. (1) where the functions ϕ(t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1 k t 0 t 0 h(τ ) sinh k (t − τ ) dτ if b = k 2 > 0. Equation (2) has the trivial particular solution ϕ(t) ≡ 0. ∂2w ∂t2 ∂x2 Additive separable solution: =a ∂2w + f (x ) ∂w ∂x 2 + g (x) + h(t). 2 w(x. Here. 1 k h(τ ) sin k (t − τ ) dτ . and C are arbitrary constants. then a particular solution to equation (2) is given by ϕ = − 4 8. to which there corresponds a solution of (1) linear in x. which are linear in ψ and χ. w(x. (2) (3) (4) χtt = gχ + f ψ 2 + h + 2aϕ. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (x). If the functions f and g are proportional to each other. and χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations of the second order with variable coefficients (the arguments of f . The solution of the first equation for ϕ(t) is expressed as ϕ(t) = C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) + ϕ(t) = C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) + where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψ (t). ∂2w =a ∂2w HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + f (t) ∂w 2 + g (t)w + h(t). t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). B . Here. and h are not specified) ϕtt = 4f ϕ2 + gϕ. If a solution ϕ = ϕ(t) of the nonlinear equation (2) has been found.

its order can be reduced. g = const. 3◦ . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) sinh x −b . (5) Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present many exact solutions of the linear equation (5) for various f = f (t). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cosh x −b . (1) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations of the second order with variable coefficients (the arguments of f . F. Galaktionov (1995. ψtt = 2bf ϕ + g − ab ψ . 2◦ . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) exp x −b . Generalized separable solutions: 10. In the special case f = const. ∂2w =a ∂2w + f (t) ∂w 2 + bf (t)w2 + g (t)w + h(t). g . 2. ψtt = 2bf ϕ + g − ab ψ . B= 2 . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) cos x b + c . b < 0. β = const). (9) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations of the second order with variable coefficients ϕtt = bf ϕ2 + ψ 2 + gϕ + h. hence. Note two special cases of solutions (6) that can be expressed in terms of hyperbolic functions: √ 1 1 . B = −2 . Polyanin (1996). 2 particular solutions to equation (2) are expressed as (4) where k1 and k2 are roots of the quadratic equation bk + αk + β = 0. ϕ = k2 . g . Generalized separable solution (generalizes the solutions of Item 1 ◦ ): √ √ w(x. b > 0. In this case. h = βf ϕ = k1 . and h = const was considered). b < 0. D. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. equation (3) can be rewritten in the form ψtt = (2bkn + α)f − ab ψ . A. (2) (3) If a solution ϕ = ϕ(t) to equation (2) has been found. and h are proportional to each other. g . √ l w(x. and h are not specified) ϕtt = bf ϕ2 + gϕ + h. Generalized separable solution (c is an arbitrary constant): √ w(x. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 243 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x ◦ 1 . A= 2 w(x. the case of f = a. (α. V. A= 2 w(x. (7) (8) We express ϕ from (8) in terms of ψ and then substitute into (7) to obtain a nonlinear fourth-order equation for ψ . with f . the function ψ = ψ (t) can be obtained by solving equation (3) linear in ψ . g = αf . If the functions f . m¦n (10) (11) References: V. the general solution of equation (5) is the sum of exponentials (or sine and cosine). h = const. (6) where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the following system of second-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients ϕtt = bf ϕ2 + 4ABψ 2 + gϕ + h. Zaitsev and A. the equation is autonomous and. n = 1. √ 1 1 . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t) A exp x −b + B exp −x −b . ψtt = (2bf ϕ + g − ab)ψ .3.

if b = 0. ∂w ∂x + g (t). 13. w(x. the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations 1 k t 0 t 0 g (τ ) sinh k (t − τ ) dτ if b = k 2 > 0. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + f (t) ∂w 2 ∂x ∂x There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in x: + g1 (t)x + g0 (t) ∂w + h(t)w + p2 (t)x2 + p1 (t)x + p0 (t). if b = −k 2 < 0. t) = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC Additive separable solution: Here. The solution of the first equation is expressed as ϕ(t) = C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) + ϕ(t) = C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) + where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψx + bψ = 0. Additive separable solution: Here. B . and C are arbitrary constants. A. Here. ϕtt − bϕ − g (t) = 0. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f x. ∂w ∂x + bw + g (t).  1 t   sinh k (t − τ ) h1 (τ ) dτ C cosh( kt ) + C sinh( kt ) + 1 2   k 0    t 1 ψ (t) = C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) + sin k (t − τ ) h1 (τ ) dτ  k 0   t    C +C t+ (t − τ )h (τ ) dτ 1 2 0 1 if b = k 2 > 0. w(x. t) = 1 2 At + Bt + C + t 0 (t − τ )g (τ ) dτ + ϕ(x).244 11. 14. ϕx − A = 0. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation k aϕxx + f (x) ϕx + g (x)ϕx + bϕ + h2 (x) = 0. aψxx + f x. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. w(x. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aϕxx + f x. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f (x ) ∂w ∂x k + g (x ) ∂w ∂x + bw + h1 (t) + h2 (x). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (x). Additive separable solution: 2 w(x. 12. if b = −k 2 < 0. 1 k g (τ ) sin k (t − τ ) dτ .

and the function ϕ(t) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation ϕtt = aλ2 + f (t.1. and the function w = w(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wyy − aBwy + f (w) = 0. y = At + B ln |x + β |. ∂x2 This equation describes the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. (2) kn2 The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) presents a number of exact solutions to equation (2) for various f = f (w). λ) ϕ. 2◦ . where A and B are arbitrary constants. F (w ) = f (w ) dw . 3◦ . For n = 0 see equation 3. t) = eλx ϕ(t). t. the general solution of equation (1) is written out in implicit form as C1 + 8 F (w ) k −1/2 dw = o r + C2 . Solution for n = 2: w = w(y ).3.1.3. ∂x2 ∂x dx √ leads to an equation of the form 3. a > 0. and w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + n 4 2(1 − n) 1 w = f (w). 2 2 = f (x) ∂ w + g x. ∂w 3. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 245 ∂2w 1 ∂w ∂2w = a + wf t.4. r2 = k (x + β )2−n 1 (t + C ) 2 − . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(r). ∂t2 ∂z 2 2.3. . The substitution y = x + β leads to a special case of equation 3. + f (w). wξξ = Special case. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.4. ∂t2 1◦ .4.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (3) . ∂2w ∂t2 = (ax2 + b) ∂2w The substitution z = ∂w + ax + f (w).1: ax2 + b ∂2w ∂2w = + f (w). 4 a(2 − n)2 ∂2w = a (x + β ) n ∂2w where k and the expression in square brackets must have like signs.4.4. 2 2 ∂t ∂x w ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. For n = 1. 15. w .4 with b = 0. where λ is an arbitrary constant. 2−n r r k (1) The substitution ξ = r 2−n leads to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation 4(2 − n)2 4(1−n) ξ n f (w).

Zaitsev and A. and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + n 4 2 1 w = f (w). ∂t2 ∂x2 w = w(ξ ). a > 0. D. F. ξ= 4 Here. Solution for n = 2: w = w(z ). Reference: V. Polyanin (1996). Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(r). 2−n r r k The substitution ξ = r n−2 leads to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation wξξ = 4(2 − n)2 − 4 ξ n f (w). (t + C ) 2 − 4 a(2 − n)2 where k and the expression in square brackets must have like signs. and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wzz + aBwz + f (w) = 0. 3. Zaitsev and A. D. 2◦ . F. Reference: V. 2a(2 − n) B= 1 . ∂x 1◦ . + f (w). 1 a(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − x2−n . √ Solution of equation (2) with A = p B a in implicit form: aB q¦r (2) dw = −z + C . Polyanin (1996). z = At + B ln |x + β |. ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a (x + β ) n + f (w). (1) where A= a(4 − 3n) + 2b . and the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ + Awξ − Bf (w) = 0.246 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE √ Solution of equation (3) with A = p B a in implicit form: aB dw = y + C. ∂2w = axn ∂2w + bxn–1 ∂w a > 0. f (w ) q¦r where C is an arbitrary constant. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: 4. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation describes the propagation of nonlinear waves in an inhomogeneous medium. f (w ) where C is an arbitrary constant. C is an arbitrary constant. r2 = k (x + β )2−n 1 . 1◦ . a(2 − n)2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where A and B are arbitrary constants. kn2 (1) The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) presents a number of exact solutions to equation (1) for various f = f (w).

the substitution u(w) = B (a − b) y A2 − aB 2 f (w). and the function w(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wyy + (b − a)Bwy + f (w) = 0. The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ .3. B . s C1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. √ aB 2 − A2 w brings (3) to the Abel equation For A ≠ s B a and b ≠ a.4. w = w(y ). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. where A. where C is an arbitrary constant. (1) wzz + a(2 − n)z The substitution u(w) = zwz brings (1) to a separable first-order equation. Solution for n = 2: (3) dw = s y + C2 . 2◦ . y = At + B ln |x| + C . the integration of which yields the general solution in implicit form: 1 dw = ln z + C2 . are also solutions of the equation. w1 = w C1 x. which corresponds to b = a(n − 1). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . anw − 2F (w) + C1 a(2 − n) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of this equation. B 2 (a − b)2 whose exact solutions for various f = f (w) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). the substitution ξ = kz 1−A (k = s 1) brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation 2A−1 kB z 1−A f (w) = 0. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 1 247 For A ≠ 1. Then the functions 2−n 2 t + C2 . and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 a(1 − n) + f (w) wz = 0. (2) wzz − 2 ( 1 − A) In the special case A = 1 2 . (b − a)B f (w ) Solutions of equation (3) with b = a: C1 + 2 F (w ) A2 − aB 2 −1/2 2◦ . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(z ). F (w) = f (w) dw. uuw − u = 5. and C are arbitrary constants. F (w ) = f (w) dw. 2 ∂w ∂2w n∂ w = ax + xn–1 f (w) . z = a(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − 4x2−n 1/2 . Suppose w(x. √ Solutions of equation (3) with A = s B a in implicit form: dw = −y + C 1 . the general solution of equation (2) is expressed as C1 + 8kBF (w) −1/2 dw = s z + C2 . F (w ) = f (w) dw. 2003) present a number of exact solutions to equation (2) for some f = f (w).

9 with b = 0.3. 8.9 with b = aλ. √ Solution of equation (1) with A = t B a: B f (w ) − a dw = −ξ + C 1 . Self-similar solution for n ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ). ξ = At + B ln |x| + C . and C are arbitrary constants.4. F. D. y = At + B ln |x| + C . (n − 2)2 (n − 2)2 w = w(y ). B . + f (w).248 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3◦ . Polyanin (1996). Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2: 6. 7. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . Solution for n = 2: 2(n − 4) 4 ξ wξξ + ξ n−2 f (w) + wξ = 0. ∂t2 aeλx © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w = ∂ ∂w . F (w) − aw + C1 F (w ) = f (w) dw. whose exact solutions for various f = f (w) and g = g (w) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). the change of variable u(w) = wξ brings (1) to an Abel equation. and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 2 a(1 − n) + f (w) wz − g (w) = 0. √ whose solution with A ≠ t B a is given by aB 2 − A2 B u¦v dw = −y . and the function w(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wyy + B f (w) − a wy = 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 3. z = ka(2 − n)2 (t + C )2 − 4kx2−n ]1/2 . Zaitsev and A. Solution for n = 2: w = w(ξ ). and C are arbitrary constants. where A. a > 0. where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 3. B . 2 where the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aξ n−1 − 4◦ . wzz + a(2 − n) z ak (2 − n)2 2◦ . where A. a > 0. g (w ) (1) In the general case.4. 2 ∂2w λx ∂ w = ae + f (w).3. ξ = x|t| n−2 . ∂2w ∂w ∂2w = axn + xn–1 f (w) + g (w). w = w(z ). Reference: V. and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (aB 2 − A2 )wξξ + B f (w) − a wξ + g (w) = 0. k = t 1.

z = 4ke−λx − akλ2 (t + C )2 . 2003) present a number of exact solutions to equation (2) for some f = f (w). 3◦ . z = 4e−λx − aλ2 (t + C )2 1/2 ∂2w = aeλx ∂2w + eλx f (w) ∂w . ∂x 1◦ . Zaitsev and A. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. see equation 3. Generalized self-similar solution: w = w(ξ ). 2F (w) − aλw + C1 aλ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. w eλC1 t + C2 . t) is a solution of this equation. and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 2 1− f (w) wz = 0. F. F (w ) = f (w) dw. .3. are also solutions of the equation. where the function w = w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (aλ2 ξ 2 − 4ξ )wξξ + λξf (w) + aλ2 ξ − 2 wξ = 0. Functional separable solution for λ ≠ 0: w = w(z ). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . For λ = 0. where C is an arbitrary constant and the function w = w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 2(aλ − b) 1 wz + f (w) = 0.3. For b ≠ 1 2 aλ. 2 k (2b − aλ) The books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. 1/2 w = w(z ). Then the functions ∂t2 ∂x2 w1 = w x + 2C1 . (1) wzz + aλ z akλ2 For b = aλ. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Functional separable solution: 249 9. ξ = t2 eλx . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . the substitution ξ = z wξξ + 2b−aλ aλ brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation (2) 4(aλ−b) a ξ 2b−aλ f (w) = 0. 10. Suppose w(x.2. (1) wzz + z aλ The substitution u(w) = zwz brings (1) to a separable first-order equation. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 2 ∂w ∂2w λx ∂ w = ae + beλx + f (w). the solution of equation (1) is expressed as C1 − 2 F (w ) akλ2 −1/2 dw = w z + C2 .4. a > 0. x¦y Reference: V. F (w ) = f (w) dw. where C is an arbitrary constant. k = w 1. D. the integration of which yields the general solution in implicit form: 1 dw = ln z + C2 .4. Polyanin (1996).

+ f (x )w 5 . w . χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = 2[2f (t) + a]ϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h2 (t). k = z 1. t. 2 2 = f (w ) ∂ w + g x. ∂w 3. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t). the case of f = const and h1 = h2 = 0 was treated. ∂2w ∂t2 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂x2 + g (x ) ∂w + aw ln w + h(x) + p(t) w. Suppose w(x. Functional separable solution for λ ≠ 0: w = w(z ). 2◦ . ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w = aw + f ( t ) + g (t)w + h2 (t)x2 + h1 (t)x + h0 (t). z C1 ∂2w = aw4 ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψtt − aψ ln ψ + C − p(t) ψ = 0. 12. u2 z= w u © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w(x. z = 4ke−λx − akλ2 (t + C )2 1/2 . Reference: V. For λ = 0. wzz + z aλ akλ2 2◦ . t) = ϕ(x)ψ (t). Suppose u = u(x) is any nontrivial solution of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation auxx + f (x)u = 0.4. w1 = C1 w x. are also solutions of the equation. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 2 ∂w ∂2w λx ∂ w = ae + eλx f (w) + g (w). (1) The transformation ξ= dx .4. Galaktionov (1995). ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) f (x)ϕxx + g (x)ϕx + aϕ ln ϕ + C + h(x) ϕ = 0. ψtt = 2[2f (t) + a]ϕψ + g (t)ψ + h1 (t). 2 t + C2 . there is a traveling-wave solution: w = w(αx + βt). Then the functions 2. where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 1 2 1− f (w ) w z + g (w) = 0. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂t ∂x2 1. 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . A. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ .250 11. {¦| χtt = 2aϕχ + f (t)ψ 2 + g (t)χ + h0 (t). ψ = ψ (t). t) is a solution of this equation.

z = wu3 (2) ξ= u2 brings the original equation to a simpler equation of the form 3. D.. and λ are arbitrary constants): z (ξ . (2) Given a particular solution u = u(x) of the linear equation (1). the auxiliary equation (1) employed to determine the transformation (2) has the following solution: u(x) = 1/2 C1 exp(λx) + C2 exp(−λx) if ab > 0. C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . ~¦ . z (ξ .1. 4A2 a The first solution is degenerate and the second one is a special case of a multiplicative separable solution z (ξ . } C1 ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ~¦ ∂ ∂w =a w–4/3 + f (x)w–1/3 . the solutions of equation (1) are expressed in terms of Bessel functions.6. the general solution of the nonlinear equation (2) is expressed as (e. Suppose u = u(x) is any nontrivial particular solution of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation (1) auxx − 1 3 f (x)u = 0. and a self-similar solution of the form z = tk ϕ(ζ ). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) = λ−1/4 (t + C )−1/2 3◦ . where λ = 1 3 b/a m For f (x) = bx or f (x) = beβx.3. Suppose w(x.5. Ag 2 = Reference: V. are also solutions of the equation.4. The transformation dx . D. a > 0. F. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 251 brings the original equation to a simpler equation of the form 3. There are also a traveling-wave solution. C1 cos(λx) + C2 sin(λx) if ab < 0.1. ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ 3◦ . For f = b = const. Zaitsev and A. 1/2 dx u2 2 . Reference: V. D. ∂t2 ∂ξ 2 For example. and the function g = g (x) is determined by the Yermakov’s equation agxx + f (x)g − 3λ2 g −3 = 0. Polyanin (1996). t) = f (ξ )g (t). this equation has the following solutions (A. where C is an arbitrary constant. −2 3 t + C2 . 3λ + (Aξ + B )2 . F. ζ = ξt−2k−1 . 2003): 3λ2 2 u + u2 B + A a where A and B are arbitrary constants (A ≠ 0).5 with n = −4/3: ∂ ∂z ∂2z =a z −4/3 .g. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x 1◦ . w1 = C1 w x. z = z (αξ + βt). see Polyanin and Zaitsev. Then the functions 3. Zaitsev and A. C . t) = (} 2λt + C )−1/2 g (x). where k is an arbitrary constant.5 with n = 4: 2 ∂2z 4∂ z = az . B . Polyanin (1996). t) = Aξt + Bξ + Ct + D. t) is a solution of this equation.

By the change of variable U = eλϕ the first equation is reduced to the linear equation aUxx + λf (x)U + λC = 0. Suppose w(x. ∂x ∂x Additive separable solution: where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) a(eλϕ ϕx )x + f (x)eλϕ + C = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . u= f (w) dw w = w(z ). where w = w(z ) is defined implicitly by (A and B are arbitrary constants) λ2 w − ¦‚ f (w) dw = Az + B . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a wn 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + f (x)wn+1 + g (t)w. ψtt − g (t)ψ + Cψ n+1 = 0. F. ψtt − g (t) + Ceλψ = 0. R. are also solutions of the equation. Traveling-wave solution: f (w) dw. Reference: W. J. Ames. Multiplicative separable solution: where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) a(ϕn ϕx )x + f (x)ϕn+1 + Cϕ = 0. 2◦ . 6. Adams (1981). 1◦ . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x This equation is encountered in wave and gas dynamics. C1 t + C3 ). 2 ∂τ ∂z ∂z where the function g = g (u) is defined parametrically as u= 3◦ . z = x € λt. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂ eλw ∂w + f (x)eλw + g (t). Then the functions w1 = w(€ C1 x + C2 . g (u ) = 1 . ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (w ) . f (w ) t = z. where C1 . w = ϕ(x) + ψ (t).252 4. w = ϕ(x)ψ (t). 5. and E. t) is a solution of the equation in question. leads to an equation of the similar form ∂ ∂w ∂2u = g (u ) . and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . The transformation x = τ. Lohner.

Lohner. Solution in parametric form: x = [C 1 F (w ) + C 2 ]v + C 3 F (w ) + C 4 . (2) The handbooks by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. 6◦ . equation (1) is reduced to the second-order linear equation yww = C −2 f (w)y . R. . Adams (1981). t = (C1 eλv − C2 e−λv ) λ f (w ) w where C1 . Solution in parametric form: x = C1 v 2 + C2 v + f (w)(2C1 w + C3 ) dw + C4 . 2003) present a large number of solutions to equation (2) for various f = f (w). C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. t = (2C1 w + C3 )v + C2 w + C5 . . References: W. ◦ 4◦ . . By the change of variable ξ = −Cyw /y . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 253 x+a . J.3. 1 1 H (w ) + C 4 . t+b where a and b are arbitrary constants. Here and henceforth. and E. D. ξ= which admits the first integral ξ 2 − f (w ) w ξ = C . C1 . . . For C ≠ 0. w = w(ξ ). and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξ 2 w ξ ) ξ = f (w )w ξ ξ . t= 1 C1 v 2 + C3 v + 2 F (w ) = f (w) dw. Self-similar solution: (1) To the special case C = 0 there corresponds the solution (in implicit form): ƒ¦„ 5 . C5 are arbitrary constants. Solution in parametric form: x = [C 1 F (w ) + C 2 ]v 2 + C 3 F (w ) + C 4 + 2 t= 1 C1 v 3 + C3 v + 2v 3 f (w) [C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw dw. 7◦ . one obtains a Riccati equation for ξ = ξ (w): Cξw = ξ 2 − f (w). F. Ames. [C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . . ξ 2 = f (w). dw f (w) dw (3) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . [C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . Zaitsev and A. treating w in (1) as the independent variable. Solution in parametric form: x = (C1 eλv + C2 e−λv )H (w) + C3 . and the differential operator Lf is expressed as L f [ϕ ] ≡ 1 dϕ d . Polyanin (1996). . 8◦ .4. F. the function H = H (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lf [H ] − λ2 H = 0. V.

= . where w and v are treated as the independent variables and x and t as the dependent ones. . . . and the function H = H (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Hww − λ2 f (w)H = 0. Solution in parametric form: x= 1 (C1 eλv − C2 e−λv )Hw (w) + C3 . Solution in parametric form: x= 1 [C2 sin(λv ) − C1 cos(λv )]Zw (w) + C3 . . F (w ) = f (w) dw. t = (C 1 w + C 2 )v 2 + C 3 w + C 4 + 2 13◦ . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. . . 12◦ . Solution in parametric form: x = [2C1 F (w) + C3 ]v + C2 F (w) + C5 . (4) (5) x = x(w. where C1 . the function Z = Z (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lf [Z ] + λ2 Z = 0. ∂t ∂x t = t(w. 1 1 Z (w ) + C 4 . 15◦ . The original equation can be represented as the system of equations f (w ) The hodograph transformation ∂w ∂v = . Solution in parametric form: x= 1 C1 v 3 + C3 v + 2v 3 f (w)(C1 w + C2 ) dw + C5 . t = [C2 sin(λv ) − C1 cos(λv )] λ f (w ) w where C1 . v ). . . . . t = C 1 v 2 + C2 v + 11◦ . 10◦ .254 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 9◦ . f (w)(C1 w + C2 ) dw dw. Solution in parametric form: x = [C1 sin(λv ) + C2 cos(λv )]Z (w) + C3 . . v ). λ t = (C1 eλv + C2 e−λv )H (w) + C4 . Solution in parametric form: x= 1 C1 v 2 + C3 v + f (w)(C1 w + C2 ) dw + C5 . (6) f (w ) ∂v ∂w ∂v ∂w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . [2C1 F (w) + C3 ] dw + C4 . ∂x ∂t ∂w ∂v = . and the function Z = Z (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Zww + λ2 f (w)Z = 0. brings (4) to the linear system ∂x ∂x ∂t ∂t = . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. and the differential operator Lf is defined by (3). λ t = [C1 sin(λv ) + C2 cos(λv )]Z (w) + C4 . 14◦ . where C1 . . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. 2 t = (C 1 w + C 2 )v + C 3 w + C 4 .

A. Zaitsev and A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Reference: V. v ) and then determine x = x(w. ϕk−1 (w) = Ak F (w) + Bk + 2k (2k − 1) where the Ak and Bk are arbitrary constants (k = n. Solutions of equation (7) with odd powers of v : n x= k=0 ψk (w)v 2k+1 . F. 1). J. . D. N. D. v ) is defined by (9) and. References for equation 3. together with (11). together with (10). 2 ∂w ∂v (8) (7) The procedure for constructing exact solutions of the original nonlinear equation consists of the following two stages. ξ ) dξ + (η .3. The dependence t = t(w. Likewise. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 255 Eliminating t. ψk−1 (w) = Ak F (w) + Bk + 2k (2k + 1) ˆ¦‰ where the Ak and Bk are arbitrary constants (k = n. one finds an exact solution of the linear equation (7) for x = x(w. V. gives a solution of the original nonlinear equation in parametric form. Lohner. one can first construct an exact solution to the linear equation (8) for t = t(w. v ) is defined by (9) and. F. ∂w f (w) ∂w ∂v 2 Likewise. we obtain a linear equation for x = x(w. F (w ) = f (w) dw. v0 ) dη . 17◦ . The thus obtained expressions of (5) will give an exact solution of the original equation in parametric form. Polyanin (2001). 1). …‡† 16◦ . First. v ). Solutions of equation (7) with even powers of v : n x= k=0 ϕk (w)v 2k . and E. R. . which is then solved to obtain t = t(w. The dependence t = t(w.4. D. f (w ) ϕk (w) dw dw. f (w ) ψk (w) dw dw. . (9) t= f ( w ) ∂w w0 ∂v v0 where w0 and v0 are any numbers. Polyanin (2001). Adams (1981). F. Ibragimov (1994). . gives a solution of the original nonlinear equation in parametric form. v ) in the form w v ∂x 1 ∂x (w. Further this solution is substituted into the linear system (6). F (w ) = f (w) dw. . Polyanin and V. v ): ∂2t ∂2t − f (w) 2 = 0. Ames. Zaitsev and A. Zaitsev (2002). v ): 1 ∂x ∂2x ∂ − = 0. (10) where the functions ϕk = ϕk (w) are determined by the recurrence relations ϕ n (w ) = A n F (w ) + B n .6: W. F.4. from system (6) we obtain another linear equation for t = t(w. H. .4. . (11) where the functions ψk = ψk (w) are determined by the recurrence relations ψ n (w ) = A n F (w ) + B n . . v ) from (6).

uuw + g (w)u + h(w)[f (w) − λ2 ] = 0. z = x + λt. and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation [f (w) − λ2 ]wzz + g (w)wz + h(w) = 0. ∂ ∂w = f (w ) ∂t2 ∂x ∂x Traveling-wave solution: ∂2w + g (w ) ∂w ∂x + h(w). and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation {[f (w) − λ2 ]wz }z + g (w)wz + h(w) = 0. z = x + λt. The substitution ξ = − g (w) dw brings (1) to the canonical form f (w ) − λ 2 uuξ − u = F (ξ ). where λ is an arbitrary constant. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x f (w ) Functional separable solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = at − where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.256 7. (2) (1) this equation is reduced to the Abel equation A large number of exact solutions to the Abel equation (2) for various F = F (ξ ) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). where the function F = F (ξ ) is defined parametrically as F (ξ ) = h (w ) . g (w ) ξ=− g (w) dw . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . The substitution ξ = − g (w) dw brings (1) to the canonical form uuξ − u = F (ξ ). ∂2w ∂t2 = f (w ) ∂2w ∂x2 + g (w ) ∂w ∂x + h(w). w = w(z ). f (w ) − λ 2 (2) (1) A large number of exact solutions to the Abel equation (2) for various F = F (ξ ) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). With the change of variable u (w ) = [f (w ) − λ 2 ]w z . 2 Traveling-wave solution: where λ is an arbitrary constant. 8. By the change variable u(w) = wz this equation is reduced to the Abel equation [f (w) − λ2 ]uuw + g (w)u + h(w) = 0. where the function F = F (ξ ) is defined parametrically by F (ξ ) = h (w ) [f (w) − λ2 ]. w = w(z ). 1 2 bx + C1 x + C2 . 9. g (w ) ξ=− g (w) dw. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂ ∂w f (w ) ∂2w = f (w ) – a2 3 + b.

t. t) = w(z ). w . Then the functions w1 = w(Š C1 x + C2 . The general solution of equation (1) is written out in implicit form: hxx − λ f (x) −1 1−m ∂2w = f (x )w m ∂2w 2◦ . t) = ϕ(x)ψ (t). where C1 . Š C1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. λm2 . where the functions g = g (t) and h = h(x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations gtt − λg m+1 = 0. Suppose w(x. A qualitative analysis of the structure of solutions to the original equation was undertaken in Glassey. t) = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). t) = w(ξ ). it follows that C1 + g (t) = (at + C )−2/m .4. λ. f (w) = Awk .3. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). 10. βw ◦ ∂2w = f (w ) ∂2w + afw (w) ∂w 2 w(x. and Zheng (1997) and Melikyan (1998).3 and 2. B . w(x. In particular. a=Š © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . f (w) = Ae . 2 2 = f (x. x+b (self-similar solution). 3◦ . and x0 are arbitrary constants. z = kx + λt (traveling-wave solution). 1◦ . (1) h = 0. ∂w 3. Sections 2. EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 257 . t) = g (t)h(x). the equation has exact solutions of the form w(x.7) presents a large number of exact solutions to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation (2) for various f = f (x). C2 . are also solutions of the equation. w1 = C1 w x. the general solution of equation (2) is expressed as x (x − ξ ) dξ + Ax + B . w(x.5. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. C1 t + C3 ). and C3 are arbitrary constants. 2(m + 2) For m = 1. w(x. h(x) = λ f (ξ ) x0 where A. if C1 = 0. b. ∂t2 ∂x2 1◦ . w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x Equations of this form are encountered in the theory of liquid crystals and other applications. are also solutions of the equation. The structure of other exact solutions for some specific f (w): f (w) = Aw + B . . and c are arbitrary constants. The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003. Hunter. ξ = t+c where k . where λ is an arbitrary constant. 2◦ . t) is a solution of this equation.4. −1/2 dg = C2 Š t. 4 . Suppose w(x. Multiplicative separable solution: (2) 2λ m+2 g m+2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. In the general case. w ) ∂ w + g x. Then the functions m 2 t + C2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question.

2◦ . t) = ψ (x) 1 m+1 u(ξ . z= 3◦ . and λ is an arbitrary constant. if C1 = 0. it follows that C1 + g (t) = (at + C )−2/m . The transformation HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 1 w(x. x 1 x u ( z . t) = leads to an equation of the similar form z= ∂2u = z 4−m f ∂t2 2. Suppose w(x. In particular. are also solutions of the equation. F = λ(m + 1)f (x).7) presents a large number of exact solutions to equation (2) for various F = F (z ). where the functions g = g (t) and h = h(x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations gtt − λg m+1 = 0. The transformation w(x. a=‹ λm2 . The transformation z= −1/2 (1) (2) dg = C2 ‹ t. where the function F = F (z ) is defined parametrically by dx . ∂t2 ∂x ∂x 1◦ . ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ where the function F = F (ξ ) is defined parametrically by F = f (x) ψ (x) 3m+4 m+1 . ‹ C1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3 and 2. [f (x)hm hx ]x − λh = 0. Sections 2. t) = g (t)h(x). ∂2w 1 m ∂2u u . f (x) The book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003. 2(m + 2) dx . f (x ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) is a solution of this equation. ψ (x) = dx . The general solution of equation (1) is written out in implicit form: 2λ m+2 g m+2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψ (x) = dx .258 3◦ . z ∂z 2 ∂ ∂w = f (x )w m . 1 (3) ξ= ψ (x) m+2 m+1 dx. f (x) leads to an equation of the similar form ∂ ∂u ∂2u = F (ξ )u m . ξ= ψ (x) m+2 m+1 dx. t). Φ = hm+1 f (x) brings (2) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation Φzz − F (z )Φ m+1 = 0. Then the functions m 2 t + C2 . t). w1 = C1 w x. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.

∂t2 ∂x ∂x 1◦ . is also a solution of the equation. Then the functions 3. ∂ ∂w = f (t) w .4. t) ax2 + bx + c. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t . t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). 2 ∂t ∂z which has a traveling-wave solution u = u(z + λt). dx ax2 + bx + c 4. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t). ψtt = 6f (t)ϕψ . 2 2 = f (t. Degenerate solutions: w(x. x z= 1 x ∂2u ∂2u 4 = u f ( u ) . Suppose w(x. 3◦ . . w ) ∂ w + g x. leads to an equation of the form 3. t) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ . Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂x 1. . With the transformation u ( z . t). and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = 6f (t)ϕ2 . Suppose w(x. Then the function −2 w1 = C1 w C1 x + C2 . w .8: z= ∂2u ∂2u 1 2 5 = u4 f (u) 2 + (ac − 4 b )u f (u). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂t2 = w4 f w √ ax2 + bx + c ∂2w ∂x2 . ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.6. χtt = 2f (t)ϕχ + f (t)ψ 2 . t) is a solution of this equation. where C1 . t) = one arrives at the simpler equation 1 w(x. w(x. t) = (C1 t + C2 )(C3 x + C4 )1/2 . ∂t2 x ∂x2 1◦ . . ∂w 3. C4 and a are arbitrary constants. Œ C1 t + C2 .4.4. ∂t2 ∂z 2 which has a traveling-wave solution u = u(z + λt) and self-similar solutions of the form u = u(z/t).3. .4. are also solutions of the equation. ψ = ψ (t). Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. −1 w1 = C1 w C1 x. t) = (C1 t + C2 )x + a t (t − τ )(C1 τ + C2 )2 f (τ ) dτ + C3 t + C4 . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 259 w ∂2w ∂2w 4 = w f . t. t) = u(z . 2◦ . The transformation √ w(x.

χtt = 2f (t)ϕχ + f (t)ψ 2 + g (t)χ + h0 (t). F (t) = exp − f (t) dt . . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. = f (t) ∂t2 ∂x ∂x Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w(x. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t − 2◦ . The last equation is autonomous and has a particular solution Ψ = integrable by quadrature. t) = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Suppose w(x. w(x. ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w + d(t)w + e(t)x2 + f (t)x + g (t). where the functions ϕ = ϕ(t). 3. . 3◦ . and c = const was considered. b = e = f = 0. ψ = ψ (t). and χ = χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = 6f (t)ϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h2 (t). t) = 1 ln(C1 x + C2 ) + C3 λ F (t) dt + C4 . . λ where C1 . in the general case. (ΨΨx)x = C Ψ. C4 are arbitrary constants. w1 = w C1 x + C2 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . 2. Galaktionov (1995).4. 2 ln |C1 |. A. the case of a = 1. C2 . ∂2w 1 2 6 Cx .260 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 4◦ . Other Equations Linear in the Highest Derivatives ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w + f (t) = g (t) eλw . t) is a solution of this equation. ¦Ž Reference: V. Additive separable solution: w(x. t) = ϕ(t)x2 + ψ (t)x + χ(t). it is ∂w ∂ w + g (t)w + h2 (t)x2 + h1 (t)x + h0 (t). where the functions Φ = Φ(t) and Ψ = Ψ(x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) Φtt = Cf (t)Φ2 . ψtt = 6f (t)ϕψ + g (t)ψ + h1 (t). is also a solution of the equation. t) = Φ(t)Ψ(x). . Additive separable solution: 1 ln(λC1 x2 + C2 x + C3 ) + u(t). and the function u = u(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation utt + f (t)ut = 2C1 g (t)eλu . Then the function 1. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . = [ a ( t ) w + b ( t )] + c ( t ) ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in x: 3.7. w(x.

t) is a solution of this equation. ∂w ∂t . w(x. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (z ). Additive separable solution: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 261 ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂2w + f (w ) g (w ) .3. ψtt − g t.4. t) + C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) if b = k 2 > 0. k . wx ) = f (wx ). 5. if b = −k 2 < 0. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2. ∂2w ∂t2 ∂2w ∂x2 1 k t 0 t 0 ∂2w =a ∂2w + f x. w(x. ψt − bψ = C . λF (w) + C1 where C1 . see Baikov. ∂w ∂t + bw. where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) aϕxx + f x. where z = x + λt. aψxx + f x. ϕx = C . ψx + bψ = 0. Gazizov. ∂x 1◦ . For f (x. Additive separable solution: w(x. where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) aϕxx + f x. ∂t2 ∂x2 w1 = w(x. Suppose w(x. = 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x 1◦ . g (τ ) sin k (t − τ ) dτ Special case. t) = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕtt − bϕ − g (t) = 0. k 2 g (w ) − λ 2 dw = kx + λt + C2 . ∂w 2◦ . For exact solutions of this equation for some specific f (w) and g (w). The solution of the first equation is expressed as ϕ(t) = C1 cosh(kt) + C2 sinh(kt) + 1 ϕ(t) = C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) + k where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (x). t) = ϕ(x) + ψ (t). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψt = C . Here. + bw + g (t). ∂w ∂x + g t. 2◦ . C2 . and λ are arbitrary constants. ϕx + bϕ = C . Then the functions 3. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + f x. ∂w ∂x + g t. 4. Additive separable solution: g (τ ) sinh k (t − τ ) dτ if b = k 2 > 0. =a + f x. ψtt − g t. are also solutions of the equation. w2 = w(x. there are more complicated solutions of the form w (x. F (w ) = f (w) dw. and Ibragimov (1989) and Ibragimov (1994). t) + C1 cos(kt) + C2 sin(kt) if b = −k 2 < 0.

∂2w 1 ∂w ∂2w = a + wf x. Self-similar solution: z = x/t. f (τ ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where A and B are arbitrary constants. where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) aϕxx + ϕf x. . Suppose w(x. 2◦ . 1◦ . 2 2 ∂t ∂x w ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ϕ= 1 2A ξf (ξ ) dξ − λ2 2 ξ + C2 . Degenerate solution: w(x. . ϕ= 1 2A ξf (ξ ) dξ + C2 . and λ are arbitrary constants. and D are arbitrary constants. C5 are arbitrary constants. this equation is encountered in aerodynamics (theory of transonic gas flows). where the function ψ = ψ (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (zψz + ψ ) − z 2 ](zψzz + 2ψz ) = 0. Equating the expression in square brackets to zero. 1 ∂w w ∂t + bw ln w. is also a solution of the equation. Its general solution can be represented in parametric form (C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants): z= 1 2A f (ξ ) dξ − λ2 ξ + C1 . . where A. B . z = x + λt. Additive separable solution: w(x. t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) = ϕ(x)ψ (t). 4◦ . 2A w = xψ (z ). we have f (zψz + ψ ) − z 2 = 0. B . where A. C . t) = At2 + Bt + ϕ(z ). t) = At2 + Bt + ϕ(x). ϕx /ϕ + bϕ ln ϕ + Cϕ = 0. 1 ψ= √ 2 f (τ ) τ f τ (τ ) √ dτ + C . 3◦ . 7. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE + wg t. ψt /ψ − bψ ln ψ + Cψ = 0. Solution of the more general form w(x. t) = Axt + Bx + Cx + D. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x2 For f (z ) = −z . ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂2w = f . Its general solution can be represented in parametric form (C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants): x= 1 2A f (ξ ) dξ + C1 . Then the function where C1 . .262 6. The general solution of this equation in parametric form: z= f (τ ). −1 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 . ψtt − ψg t. and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2A = f (ϕx )ϕxx . 4A 5◦ . C 1 t + C 3 ) + C 4 t + C 5 . and the function ϕ = ϕ(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2A = f (ϕz ) − λ2 ϕzz .

where the functions f = f (t). Special case 2. (t + C1 )2 2 2 2aC3 aC2 C4 + C5 (t + C1 )2 + + 2aC2 C3 (t + C1 )3 + (t + C1 )8 . ◦ 8 . Below are exact solutions representable in explicit form: ψ (t) = A1 t−2/k if C 2 = 0. ptt = 2agh. C6 are arbitrary constants. z= ∂w . . Reference: A. H. ∂t τ= ∂w . 2aC1 k+2 ψ + C2 . Special case 1. g = g (t). 1◦ . ϕ(x) = A2 x(k+2)/k if C 3 = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 263 6◦ . t) = ∂x ∂ ∂v ∂2v = f (v ) . Generalized separable solution cubic in x: w = f (t)x3 + g (t)x2 + h(t)x + p(t).4. The coefficients A1 and A2 are determined by substituting these expressions into the above equations. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Let f (U ) = aU . F. There is the solution in multiplicative separable form: w = ϕ(x)ψ (t). . Ibragimov (1994). τ ) = tz + xτ − w(x. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ¦‘ Reference: N. C5 are arbitrary constants. Polyanin and V. k+2 x where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (t) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations (ψt )2 = and C1 . 2 ∂τ ∂z ∂w leads to an equation of the form 3. ¦‘ 3◦ . Zaitsev (2002).6: 7◦ . .4. Let f (U ) = aU k . . . t + C1 (t + C1 )2 27 where C1 . k+2 2 (ϕ )k+2 = C1 ϕ2 + C3 . Multiplicative separable solution: w = ϕ(x)ψ (t).4. The function p = p(t) is determined from the last equation by integrating the right-hand side twice. C2 . 3a(t + C1 )2 g= C2 + C3 (t + C1 )3 . The Legendre transformation u(z . t). A particular solution of the system of the first three equations is given by f= h= 1 . . ∂x where u is the new dependent variable. leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂2u = f (τ ) 2 . 1◦ . The substitution v (x. . Below are exact solutions of the equation for some specific f = f (U ). p = p(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ftt = 18af 2 . and z and τ are the new independent variables. D. gtt = 18af g . htt = 6af h + 4ag 2 .3. 2◦ . The general solutions to these equations can be written out in implicit form. . where C1 . h = h(t). Generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w = (C1 t + C2 )x2 + −2 1 aC1 (C1 t 3 + C 2 )4 + C 3 t + C 4 x 1 2 −4 a C1 (C1 t + C2 )7 + + 63 1 aC1 C3 t4 6 + 1 a(C1 C4 3 + C2 C3 )t3 + aC2 C4 t2 + C5 t + C6 .

τ where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants (C3 can be set equal to zero). ζ = tβ x. References for equation 3. is also a solution of the equation. Let f (U ) = a exp(λU ). z = x + λt. C2 . λ where C4 and C5 are arbitrary constants. Here. Special case 3. aC2 λ > 0. aC2 λ < 0. and the function u(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation σ (σ − 1)u + β (2σ + β − 1)ζuζ + β 2 ζ 2 uζζ = a(uζ )k uζζ . the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (1 ) (2 ) aC2 λ > 0. where β is an arbitrary constant. Solution: w(x. Nurgalieva (1985). . Vinokurov and I. and λ are arbitrary constants. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C4 are arbitrary constants. Then the function 8. x + C2 ) + C3 e−t/a + C4 . The general solution of equation (1) is given by aC2 λ 1 ln cos2 (βt + C3 ) λ 2β 2 aC2 λ 1 sinh2 (βt + C3 ) ϕ(t) = − ln λ 2β 2 ϕ(t) = − ϕ(t) = − aC2 λ 1 ln − cosh2 (βt + C3 ) λ 2β 2 1 C x2 2 2 if if if where C3 and β are arbitrary constants. where C1 . exp(λψx )ψxx = C2 (x + C1 ). Ibragimov (1994).7: N. H. Dt twt − w + Dx − ’¦“ 1 tw k+1 k+1 x where Dt = ∂ . a + =f w1 (x. 3◦ . . . z= 1 λ f (τ ) dτ − aλ ln |τ | + C4 . 1 k+1 wt wx k+1 = 0. 1 1 2 w + w k+2 2 t (k + 1)(k + 2) x + Dx − = 0. F. σ = −(kβ + 2β + 2)/k . A. ∂t Dx = ∂ . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ .7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .264 2◦ . A. 2◦ . Suppose w(x. Self-similar solution: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE w = tσ u(ζ ). ϕtt = aC2 exp(λϕ). H. Generalized separable solution: w = (x + C1 )ϕ(t) + ψ (x). ∂x References: V. N. k+1 1 2 1 w k+2 − wt + Dx − k+2 x 2 = 0. t) = w(t + C1 . D. Polyanin and V. . t) = U (z ) + C1 e−t/a + C2 . ∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w where C1 . Conservation laws for a = 1: Dt w t + Dx − Dt w t w x Dt 1 k+1 wx = 0. G. .4. and the function U (z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation λUz = f (Uz ) − aλ2 Uzz . Integrating yields its solution in parametric form: U= 1 λ f (τ ) dτ − aλτ + C3 . Ibragimov (1994). The general solution of equation (2) is expressed as ψ (x) = ’¦“ ln + C1 C2 x + C4 dx + ln λ x + C5 . a ≠ 0. Zaitsev (2002).

t) = C1 t + C2 + C3 e−t/a + ϕ(x). R. transformation (1) leads to the linear telegraph equation a ”¦• ∂w ¯ ∂2w ¯ ∂2w ¯ + =b . Ibragimov (1994). N. leads to an equation of the similar form ¯ ¯ ∂w ¯ ∂2w ∂2w ¯ ∂w + . 5◦ . C2 . −2). Φ = 0 (n + 1)(n + 2) x Ψ = bwx (ln |wx | − 1). where Ψ= b w n+2 . Dt aet/a wt + Dx −et/a Ψ (wx ) = 0. The contact transformation ¯ = t + a ln |wx |. = 0. For f (wx ) = bekwx . Dt = ∂t ∂x 0 and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3. N. where the function ϕ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation λϕz + C1 = f (ϕz ) − aλ2 ϕzz . ¯. For f (wx ) = b(wx )−2 . w ¯t ¯ = −wt /wx (1) wx = 1/w ¯x ¯. H. t) = C1 t + C2 + C3 e−t/a + ϕ(z ). ϕ= C1 C1 where C4 and C5 are arbitrary constants (C4 can be set equal to zero). n (n ≠ 0. = 0. where = F 2 2 ¯ ¯ ∂t ∂t ∂x ¯ ∂x ¯ Transformation (1) has an inverse. ¯ /w ¯ |. Dx = . 2 w ¯ = x + awt /wx . Additive separable solution: w(x. z = x + λt. 1988). if n = −1. x t ¯ = w + awt . there is an additional conservation law: Special case 2. 1 a(wt )2 = 0. u wt = −w ¯t ¯x ¯ /w ¯. it is given by ¯ + a ln |w t=t ¯x x=w ¯ + aw ¯t w=x ¯ + aw ¯t ¯x ¯. where C1 . Special case 1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ◦ 6 . EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 265 3◦ . Svirshchevskii (1986. H. Ibragimov (1994). Conservation laws: Dt awt + w + Dx −Ψ (wx ) = 0. x = f (ξ ) dξ + C5 . u ∂ ∂ . (2) The formulas of (2) can be used if the Jacobian function J = (w ¯x ¯x ¯x ¯t ¯t ¯ ) − aw ¯ + aw ¯t ¯ ) is ¯ + aw ¯x ¯ (w ¯t nonzero. Ψ (u ) = (u − ζ )f (ζ ) dζ + C1 u + C2 .4. The solutions of Items 3◦ and 4◦ are special cases of the more general solution w(x. 1988). 2 ¯ ¯ ∂t ∂t ∂x ¯2 References: S. the function ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation f (ϕx )ϕxx = C1 . there is an additional conservation law (k ≠ 0): 3b 1 3 3 2 2 akwt + wt (kw +2x − kxwx ) + ekwx + Dx et/a akxwt − b w + x − xwx +3awt ekwx aet/a 2 k 2 k References: S. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Svirshchevskii (1986. Dt aet/a wt wx + Dx et/a Ψ(wx ) − wx Ψ (wx ) − 2 where the prime stands for the differentiation. w ¯x ¯ = 1/wx . 4◦ . a F (u ) = 1 f u2 1 . Integrating yields its solution in parametric form: 1 1 ξf (ξ ) dξ + C4 . For f (wx ) = bwx Dt aet/a 3n + 4 2 awt + wt (n + 2)w − nxwx + (3n + 4)Ψ 2 + Dt et/a dΨ n 2 axwt + nxwx − a(3n + 4)wt − (n + 2)w − nxΨ + Φ 2 dwx if n ≠ −1. Φ = 2bw Dt ”¦• Special case 3. R.

y . . C 1 t + C 3 + C4 . ∂2w = awn . βξUξξ + n−1 ξ For exact solutions of this equation. is also a solution of the equation. . . t). Suppose w(x. . 1 1−n 1 1−n xy + C1 x + C2 y + C1 C2 −1/2 . where C1 . ∂t τ= ∂w . ∂w . y ) = 2(1 + n) w(x. and z and τ are the new independent variables. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ .5. see the book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). Then the function −1 w1 = C1 w C1 x + C2 .3. Equations of the Form ∂ w = F x. ξ = yxβ . τ ) = tz + xτ − w(x.1 with f (w) = aw n . 1◦ . ∂x where u is the new dependent variable. . . The Legendre transformation u(z . t) is a solution of this equation. C2 y + C4 . and the function U (ξ ) is determined by the modified Emden–Fowler equation nβ − 1 U = aU n . τ ) 2 .5. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form (generalizes the first solution of Item 2 ◦ ): C2 + 4◦ . . Solutions: a(1 − n)2 w(x. y ) = a(1 − n)2 ◦ 1 1−n 1 y + C2 C1 x + C1 2 1−n . ∂w ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 3. ∂x∂y This is a special case of equation 3.1. C4 are arbitrary constants. . Then the function w1 = (C1 C2 ) n−1 w C1 x + C3 . leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂2u = f (z . z= ∂w . C1 w = x n−1 U (ξ ). 2 3. 3 . where β is an arbitrary constant. 2◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters of the Form ∂ 2 w = f (w ) ∂x∂y 1. . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂2w = f . y ) is a solution of the equation in question. is also a solution of the equation. Suppose w(x. 2◦ . Self-similar solution: 2a n+1 w n+1 β −1 dw = C1 x + y + C3 .5. 2 ∂τ ∂z Exact solutions of this equation for some specific f (z . C4 are arbitrary constants. τ ) can be found in Polyanin (2002). where C1 . w.266 9.

∂y ∂y k 2 4◦ . This is a special case of equation 3. . Bullough and P. EQUATIONS OF THE FORM ∂2 w ∂x∂y = F x. ∂2w = aeλw . 1◦ . 2◦ . . 1◦ . ∂w ∂y 267 2. Ibragimov (1994). The original equation can also be linearized with either of the differential substitutions w= 2 ∂v 1 ln 2 λ v ∂x 2 1 w = ln λ cos2 z ∂v . This is a special case of equation 3. Solutions: w = ln 1 − 2 ∂ 2 (ln ζk ) . v = v (x. y ) is a solution of the equation in question.5.5. H. Khabirov (1990). . General solution: w= 2 1 f (x) + g (y ) − ln k λ λ exp f (x) dx + aλ 2k exp g (y ) dy .5. y ).1 with f (w) = ae λw . The Liouville equation is related to the linear equation ∂xy u = 0 by the B¨ acklund transformation 1 ∂u ∂w 2k = + exp λ(w + u) . is also a solution of the equation. ∂w ∂x . where f (x) and g (y ) are arbitrary functions. S. ∂x∂y Liouville equation.3. y . ∂x ∂y 5◦ . λ where C1 . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂x ∂x λ 2 ∂w a 1 ∂u =− − exp λ(w − u) . 3. 3◦ . . Suppose w(x. ∂2w ∂x∂y = ew – e–2w . Liouville (1853). . K. where f = f (x) and g = g (y ) are arbitrary functions and k is an arbitrary constant. C 3 y + C 4 + 1 ln(C1 C3 ). V. N. –¦— References: J.3.1 with f (w) = ew − e−2w .3. Solutions (for a = λ = 1): w = ln f (x)g (y ) cosh−2 C1 + C2 w = ln f (x)g (y ) sinh−2 C1 + C2 w = ln f (x)g (y ) cos−2 C1 + C2 1 2C2 1 g (y ) dy + 2C2 1 g (y ) dy + 2C2 g (y ) dy − f (x) dx f (x) dx f (x) dx . . Then the function w1 = w C1 x + C2 . ∂x∂y (1) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y ). R. ∂y ∂z ∂z . z = z (x. J. C4 are arbitrary constants. Caudrey (1980). w .

A2 . Novikov. ∂x∂y u ˜¦™ 2 2 (k 1 − k 2 ) 2 (k 1 − k1 k2 + k2 ) exp (k1 + k2 )x + 2 2) (k 1 + k 2 ) 2 (k 1 + k 1 k 2 + k 2 Reference: S.268 where HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3 y . Shan’ko (1999. The substitution u = ew leads to the Tzitz´ eica equation: 1 ∂ 2 (ln u) =u− 2. Reference: R. V. Safin and R. k . k k and A. 2.1. J. O. ∂t2 ∂z 2 3◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.3. if aAB < 0. one obtains an equation of the form 3. B. S.5. ∂2w ∂2w = + a sinh w.2. ∂t2 ∂z 2 References: S. Caudrey (1980). A. y ) = 4 arctan ˜¦™ a (Ax + By + C ) AB a (Ax + By + C ) − AB if aAB > 0. Traveling-wave solution:     4 arctan exp w(x. C1 − C2 cosh(v1 + v2 ) vk = 1 a Ck x − y . 5.1 with f (w) = a sin w. Bullough and P. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . k1 . C1 + C2 sinh(v1 − v2 ) . 2 Ck k = 1. k1 k2 A2 k 2 6 3 y − exp 2kx + y . A1 . Manakov.1.3. y ) =    4 arctanh exp where A. Grauel (1985). 2◦ . = a sinh w. B .4: ∂2w ∂2w = + ew − e−2w . Zakharov (1984). Pitaevskii.1: 4. L. S. and V. V. Solution: w(x. and C are arbitrary constants. P. Kaptsov and Yu. ∂x∂y Sine-Gordon equation. 1◦ . E. A. ζ3 = 1 + A(k 2 x − 3y ) exp kx + 2◦ . k 12 k √ 3 3 ζ4 = sin kx − y + 3 kx + y . and k2 are arbitrary constants. K. ∂2w ˜¦™ ∂2w = a sin w. one obtains an equation of the form 3. V. On passing to the new independent variables z = x − y and t = x + y . other exact solutions are also given there). On passing to the new independent variables z = x − y and t = x + y . ∂x∂y Sinh-Gordon equation. k 3 ζ2 = 1 + A1 exp k1 x + y k1 ζ1 = 1 + A exp kx + + A1 A2 + A2 exp k2 x + 3 y k2 3 3 + y . Sharipov (1993). This is a special case of equation 3.

E. Calogero and A. The equation in question is related to the equation ∂ 2z =z ∂x∂y by the transformation z= š¦› a2 − ∂z ∂y 2 ∂w . ξ = xy . J. R.5: R. and D. L. Pitaevskii. Bullough and P. Krichever (1980). 4◦ . Bullough (1977). Y. C. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . I. Steuerwald (1936). ∂x ∂x 2 ∂w 2a w−u ∂u =− − sin ∂y ∂y k 2 brings the original equation to the identical equation ∂2u = a sin u. ∂x ∂z = a sin w. H. K. S. P. Chu. ∂t2 ∂z 2 Reference: F. š¦› (1) ∂ ∂y (analogous laws can be obtained by swapping the independent References: A. L. ∂2w ∂x∂y = a sin w + b sin 1 w 2 . 2 3 2 4 6 2 2 − 24wyy ) cos w = 0. š¦› On passing to the new independent variables z = x − y and t = x + y . Self-similar solution: w = U (ξ ). V. the formulas of (1) allow us to successively generate other solutions of the sine-Gordon equation. S.∂2 w =F ∂y 269 3◦ . ∂y References for equation 3. wyyy + 24wyyy + Dy a(2wy Dx 3wy − 12wy wyy + 16wy ∂ and Dy = where Dx = ∂x variables x y ). one obtains an equation of the form 3. B. F. and V. ∂x∂y Given a single exact solution. K. R.2: ∂2w ∂2w 1 = + a sin w + b sin 2 w . Manakov. The sine-Gordon equation has infinitely many conservation laws. Caudrey (1980). Degasperis (1982) . W. Dodd and R. Lamb (1974). N.3. The first three of them read as follows: 2 Dx w y + Dy 2a cos w = 0. 4 2 2 Dx w y − 4wyy + Dy 4awy cos w = 0. 6. Ibragimov (1994). The B¨ acklund transformation w+u ∂u ∂w = + 2k sin . Novikov.5. Zakharov (1984). 5◦ . J.3. M. McLaughlin (1973). 6◦ . K. where the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation ξUξξ + Uξ = a sin U . Scott.1.

a General solution: w(x. General solution in implicit form: a exp − eβw dw = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). y ) = f (x)g (y ). For this and some other integrable nonlinear hyperbolic equations. y ) = linear one). y ) = − where f (x) and g (y ) are arbitrary functions. B. This is a special case of equation 3. Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1. 5.3. 1 2 4a This is a special case of equation 3. 4.3.5. ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y This is a special case of equation 3. General solution: where f (x) and g (y ) are arbitrary functions. ∂2w ∂x∂y = aeβw ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y . ∂w ∂w ∂2w = awn .8 with f (x. 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂x∂y =a ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y .7 with f (w) = aw n .270 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE 3.3. 3. see Zhiber and Sokolov (2001).5. w ∂2w ∂x∂y = 1– ∂w ∂x 2 (the original equation is reduced to a 1– ∂w ∂y 2 .2. β where ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are arbitrary functions. 2. The substitution u = eaw leads to the linear equation ∂u ∂u ∂2u +b +c = 0. Thomas (1944). This equation arises in some problems of chemical engineering and chromatography. ∂2w ∂x∂y =a ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y . w(x. Whitham (1972). w ∂2w ∂x∂y = ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y .5. 6.5. ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y œ¦ Reference: H. ∂2w ∂x∂y +a ∂w ∂w ∂x ∂y +b ∂w ∂x +c ∂w ∂y = 0. 1 ln f (x) + g (y ) . G.7 with f (w) = aeβw . C.

EQUATIONS OF THE FORM ∂2 w = F x.1. ∂ξ∂η f (x) dx.5. is also a solution of the equation. ∂x∂y ξ= leads to an equation of the form 3. η= g (y ) dy The transformation leads to an equation of the form 3. f (w) dw.3. z = ax + by .3. Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). Self-similar solution: w = w(ξ ). 1◦ . ∂x∂y ξ= f (x) dx. 2◦ .1. and F (w) = ∂x ∂y 1 2 2 wx = 0. and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation abwzz = f (w). C2 . C 1 y + C3 . where a and b are arbitrary constants.5. 2. 3◦ . Conservation laws: 2 Dx 1 2 wy + Dy −F (w ) = 0.5. ∂2w = f (x)g (y )h(w). where C1 . we obtain an equation of the form 3.2: ∂2w = eβw . D x − F (w ) + D y where Dx = ∂ ∂ .4. ∂w 271 3. where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the second-order ordinary differential equation ξw ξξ + wξ = f (w). Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 1. ξ = xy .1: ∂2w ∂2w = + f (w). Dy = . and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂ξ∂η 3. ∂t2 ∂z 2 5◦ . 4◦ . Then the function −1 w1 = w C1 x + C2 .5. y ) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x. ∂2w = f (x)g (y )eβw .1: ∂2w = h(w). ∂2w ∂x∂y = f (w). w . y .3. η= g (y ) dy The transformation © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . On passing to the new independent variables z = x − y and t = x + y .

w ) ∂w f (x) dx. we arrive at a first-order partial differential equation: ∂w = f (x) g (w) dw + ψ (x). y ) by the differential relations u= ∂w . we arrive at a first-order partial differential equation: w y ∂w = f (x. y ) − ah(x. + g (x. Introduce functions u = u(x. ∂2w = f (x . ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y The substitution u = e−aw leads to the linear equation 6. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH ONE SPACE VARIABLE ∂w ∂2w = f (x )g (w ) . Functional separable solution in implicit form: dw = ϕ (y ) + G (w ) Here. ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 7. ∂u ∂u ∂2u = f (x. ∂x v= ∂w . where ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are arbitrary functions. 8. ∂2w = f (w ) ∂w ∂w . y ) ∂w + h(x. Integrating the original equation with respect to y . ∂x∂y ∂y 1◦ . ∂x a b where ψ (x) is an arbitrary function. ∂2w =a ∂w ∂w + f (x . The substitution u= leads to the constant coefficient linear equation ∂2u = 0. 2◦ . y ) ∂w + g (x . General solution in implicit form: exp − f (w) dw dw = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). ϕ(y ) is an arbitrary function. ∂x∂y 2◦ . y ) and v = v (x. ∂x∂y ∂y Integrating the original equation with respect to y . τ ) dτ + g (x. 5.272 4. y ) . y ) + g (x. and a and b are arbitrary constants. ∂y © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂x where ψ (x) is an arbitrary function. y ). where G(w) = g (w) dw. s ) ds + ψ (x). F (w) dw. The equation obtained can be treated as an ordinary differential equation for w = w(x) with parameter y . F (w) = exp − f (w) dw ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y ◦ 1 . ∂w ∂w ∂2w = 2 f (x . y )u. ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y Goursat equation. y ).

Ganzha (2000).3. ∂v = u f (x.5. y )u. w ) ∂w + h(x. y ). y ) + f (x. ψ (x) is an arbitrary function. y ). ∂w 273 On differentiating these relations with respect to y and x. and c are arbitrary constants. ϕ(y ) is an arbitrary function. and a. λ) dλ = b w g (x. I. τ ) dτ + c y h(x. . 2◦ . ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y 1◦ . The equation obtained can be treated as an ordinary differential equation for w = w(x) with parameter y . w . ∂x Eliminating v yields a linear equation for u = u(x. b. y ). one arrives at a first-order partial differential equation: 2 w y ∂w =2 f (x. ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y Integrating the original equation with respect to y . = 2f (x) g (w) dw + ψ (x). EQUATIONS OF THE FORM ∂2 w = F x. The equation obtained can be treated as an ordinary differential equation for w = w(x) with parameter y . s ) ds + ψ (x). y ). dw √ = ϕ (y )   G (w ) Here. f x. ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y Integrating the original equation with respect to y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Integrating the original equation with respect to y . Functional separable solution in implicit form: 9. one arrives at the system ∂u =v ∂y f (x. y ) = 1 ∂ ln f (x. we have ∂w ∂x 2 ∂w ∂ 2 w = f (x )g (w ) ∂w 2f (x) dx. 2 ∂x Reference: E. ∂x∂y ∂y ž¦Ÿ where g (x. w ) + g (x. The equation obtained can be treated as a first-order ordinary differential equation in x for which the constant of integration will be dependent on y . ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w = f (x . where G(w) = g (w) dw. ∂x a b where ψ (x) is an arbitrary function and a and b are arbitrary constants. respectively. 10. s ) ds + ψ (x). 11. a where wx is the partial derivative of w with respect to x. ∂w ∂2w = g (x . y . y ): ∂u ∂2u = g (x. and eliminating w using the original equation. where ψ (x) is an arbitrary function. one arrives at a first-order partial differential equation: wx f (x. τ ) dτ + 2 g (x. y ).

y . t) = U (ξ . z1 = x|t| n−2 . y . (2 − n)(2 − m) 4◦ . 2 ξ2 = 4   y 2−m x2−n + . t) is a solution of the equation in question. ζ ). + cwp .Chapter 4 Hyperbolic Equations with Two or Three Space Variables 4. t) = |t| 1−p F (z1 . z2 = y |t| m−2 .1.2 with f (w) = cw p . C1 2 t + C2 . y . r r A= 2(4 − n − m) . 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w + ck −1 wp = 0. m ≠ 2. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 .4. y . y . b(2 − m)2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. a(2 − n)2 4 2 η2 = 4 ζ2 = 4   w(x. η ). and p ≠ 1: 1 w= 2c(p − 1) 1+p 2 2 + + 1−p 2−n 2−m 1 p−1 1 1−p   y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 . 2◦ . r2 = 4k y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . t) = V (x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1.1. t). Solution for n ≠ 2. Solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2 (generalizes the solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). z2 ). w(x. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + aw p 4. Suppose w(x.1. t) = W (y . ∂t2 axn by m p−1 p−1 p−1 ∂2w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w 1◦ .1. 3◦ . Then the functions w1 = C1 w C12−n x. C12−m y . w(x. are also solutions of the equation.

y . y + ln C1 . t) = |t| 1−p F (z1 . t). β λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.4. are also solutions of the equation. Solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). t) = V (x. z2 = y + ln |t|. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and k are arbitrary constants. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x aeβx ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beλy 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . y .1. and λ ≠ 0: c(p − 1)2 (r + C 1 ) 2 w= − 2k (1 + p) 1 1−p . Suppose w(x. bλ2 4 η2 = ¡ 4 ζ2 = ¡ 4 w(x. r 2−n 4◦ . 2◦ . y + p−1 p−1 1−p ln C1 . y . Then the functions w1 = C1 w x + p−1 1−p 1−p ln C1 . y . t) = U (ξ .4 with f (w) = cw p . This is a special case of equation 4.4. wrr + wr + ck −1 wp = 0. t) is a solution of the equation in question. and p ≠ 1: 1 w= 2c(p − 1) 1+p 2 + 1−p 2−n 1 p−1 1 1−p e−λy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 a(2 − n)2 bλ2 4 . 2 a(2 − n) bλ2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 A A= . Suppose w(x. λ ≠ 0. 1◦ . y .276 2. 2◦ . 3. 1◦ . are also solutions of the equation. 2 ξ2 = 4 e−λy x2−n + . r2 = 4k e−βx e−λy 1 + − (t + C 2 ) 2 . 3◦ . β ≠ 0. C2 . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂w beλy ∂y ∂y + cwp . z2 ). Then the functions w1 = C1 w C12−n x. ¡ C1 2 t + C2 . Solution for n ≠ 2. ∂w ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. 2 a(2 − n) bλ2 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. r2 = 4k e−λy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. w(x. λ + cwp . a(2 − n)2 4 2 2 z1 = x|t| n−2 . w(x. Solution for p ≠ ¡ 1. η ). ζ ).1. aβ 2 bλ2 4 where C1 . t) = W (y . λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ¡ C1 2 t + C2 . y .3 with f (w) = cw p .

y .1. w(x. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. . e−βx 1 − (t + C ) 2 . η ). Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + b ∂ w k ∂w ∂y ∂y 1. 4◦ . 3◦ . t). t) = V (x. aβ 2 bλ2 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . and λ are arbitrary constants. k1 . t) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x.1. y . Then the functions 2.1. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2 ξ2 = 4 η2 = ¢ 4 e−βx e−λy + .1 with c = 0. C . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. aβ 2 4 2 2 z1 = x + ln |t|. ∂t2 ∂x2 w ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ w ∂w + ∂ w ∂w ∂2w =a ∂2w +b ∂ ∂w . . w2 = w(x cos β + y sin β . t) = |t| 1−p F (z1 . A2 . r2 = 4k e−βx e−λy 1 + − (t + C ) 2 . z2 ).4. y . where A1 . . 2 w1 = C2 w(¢ C1 x + C3 . t) = (A1 t + B1 )x + (A2 t + B2 )y + 12 1 + A2 )t + 3 (A1 B1 + A2 B2 )t + 2 (B1 + B2 )t + Ct + D . bλ2 4 ζ2 = ¢ 4 w(x. B2 . B1 . w(x. t) = W (y . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t). z2 = y + ln |t|. 2 + k2 k1 2 where A. ¢ C1 y + C4 . . k2 . . ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. y . t) = U (ξ . Generalized separable solution linear in space variables: 2 4 1 3 1 2 2 2 1 (A 2 w(x. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 277 3◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. aβ 2 bλ2 4 where the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + ck −1 wp = 0. ¢ C1 C2 t + C5 ). Solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). where C1 . β λ 2 = a ∂ w n ∂w 4. ζ ). and D are arbitrary constants. y . Traveling-wave solutions: w= λ2 ¢ √ A(k1 x + k2 y + λt) + B . −x sin β + y cos β . B . Integrating yields its general solution in implicit form: C1 − 2c wp+1 k (p + 1) −1/2 dw = C2 ¢ r.2. y . 2◦ .

There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. χtt = ϕ2 + ψ 2 + 2(f + h)χ. y . 2 C2 (x + C 4 ) 2 . t) = 1 2 + C2 C1 2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 2 . y . (1) (2) (3) The first three equations for f . 5◦ . . 8◦ . ψ (t). There is a “two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form w(x. see equation 4. For other solutions. C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. t) = w(x. where ftt = 12f 2 (the general solution for f can be written out in implicit form). gtt = 6(f + h)g . htt = 6h2 + 2f h + g 2 .2.1. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). gtt = 6(f + h)g . y . t) = t C1 exp λx sin λy + C2 + C3 where C1 . y ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0.2: A. There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in space variables: w(x.278 4◦ . 6◦ . . 7◦ . t) = t−2 x sin λ + y cos λ + C1 . . and h(t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ftt = 6f 2 + 2f h + g 2 . y ). ∂x2 ∂y 2 For this linear equation. where the functions f (t). ψtt = 2gϕ + 2(f + 3h)ψ . Reference for equation 4. Zaitsev (2002). y . t) = (At + B )−2 Θ(x. where the function U = U (x. D. and h are solved independently of the other three (see Item 6 ◦ ). where the functions f (t). t) = 4 w(x. y . y . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 . y . w(x. w(x. g . t) = t C1 ln x2 + y 2 + C2 . . t) = (C1 t + C2 ) |U (x. ϕtt = 2(3f + h)ϕ + 2gψ . htt = 6h2 + 2f h + g 2 . 1/2 w(x. y . y )|. and χ(t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ftt = 6f 2 + 2f h + g 2 . g (t) = £ 2f (t). h(t). .2. Solutions: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 3 −2 t (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 .1.1. y . 2 (x + C ) 2 (C 1 y + C 2 t + C 3 ) 2 + C 1 4 1/2 w(x. g (t).6 with a = b = n = 1 and equation 4.7 with a = b = n = m = 1. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). A particular solution of system (1)–(3) is given by h(t) = f (t). ¤¦¥ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . Polyanin and V. ϕ(t). “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the last two solutions of Item 4◦ ): w(x. F. g (t). 9◦ .2.

§ C2 t + C5 ). ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For this linear equation. (1) ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 ∂2g ∂2g + = f 2. t) = t C1 exp λ b x sin λ a y + C2 + C3 .7 with n = k = −1/2 and equation 4. 2◦ . η ). t) = 2 2 + bC2 aC1 2 C3 § C 1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 . Solutions: w(x.4. η = √ . t) = t4 w(x.1. ξ = √ . . t) = cos λ sin λ √ x + √ y + C1 a b + ay 2 )−2 . t) = t C1 ln bx2 + ay 2 + C2 . √ w ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. t) = 2 a(C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 + bC1 (x + C 4 ) 2 4 (x + C ) 4 C2 4 2 . Then the functions 4 w1 = C1 w(§ C1 C2 x + C3 . η = √ . . t) = (C1 t + C2 )U 2 (ξ . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. . y . t) is a solution of the equation in question. a b where the functions f = f (ξ . y . w(x. y . 3◦ . a b where the function U = U (ξ . η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). (2) ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 Equation (1) is the Laplace equation.3 with f (w) = aw −1/2 and g (w) = bw−1/2 . w2 = w(x cos β + y a/b sin β . For these linear equations.1. . Suppose w(x. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in t: y x 2 w(x. y . η ) . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t). t) = (aC1 + bC2 ) . y . 4◦ . 5◦ . § C1 C2 y + C4 . √ √ 2 w(x. y . where C1 . . t + C4 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 4 −4 . . −x b/a sin β + y cos β . and (2) is a Helmholtz equation (wherever f is known). . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 279 3. y . η )t + g (ξ .2. “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the last two solutions of Item 3◦ ): y x w(x.2. . ξ = √ . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. where C1 . . where C1 . . η ) are determined by the system of differential equations ∂2f ∂2f + = 0. 2 4 2 2 3 ab t (bx 2 2 2 w(x. . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). y . η ) and g = g (ξ . t) = f (ξ . y . y . Traveling-wave solutions: w(x.4. . 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂ ∂2w =a 2 ∂t ∂x 1 ∂w √ w ∂x +b ∂ ∂y 1 ∂w . C4 are arbitrary constants. 2 w(x.

and λ are arbitrary constants. w(x. C1 . . t) = (C1 t + C2 )eAx+By . and λ are arbitrary constants.1. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. w(x.7 with n = m = −1/2. B .1. w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. . y . 4. −x sin β + y cos β . y )t2 + f1 (x. see equation 4. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Suppose w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w(x. t) = (sin y + Cex )2 2 C1 (at2 + At + B ) . 3◦ . k1 .1. 2 ∂2w =a ∂ 1 ∂w + ∂ 1 ∂w where C1 . Solutions: w(x. where the function U = U (x. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 a(k1 + k2 ) ln |w| − λ2 w = A(k1 x + k2 y + λt) + B . where A. y ) .2.y) . k2 . . y . C2 . w(x. y . Then the functions 2 w1 = C1 w(¨ C1 C2 x + C3 .2.6 with n = −1/2 and equation 4. y .4.3 with f (w) = a/w and g (w) = b/w. a[(Ay + Bt + C1 )2 + A2 (x + C2 )2 ] . y . 7◦ .280 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 6◦ . t) = (C1 t + C2 ) exp Aeλx sin(λy + B ) . w(x. y .2. ∂t2 1◦ . ¨ C2 t + C5 ). C . y ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. w(x. y . B 2 (x + C 2 ) 2 at2 + At + B . B . w2 = w(x cos β + y sin β . t) = 2 x e sinh2 (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) 2 C1 (−at2 + At + B ) . For other solutions. y . . t) = 2x 1 2 e cos (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) where A. ¨ C1 C2 y + C4 .7 with a = b. “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the first three solutions of Item 3◦ ): w(x. y .2. t). ∂x w ∂x ∂y w ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. y )t + f0 (x. There is a “two-dimensional” generalized separable solution of the form w(x. . t) is a solution of the equation in question. y . t) = (C1 t + C2 ) exp A(x2 − y 2 ) . w(x. y . 2◦ . t) = 4◦ . t) = e2x cosh2 (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) C 2 (at2 + At + B ) . n = k = −1 and equation 4. t) = f2 (x. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t) = (C1 t + C2 )eU (x. y . t) = (x sin λ + y cos λ + C )2 at2 + At + B .

EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 281 5◦ .1. . w1 = C1 w (  C 2 x + C3 . n = −1 and equation 4.6 with a = b. . y . . y ) is a solution of the stationary equation ∂2Θ ∂2Θ + = AeΘ .2.  C2 t + C5 ). 2◦ .y) . where C1 . where C1 . . D.1 with g (w) = bw n . C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 − 2 aC1 2 bC2 1 n .7 with a = b. ©¦ References for equation 4. n = m = −1. y . see equation 4. 2 a C2 − w(x. y . t) = yϕ(x + t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) n+1 .4. 1 √ √ w(x. y .1. 1 −n 2a w(x. see 5. t) = yϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x − t a ) n+1 . Solutions: 1 √ √ w(x. y . . . C5 and λ are arbitrary constants.1. For other solutions.1. For solutions of this equation. where ψ (w) is an arbitrary function and λ is an arbitrary constant. where ϕ(z1 ) and ψ (z2 ) are arbitrary functions.1. t) = 2 2 bC1 bC1 C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 x + C4 1 n . t) = 1 2 bC2 1 n y n a(t + C1 )2 − (x + C2 )2 2 2 .1. B . “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the last four solutions of Item 3◦ ): 1 Aat2 + Bt + C )eΘ(x. y . N. ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a +b wn . Ibragimov (1994). t) = b(n + 2) w(x. and the function Θ(x. and C are arbitrary constants.2. t) is a solution of the equation in question. . y . 5. Zaitsev (2002). 3◦ .4. xa−1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). y . t) = y n C1 x  t aC1 2 2 2 −n . F. Baikov (1990). Solutions in implicit form: √ √ 2λ a (y + λt) + (t a  x)(bwn − λ2 ) = ψ (w).4: V. Then the functions n −2 C2 y + C4 . w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . 6◦ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 which occurs in combustion theory. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). y . Polyanin and V. 1◦ . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4.  C 1 w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1/2 sinh λ. A.2. t) = ( 2 where A. 1 √ √ w(x. 4◦ . .2. C4 are arbitrary constants. t) = y n+1 ϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) . Suppose w(x. Solutions: 2+b+C w(x.2. A.

t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ 2 u 2b(n + 2) n+1 ∂2u =a 2 + u . and λ are arbitrary constants. the first two solutions of Item 3◦ . z = x2 − at2 . . w2 = w(x cos β + y a/b sin β . Suppose w(x. t) = F (y . w(x. ξ = . t) = W (z ).1.1. t) = exp − n+1 n+1 n+1 where k1 . t) = |t|2λ G(ξ . η ). 6◦ . r).7 with n = k . 6.282 5◦ . F.  C1 y + C4 . z ). z = (x2 − at2 )y −2 . r = x2 − at2 . y . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x.2. t | t| w(x. ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂ ∂x wn ∂w ∂x +b ∂ ∂y wn ∂w ∂y . Remark. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). This is a special case of equation 4. t) is a solution of the equation in question. in which n should be set equal to zero and k should be renamed n. t)y 2/n . . 7◦ .  C2 t + C5 ). Ibragimov (1994).7. y .2. Solution: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES w(x. t) = u(x. For other solutions. w(x. . y . t) = V (z )y 2/n. t)θ(y ). C5 and β are arbitrary constants. −x b/a sin β + y cos β . this equation is linear. y . η = nλ+1 . Zaitsev (2002). D. y . Polyanin and V. where the function V = V (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2an2 (zVz + Vz ) + b(n + 2)V n+1 = 0. t) = |y | 2/n z = x/t. There is an exact solution of the form w(x. t). ny ny 2y V (ρ1 . y . where θ = θ(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (θ n θy )y = Cθ.5: N.1. . t) = |t|−2/n H (y . where C1 . 9◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form: w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y x w(x. where the function u = u(x. k2 .2. ρ2 ). y . 8◦ . 1◦ . see equation 4. y . and the solutions of Items 5◦ and 6◦ are special cases of a multiplicative separable solution w = u(x. U (z1 . 2 ∂t ∂x n2 For n = −1 and n = −2. z2 ). Then the functions w1 = (C2 /C1 )2/n w( C1 x + C3 . ¦ References for equation 4. ρ1 = t exp − . z1 = t + k1 ln |y |. z2 = x + k2 ln |y |. y . The first solution of Item 2◦ . A. ρ2 = x exp − .

Solutions: 2 w(x.1. t) = w(x. y ). η ) 1 n+1 . y . “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the fifth and sixth solutions of Item 2◦ ): w(x. and the function Θ = Θ(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. 2 (x + C ) 2 a(C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 + bC1 4 w(x. . 1 n+2 w(x. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 283 2◦ . k2 . . t) = (C1 t + C2 ) U (ξ . t) = t C1 ln bx2 + ay 2 + C2 n+1 . 4◦ . . t) = 2ab(n + 1) w(x. where the function f (t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ftt = λf n+1 . “Two-dimensional” solution in multiplicative separable form (generalizes the first and second solutions of Item 2◦ ): w(x. k1 . η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. η= √ a y. 3◦ . y . 2 2 ak1 + bk2 wn+1 − λ2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + λt) + C2 . ξ= √ b x. t) = 2 (aC1 t− n (bx2 + ay 2 ) n . t) = t− n cos λ sin λ √ x + √ y + C1 a b 1 n 2 2 n . . (2) a ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y A particular solution to equation (1) is given by (C is an arbitrary constant): f = (C  kt)−2/n . ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For solutions of this linear equation. t) = t C1 exp λ b x sin λ a y + C2 + C3 where C1 . y . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 5◦ . C2 . √ √ w(x. C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. where the function U = U (ξ . y . k=n λ . t) = f (t)Θ(x. n+1 where C1 .4. C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 (x + C4 )2/n 1/n 1 2/n 1 2 )1/n + bC2 C2 2/n . 2(n + 2) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . y . y . y . y ) is a solution of the two-dimensional stationary equation ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ Θn +b Θn − λΘ = 0. y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 1 n+1 . (1) λ is an arbitrary constant.

 C 1 C2 y + C4 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC n 2 k ϕ(u) = ac2 1 u + bc2 u . and λ are arbitrary constants.  C2 t + C5 ). C2 .1. y . β1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. t w(x. ρ2 = yent “two-dimensional” solution. 2◦ . t) = y 2/n H (z . Polyanin and V. t) = F (r.3 with f (w) = aw n and g (w) = bwk . F. θ = (bx + ay )t where k1 . z2 ). w(x. . 4◦ . k2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. y .7 with k = n.6: ∂ ∂u ∂2u = ϕ (u ) . t) = |t|−2/n U (z1 . ∂t2 ∂z ∂z which can be reduced to a linear equation. y .2. Suppose w(x. y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 bβ2 aβ1 wn+1 + wk+1 − λ2 w = C1 (β1 x + β2 y + λt) + C2 . η= y tnλ+1 “two-dimensional” solution. t). y . . Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 a b C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 x + C4 C1 x + C2 t + C 3 y + C4 2 2 n 2 k = aC1 w + bC2 w . w1 = C1 w (  C1 where C1 . t) = e−2t V (ρ1 . n+1 k+1 where C1 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). η ). ρ1 = xent . y . y . C4 are arbitrary constants. C5 are arbitrary constants. y . β2 . Zaitsev (2002). ρ2 ). . This is a special case of equation 4. t). ¦ 7◦ . . References for equation 4. . t). z = c 1 x + c2 y . ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂ ∂x wn ∂w ∂x +b ∂ ∂y wk ∂w ∂y . 2 n 2 wk + aC1 w = C2 . where the function u = u(z . Ibragimov (1994). w(x. “one-dimensional” solution. 7. z = y/x w(x. 2 2 where C1 . There are solutions of the following forms: r = bx2 + ay 2 x w(x. ξ = nλ+1 . z2 = y + k2 ln |t| “two-dimensional” solution. t) = W (θ). Then the functions n k −2 C2 x + C3 .4. 1◦ . . w(x.2.1. “two-dimensional” solution. see equation 4. 2 2 −2 “two-dimensional” solution. t) = u(z .4. .2. 2 k 2 wn + bC1 w = C2 . t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. A. “Two-dimensional” solution (c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. 3◦ .6: N. For other solutions. .4. z1 = x + k1 ln |t|.284 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 6◦ . . t) = t2λ G(ξ . D.

nt η= y tkλ+1 kt “two-dimensional” solution. w(x. w(x. y . “two-dimensional” solution. C5 and λ are arbitrary constants. 2 bC1 w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1/2 sinh λ. z2 ). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) = x2/n G(ζ . y . “Two-dimensional” solution (s1 and s2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. Suppose w(x. η ). D.1. ξ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. z2 ). t) is a solution of the equation in question. . F. 6◦ . Then the functions −2 w1 = C1 w ( ! C 2 x + C3 . √ √ c w(x. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. Ibragimov (1994). t) = v (x. Solutions: . t) = e −2t ξ= x tnλ+1 . y . w(x. ξ = s 1 y + s 2 t. z 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. y . t) = yϕ(x + t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) b where ϕ(z1 ) and ψ (z2 ) are arbitrary functions.1 with g (w) = bw + c. “one-dimensional” solution. yt where λ is an arbitrary constant. ξ ). y .4. Polyanin and V. b √ 1/2 c √ − . 2 k 2 ψ (v ) = bs1 v − s2 . ! C 2 t + C 5 ) + 2 c(1 − C1 ) . w(x.3. which can be reduced to a linear equation. θ=x −k/n H (z1 . 1◦ .4.1. y .7: N.2. y . References for equation 4. t) = |y |1/2 ϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) − . xa−1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). .2. There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x.1. . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 285 5◦ . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form (generalize the solutions of Items 3 ◦ and 4◦ ): w(x. y . t) = U (z1 . “two-dimensional” solution. . t) = yϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x − t a ) b √ 1/2 c √ − . A. where the function v = v (x. ζ = x−k/n y z1 = xe . t) = t2λ F (ξ . 2/n z2 = ye k/n−1 w(x. z 1 = a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 t. This is a special case of equation 4. 2 = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w 4. y . where C1 . ! C 1 C2 y + C 4 . y .4. t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2◦ . Zaitsev (2002). y . ∂2w ∂t2 =a ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂ ∂y (bw + c) ∂w ∂y .8: a ∂v ∂ vn ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂v ψ (v ) ∂z ∂z = 0. 7◦ . t) = (x/t) ¦ U (θ).4.

ξ = y + b(B1 x2 + B2 t2 + B3 xt + B4 x + B5 t). y . z = y + bC1 x2 + C2 t. t) = w(x. the equation can be made homogeneous. A4 = 2b(B3 B5 − 2aB1 B4 ). Solution: 6◦ . x + 4bC2 w = v (r) − 4abC1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function v (r) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 )r + C 3 . t) = w(x. 4◦ . where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function and λ is an arbitrary constant. and B5 are arbitrary constants. y . t) = A w(x. r = y + bC1 x2 + bC2 t2 . t) = w(x. B3 . Solutions in implicit form: √ √ 2λ a (y + λt) + (t a " x)(bw + c − λ2 ) = ϕ(w). With appropriate translations in both variables. Solutions: HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2 2 c C3 − aC1 − . 2 b bC2 w(x. Solution (generalizes the solutions of Items 5◦ and 6◦ ): w = U (ξ ) + A1 x2 + A2 t2 + A3 xt + A4 x + A5 t. the equation can be made homogeneous. b 2 2 c a C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 C2 − . A3 = 4bB3 (B2 − aB1 ). B4 .286 3◦ . . 5◦ . . − 2 2 x + C4 b bC1 bC1 where A. C4 are arbitrary constants (the first solution is of the traveling-wave type). 2 2 b 3b a(t + C2 ) − (x + C3 ) 1 2 bC2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 − 2 c aC1 − . (bv + c)vr + 2b(aC1 − C2 )v = 8b(a2 C1 + C2 With appropriate translations in both variables. and the function U (ξ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (bU + c + ab2 B4 − b2 B5 )Uξ + 2b(aB1 − B2 )U = 2(A2 − aA1 )ξ + C1 . Solution: 2 2 2 2 t . y . b c 2a(y + C1 )2 − . 7◦ . . With appropriate translations in both variables. C1 . . 2 b bC2 2 2 2 C2 − aC1 b y + C4 C1 x + C2 t + C 3 c − . which means that the equation is integrable by quadrature. t) = w(x. and the coefficients An are expressed in terms of Bn as 2 2 A1 = b(B3 − 4aB1 ). which means that the equation is integrable by quadrature. 2 2 A2 = b(4B2 − aB3 ). y . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function u(z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (bu + c − C2 )uz + 2abC1 u = 8a2 bC1 z + C3 . the equation can be made homogeneous. where B1 . t) = C 1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 + (y + C 1 ) 2 2 aC2 2 C2 x " t + b + C3 c − . y . 2 2 w = u(z ) − 4abC1 x . y . which means that the equation is integrable by quadrature. B2 . A5 = 2b(2B2 B5 − aB3 B4 ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .

t) = ϕ1 (ξ ) + ϕ2 (η ). t). htt = ahxx + bg 2 + 2bf h + 2cf . where ϕ1 (ξ ). where the functions F and G are determined by the system of differential equations ∂2F ∂2F − a = 0. ζ ) + 4bC1 t + 4bC1 C2 t. η = x − t a. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 287 8◦ . t). and ψ2 (η ) are arbitrary functions. ζ = y + bC1 t2 + bC2 t. √ ρ = y + bC1 x − t a + ϕ(ξ ) dξ . and h = h(x. Here. t). t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ ∂W ∂2W 2 ∂W 2 + (bW + c − b2 C2 ) − 2bC1 − 8bC1 = 0.1. ψ1 (ξ ). Given F = F (x. The general solution of system (1)–(2) is given by F (x. the subscripts denote partial derivatives. Generalized separable solution linear in y : w = F (x. t) are determined by the system of differential equations ftt = afxx + 6bf 2 . t). 2 ∂t ∂x (1) (2) Equation (1) is a linear homogeneous wave equation. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂2G ∂2G − a 2 = bF 2 . √ ξ = x + t a. t)y 2 + g (x. t) = ψ1 (ξ ) + ψ2 (η ) − 1 (ξ ) dξ − 4a 4a √ √ ξ = x + t a. a ∂x2 ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ 12◦ +. b b η ϕ2 ξ G(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 2 w = V (η . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function V (η . ϕ2 (η ). gtt = agxx + 6bf g . t). t)y + G(x. (2) represents a linear nonhomogeneous wave equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 9◦ . ϕ2 2 (η ) dη − b 2a ϕ1 (ξ ) dξ ϕ2 (η ) dη . 10◦ . where the functions f = f (x. g = g (x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function W (ζ . ∂t2 ∂η ∂η ∂η 11◦ +.4. η = y + bC1 x2 + bC2 x. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ ∂V ∂2V 2 ∂V 2 = (bV + c + ab2 C2 ) + 2abC1 − 8a2 bC1 . t) − 4abC1 x − 4abC1 C2 x. Solution: w = R(ρ) − 4aC1 ϕ(ξ ). t)y + h(x. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in y (generalizes the second and third solutions of Item 2◦ ): w = f (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 2 w = W (x.

C2 . η = x − t a. ϕ(ξ ) is an arbitrary function. z = (x2 − at2 )y −2 w(x.1. Another solution can be obtained by substituting −t for t in (3).2: ∂t2 ∂ ∂U ∂2U = U ∂t2 ∂x ∂x 3. Then the functions w1 = w(# C1 x + C2 . and the function R(ρ) is determined by the simple ordinary differential equation [(bR + c)Rρ ]ρ = 0. ψ = ψ (η ) is an arbitrary function. “two-dimensional” solution. where λ is an arbitrary constant. y . y . t) = t2λ G(ξ .2. y . and C3 are arbitrary constants. .1. w = U (z ) − √ xt + 2b b b 2 ab √ √ √ A 2 x + 2 a xt − 3at2 + B (x + a t) + ψ (η ) dη . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).2. √ where C1 . b With appropriate translations in both variables. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = (a 1 w + b 1 ) + (a 2 w + b 2 ) . y . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y The substitution U = aw + b leads to an equation of the form 4. η ) − . t) = F (y . 14◦ . ∂2w = ∂ (aw + b) ∂w + ∂ (aw + b) ∂w “two-dimensional” solution.4. z=y+ 8a (3) where A and B are arbitrary constants.3 with f (w) = a and g (w) = bw + c. The substitution u = w + (c/b) leads to a special case of equation 4. ξ = . 17◦ . η = λ+1 b t t w(x. η = x − t a. r). the equation can be made homogeneous. . . ∂2w + ∂ ∂U U ∂y ∂y . 2.5 with n = 1. Suppose w(x. For other solutions. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . There are solutions of the following forms: r = x2 − at2 x y c w(x. (bU + c)Uz + AU − 15◦ . .2. # C1 t + C4 ). 16◦ . ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. . C4 are arbitrary constants.288 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES where C1 is an arbitrary constant. Integrating yields a solution of the original equation in the form √ b(w + 4aC1 ϕ)2 + 2c(w + 4aC1 ϕ) = C2 y + bC1 C2 x − t a + C2 13◦ +. which means it is integrable by quadrature. ϕ dξ + C3 . where C1 . ψ (η ) is an arbitrary function. ϕ = ϕ(ξ ). “one-dimensional” solution. # C1 y + C3 . and the function U (z ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant) A2 z + C = 0. Solution (obtained in the same way as in Item 12◦ ): √ b(w + 4aC1 ψ )2 + 2c(w + 4aC1 ψ ) = C2 y + bC1 C2 x + t a + C2 ψ dη + C3 . Solution: √ A2 2 2 a AB 1 A2 t − t − (Aη + 4aB )ψ (η ). see equation 4. t) = H (z ).

are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) = C1 x + C2 y + λt + C3 where C1 . y . 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 5◦ .2. t) = 1 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 1 n+1 . Suppose w(x. t) = w(x.2. 4◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. B2 . 2 ∂t ∂x aw + b ∂x ∂y aw + b ∂y The substitution U = aw + b leads to an equation of the form 4. where A1 .1. Traveling-wave solutions: w(x.4: ∂ 1 ∂U ∂ 1 ∂U ∂2U = + . k1 . 4◦ . B . 5. C4 are arbitrary constants. . . y . see equation 4. Generalized separable solution linear in space variables: w(x. . y . . y . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). y . For other solutions. y . and λ are arbitrary constants. $ C1 t + C4 ). y . . There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. $ C1 y + C3 . t) = w(x. Then the functions w1 = w($ C1 x + C2 . . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. 2 a 2 C 1 (x + C 4 ) 2 + a 1 (C 1 y + C 2 t + C 3 ) 2 2 2 b1 C1 + b2 C2 . . b 1 C1 2 2 − 2 2 b1 C1 + b2 C2 2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 1/n 1/n . t) = w(x. C . Solutions: w(x. ∂t2 ∂x U ∂x ∂y U ∂y 4. . ∂t2 2◦ . ∂ 1 ∂w ∂ 1 ∂w ∂2w = + . 2 2 (C 2 − b2 C1 )(x + C4 )2 − b1 (C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 2 (x + C ) 2 + a (C y + C t + C ) 2 a 2 C1 4 1 1 2 3 . t) = A k1 x + k2 y + λt + B + 2 2 λ2 − b 1 k 1 − b2 k 2 . A2 . C2 . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 289 2◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. and D are arbitrary constants. y . where C1 . 6◦ . k2 . .2. 3◦ .3 with f (w) = a1 w + b1 and g (w) = a2 w + b2 . t) is a solution of this equation. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ .1. y . . 2 + a k2 a1 k1 2 2 where A. C4 are arbitrary constants. y . y . .4. B1 . ∂2w = ∂ (a 1 w n + b 1 ) ∂w + ∂ (a 2 w n + b 2 ) ∂w λ=$ 2 + b C2. see equation 4.3 with f (w) = a1 wn + b1 and g (w) = a2 wn + b2 . t) = w(x. 3◦ . 2 2 (C 2 − b2 C1 )(x + C4 )2 − b1 (C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 . t) = 1 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 − 2 2 (C 2 − b1 C1 )(y + C4 )2 − b2 (C1 x + C2 t + C3 )2 . Solutions: w(x. . 1/n 2 2 (C 2 − b1 C1 )(y + C4 )2 − b2 (C1 x + C2 t + C3 )2 2 a 1 C 1 (y + C 4 ) 2 + a 2 (C 1 x + C 2 t + C 3 ) 2 where C1 . For other solutions. .4. t) = (A1 t + B1 )x + (A2 t + B2 )y 2 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 (a 1 A 2 + 12 1 + a2 A2 )t + 3 (a1 A1 B1 + a2 A2 B2 )t + 2 (a1 B1 + a2 B2 )t + Ct + D . . 2 (y + C ) 2 + a (C x + C t + C ) 2 a 1 C1 4 2 1 2 3 where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants.

For particular solutions of the form f = const. and β are arbitrary constants. For γ = 0. bn . 2◦ .290 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 4. There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. y . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). y . C4 and β are arbitrary constants. Equation (3) is linear in g (t). For γ ≠ 0. y . 2). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. where C1 . t) = f (t) + g (t)Θ(x. Here. w1 = C1 w ( % C1 w2 = w(x cos β + y sin β . C3 . and cn are arbitrary constants (n = 1. t) is a solution of this equation.4. it is a constant-coefficient linear equation. where f satisfies the quadratic equation γf 2 + δf + ε = 0.1. 3◦ . z2 ). . ∂x2 ∂y 2 (1) where κ = γ/β (β ≠ 0). w2 = w(x cos β + y sin β . The functions f (t) and g (t) in (1) are determined from the autonomous system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations ftt = γf 2 + δf + ε. gtt = (γf + δ − ακ )g . % C 1 y + C3 . C1 t + C4 ). Suppose w(x. Then the functions w1 = w(% x + C1 . 2. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). % y + C2 . t) = U (z1 . where C1 . y ). t) is a solution of this equation. z 1 = a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 t. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution: w(x. . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). . ∆= ∂2 ∂2 + . ∂2w ∂t2 = αw ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 –α ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 – β. Suppose w(x. . y . t). −x sin β + y cos β . ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = ( α + βw ) + ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 + γw2 + δw + ε. For solutions of this linear equation. t). 1◦ . (2) is a constant-coefficient linear equation. C2 . y ) satisfies the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation ∆Θ + κ Θ = 0. To the special case U = U (z1 ) there corresponds a traveling wave solution. Other Equations 1. Then the functions 2 2 −2 x + C2 . % t + C3 ). the general solution of (2) can be written out in implicit form as df 2 3 3 γf + δf 2 + 2εf + C1 = C 2 % t. 1◦ . the function Θ(x. −x sin β + y cos β . where the an . (2) (3) Equation (2) is independent of g (t). Particular solutions of the equation are given by f = const.

y . ψ (y ) = B1 cosh µy + B2 sinh µy (ν = µ2 > 0). A2 . 3◦ . C1 . D1 . and D2 are related by the two constraints 2 2 + s C2 ). 2B1 a 3 = A2 2 2 C1 − s C2 . gtt = ανf g . 2A1 C1 C2 = A2 (C1 2 2 2B1 D1 D2 = B2 (D1 − s D2 ). if ϕxx = νϕ and ψyy = −νψ . If B1 = 0 (B2 ≠ 0). we have (A1 . (ν = −µ2 < 0). 2 2 2 − s C2 )u . and χyy = −νχ. where s = sign ν . htt = −ανf h. then one should set a1 = C1 C2 /A2 . then a4 = B1 . B2 . t) = f (t) + g (t)ϕ(x) + h(t)ψ (y ). There are generalized separable solutions of the form w(x. then a3 = −A1 . A2 . C2 . The coefficients a1 . C1 C2 ≠ 0. where ν is an arbitrary constant. and u(t) are determined by the following system of ordinary differential equations (s = sign ν ): 2 2 2 2 2 ftt = −4αν (A2 1 − s A2 )g + 4αν (B1 + s B2 )h − β . ψyy = −4νψ . B1 . then a4 = −B1 . If A1 = 0 (A2 ≠ 0). where ν is an arbitrary constant. then a2 = D1 D2 /B2 . a3 .1. If D1 = 0 (D2 ≠ 0). t) = f (t) + g (t)ϕ(x) + h(t)ψ (y ) + u(t)θ(x)χ(y ).4. B1 ≠ 0. and D1 D2 ≠ 0. and h(t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations 2 2 2 2 2 ftt = αν (A2 1 − s A2 )g − αν (B1 + s B2 )h − β . If C1 = 0 (C2 ≠ 0). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 2 2 gtt = −4ανf g + ανa1 (D1 + s D2 )u . ψ (y ) = B1 cos µy + B2 sin µy ϕ(x) = A1 cos µx + A2 sin µx. y . g (t). a2 . θxx = νθ. D1 D2 with A1 ≠ 0. If D2 = 0 (D1 ≠ 0). In particular. 2A1 a2 = 2 2 D1 − s D2 . then a3 = A1 . and B2 are arbitrary constants) ϕ(x) = A1 cosh µx + A2 sinh µx. h(t). g (t). If C2 = 0 (C1 ≠ 0). (1) For ϕxx = 4νϕ. The functions f (t). C1 C2 a 4 = B2 2 2 D1 + s D2 . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 291 2◦ . The arbitrary constants A1 . one should set in (1): if ν = µ2 > 0 ϕ(x) = A1 cosh 2µx + A2 sinh 2µx ψ (y ) = B1 cos 2µy + B2 sin 2µy θ(x) = C1 cosh µx + C2 sinh µx χ(y ) = D1 cos µy + D2 sin µy if ν = −µ2 < 0 ϕ(x) = A1 cos 2µx + A2 sin 2µx ψ (y ) = B1 cosh 2µy + B2 sinh 2µy θ(x) = C1 cos µx + C2 sin µx χ(y ) = D1 cosh µy + D2 sinh µy The functions f (t). htt = 4ανf h − ανa2 (C1 utt = −2αν (a3 g − a4 h)u. There are generalized separable solutions of the form w(x. and a4 are expressed as a1 = 2 2 C1 + s C2 . B1 .

y . w1 = C1 w ( & C1 ∂2w where C1 . Solution for n ≠ 2. There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form z 1 = a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 t. . h(t). . η ). and χ(t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ftt = α(2f h − 2f 2 − g 2 ). bn . z2 ). t) = 2 t 1−p ξ = α 1 x + α 2 y + α 3 t. z2 ). y . This is a special case of equation 4. htt = α(2f h − 2h2 − g 2 ). 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) 4 . where the an . In the special case ϕ(t) = ψ (t) ≡ 0. w1 = w C12−n x. y . C4 are arbitrary constants. z1 = p−n−1 xt 1−p η = β 1 x + β 2 y + β 3 t. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . z2 = yt p−k−1 1−p U (z1 . Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. g (t). Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities 2 = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + aeλw 4.2.4. w(x. & C1 t + C2 + 2◦ . . and λ ≠ 0: w=− 2cλ(2 − n)(2 − m) x2−n y 2−m 1 1 ln + − (t + C ) 2 2 λ 4 − nm a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . C12−m y . are also solutions of the equation. r2 = 4k © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1. λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 5◦ .292 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 4◦ .1. . Suppose w(x. There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). y . 1◦ . 2). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. χtt = 2α(f + h)χ − β . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y + ceλw . w(x. Then the functions 3. 2 2 3◦ . ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = a1 wn + a2 wk + bwp . Solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2 (generalizes the solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). .2. To the special case U = U (z1 ) there corresponds a traveling wave solution. y . 2◦ . 4. p−n−1 p−k−1 p−1 2 x + C2 . t) = F (ξ . and cn are arbitrary constants (n = 1. m ≠ 2. gtt = −2αg (f + h). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). & C 1 y + C3 . y . Suppose w(x. & C1 t + C4 ). z 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. Then the functions 2 ln C1 . t) = U (z1 . . t) is a solution of the equation in question.2 with f (w) = ceλw . the functions f (t). t) is a solution of this equation.

λ β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y . b(2 − m)2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . w(x. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 293 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w + ck −1 eλw = 0. w(x. λ ∂w ∂y z2 = y |t| m−2 . wrr + wr + ck −1 eβw = 0. t). 2 η2 = ' 4 ζ2 = ' 4 2 ln |t|. 2 η2 = ' 4 ζ2 = ' 4 2 ln |t|. 2◦ . 1◦ . a(2 − n)2 bλ2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 A A= . ' C1 t + C2 + ln C1 . a(2 − n)2 4 z1 = x|t| n−2 . t) = V (x. Suppose w(x. y . ζ ). t). t) = W (y . 2 beλy This is a special case of equation 4. t) = W (y .3 with f (w) = ceβw . t) = U (ξ . a(2 − n)2 4 z1 = x|t| n−2 . a(2 − n)2 bλ2 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . 3◦ .2. and λ ≠ 0: w=− 2cβ (2 − n) x2−n e−λy 1 1 ln + − (t + C ) 2 2 β n a(2 − n) bλ2 4 . w(x. η ). r r A= 2(4 − n − m) . (2 − n)(2 − m) 4◦ . y . are also solutions of the equation. y . w(x. t) = F (z1 . y − 2 2 2 ln C1 . t) = U (ξ . β ≠ 0. + ceβw . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x.4. Then the functions w1 = w C12−n x.4. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y ξ2 = 4 y 2−m x2−n + . t) = V (x. β z2 = y + 2 ln |t|. z2 ) − ξ2 = 4 e−λy x2−n + . Solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). t) is a solution of the equation in question. w(x. η ). Solution for n ≠ 2. t) = F (z1 . λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 . y . bλ2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . y . y . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. r 2−n 4◦ . y .1. ζ ). z2 ) − 2. r2 = 4k e−λy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . w(x. y .

if ckµ > 0. t).4 with f (w) = ceµw . z2 ) − ln |t|. y . ζ ). Then the functions w1 = w x − 2◦ . bλ2 4 3◦ . t) = W (y . y − ln C1 . ( C1 t + C5 ) + ln 2 C1 . Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x + b ∂ eλw ∂w ∂y ∂y 1. where C2 and C3 are arbitrary constants. ( C1 t + C2 + ln C1 . if ckµ < 0. r2 = 4k e−βx e−λy 1 + − (t + C 1 ) 2 . C5 and λ are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. Then the functions ∂t2 ∂x2 ew w1 = w(C1 x + C3 . . aβ 2 bλ2 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. w(x. if ckµ < 0. e−βx e−λy + . y . η ). w(x. y . t) = F (z1 .2. where C1 . Suppose w(x.294 3. t) = U (ξ . t) is a solution of this equation. aβ 2 bλ2 4 2 2 2 ln C1 .1. where C1 and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + ck −1 eµw = 0. 1◦ . xa−1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . t) is a solution of the equation in question. aβ 2 4 2 2 2 w(x. y . y . β λ µ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: w = w(r). .2. Its general solution is given by  1   −   µ     1   −µ w= 1   −    µ     1  − µ cµ (r + C 3 ) 2 2k cµ ln − sin2 (C2 r + C3 ) 2 2kC2 cµ sinh2 (C2 r + C3 ) ln − 2 2kC2 cµ cosh2 (C2 r + C3 ) ln 2 2kC2 ln − if ckµ < 0. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) = V (x. . µ β λ 2 = a ∂ eβw ∂w 4. . .4. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = aeβx + beλy + ceµw . are also solutions of the equation. are also solutions of the equation. ∂y ∂y 1◦ . z1 = x + ln |t|. 2 C2 ∂2w =a ∂2w +b ∂ ∂w w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1/2 sinh λ. y . z2 = y + ln |t|. C2 y + C4 . ξ2 = 4 η2 = ( 4 ζ2 = ( 4 e−βx 1 − (t + C ) 2 .

C . t) = U (ρ1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC χ = x/t. y . t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. ζ2 ) + 2 ln |y |. where A. b cosh2 (Ax + Bt + C ) (B 2 − aA2 )(y + D)2 . w(x. √ √ w(x. y . w(x. and k2 are arbitrary constants. Solutions: w(x. η ) − 2k ln |t|. y . y . t) = ln w(x. y . t) = ln w(x. where the function U = U (x. y . b(Ax + Bt + C )2 (B 2 − aA2 )(y + D)2 . y . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) = ln 1 bB 2 Ax + By + C t+D 2 − aA2 . t) = ln yϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x − t a ) . ξ = xt−1 . t) = V (χ) + 2 ln |y/t|. ζ2 = x + k2 ln |y |. Solutions in implicit form: √ √ 2λ a (y + λt) + (t a ) x)(bew − λ2 ) = ϕ(w). t) = ln yϕ(x + t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) . 6◦ . ρ2 ) + 2y . r). w(x. η = y |t|k−1 . ρ2 = xey . where k . y . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 295 √ √ w(x.2. y . k1 . y . where f = f (ξ ) and g = g (η ) are arbitrary functions and k is an arbitrary constant. w(x. w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t) + 2 ln |y + C |. w(x. bB 2 2 a B2 − bA2 bA2 Ay + Bt + C x+D . y . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(z1 ) and ψ (z2 ) are arbitrary functions. 3◦ . y . y . t) = U (x. and D are arbitrary constants. . ∂t2 ∂x2 Integrating yields a solution of the original equation in the form b eg(η) dη + 2 ln |y + C |. Solutions: (aA2 − B 2 )(y + D)2 . ζ1 = t + k1 ln |y |. ξ = x − a t. t) = ln (B 2 − aA2 )(y + D)2 .4. y . 2 cos2 (Ax + Bt + C ) 2◦ . B . t) = ln b w(x.2. y . t) = F (y . t) = f (ξ ) + g (η ) − 2 ln k ef (ξ) dξ − 4ak √ √ η = x + a t. t) = H (ζ1 . t) = ϕ(x − t a ) + ψ (x + t a ) + ln |C1 y + C2 |. 4◦ . 5◦ . y . r = x2 − at2 . t) = ln b sinh2 (Ax + Bt + C ) 4aC − 2 ln (x + A)2 − a(t + B )2 + C + 2 ln |y + D|.1. y . √ √ w(x. where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function and λ is an arbitrary constant. t) = G(ξ . w(x. ρ1 = tey . t) = ln w(x.1: ∂2U ∂2U = a + 2beU .

4. y . t) = w(x. λ cos2 (C1 t + C6 ) bC1 x2 + C2 xy + Ky 2 + C3 x + C4 y + C5 1 . b 2 C1 − aC1 . y . ln λ sinh2 (aC1 t + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 bC1 y + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 . y . Ibragimov (1994). are also solutions of the equation. y . y . . t) = C1 t + C2 + b C3 x + ln cos a C3 λy + C4 . where C1 . t) = C1 t + C2 + ln C3 (bx2 − ay 2 ) + C4 xy + C5 . A. b 2 C1 bC1 x2 + C2 xy − Ky 2 + C3 x + C4 y + C5 1 .3 with f (w) = a and g (w) = be w . −x b/a sin β + y cos β . Solutions: 1 ln(C3 x + C4 y + C5 ). F. y . λ C1 ∂2w =a ∂ ∂w +b ∂ ∂w a/b sin β .1: N. Zaitsev (2002). y . y . t) = C1 t + C2 + w(x. For other exact solutions.2. ln 2 (x + C ) 2 λ a(C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 + bC1 4 2 1 C2 ln 2 . λ 1 w(x. y . K = ln + aC1 . t) = w(x. y . bC1 x2 + C2 xy + Ky 2 + C3 x + C4 y + C5 1 ln . y . y . λ cos2 (bC1 t + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 aC1 x + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 . t) = w(x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. y . Polyanin and V.2. t) = w(x. y . t) = 2 C2 (x + C 4 ) 2 1 . . D. t) = w(x. y . References for equation 4. Suppose w(x. w(x. Then the functions 2. ln λ cosh2 (aC1 t + C5 ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = w(x. C 2 t + C 5 ) + w2 = w x cos β + y 2◦ . ln λ sinh2 (C1 t + C6 ) K= K= 2 C1 − aC1 . 2 C 1 y + C 4 . λ √ √ 1 w(x. t) = w(x. λ 2 1 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 1 .2. t) = C1 t + C2 + ln C3 ln(bx2 + ay 2 ) + C4 . t) = ln 2 + bC 2 λ t + C4 aC1 2 w(x. ln λ sinh2 (bC1 t + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 −aC1 x + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 . 0¦1 z = (x2 − at2 )y −2 . λ √ √ 1 w(x. . t . t) is a solution of this equation. 8◦ . λ cos2 (aC1 t + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 bC1 y + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 ln . . λ b cosh2 (C1 t + C6 ) √ √ 2 2 aC1 x + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 ln . λ 1 w(x. t) = w(x. see equation 4.296 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 7◦ . y . t) = W (z ). t) = C1 t + C2 + ln C3 exp b C4 x cos a C4 y + C5 + C6 . ∂t2 eλw eλw w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 3 . . y . There is an exact solution of the form w(x.

η ). λ a b where the function f = f (t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation w(x. Zaitsev (2002). ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For this linear equation. . ρ2 ) − t. t) = ln λ cosh2 (bC1 t + C5 ) where C1 . . w(x.2.4. y . η = √ . t) = R(ζ ). (2) ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For this linear equation. λ 2 “two-dimensional” solution. ξ = √ . For other exact solutions. − ln  2  λ 2 C  1    λ 1   if λ < 0. y . “Two-dimensional” solution: (1) 6◦ . w(x. C6 are arbitrary constants. z2 ) − λ 2 w(x. w(x. z = . “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the first five solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): x y 1 w(x. . t) = H (z1 . w(x. t) + ln x. z1 = x|t|k−1 .2. ρ2 = yet λ x y 2 . η = √ . w(x. and k2 are arbitrary constants. D. . y . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 297 √ √ 2 2 −bC1 y + C2 exp b C3 x cos a C3 y + C4 1 w(x. ∆= 3¦4 4◦ . η ) − ln |t|.   − λ ln 2C 2 cos (C1 t + C2 ) 1 f ( t) = λ 1   sinh2 (C1 t + C2 ) if λ > 0.3 with f (w) = ae λw and g (w) = beλw . Polyanin and V. η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. 3◦ .  − ln − 2 cosh2 (C1 t + C2 ) λ 2C1 5◦ .2. r = bx2 + ay 2 “two-dimensional” solution. η ). η = y + k2 ln |t| “two-dimensional” solution. t) = W (z ) + ln λ t x bx2 + ay 2 “one-dimensional” solution. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). A.4. ξ = x + k1 ln |t|. y . t) = G(r. and the function V = V (ξ . − ln 1  2 λ (t + C 1 )  λ    λ 1  2  if λ > 0.2: N. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). z2 = y |t|k−1 “two-dimensional” solution. References for equation 4. η ) is a solution of the Poisson equation ∂2 ∂2 + . The general solution of equation (1) is given by  1 2   if λ > 0. There are solutions of the following forms: y 2 “two-dimensional” solution. t) = F (z . Ibragimov (1994). t). λ a b where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U = U (ξ . y . ζ = t2 where k . ∆V − λ = 0. y . t) = U (ξ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . λ x w(x. k1 . ξ = √ . y . y . F. t) = f (t) + ftt = eλf . 2k ln |t|. ρ1 = xet . . y . y . z= “one-dimensional” solution. t) = V (ρ1 . see equation 4. t) = C1 t + C2 + ln U (ξ . x y 1 ln V (ξ .2.

3◦ . ξ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. t) = u(z . 6¦7 References for equation 4. F. A.8: ∂v ∂ ∂v ∂ 2 λv 2 ev + ψ (v ) = 0. 2 λw 2 ew + bC1 e = C2 . where the function v = v (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 w 2 −1 λw ak1 e + bk2 λ e − β 2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + βt) + C2 . ψ (v ) = bs1 e − s2 . k1 . z2 = a2 x + b2 y + c2 t. t) + 2 ln x.4. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. y .298 3.4. z = c1 x + c2 y . . 2 2 w 2 eλw + aC1 e = C2 . Ibragimov (1994). ξ = x−λ ytλ−1 . C2 . .4. 2 ∂t ∂z 2 ∂z ∂z 9◦ . 6◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution (c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. Suppose w(x. z2 ). . D. Solution: w(x. ϕ(u) = ac2 1 e + bc2 e . where C1 . 5 C1 t + C5 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. C5 are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev (2002). .6: ∂ ∂u ∂2u u 2 λu = ϕ (u ) . 2 C1 x + C2 t + C 3 y + C4 where C1 . Polyanin and V. .4. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ .2. 5◦ . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form (generalize the solutions of Items 3 ◦ and 4◦ ): w(x. t) = U (ξ ) + 2 ln(x/t). Then the functions λ y + C4 . z = x−λ y . 5 C 1 C2 where C1 . 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ξ = s1 y + s2 t.4. C4 are arbitrary constants.2. For other exact solutions. ◦ 7 . ξ ). y . ∂t2 ∂z ∂z which can be reduced to a linear equation. k2 . w1 = w ( 5 C 1 C2 x + C3 . z1 = a1 x + b1 y + c1 t. and β are arbitrary constants. see equation 4. . t). y . 8◦ . a ∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z which can be reduced to a linear equation. 4◦ . t) = U (z1 . Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 a b C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 x + C4 2 2 w 2 λw = aC1 e + bC2 e . where the function u = u(z . where the function u = u(z . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂2u ∂u ∂u ∂2u = aλ2 z 2 eu + beλu + λ aλz 2 eu + beλu + aλ(λ − 3)zeu + 2aeu . t) is a solution of this equation. y .3: N. “Two-dimensional” solution (s1 and s2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. where the function U = U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aλ2 ξ 2 eU + beλU − (λ − 1)2 ξ 2 Uξξ + λ aλξ 2 eU + beλU (Uξ )2 + ξ aλ(λ − 3)eU − (λ − 1)(λ − 2) Uξ + 2(aeU − 1) = 0. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a ew +b eλw . t) = u(z . .2. 2◦ . . t) = v (x. y .3 with f (w) = ae w and g (w) = beλw .

t) = w(x. . Suppose w(x. 2◦ . . y . η2 ).1. C2 . w1 = w ( 8 C 1 where C1 . y . NONLINEAR TELEGRAPH EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES 299 4. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . . Then the functions 2. ξ = x|t| β . t) = U (ξ . Traveling-wave solutions: 1 ln C1 x + C2 y + βt + C3 . . .4. 8 C1 t + C4 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). . λ 2 −β β w(x. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution linear in y : ∂t2 ∂x2 w = f (x. t). see equation 4. 4. w1 = w(8 C1 x + C2 . y . y .4. . b 1 C1 2 2 − 2 2 (C 2 − b2 C1 )(x + C4 )2 − b1 (C1 y + C2 t + C3 )2 1 . η ) − η = y | t| . ln 2 (x + C ) 2 + a (C y + C t + C ) 2 λ a 2 C1 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 (C 2 − b1 C1 )(y + C4 )2 − b2 (C1 x + C2 t + C3 )2 1 .3. 2◦ . . t) is a solution of this equation. . . β −λ 1 β −λ 2 β x + C2 . t) = 1 1 ln 2 + a C2 λ a 1 C1 2 2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 2 β=8 2 + b C2.3 with f (w) = a1 eλw + b1 and g (w) = a2 eλw + b2 . t) = w(x. Then the functions 1. η 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. η1 = a1 x + b1 y + c1 t. t) = V (η1 . w(x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: λ 1 −β 2 ln |t|. t) = 3◦ . 4◦ . ∂t ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y .2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w +k ∂w =a ∂2w + ∂ (bw + c) ∂w . . 8 C 1 y + C3 . β w(x.3. y . t)y + g (x. Other Equations ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = (a1 eλw + b1 ) + (a2 eλw + b2 ) . ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w =a eλ1 w +b eλ2 w + ceβw . C4 are arbitrary constants. ln 2 (y + C ) 2 + a (C x + C t + C ) 2 λ a 1 C1 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 b1 C1 + b2 C2 . y . 8 C1 y + C3 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).3. For other solutions. C4 are arbitrary constants. . Solutions: w(x. λ where C1 . y . t) is a solution of this equation. . 8 C1 t + C4 ). C4 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 where C1 .3. Equations Involving Power›Law Nonlinearities 1.2. Nonlinear Telegraph Equations with Two Space Variables 4. and C3 are arbitrary constants.

A2 .4 with m = 1. and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. 2◦ . ∂2w ∂t2 +k ∂w ∂t = ∂ ∂x (a 1 w + b 1 ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y (a 2 w + b 2 ) ∂w ∂y . B1 . Given f = f (x. y . t). 4◦ . Additive separable solution: w(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. For these equations. where C1 . t)y 2 + g (x. t). β1 . y .6 with n = m = −1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = (A1 e−kt + B1 )x + (A2 e−kt + B2 )y + − 1 2 −2kt (a 1 A 2 1 + a 2 A 2 )e 2k 2 1 2 2 2 (a1 A1 B1 + a2 A2 B2 )te−kt + C1 e−kt + (a1 B1 + a2 B2 )t + C 2 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. k k where A1 . There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. the second one represents a linear nonhomogeneous telegraph equation. and D are arbitrary constants. −x sin β + y cos β . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form (k ≠ 0): 2 2 2 2 2 2 kλ(a1 β1 + a 2 β2 )w + [kλ(b1 β1 + b 2 β2 − λ 2 ) − C 1 (a 1 β 1 + a 2 β2 )] ln(kλw + C1 ) = k 2 λ2 (β1 x + β2 y + λt) + C2 . C2 . t) = Akx + Bky + Ce−kt + k (A2 a1 + B 2 a2 )t + D. Generalized separable solution linear in the space variables: w(x. There is a “two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = f (x. w2 = w(x cos β + y sin β . β2 . B . see the book by Polyanin (2002). 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂g ∂2g ∂2g + k = a + bf 2 . y .3. C . C1 . The substitution u = w + (c/b) leads to the special case of equation 4. 3. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). . where A.1. 3◦ . 2◦ . 2. 1◦ . t)y + h(x. . t). . B2 . y . 9 C1 y + C3 . Then the functions 2 w1 = C1 w(9 C1 x + C2 . ∂w ∂ ∂2w +k =a 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x 1 ∂w w ∂x + ∂ ∂y 1 ∂w w ∂y .3. where C1 . 1◦ . . ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 The first equation is a linear homogeneous telegraph equation. Suppose w(x. This is a special case of equation 4. t + C4 ). 3◦ . t) = f (t)x2 + g (t)xy + h(t)y 2 + ϕ(t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t).300 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES where the functions f and g are determined by the one-dimensional equations ∂f ∂2f ∂2f +k =a 2. C4 and β are arbitrary constants.

B C1 ∂2w +k ∂w =a ∂2w +b ∂ ∂w where C1 . w(x. ∂t ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. y . y . .y) . t) = ke2x cosh2 (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) C 2 (2at + A + Be−kt ) . y ) is a solution of the stationary equation ∂2 ∂2 + . w(x. t) = 3◦ . B . t)|y + C |1/(m+1) U (x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). For solutions of this equation. if m = −1. t) = 2x 1 2 ke cos (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) where A. see the book by Polyanin (2002). t)y 2/m . k (sin y + Cex )2 2 C1 (2at + A + Be−kt ) . . Reference: N.6 with n = 0. Ibragimov (1994). where C is an arbitrary constant and the function U (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants.1. t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) = ke2x sinh2 (C1 e−x sin y + C2 ) 2 C1 (−2at + A + Be−kt ) . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ∂ 2 u 2b(m + 2) m+1 ∂2u +k =a 2 + u . w1 = C1 w ( B x + C2 . and C are arbitrary constants and the function Θ(x. and C2 are arbitrary constants. H. C . 3◦ . this equation is linear. ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 @¦A if m ≠ −1. . 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x m2 For m = −2 and m = −1. Suppose w(x. “Two-dimensional” multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Ibragimov (1994). t) = u(x. C1 . where A.3. y . 2◦ . Then the functions m −2 y + C3 . 4. 2◦ . H. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∆= ∂x2 ∂y 2 which occurs in combustion theory. ∆Θ − AkeΘ = 0. t) = (Aat + B + Ce−kt )eΘ(x. see 5. t + C4 ). Reference: N. . y . t) is determined by the telegraph equation For solutions of this linear equation. y .2. y . y .4. y . w(x. t) exp(Cy ) ∂U ∂2U ∂2U + k = a . The exact solutions specified in Item 2◦ are special cases of a more general solution in the form of the product of functions with different arguments: w(x. where the function u(x.1. NONLINEAR TELEGRAPH EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES 301 2at + A + Be−kt .1. t) = U (x. B . Solutions: @¦A . w(x. ∂t2 ∂x2 wm 1◦ .3.

t + C4 ). β1 . . =a 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . where A and B are arbitrary constants. (2) Example. t + C4 ). C2 . w1 = C1 w ( C C1 w2 = w x cos β + y a/b sin β . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ab ∂ ∂u ∂2u +k = run . y . Ibragimov (1994). (1) and the function Φ(x. it follows from (1) that F = Ae−kt + B . equation (2) is reduced to the Laplace equation ∂2Ψ ∂2Ψ + = 0. C4 and β are arbitrary constants. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 n 2 m a 1 β1 w + a 2 β2 w − λ2 dw = β1 x + β2 y + λt + C2 . y . . C C 1 y + C3 . β2 . . 2◦ . n2 ∂w where the function U (t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation Utt + kUt = D¦E Reference: N. t) = u(r. . Then the functions 6. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. w1 = C1 w ( C C1 ∂2w +k ∂w =a ∂ ∂w +b ∂ where C1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂2w +k wn +b wn . For C = 0. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). y . where C1 . Suppose w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. 2 ∂t ∂t r ∂r ∂r 4◦ . t) = F (t)Φ(x. ∂t2 wn wm n m −2 x + C2 . r= bx2 + ay 2 . where the function F (t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant) Ftt + kFt = CF n+1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. y . y ¯ = √ . . 2◦ .302 5. kλw + C1 where C1 . Suppose w(x. x ¯ = √ . y . t . . y ) satisfies the stationary equation a ∂Φ ∂ Φn ∂x ∂x +b ∂ ∂Φ Φn ∂y ∂y = C Φ. C4 are arbitrary constants. . where the function u(r. t) = U (t)(bx2 + ay 2 )1/n . 4ab(n + 1) n+1 U . Solution: w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). . −x b/a sin β + y cos β . ∂x ¯2 ∂y ¯2 x y where Ψ = Φn+1 . a b 3◦ . C C 1 y + C3 . For C = 0. Then the functions n n −2 x + C2 . y ). t). H.

where C1 . where the βi . . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂2U +k = aβ 2 U n + bµ2 U m . t) is determined by the linear telegraph equation ∂u ∂ 2u ∂2u + k = a . . t + C4 ) − 2 ln |C1 |. h(t) = b. 4. y .2. t) + ln |y + C |. t). ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. Ibragimov (1994). There is a more general. “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x.4. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. y . ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 3◦ . where C is an arbitrary constant and the function U (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. Suppose w(x. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂2U ∂2U + k = a + 2beU . 4◦ . NONLINEAR TELEGRAPH EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES 303 3◦ . where the function u = u(z . and λi are arbitrary constants. µi . z = xy −n/m . ∂z Reference: N. ξ 2 = β 2 x + µ 2 y + λ 2 t. +k =a 1◦ . . t) = V (ξ1 . H C1 y + C3 . g (t) = a. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).3. y .10 with f (t) = k . t) = y 2/m u(z . Equations Involving Exponential Nonlinearities ∂ ∂w +b ew . t) = U (ξ . ∂u ∂2u +k ∂t2 ∂t ∂2u ∂z 2 ∂u ∂z 2 ξ 1 = β 1 x + µ 1 y + λ 1 t. t) is determined by the differential equation m2 = am2 un + bn2 z 2 um + nm amun−1 + bnz 2 um−1 F¦G + bn(n − 3m − 4)zum ∂u + 2b(m + 2)um+1 . t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) + 2 ln |y + C |. Ibragimov (1994).4. H. t) = U (x. ∂2w ∂w ∂2w F¦G © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y .3. ∂t2 ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ Remark. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. ξ = βx + µy . H. t). ∂t2 ∂t ∂x2 Reference: N. y . C4 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions w1 = w(H x + C2 . where C is an arbitrary constant and the function u(x. ξ2 ). . 1. where β and µ are arbitrary constants. t) = u(x. and the function U = U (ξ . y . and λ = 1.3. 2◦ .

H. where the function u(t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant) ϕtt + kϕt = Ceϕ . Solution: w(x. −x b/a sin β + y cos β . t) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 3. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 w 2 λw a 1 β1 e + a 2 β2 e − γ2 dw = β1 x + β2 y + γt + C2 . 3◦ . Suppose w(x. utt + kut = 4abeu . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. . y . β2 . . t) = u(z . . ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t) = u(r. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂2w +k ew +b ew . . . t . 2◦ . y ¯= √ . Then the functions w1 = w(I C1 x + C2 . . w2 = w x cos β + y a/b sin β . and the function ψ (x. y . =a 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y )]. and γ are arbitrary constants. Reference: N. 2 ∂t ∂t r ∂r ∂r 4◦ . 2◦ . . t + C4 ) − 2 ln |C1 |. Suppose w(x. C2 . y . t + C4 ) − 2 ln |C1 |. I C1 y + C3 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). kγw + C1 where C1 . y . 5◦ . y . t) is a solution of this equation. r= bx2 + ay 2 . where the function u(r.304 2. where C1 . P¦Q ∂2ψ ∂2ψ + = C. t) = ϕ(t) + ln[ψ (x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ab ∂ ∂u ∂2u +k = reu . w1 = w ( I C 1 x + C2 . t). C4 and β are arbitrary constants. a b For solutions of this linear equation. β1 . Ibragimov (1994). y ) satisfies the Poisson equation x y where x ¯= √ . ∂x ¯2 ∂y ¯2 where the function u(t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation z = y/x. ∂t2 ew eλw λ y + C3 . “Two-dimensional” additive separable solution: w(x. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t) + 2 ln |x|. C4 are arbitrary constants. I C 1 ∂2w +k ∂w =a ∂ ∂w +b ∂ ∂w where C1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . t) = u(t) + ln(bx2 + ay 2 ). .

C3 . F (w ) = f (w) dw. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. C2 . t) = V (ξ1 . yb sinh λ + t cosh λ . where the βi . and σi are arbitrary constants.4. 4. β . Solution (C1 .4. 4◦ . C2 . and the function U = U (ξ . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 305 3◦ . a b Here. y . k2 . and λ are arbitrary constants. t) + 2 ln |x|. where β and µ are arbitrary constants. −x 1/2 ∂2w =a ∂2w +b ∂2w b/a sin β + y cos β . w2 = w x cos β + y w3 = w x cosh λ + ta a/b sin β . ξ 1 = β 1 x + µ 1 y + σ 1 t. Equations with Two Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w +h(w ) 4. y .4. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). xa sinh λ. y . where C1 . where C1 . t) is a solution of this equation. t) = u(z . ξ = βx + µy . “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. t) = U (ξ . 2◦ . Suppose w(x. ξ 2 = β 2 x + µ 2 y + σ 2 t. Ibragimov (1994). There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. R¦S z = y |x|−λ . Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. + f (w). and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + 2r−1 wr + A−1 f (w) = 0. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . Reference: N. w4 = w x. H. y . µi . T t + C3 ). k1 . Then the functions w1 = w(T x + C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants): w = w(r). T y + C2 . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: C1 + 2 F (w ) 2 − bk 2 λ2 − ak1 2 −1/2 dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 . y . 3◦ . C2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t2 ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ Remark. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂2U +k = aβ 2 ew + bµ2 eλw . −1/2 sinh λ. t .4. ξ2 ).1. A and the expression in square brackets must have like signs. t). There is a more general. y cosh λ + tb 1/2 −1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ . r2 = A (x + C 1 ) 2 (y + C 2 ) 2 + − (t + C 3 ) 2 .

ξ 2 = 4k y 2−m x2−n + . Zaitsev (2002). 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w + k −1 f (w) = 0. η ). ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + by m 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . t). Relations (1) and equation (2) can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solution by means of the following rename: (x. A. D. ζ 2 = 4k 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 4 − nm . z2 ). B1 = where the function V (x. B3 = References: A. Solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(r). “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (ξ . 5◦ . r2 = 4k y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . I. 2−n where the function W (y . and the function U = U (ξ . ζ ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ by m ∂y ∂y U¦V +k ∂ 2 W B3 ∂W + ∂ζ 2 ζ ∂ζ + f (W ) = 0. y . z 2 = C 3 x + C 4 y + λ 2 t. t) = u(z1 . y x +√ . “Two-dimensional” solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = U (ξ . B2 = 4◦ . b(2 − m)2 4 2 . a ab (1) where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). η ) is determined by the equation 1+ 1 C2 ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U ∂U 2 2 − 4 ξ + 4 C ( ξ + η ) + 2(2C 2 − 1) + f (U ) = 0. D. “Two-dimensional” solution for n ≠ 2: w = W (y . r r A= 2(4 − n − m) . (2 − n)(2 − m) where the function U (ξ . Zhurov (1998). There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. a) (y . 2. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ 2 U B1 ∂U ∂ 2U = k + ∂t2 ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 3◦ . + f (w). 2 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂η (2) Remark. η ). (2 − n)(2 − m) 2◦ .306 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 4◦ . Polyanin and V. 2−m + f (U ). a(2 − n)2 4 2 . z 1 = C 1 x + C 2 y + λ 1 t. Polyanin and A. ξ= √ aC b η = (C 2 − 1) x2 xy − 2C √ − C 2 t2 . ζ ). b). “Two-dimensional” solution for m ≠ 2: w = V (x. η 2 = 4k 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . η ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ axn ∂x ∂x +k ∂2V B2 ∂V + ∂η 2 η ∂η + f (V ) = 0. F.

Integrating yields its general solution in implicit form: C1 + 2k −1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2 a(2 − n) bλ2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 A A= . a(2 − n)2 4 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC −1/2 f (w) dw dw = C2 W r. ξ 2 = 4k e−λy x2−n + . w = w(r). “Two-dimensional” solution for n ≠ 2: w = W (y . 2 a(2 − n) bλ2 where the function U (ξ . Solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: w = w(r).4. ζ 2 = 4k 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . ζ ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ beλy ∂y ∂y 4. + f (w). e−λy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . η ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ axn ∂x ∂x 4◦ . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ 2 U B ∂U ∂2U =k + 2 ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 3◦ . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ aeβx ∂w +k + ∂ 2 W A ∂W + ∂ζ 2 ζ ∂ζ ∂ beλy ∂w ∂y + f (W ) = 0. bλ2 4 + f (U ). aβ 2 bλ2 4 where the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + k −1 f (w) = 0.4. A= ∂x ∂x ∂y ◦ 1 . r 2−n ◦ 2 . B= n . 2−n +k ∂2V + f (V ) = 0. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 307 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + beλy 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . 2−n where the function V (x. . ∂η 2 where the function W (y . η 2 = 4k e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . r2 = 4k e−βx e−λy 1 + − (t + C ) 2 . ζ ). t). r2 = 4k + f (w). η ). “Two-dimensional” solution for λ ≠ 0: w = V (x. “Two-dimensional” solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0: w = U (ξ . wrr + wr + k −1 f (w) = 0. Solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0: 3.

2 = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w + h(w ) 4. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (x ) + g (y ) + aw ln w + bw. “Two-dimensional” solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: w = U (ξ . w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1/2 sinh λ. Polyanin and A. . y . ` C1 y + C3 . 5. “Two-dimensional” solution for λ ≠ 0: w = V (x. ζ 2 = 4k e−βx 1 − (t + C ) 2 .7 with f (x. C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. ∂η 2 where the function W (y . aβ 2 bλ2 where the function U (ξ . y . η 2 = 4k e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . D. 2◦ . ∂2w =a ∂2w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w where C1 .6 with g (t) = b and h1 (x) = h2 (y ) = 0 and a special case of equation 4. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂ 2 U 1 ∂U ∂2U =k − 2 ∂t ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ 3◦ . η ). k2 . where C1 . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 4. “Two-dimensional” solution for β ≠ 0: w = W (y . D. η ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ aeβx ∂x ∂x 4◦ . C2 . ζ ) is determined by the differential equation ∂w ∂ beλy ∂y ∂y X¦Y +k ∂2W + f (W ) = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂ζ 2 References: A. y ) = g (y ).4. Equations of the Form ∂ w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. aβ 2 4 +k ∂2V + f (V ) = 0.2. where the function V (x. ζ ). Zhurov (1998). Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 k2 2 g (w) dw + (ak1 − λ2 )w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + λt) + C2 . ` C1 t + C4 ). t). Zaitsev (2002). ξ 2 = 4k e−βx e−λy + .3. bλ2 4 + f (U ). F. Polyanin and V.308 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . and λ are arbitrary constants. . . A. I. Then the functions ∂t2 ∂x2 w1 = w(` C1 x + C2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily).3. t) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x. xa−1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ).4. ∂y ∂y 1◦ . . k1 . y ) = f (x) and g (x. .4.

Solutions in implicit form: √ √ g (w) dw = yϕ1 x a t a + ϕ2 x a t a .4. (1) 2λ a g (U ) − λ 2 ∂ξ ∂η with ϕ(η ) being an arbitrary function.4. √ √ 2λ a (y + λt) + (t a a x)[g (w) − λ2 ] = ψ (w).3 with f (w) = a. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. η = x a t a. and C1 and C2 are determined by (2). To the special case ϕ(η ) = 0 in (1) there corresponds the second group of solutions specified in Item 3◦ . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 309 3◦ . In the special case λ = 0. 2λ a We first calculate the integral in the second relation of (2) and then. y . and λ is an arbitrary constant. ξ = y + λt. y . see equation 4. equation (1) is an ordinary differential equation in ξ that can be readily integrated to obtain the first group of solutions specified in Item 3◦ .2. ϕ2 (z ). g (U ) − λ 2 2λ a ϕ(η ) Its independent integrals are given by U a Φ( η ) = C 1 . w(x. in the resulting expression. 7◦ . C2 ) is an arbitrary function of two variables. 5◦ . The general solution of equation (1) has the form Φ( η ) = F (C1 . For other exact solutions. t) = u(y . 2 a (2) where 1 √ ϕ(η ) dη . z ) is determined by the differential equation 4a z 6◦ . where the function v = v (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2aζvζζ + 2avζ + 2ζ 2 [g (v )vζ ]ζ + 3ζg (v )vζ = 0. and ψ (w) are arbitrary functions. C2 ) = 0. Zaitsev. t) = U (ξ . In the general case. where ϕ1 (z ). t) = v (ζ ). where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function U = U (ξ . where the function u = u(y . η ). where F (C1 . and Moussiaux. y . Solution: + ∂ ∂u g (u ) = 0. “Two-dimensional” solutions (generalize the solutions of Item 3 ◦ ): √ w(x. ∂y ∂y ζ = (x2 − at2 )y −2 . the characteristic system corresponding to equation (1) has the form (Polyanin. η ) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation √ ∂U ∂U b = ϕ(η ).4. substitute the left-hand side of the first relation of (2) for C1 . ∂ 2 u ∂u + ∂z 2 ∂z z = x2 − at2 . ξa 1 √ 2λ a g C1 b Φ(η ) dη b λ √ η = C2 . 2002) dU dη dξ b √ = = . z ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 4◦ .

C4 and β are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . t) = u(r. . ∂t2 r ∂r ∂r 5◦ . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . ζ = (x2 + y 2 )t−2 . c C1 y + C3 . “Two-dimensional” solution with axial symmetry: w(x. x sin β + y cos β . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (w ) + f (w ) . t) = U (ζ ). Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 (k 1 + k2 ) f (w) dw − λ2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + λt) + C2 . . . k1 . 2 . is also a solution of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). . Solution: w(x. see equation 4. where the function u = u(r. where the function U = U (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2ζ 2 Uζζ + 3ζUζ = 2[ζf (U )Uζ ]ζ . where C1 . k1 . t) is determined by the differential equation ∂u ∂2u 1 ∂ = rf (u) . where C1 . 2 2 g (w ) + C 1 f (w ) = C 2 . ∂2w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w where C1 . .3 with f (w) = g (w). y . 2◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 k1 f (w ) + k 2 g (w) dw − λ2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + λt) + C2 . Then the function ∂t2 w1 = w(c C1 x + C2 . 3.2. y . c C1 t + C4 ). 2 2 2 f (w ) + C 1 g (w ) = C 2 . . . t). . . . 2◦ . w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . . k2 . 4◦ . Suppose w(x. c C1 y + C3 . C2 . k2 .310 2. . C4 are arbitrary constants. . and λ are arbitrary constants. y . Then the functions w1 = w(c C1 x + C2 . y . Suppose w(x. C2 . r= x2 + y 2 . For other exact solutions. Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C4 C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 x + C4 C1 x + C2 t + C 3 y + C4 where C1 .4. c C1 t + C4 ). where C1 . C4 are arbitrary constants. 3◦ . t). t) is a solution of this equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 2 2 = C1 f (w ) + C 2 g (w). and λ are arbitrary constants. t) is a solution of this equation.

one obtains a Riccati equation for ξ = ξ (w): 2 2 g (w). . 2 2 ϕ (w ) = C 1 f (w ) + C 2 g (w). see the book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). For C5 ≠ 0. treating w in (1) as the independent variable. and the function v (ζ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation w = v (ζ ). 7◦ . . For C5 ≠ 0. . C4 are arbitrary constants and the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(ξ ). . . η → ζ . x + C4 where C1 . C1 y + C 2 t + C 3 . y + C4 where C1 . C1 x + C2 t + C 3 . . ξ= (ξ 2 w ξ ) ξ = [ϕ (w )w ξ ] ξ . “Two-dimensional” solution (a and b are arbitrary constants): w(x. there corresponds the third solution of Item 3◦ . 5◦ . (2) C5 ξw = ξ 2 − C1 f (w ) − C 2 For exact solutions of equation (2).4. t) = U (z . . . EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 311 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 . treating u in (3) as the independent variable. Solution: To the special case C5 = 0. . which admits the first integral 2 2 ξ 2 − C1 f (w ) − C 2 g (w ) w ξ = C 5 . ∂ ∂U ∂2U = ϕ (U ) . C4 are arbitrary constants.6: ϕ(U ) = a2 f (U ) + b2 g (U ). t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. w = u(η ). t + C4 where C1 . which is reduced to a second-order linear equation.4. C4 are arbitrary constants and the function u(η ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 C2 uηη = [η 2 f (u)uη ]η + C1 [g (u )u η ] η . one obtains a Riccati equation for η = η (u): 2 2 C 5 η u = η 2 f (u ) + C 1 g (u ) − C 2 . Solution: (3) To the special case C5 = 0 there corresponds the second solution of Item 3◦ . . 6◦ . and f g. ζ= 2 2 [ζ 2 g (v ) + C 1 f (v ) − C 2 ]v ζ = C 5 . . Solution: (1) To the special case C5 = 0 there corresponds the first solution of Item 3◦ . t). (4) For exact solutions of equation (4). . which is reduced to a second-order linear equation. . y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC z = ax + by . ∂t2 ∂z ∂z which can be reduced to a linear equation.4. 4◦ .4. where the function U = U (z . see the book by Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). The inverse function ζ = ζ (v ) is determined by the Riccati equation that can be obtained from (4) with the renaming u → v . η= which admits the first integral 2 2 [η 2 f (u ) + C 1 g (u ) − C 2 ]u η = C 5 .

y . y . t) = W (y . and λ are arbitrary constants. C2 . η = yt−1 . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t) = R(ξ . 12◦ . 9◦ . d y + C2 . C2 . ξ = A 1 x + B 1 y + C 1 t. 4◦ . z 2 = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 t. 4. η = A 2 x + B 2 y + C 2 t. 11◦ . and λ are arbitrary constants. z = x2 − at2 . where the functions ϕ(z ) and ψ (z ) are arbitrary functions. t) = V (ξ .4. ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a + f (w ) + g (w). Solutions in implicit form: √ f (w ) ϕ x + t a − 2 √ f (w ) ϕ x − t a − 2 −1/2 f (w)g (w) dw −1/2 √ dw = ψ x + t a d y. η ). w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1/2 sinh λ. η ).4. ψ (V ) = a2 g (V ) − b2 . χ(W ) = a2 f (W ) − b2 . y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ξ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5.312 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 8◦ . y . Suppose w(x. 2◦ . η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. where C1 . t) = U (y . d f (w)g (w) dw √ dw = ψ x − t a y. ∂x ∂x ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. y . η ) is determined by the differential equation 2 ∂2R ∂R ∂R ∂ ∂R ∂ ∂R ∂2R 2∂ R + 2 ξη + η + 2ξ + 2η = f (R ) + g (R ) . ∂y ∂x ∂η ∂η which can be reduced to a linear equation. t) is a solution of this equation. ξ2 ξ = xt−1 . y . y . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).8: ∂W ∂ ∂W ∂ g (W ) + χ (W ) = 0. “Two-dimensional” solution (a and b are arbitrary constants): w(x. see Ibragimov (1994). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution (a and b are arbitrary constants): w(x. where C1 . where the function R = R(ξ . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form (generalizes the solutions of Items 7 ◦ –9◦ ): w(x. z ). k2 . z2 ). where the function W = W (y . where the function V = V (x. 2 2 h (w ) = k 2 f (w) + ak1 − λ2 . C3 . Then the functions w1 = w(d x + C1 . ξ ).8: ∂V ∂ ∂V ∂ f (V ) + ψ (V ) = 0. k1 . t) = V (x. d t + C3 ). ξ = ay + bt.4. ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η 2 ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂η ∂η z 1 = a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 t. t) = Q(z1 . w(x. 10◦ . y . For results of the group analysis of the original equation. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂y 1◦ . xa−1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). η ).4. η = ax + bt. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: h (w ) C 1 − 2 −1/2 h(w)g (w) dw dw = k1 x + k2 y + λt + C2 .

4. r2 = w = V (x. ∂2w = axn ∂2w + beλy ∂2w + f (w). Solution for n ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0: w = W (y . where the function U = U (x. = axn ∂2w + by m ∂2w + f (w). η ). 2 b(2 − m) 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . η2 = e 4 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 . ∂2w ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ◦ 1 . wrr + wr + kf (w) = 0. t) = U (ξ . ζ 2 = e 4 2.3. t).4. w = U (ξ . w(x. t) = V (x. Remark. t) = W (y . r 2−n 2−m 2◦ . t). η2 = e 4 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . bλ2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . ζ 2 = e 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: e−λy x2−n + . ζ ). wrr + wr + kf (w) = 0. y ). k a(2 − n)2 bλ2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2(3 − n) A A= . 2 a(2 − n) 4 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ◦ 1 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 For this linear equation. 2 a(2 − n) 4 w(x. ξ 2 = 4 a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 r2 = w(x. ζ ). y . Solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(r). EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 313 ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (w ) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Solution in implicit form: 5. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: y 2−m x2−n + . y ). see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). x2−n y 2−m 1 4 + − (t + C ) 2 . f 3 (w ) f (w) dw = at + U (x. x2−n e−λy 1 4 + − (t + C ) 2 . y . ξ 2 = 4 a(2 − n)2 bλ2 w = w(r). η ). y . 2 k a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1−n 1−m A A=2 + . + ∂ ∂w f (w ) ∂y ∂y – a2 f (w ) + b. Other Equations 1.4. r 2−n ◦ 2 . y ) is determined by the Poisson equation ∂2U ∂2U + + b = 0. The above remains true if the constant b in the equation is substituted by an arbitrary function b = b(x. 4.

ζ ). where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = f (t). ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ .314 3. which is linear in ψ . w = V (x. The solution of the second equation. ζ 2 = f 4 4. Solution for β ≠ 0 and λ ≠ 0: w = w(r). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. t). 2◦ . ψtt = bϕ − βf (t) + g (t) ψ . ξ2 = 4 η2 = f 4 e−βx e−λy + . 2003) for many f (t). r2 = 4 e−βx e−λy 1 + − (t + C ) 2 . ∂2w = aw + f (t) ∂2w + ∂2w ∂y 2 ∂t2 ∂x2 Generalized separable solution: + bw2 + g (t)w + h(t). 5. aβ 2 bλ2 e−λy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . w(x. aβ 2 4 a ≠ 0. w = W (y . bλ2 4 e−βx 1 − (t + C ) 2 . β = b/a. y ) satisfies the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation ∆Θ + β Θ = 0. y ). where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕtt = bϕ2 + g (t)ϕ + h(t). and the function Θ = Θ(x. w(x. ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = aw + –a ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . ∆≡ ∂2 ∂2 + . η ). k aβ 2 bλ2 4 where C and k are arbitrary constants (k ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + 4r−1 wr + kf (w) = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2 2 ∂2w βx ∂ w λy ∂ w = ae + be + f (w). y . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). ψtt = a(β 2 + γ 2 )ϕψ . can be found in Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. y . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)Θ(x. Generalized separable solution: ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 + f (t). t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)eβx+γy . The solution of the first equation is expressed as (C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants) ϕ ( t) = t 0 (t − τ )f (τ ) dτ + C1 t + C2 .

H (x) = C1 cos µx + C2 sin µx. D1 . ∂x ∂x ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ψ (t). [f2 (y )ψy ]y + aψ ln ψ + [h2 (y ) + C2 ]ψ = 0. y ) + k Θ ln Θ − AΘ = 0. 6.4. where the function ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕtt − kϕ ln ϕ − Aϕ = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂x ∂x ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. where A1 . The arbitrary constants A1 . D2 . C1 .4. A is an arbitrary constant. where F (x) = A1 cos 2µx + A2 sin 2µx. C2 . and the function Θ(x. P (y ) = D1 cosh µy + D2 sinh µy . A2 . y ) ∂w + ∂ g (x . t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)F (x) + χ(t)G(y ) + η (t)H (x)P (y ). and χ = χ(t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations [f1 (x)ϕx ]x + aϕ ln ϕ + [h1 (x) + C1 ]ϕ = 0. y ). 3◦ . B2 . and µ are arbitrary constants. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)(A1 cosh µx + A2 sinh µx) + χ(t)(B1 cos µy + B2 sin µy ). ψ (t). y . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). t) = ϕ(x)ψ (y )χ(t). B1 . B1 . y . y ) ∂w ∂y + kw ln w. G(y ) = B1 cosh 2µy + B2 sinh 2µy . w(x. χ(t). ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ f (x . y ) satisfies the stationary equation ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ f (x. 4 2k −1/2 (1) and the general solution can be written out in implicit form as (B and C are arbitrary constants) 2 kϕ2 ln ϕ + (A − 1 2 k )ϕ + B dϕ = C g t. A2 . There are generalized separable solutions of the form w(x. t) = ϕ(t) + ψ (t)(A1 cos µx + A2 sin µx) + χ(t)(B1 cosh µy + B2 sinh µy ). ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y A particular solution of equation (1) is given by (B is an arbitrary constant) ϕ(t) = exp k − 2A k (t + B ) 2 + . y . and the functions ϕ(t). ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ f 1 (x ) ∂w + ∂ f 2 (y ) ∂w ∂y + aw ln w + g (t) + h1 (x) + h2 (y ) w. and the functions ϕ(t). and µ are related by two constraints. B2 . 7. χtt − aχ ln χ − [g (t) − C1 − C2 ]χ = 0. ψ = ψ (y ). There are generalized separable solutions of the following forms: w(x. EQUATIONS WITH TWO SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 315 2◦ . and η (t) satisfy a system of second-order ordinary differential equations (not written out here). y ) + g (x. t) = ϕ(t)Θ(x. y . and χ(t) are determined by solving an appropriate system of second-order ordinary differential equations (not written out here). y .

2 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . λ where C is an arbitrary constant and the function v (x. y . t) = u(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: 1 w(x. 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x 2◦ . 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x 2◦ . 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x m2 For m = −2 and m = −1. 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . + g 1 (x . y . y . this equation is linear. t)|y + C |1/(m+1) u(x. t) is determined by the linear telegraph equation ∂u ∂2u ∂2u + f ( t) = g ( t) 2 . where the function ϕ = ϕ(t) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕtt − kϕ ln ϕ − s (t) + C ϕ = 0. 2 ∂x ∂x∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w + f ( t ) = g ( t ) + h(t) wm . t) = ϕ(t)θ(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t) = u(x. y ) satisfies the stationary equation f1 (x. y ). where C is an arbitrary constant and the function u(x. t) = v (x. y . if m = −1. where the function v (x. ∂w ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w + f ( t ) = g ( t ) + h(t) eλw . y ) 2 + g1 (x. ∂v ∂ 2v 2 ∂2v + f ( t) = g (t) 2 + h(t)eλv . y ) + f ( x . y . y ) + f ( x . t) + ln |y + C | λ where C is an arbitrary constant and the function u(x. y ) − C θ + kθ ln θ = 0. 2 2 ∂t ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y ) ∂x ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: 2 w(x. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = f ( x . y ) + g2 (x. t) is determined by the linear telegraph equation ∂u ∂2u ∂2u + f ( t) = g ( t) 2 .316 8. t) + ln |y + C |. y ) + h(x. t) exp(Cy ) if m ≠ −1. t) = v (x. ∂ 2θ ∂2θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂2θ + f2 (x. t)|y + C |2/m . y ) 9. y ) + h(x. and the function θ = θ(x. t) is determined by the differential equation ∂v ∂ 2 v 2(m + 2) ∂2v + f ( t) = g ( t) 2 + h(t)v m+1 . y ) 1 2 3 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 ∂w ∂w + g 2 (x . y ) + f3 (x. y ) + h (t) w + kw ln w. t) is determined by the differential equation 10.

r2 = 4k e−λx e−µy e−νz 1 + + − (t + C 2 ) 2 . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 317 4. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. y . Solution for p ≠ p 1. t) = |t| 1−p F (ρ1 . z . There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. Suppose w(x. ρ3 ). 1◦ . 2. 2 ρ1 = x + 2 ln |t|.6.5. Then the functions w1 = C1 w x + p−1 1−p 1−p 1−p ln C1 .1. 3◦ . C2 .4. µ ≠ 0. t) = |t| 1−p F (ρ1 .5. z + ln C1 . Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + ∂ h(z ) ∂w + aw p ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1. see equation 4. p C1 2 t + C2 . λ ≠ 0. and ν ≠ 0: s (p − 1)2 (r + C 1 ) 2 w= − 2k (1 + p) 1 1−p .5. m ≠ 2. A= 1−p 2−n 2−m 2−k 1 1−p . see equation 4. ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x aeλx ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beµy ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z ceνz ∂w ∂z + i wp . p C1 2 t + C2 .6. 3◦ . ρ3 ). 1◦ . 2 4◦ . λ ρ2 = y + 2 ln |t|. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Parameters 4. 2 ρ1 = x|t| n−2 . ν 4◦ . 2◦ . 2◦ . µ ρ3 = z + 2 ln |t|. z . t) is a solution of this equation. and p ≠ 1: A w= 2s (p − 1) 1 p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 y 2−m z 2−k 1 x2−n + + − (t + C ) 2 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 4 2 2 2 1+p + + + . t) is a solution of this equation. and k are arbitrary constants. 2 ρ2 = y |t| m−2 . 2 ρ3 = z |t| k−2 .3 with f (w) = s w p . y . ρ2 . For other exact solutions. λ µ ν where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 4 where C1 . y . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z cz k ∂w ∂z + i wp . Solution for n ≠ 2.1. y . are also solutions of the equation.2 with f (w) = s w p . z . y + ln C1 . k ≠ 2. ρ2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C12−k z . Then the functions w1 = C1 w C12−n x. For other exact solutions. are also solutions of the equation. z . Suppose w(x. C12−m y .

are also solutions of the equation. ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . C12−k z . For other exact solutions. ρ3 = z + 2 ln |t|. 4. µ ρ3 = z + 2 ln |t|. + q wp . see equation 4. z + ln C1 . r C1 2 t + C2 .2. 4. For other exact solutions. ρ3 ). ν where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. are also solutions of the equation. y . t) is a solution of this equation. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. ν 4◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ . Suppose w(x. z + 2◦ . ρ1 = x|t| n−2 .6. ρ2 = y |t| m−2 . ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + by m + cz k + q eλw . and p ≠ 1: A w= 2s (p − 1) 1 p−1 p−1 p−1 p−1 1−p ln C1 . 1 1−p y 2−m e−νz 1 x2−n + + − (t + C ) 2 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cν 2 4 2 2 1+p + + . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . y . t) is a solution of this equation. Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + ∂ h(z ) ∂w + aeλw ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1. ρ2 . µ ≠ 0. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + by m + ceνz + q wp . Suppose w(x. z . see equation 4. ν ≠ 0. 3◦ . ν ≠ 0. z .6.1. Then the functions ∂t2 axn beµy ceνz w1 = C1 w C12−n x. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. λ where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions w1 = w C12−n x. t) = |t| 1−p F (ρ1 . A= 1−p 2−n 2−m 2 2 . z . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . r C1 t + C2 + 2 2 2 2 ln C1 . Then the functions w1 = C1 w C12−n x. m ≠ 2.5. C12−m y . Solution for n ≠ 2. 3◦ . ρ2 = y + 2 ln |t|. z .5 with f (w) = s w p . 2 ρ1 = x|t| n−2 . Solution for n ≠ 2. y . C12−m y . and p ≠ 1: 1 w= 2s (p − 1) 2 1 p−1 1 1−p 1+p 2 + 1−p 2−n e−µy e−νz 1 x2−n + + − (t + C ) 2 a(2 − n)2 bµ2 cν 2 4 2 .318 3. y . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . z .1. µ ν ∂2w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. r C1 2 t + C2 . y + p−1 p−1 1−p 1−p ln C1 . ν 4◦ . t) = |t| 1−p F (ρ1 . y . are also solutions of the equation. ρ2 . ρ3 ).4 with f (w) = s w p .

t C1 t + C2 + ln C1 . µ ≠ 0. and β ≠ 0: w(x. 2◦ . y . Suppose w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x.6. y . ρ3 ) − 2 ln |t|. t) = − β 1 w(x. z . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . z . λ ρ2 = y + 2 ln |t|. if s kβ > 0. t) = − β sβ (r + C 1 ) 2 2k sβ sin2 (C1 r + C2 ) ln − 2 2kC1 sβ sinh2 (C1 r + C2 ) ln − 2 2kC1 sβ cosh2 (C1 r + C2 ) ln 2 2kC1 ln − if s kβ < 0. and λ ≠ 0: w=− y 2−m z 2−k 1 x2−n 2s λ 1 + + − (t + C ) 2 ln 2 2 2 λ A a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k ) 4 2 2 2 + + − 1. k ≠ 2.1. y . z . z − 2 2 ∂2w = ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w 2 2 ln C1 .1. where C1 . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . For other exact solutions. see equation 4. y − ln C1 . ρ2 .2 with f (w) = s e λw . t C1 t + C2 + ln C1 . Then the functions ∂t2 axn by m ceνz w1 = w C12−n x. y . z . see equation 4. t) = − 1 β 1 w(x. y . z . ρ3 = z |t| k−2 . There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. Then the functions w1 = w x − 2 2 2 2 ln C1 . C2 . 2. y . are also solutions of the equation. z . ν β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. z . and k are arbitrary constants and r2 = 4k e−λx e−µy e−νz 1 + + − (t + C 3 ) 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 3◦ . 3◦ . For other exact solutions. Solutions for λ ≠ 0. + s eβw . if s kβ < 0. aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 4 where k and the expression in square brackets must have like signs. y . µ ρ3 = z + 2 ln |t|. ρ2 . ν 4◦ . A= 2−n 2−m 2−k 2 ln |t|. y .6. t) is a solution of this equation. z . t) = − β 1 w(x.5. λ 2 2 . ν ≠ 0. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = aeλx + beµy + ceνz + s eβw . 2 4◦ . t) = F (ρ1 . are also solutions of the equation. β ρ1 = x + 2 ln |t|.4.3 with f (w) = s e βw . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 319 2◦ . z − ln C1 . Solution for n ≠ 2. ρ3 ) − ρ1 = x|t| n−2 . 3. λ µ ν β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ρ2 = y |t| m−2 . m ≠ 2. if s kβ < 0. Suppose w(x. C12−m y . t) = F (ρ1 .

t). Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = a ∂ w n ∂w + b ∂ w m ∂w ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. y . ya2 w¦x where C1 . µ ν β where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. 4. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). sinh µ + t cosh µ). see equation 4. ρ2 . v C2 t + C6 ). 2 ρ2 = y + ρ3 = z + 4◦ . β 2 ln |t|. For other exact solutions. y . ρ2 . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂ ∂y beµy ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z ceνz ∂w ∂z + u eβw . t) = F (ρ1 .320 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . y .1. A= 2−n 2−m 2 ln |t|. xa1 sinh λ + t cosh λ). w1 = C1 w ( v C 2 x + C3 .5 with f (w) = s e βw . t) is a solution of this equation. ρ3 = z + 2 ln |t|. v C 1 w2 = w(x cos β + y w3 = w(x cosh λ + a1 /a2 sin β .4 with f (w) = s e βw . µ ≠ 0. v C1 t + C2 + ln C1 . µ 2 ln |t|. ν ≠ 0. and β ≠ 0: w=− x2−n e−µy e−νz 1 1 n 1 ln + + − (t + C )2 + ln . t) is a solution of this equation. ρ3 ) − ρ1 = x|t| n−2 . Then the functions w1 = w C12−n x. Suppose w(x. .1. z − ln C1 . z . C6 . −1/2 −1/2 1/2 ta1 sinh λ. 2◦ .5. β 2 2 . z .3. β a(2 − n)2 bµ2 cν 2 4 β 2s β (2 − n) 2 ln |t|. Suppose w(x.6. y . Ibragimov (1994). are also solutions of the equation.6. β . . see equation 4. + c ∂ w k ∂w ∂z ∂z + swp 1◦ . For other exact solutions. z . ∂2w ∂t2 = a1 ∂2w ∂x2 + a2 ∂2w ∂y 2 + a3 ∂ ∂z wk ∂w ∂z . y cosh µ + ta2 sinh µ. y . w4 = w(x. and β ≠ 0: w=− 2s β x2−n y 2−m e−νz 1 1 ln + + − (t + C ) 2 2 2 β A a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cν 2 4 2 2 + − 1. and µ are arbitrary constants. Reference: N. ρ2 = y |t| m−2 . . Solution for n ≠ 2. Solution for n ≠ 2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ν 4◦ . z . m ≠ 2. v C 2 y + C 4 . H. λ. Then the functions k −2 C2 z + C5 . ν 3◦ . 3◦ . t) = F (ρ1 . z . z . . 1◦ . y − 2 2 2 ln C1 . z . 4. −x 1/2 a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . ρ3 ) − ρ1 = x|t| n−2 . ν ≠ 0. There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x.

“three-dimensional” solution. y. t) = R(η ). z . w(x. y . x = a1 x. t) = W (ζ . . y . ∂t2 ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 For this equation. y . t) = |z | k+1 A(a2 x2 + a1 y 2 − a1 a2 t2 )−1/2 + B . t) = w(x. where the function u = u(x. 2/k 2λ −1 −1 −kλ−1 “three-dimensional” solution. p = a2 x + a1 y − a1 a2 t where λ is an arbitrary constant.6 with n = m = 0. y = a2 y . t) = |t| G(ξ . . y . a 1 C1 2 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y . t) = |z | k+1 u(x. z . z . t). t) = H (r. ξ = C 1 x + C2 y y t 2 + a C2. Solutions in implicit form: 2λ 2 + a C 2 z + λt a 1 C1 2 2 y 1 −1/2 −1/2 C1 x + C2 y y t 2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 a3 wk − λ2 = Φ(w). y . . “two-dimensional” solution. y . t) = A|z | k+1 sin λ1 x + C1 ) sin λ2 y + C2 ) sin γt + C3 ). EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 321 2◦ . C7 . t) = |t|2λ V (ρ. y . and λ are arbitrary constants. z . t) w(x. C2 . 2 2 a1 C3 − a 2 C1 − 2 2 a 3 C2 a 3 C2 2 2 a2 C3 − a 1 C1 − 2 2 a 3 C2 a 3 C2 C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 x + C5 C1 x + C2 z + C 3 t + C 4 y + C5 2 1/k 2 1/k . t) is determined by the linear wave equation ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u = + . . t). η . η = yt . ζ = z |t| w(x. z . z . and λ2 are arbitrary constants. z . t) = U (ξ . “one-dimensional” solution. ξ = xt . y . z ). . λ1 . ρ = t−1 2 a2 x2 + a1 y 2 . w(x. z . 3◦ .3. t) = w(x. z . y . 4◦ . y . z . y . 6◦ . y . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). where Φ(w) is an arbitrary function. There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. C1 . z ). 7◦ . For other exact solutions. z . w(x. w(x. Solutions: w = zϕ(ξ ) + ψ (ξ ) 1 k+1 . z . z . z . y . y . z . z . t) = A|z | k+1 exp λ1 x + λ2 y y γt + B .4. 2 1/k 2 2 2 z + C5 − a 2 C2 C3 − a 1 C1 a3 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C 4 where A. ζ = z |t|−kλ−1 2 2 ζ = a 2 x + a1 y − a1 a2 t 2 2 η = (a 2 x + a 1 y − a 1 a 2 t )z “one-dimensional” solution. see equation 4. −2 2 2 2 2 2 r = a 2 x + a1 y ξ = x − a1 t 2 2 2 w(x. − 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 2 a 3 C3 . y . y . w(x. t) = 1 2 a 3 C3 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 2 γ= 1/k 2 a 1 λ2 1 + a 2 λ2 . C1 . w(x. B . ϕ(ξ ) and ψ (ξ ) are arbitrary functions. y. t) = w(x. 1 1 1 1 γ= 2 a 1 λ2 1 + a 2 λ2 . 5◦ . t) = |z | k+1 Ax2 + By 2 + (a1 A + a2 B )t2 + C1 xy + C2 xt + C3 yt + C4 x + C5 y + C 6 t + C 7 . . t) = |z | Q(p). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .5. z . w(x. “three-dimensional” solution. y . t) = |z |2/k F (x. “two-dimensional” solution. ζ ). y . ζ ). “three-dimensional” solution.5. “Three-dimensional” solution (generalizes the first four solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. Solutions: w(x. z . w(x.

y . z). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). y . “Three-dimensional” solutions: w = v (y . 1/k . Solutions: w(x. . € C2 t + C6 ). where the function v (y . t . z ) are determined by the differential equations ∂2R ∂2R = a1 2 + ARk+1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC = AQ. y . t) = R(x. t) is a solution of this equation. Multiplicative separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 3 ◦ ): w(x. y . y . and λ are arbitrary constants. . ◦ 2 (t + C 5 ) 2 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 z + C 4 ) 2 − a 1 C 1 2 2 (a2 C2 + a3 C3 )(t + C5 )2 2 C3 (x + C 5 ) 2 − a 1 (C 1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 2 + a C 2 )(x + C )2 (a 2 C 1 3 2 5 1/k 2 . √ ζ = x € t a1 . ∂ y2 ∂ z 2 which is implicitly independent of the cyclic variable ζ (the constants of integration that appear in the solution are arbitrary functions of ζ ). ζ ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. z . y cos β + z 1/2 a2 /a3 sin β . 1 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . Ibragimov (1994). Then the functions k k −2 C2 y + C 4 . t)Q(y . 4◦ . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂Q ∂ ∂Q ∂ Qk + a3 Qk a2 ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z and A is an arbitrary constant. z . z = a3 −1/2 z. t) = w(x. t) and Q = Q(y . € C 1 C2 z + C5 . z . z . xa1 ¦‚ sinh λ + t cosh λ . . t) = . t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) u k+1 (y . . β . t) = w(x. z ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u + = 0. H. z ).322 2. C6 . w1 = C1 w ( € C 2 x + C3 . Reference: N. y . −1/2 w3 = w x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ. z . y . z . where the functions R = R(x. . Suppose w(x. . y = a2 −1/2 y. . y . where C1 . 3◦ . ζ ) 1 k+1 . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂2w ∂ ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂2w = a + a2 wk + a3 wk . 1/k 2 2 (C 3 − a 1 C1 )(y + C5 )2 2 (y + C ) 2 a 2 (C 1 x + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + a 3 C 2 5 2 2 (C 3 − a 1 C1 )(z + C5 )2 2 (z + C ) 2 a 3 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + a 2 C 2 5 . . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t) = w(x. 1/k . where C1 . Solution: 1 √ √ w(x. z . € C 1 w2 = w x. z . ∂ y2 ∂ z 2 For this linear equation. −y a3 /a2 sin β + z cos β . where ϕ(ρ1 ) and ψ (ρ2 ) are arbitrary functions and the function u(y. z . 5◦ . z = a3 −1/2 z. z . y = a2 −1/2 y. C5 are arbitrary constants. .

q ). ƒ C 1 w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ. y . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x.5. ρ). −1 η = (a3 y + a2 z )(x − a1 t ) where λ is an arbitrary constant. There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) = W (p. ξ = xt−1 . z . where λ is an arbitrary constant. q = zy −1 . 2◦ . y . Suppose w(x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). . For other exact solutions. y . Then the functions m k −2 C2 y + C 4 . z . ∂z ∂z 1◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: 1 1 √ √ w(x.6 with n = 0 and m = k . ζ ). z . t) = t2λ F (ξ . t).3. η = yt−mλ−1 . ρ = t−kλ−1 r = a 3 y + a2 z . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 323 6◦ . y . η . „¦… Reference: N. where ϕ(ρ1 ) and ψ (ρ2 ) are arbitrary functions and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y . z . ξ = x − a1 t q = xt 2 2 −1 w(x. 4◦ . see equation 4. y . ξ = xt−1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . y . ξ ). z . y . z . η . ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a + a2 wm 1 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y + a3 ∂ ∂w wk . y . t) = Θ(η ). q ). z . s .5. s = zy −k/m . y . 8◦ . ƒ C2 t + C6 ). w(x. r = x 2 − a 1 t2 . z . ζ = zt−kλ−1 . y . “one-dimensional” solution. z . y . ζ = zt−kλ−1 . z . where C1 . z ). z . w(x. . 5◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. t) = t2λ F (ξ . r = x 2 − a 1 t2 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 −2 r = a 3 y 2 + a2 z 2 . y . z . s ). see equation 4. xa1 1/2 −1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). z . t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) |y + C1 | m+1 |z + C2 | k+1 . t) = y 2/m V (r. w(x. y . y . t) = y 2/m H (x. C6 and λ are arbitrary constants. H. w(x. w(x. t) = U (ξ . ƒ C 1 C2 z + C5 . . . z . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) = V (r. 3. z . For other exact solutions. s = zy −k/m .3. η = yt−kλ−1 . t) = G(r. “two-dimensional” solution. p = (x2 − a1 t2 )y −2 . ζ ). w1 = C1 w ( ƒ C 2 x + C3 . Ibragimov (1994). 3◦ . t) = H (ξ . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. y . w(x. a 3 y 2 + a2 z 2 2 2 “two-dimensional” solution. r. ξ = x 2 − a 1 t2 . p = (a3 y + a2 z )t .6 with n = 0. t) = G(x. where λ is an arbitrary constant.4. ξ = xt−1 . “two-dimensional” solution. t). z ).5. 7◦ . w(x. t) = U (p.

z .5. ξ = x|t|−kλ−1 . . z ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2Θ + + = 0. t). z . w(x. q = yz −1 . t) = |t|2λ F (ξ . H. z . “one-dimensional” solution. y . z . t). where C1 . z . y . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. w1 = C1 w ( † C1 w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . Then the functions k k k −2 C2 x + C3 . −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . z . y . y. Suppose w(x. t) = (C1 t + C2 ) a3 C3 x2 + a3 C4 y 2 − (a1 C3 + a2 C4 )z 2 + C5 w(x. z . 6◦ . 5◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. t) = U (r. y . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂2w = a1 wk + a2 wk + a3 wk . t) = w(x. t) = (C1 t + C2 ) w(x. z . y . Ibragimov (1994). w(x. ζ ). 1/k 1 2 + a C2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 3 3 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 2 1/k 2 C3 (x + C 5 ) 2 2 + a C 2 )(x + C )2 a 1 (C 1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 2 C 1 3 2 5 2 C3 (y + C 5 ) 2 2 + a C 2 )(y + C )2 a 2 (C 1 x + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 1 C 1 3 2 5 2 C3 (z + C 5 ) 2 2 + a C 2 )(z + C )2 a 3 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 1 C 1 2 2 5 . y . y . y . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). 1/k . t) = |z |2/k G(p.3. . † C 1 C2 z + C5 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = H (ρ. t) = C3 a 2 a 3 x2 + a 1 a 3 y 2 + a 1 a 2 z 2 + C4 1 k+1 1 k+1 . η . z . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. y . z . . 4◦ . y . η = y |t|−kλ−1 . . ρ = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 . y = a2 −1/2 y. For other exact solutions. z . † C2 t + C6 ). r = a 2 a 3 x2 + a 1 a 3 y 2 + a 1 a 2 z 2 χ = (a 2 a 3 x + a 1 a 3 y + a 1 a 2 z )t 2 2 2 −2 p = xz −1 . 2◦ . see equation 4. z . ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ∂z2 For this linear equation.324 4. . t) = V (χ). † C 1 C2 y + C 4 . t) = w(x. t) = (C1 t + C2 ) Θ(x. t . ζ = z |t|−kλ−1 . y . 3◦ .6 with n = m = k . z . . “two-dimensional” solution. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . C6 and β are arbitrary constants. where the function Θ = Θ(x. where λ is an arbitrary constant. Reference: N. . . . Solutions: w(x. y. y . t) = w(x. y . z . 1/k . w(x. q . x = a1 −1/2 x. t). . t) is a solution of this equation. C5 are arbitrary constants. z ) 1 k+1 . ‡¦ˆ where C1 . z = a3 −1/2 z. z . see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).

t). H. w1 = C1 w ( ‰ C1 ¦‘ where C1 . .5. ‰ C 1 C2 z + C5 . t) is a solution of this equation. Reference: N. ∂2w ∂t2 = a1 ∂ wn ∂w + a2 ∂ wm ∂w + a3 ∂ . b1 . ξ = xt−nλ−1 .5. z . ∂w w(x. y . Suppose w(x. z . y . Reference: N. .4. see equation 4. t). . z . Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 a1 w n a2 w m a3 w k 2 2 n 2 m 2 k = a 1 C1 w + a 2 C2 w + a 3 C3 w . . y . where λ is an arbitrary constant. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 325 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂2w = a1 wn + a2 wn + a3 wk . s = zt−1 “two-dimensional” solution. w(x.3. Ibragimov (1994). ‰ C 1 C2 z + C5 . q = yz −n/k . . r = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). ζ ). and h(w) = a3 wk . C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 x + C5 C1 x + C2 z + C 3 t + C 4 y + C5 2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C 4 z + C5 where C1 . . where C1 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). . ◦ 1 1 1 2 . ζ = zt−kλ−1 .6 with m = n. p = xz −n/k . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 . t) = G(r. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 4. b3 . n n k −2 C2 x + C3 . . y . b2 . t .6 with f (w) = a1 wn . η . z . η = yt−nλ−1 . q . 2 2 m 2 k 2 + a 2 C1 w + a 3 C2 w = C3 . t) = (C1 t + C2 )|x + C3 | n+1 |y + C4 | m+1 |z + C5 | k+1 . y . t) = z 2/k H (p. s ). z . “one-dimensional” solution. C5 are arbitrary constants. 2 n 2 k 2 + a 1 C1 w + a 3 C2 w = C3 . 3◦ . ◦ 2 . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. C2 . wk 1◦ . C6 and β are arbitrary constants. ‰ C 1 C2 y + C 4 . 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: a 2 b2 a 3 b2 a 1 b2 2 3 1 wn+1 + wm+1 + wk+1 − λ2 w = C1 (b1 x + b2 y + b3 z + λt) + C2 . w1 = C1 w ( ‰ C1 ¦‘ w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . χ = (a2 x2 + a1 y 2 )t2n/k−2 z −2n/k 4 . ◦ 3◦ . z . t) is a solution of the equation in question. 4◦ . . Then the functions n m k −2 C2 x + C3 . t) = t−2/k z 2/k V (χ). ‰ C2 t + C6 ). 6. z . −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . Ibragimov (1994). t) = t2λ F (ξ . . 2 n 2 m 2 + a 1 C1 w + a 2 C2 w = C3 .6. H. and λ are arbitrary constants. w(x. y . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. w(x. y . Then the functions 5. Suppose w(x. z . . There are solutions of the following forms: r = (a2 x2 + a1 y 2 )t−2 .2. z . ‰ C2 t + C6 ). For other exact solutions. ‰ C 1 C2 y + C 4 . z . C6 are arbitrary constants. y . t) = U (r. g (w) = a2 wm . n+1 m+1 k+1 where C1 . .

y . ζ = zt−kλ−1 . y . t) = t 1−p U (ξ . p−n−1 p−m−1 p−k−1 p−1 2 x + C2 . m) 7 . ρ = x−m/n yt(m−n)/n . η ). b2 . ρ). There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution (b1 . a3. as shown in Item 6◦ .4. a2 . y . η = c 1 t + c2 y + c 3 z . y . The solution specified in Item 7◦ can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters. t). 2 ξ = xt p−n−1 1−p . C5 are arbitrary constants. . ’ C1 t + C5 ). 2◦ . ζ = b1 t + b2 x. y . a1 . t) = U (ζ . t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. ζ ). s = zx−k/n . ’ C1 z + C4 . Formula (1) and equation (2) can be used to obtain two other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. t) = H (p. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . z . ζ ). η . c2 .4. ρ = c 1 y + c2 z . z . t) = u(ξ .4. where the bn and cn are arbitrary constants. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. η = yt p−m−1 1−p . k ) ←− (y . p = b1 x + b2 y + b3 z + b4 t. y . ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ρ ∂ρ which can be reduced to a linear equation. n) (z . ξ = b 1 x + b2 y + b 3 z . w1 = C1 w ( ’ C1 where C1 . χ = x−k/n zt(k−n)/n .4. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and c3 are arbitrary constants): w(x. q ). t) = v (x. Remark. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = t−2/n x2/n U (ρ. y .326 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 5◦ . s . z . η . w(x. z . z . η = yt−mλ−1 . r = yx−m/n . 1 u + a 2 b2 u + a 3 b3 u ) ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. t) = x2/n G(r. ∂2w ∂t2 = a1 ∂ wn ∂w + a2 ∂ wm ∂w + a3 ∂ wk ∂w + bwp . where the function u = u(ξ . z . y . “Two-dimensional” solution (c1 . (1) where the function v = v (x. 6◦ . 9◦ . t) = t2λ F (ξ . Φ(U ) = a1 b2 Ψ (U ) = a 2 c 2 + a 3 c2 2 U − b1 .8: ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ n 2 m k Φ( U ) + Ψ (U ) = 0. . z . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. ξ = xt−nλ−1 . ’ C 1 y + C3 . .4. 8◦ . q = c1 x + c2 y + c3 z + c4 t. and b3 are arbitrary constants): w(x. t). z . “Two-dimensional” solution (the bn and cn are arbitrary constants): ◦ w(x. Then the functions 7.6: ∂ ∂2u n 2 m 2 k ∂u = (a 1 b 2 .4. Suppose w(x. z . ρ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. where the function U = U (ζ . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). y . w(x. χ). 1U 2U .8: ∂ ∂v ∂ m 2 k 2 ∂v vn + a 2 c2 = 0. . (2) a1 2 v + a 3 c3 v − c1 ∂x ∂x ∂η ∂η which can be reduced to a linear equation. where λ is an arbitrary constant. η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. ζ = zt p−k−1 1−p .

−x 1/2 1/2 ta2 a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . 2◦ . Solutions: w(x. sinh λ + t cosh λ . λ. . z . t . t) is a solution of this equation. w(x. . y . C6 . t) = ln w(x. . w(x. ξ = C 1 x + C2 y “ t 2 + a C 2. y = a2 −1/2 y. y . Then the functions w1 = w(“ C1 x + C3 . H. z . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 327 4. 1 2 2 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z . 4◦ . where the function u = u(x.4. “Three-dimensional” solution (generalizes the first four solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. z . t) = C1 (a2 x2 + a1 y 2 − a1 a2 t2 )−1/2 + C2 + ln |z |. z . z . z . − 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 . z . where the Cn are arbitrary constants. t) = ln w(x. . Ibragimov (1994).5. “ C1 t + C6 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. t) = ln 1 2 a 3 C3 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 2 γ= 2 a 1 λ2 1 + a 2 λ2 . z . y . ∂t2 ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 For this equation. z . β . y. 2 . 2 a 3 C3 2 2 2 a1 C3 − a 2 C1 − 2 2 a 3 C2 a 3 C2 2 2 a2 C3 − a 1 C1 − 2 2 a 3 C2 a 3 C2 2 2 2 C3 − a 1 C1 − a 2 C2 a3 C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 x + C5 C1 x + C2 z + C 3 t + C 4 y + C5 z + C5 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C 4 . t) = u(x. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). w(x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). y . 2 . z . “ C1 y + C4 . 3◦ . y cosh µ + a1 /a2 sin β . t) = C1 x2 + C2 y 2 + (a1 C1 + a2 C2 )t2 + C3 xy + C4 xt + C5 yt + C6 x + C7 y + C8 t + C9 + ln |z |. w2 = w x cos β + y w4 = w x. Reference: N. xa1 sinh µ. w(x. γ= 2 a 1 λ2 1 + a 2 λ2 . y . and µ are arbitrary constants. “ C1 C2 z + C5 . Solutions: w = ln |zϕ(ξ ) + ψ (ξ )|.5. t) = C1 exp λ1 x + λ2 y “ γt + C2 + ln |z |. a 1 C1 2 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y . t) = C1 sin λ1 x + C2 ) sin λ2 y + C3 ) sin γt + C4 ) + ln |z |. t) + ln |z |.4. sinh µ + t cosh µ . −1/2 ya2 ”¦• where C1 . Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = a ∂ eλ1 w ∂w + b ∂ eλ2 w ∂w + c ∂ eλ3 w ∂w + s eβw ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1. and ϕ(ξ ) and ψ (ξ ) are arbitrary functions. t) = ln w(x. z . y . −1/2 w3 = w x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ. y . Suppose w(x. y . x = a1 −1/2 x. y . y. y . t) is determined by the linear wave equation ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u = + . ∂2w ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a + a + a3 ew . z .

1: 2 ∂2U 2 2 ∂ U = (a 1 C 1 + a 2 C2 ) 2 + 2a3 eU . the transformation η = η |σ |. w(x. 2 ξ1 = xt . t) is determined by a solvable equation of the form 3. 1 ∂η 2 ∂x2 (2) 2 2 For σ = C1 − a 2 C2 > 0. x = x a1 leads to a solvable equation of the form 5. z . t) = Q(ρ. For other exact solutions. y .2. t) = F (x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. w(x. y . a2 ). w(x. ∂ x2 ∂ η 2 Remark. z . y . y . w(x. 7◦ . w(x. η3 ) + 2 ln |z |. t) = G(ξ1 . For √ obtains a √ 2 2 σ = C1 − a 2 C2 < 0. z ). ζ2 . Relations (1) and equation (2) can be used to obtain another “two-dimensional” solution by means of the following renaming: (x. 2 ∂t ∂ξ 6◦ . η2 = x + k2 ln |z |. r = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 ρ = x − a1 t 2 2 2 2 2 −1 “two-dimensional” solution. C2 . (1) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function v = v (η . ξ2 . t) = P (r. t) = U (ξ . t) = v (x. y . y . y .1. z . “one-dimensional” solution. y . ξ2 = yt−1 . t) + 2 ln |z |. ξ3 = z |t|k−1 . z . ρ = x 2 − a 1 t2 . ξ2 ) + 2 ln |z/t|. z . y .1. w(x. z . y . z . t) = S (θ) + 2 ln |z |. t) + 2 ln |z |. z . y . and C1 . r = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 . z . z . on dividing by σ .2. z . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) + 2 ln |z |. t) = V (ρ. Solutions in implicit form: 2λ 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 z + λt – – C1 x + C2 y t 2 2 a 1 C1 + a 2 C2 a3 ew − λ2 = Φ(w). y . ζ2 = xez .1. and h(w) = a3 ew . a1 ) (y . ζ1 = tez . z . η2 . 9◦ . ζ3 = yez . t) = U (r. y . y . 2 θ = a 2 x + a1 y − a1 a2 t −1 2 2 w(x. z . t) = R(ξ1 . where k . ξ2 = yt 2 2 −2 θ = a 2 x + a1 y − a1 a2 t χ = (a 2 x + a 1 y − a 1 a 2 t )z 10◦ +. k2 .1. η = C 1 y + C 2 t. η3 = y + k3 ln |z |. t) = T (χ). w(x. “two-dimensional” solution.1: ∂2v ∂2v + = −2a3 ev . η ) + 2 ln |z |. 8◦ . ξ = C 1 x + C2 y . t) = H (η1 . t) is determined by the equation 2 2 (C 1 − a 2 C2 ) ∂2v ∂2v = a + 2a3 ev . “one-dimensional” solution.6. “two-dimensional” solution. y ) + 2 ln |z |. ξ1 = xt−1 . y .2. where Φ(w) is an arbitrary function. z . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U = U (ξ . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. see equation 4. t) = W (θ. w(x. ζ3 ) + 2z . η1 = t + k1 ln |z |. There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. t) = E (ζ1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . one solvable equation of the form 3. t). and k3 are arbitrary constants. z . g (w) = a2 . k1 .6 with f (w) = a 1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. ξ3 ) − 2k ln |t|. z ). y . “two-dimensional” solution.328 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 5◦ . w(x.2.

+ t cosh λ . H. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) + ln C1 exp(C2 a2 z ) sin(C2 a3 y + C3 ) + C4 . z ). y . 3◦ . ∂ y2 ∂ z 2 which is implicitly independent of the cyclic variable ζ (the constants of integration that appear in the solution will be arbitrary functions of ζ ). t) is a solution of this equation. t) = ln 2 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 z + C 4 ) 2 − a 1 C 1 (t + C 5 ) 2 . t) = ln w(x. Suppose w(x. t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) + ln C1 exp(C2 a3 y ) sin(C2 a2 z + C3 ) + C4 . Additive separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 3 ◦ ): w(x. z . z . z . 2 + a C 2 )(x + C )2 (a 2 C 1 3 2 5 2 2 (C 3 − a 1 C1 )(y + C5 )2 . z . . and λ are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC −1/2 −1/2 −1/2 x = a1 x. z . z . z . y . z . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). a3 /a2 sin β + z cos β . z . t) = ln w(x. Ibragimov (1994). ζ ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. t) = R(x. 2 (y + C ) 2 a 2 (C 1 x + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + a 3 C 2 5 2 2 (C 3 − a 1 C1 )(z + C5 )2 . z . 2 (z + C ) 2 a 3 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + a 2 C 2 5 where ϕ(ρ1 ) and ψ (ρ2 ) are arbitrary functions and C1 . y = a2 y. y . t) = ln w(x. where ϕ(ρ1 ) and ψ (ρ2 ) are arbitrary functions and the function u(y. z . y = a2 −1/2 y. β . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 329 ∂2w ∂ ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂2w = a + a2 ew + a3 ew . . y . z = a3 −1/2 z. — C1 C2 y + C4 .5. y . 2◦ .4. y . z ). . “Three-dimensional” solutions: w = ln v (y . . Then the functions 2. t) + ln Q(y. . z = a3 z. √ √ √ √ w(x. — C1 t + C6 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. z ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u + = 0. w2 = w x. y . . C5 are arbitrary constants. where the function v (y . Reference: N. xa1 sinh λ ˜¦™ where C1 . . y cos β + z w3 = w x cosh λ + a2 /a3 sin β . y . 5◦ . −y sinh λ. t . y = a2 −1/2 y. — C1 C2 z + C5 . w(x. z . z = a3 −1/2 z. Solution (generalizes the first three solutions of Item 2◦ ): √ √ w(x. (1) ∂ y2 ∂ z 2 For this linear equation. √ √ √ √ w(x. 1/2 ta1 −1/2 z . . 2 + a C 2 )(t + C )2 (a 2 C 2 3 3 5 2 C3 (x + C 5 ) 2 − a 1 (C 1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 . Solutions: √ √ w(x. w1 = w(— C1 x + C3 . . y . ζ ) . C6 . 4◦ . 1 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . √ ζ = x — t a1 . t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) + ln(a3 C1 y 2 + C2 yz − a2 C1 z 2 + C3 y + C4 z + C5 ). y . t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) + ln u(y. y .

(2) ∂t2 ∂ x2 ∂ 2 Q ∂ 2Q + = A. The general solution of equation (2) is given in 3. t) = G(x. y . 3◦ .330 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES where the functions R = R(x. Suppose w(x. q ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1. y . w(x. “one-dimensional” solution. t) = W (η ). g (w) = a2 ew . see equation 4. t) = U (p. t). “two-dimensional” solution. 2 χ1 = x/t. z . where β is an arbitrary constant. 4◦ . r = a 3 y 2 + a2 z 2 . w(x. y . t) = U (χ1 . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. ρ). g (w) = a2 ew . t) = ϕ(x + t a1 ) + ψ (x − t a1 ) + ln |y + C1 | + ln |z + C2 |. see equation 4.6. z . ρ2 ) + 2 ln t w(x. t) = V (p. z . “two-dimensional” solution. r = x 2 − a 1 t2 . w(x. z . where C1 .1. C6 and λ are arbitrary constants. 2 2 p = (a 3 y + a 2 z )t . η . z .6. t) = F (ξ . and h(w) = a3 ew .6 with f (w) = a 1 . . z . y . w(x. z . . r = a 3 y 2 + a2 z 2 . . t) = F (ρ1 . q = zy −1 2 2 −k ξ = xt−1 . y . ζ = z |t|λ−1 . 6◦ . y . y . t) = H (ρ. 2 2 ρ = x 2 − a 1 t2 χ2 = z/y q = xt 2 −1 −1 −2 “two-dimensional” solution. ξ = xt−1 .2. “two-dimensional” solution. y . For other exact solutions. z ). η . t) and Q = Q(y. z . z . y . y 2 ln . For other exact solutions. (3) ∂ y2 ∂z2 and A is an arbitrary constant. 7◦ . t) = G(r. w(x. “two-dimensional” solution. z . . y . χ2 ) + 2 ln |y/t|. t) = W (χ) − k−1 z 5◦ . z . xa1 e¦f 1/2 −1/2 sinh λ + t cosh λ). y . d C 1 C2 ∂2w = a1 ∂2w + a2 + a3 ∂w w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ. z ). z . p = (x2 − a1 t2 )y −2 . ζ ) − 2λ ln |t|. d C1 t + C6 ) − ln C2 . y . η = (a3 y + a2 z )(x − a1 t ) ∂ ∂w ∂ 8 . ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . η = y |t|β −1 . w(x.2. w1 = w ( d C 1 x + C3 . t) is a solution of this equation. ◦ 2 . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. y . z . ζ = z |t|kβ −1.2. Then the functions 3. s ) + 2 ln |y |. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Ibragimov (1994). the Helmholtz equation (3) can be reduced to the Laplace equation (1). By the 2 substitution Q = 1 2 Ay + u. y .6 with f (w) = a 1 . There are solutions of the following forms: y . k where ϕ(ρ1 ) and ψ (ρ2 ) are arbitrary functions and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ρ = x 2 − a 1 t2 . z ) are determined by the differential equations ∂2R ∂2R = + AeR . where λ is an arbitrary constant. w(x. z . q ). z . z . ◦ w(x. r. and h(w) = a3 ekw . s = z |y | “two-dimensional” solution. t) = F (ξ . r = x − a1 t . y . . η = y |t|λ−1 . y . y . y . d C 1 C2 y + C 4 . t) = V (r. Reference: N. H. ρ2 = |t|k−1 |y |−k z w(x. ζ ) − 2β ln |t|. χ = |x2 − a1 t2 |k−1 |y |−2k z 2 “one-dimensional” solution. Additive separable solution: √ √ 1 w(x. ρ1 = xt−1 . ∂t2 ∂x2 ew ekw k 2 z + C5 . t) = E (r.

t) = ln w(x. z . z ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2Θ + + = 0. y . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 331 4. ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a1 ew 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + a2 ∂ ∂w ew ∂y ∂y + a3 ∂ ∂w ew . t). w(x. t) = V (χ). z . . y . z . w(x. q = y/z . p = x/z . w(x. H. z . C6 and β are arbitrary constants. ξ = x|t|β −1 . z . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t) = ln w(x. z . y . Suppose w(x. g C1 t + C6 ) − ln C2 w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . . y . z . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. η = y |t|β −1. C5 are arbitrary constants. t) = G(ρ. t) is a solution of the equation in question. r = a 2 a 3 x2 + a 1 a 3 y 2 + a 1 a 2 z 2 χ = (a 2 a 3 x + a 1 a 3 y + a 1 a 2 z )t 2 2 2 −2 ρ = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 . y. y . z . t) + 2 ln |z |. t) = ln 1 2 + a C2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 3 3 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 2 . y . Ibragimov (1994). z . x = a1 −1/2 −1/2 −1/2 x. h¦i where C1 . 2 + a C 2 )(y + C )2 a 2 (C 1 x + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 1 C 1 3 2 5 2 C3 (z + C 5 ) 2 . where the function Θ = Θ(x.6 with λ1 = λ2 = λ3 = 1. . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. y = a2 y. z . where β is an arbitrary constant. . t) = F (ξ . y . y .2. ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 4. ζ = z |t|β −1. t) = C1 t + C2 + ln C3 (a2 a3 x2 + a1 a3 y 2 + a1 a2 z 2 )−1/2 + C4 . ζ ) − 2β ln |t|. . q . 6◦ . z . see equation 4. Additive separable solution: w(x. Then the functions 2 . t) = C1 t + C2 + ln a3 C3 x2 + a3 C4 y 2 − (a1 C3 + a2 C4 )z 2 + C5 . y . −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . t) = C1 t + C2 + ln Θ(x. 4◦ . y . t) = ln w(x.6. ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ∂z2 For this linear equation. y .5. t). t . y . t) = U (r. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).4. “two-dimensional” solution. . Solutions: w(x. z . g C1 C2 y + C4 . ◦ 2 . “one-dimensional” solution. . t) = H (p. y . z . η . w1 = w(g C1 C2 x + C3 . z ). g C1 C2 z + C5 .4. 2 C3 (x + C 5 ) 2 . . 3◦ . 2 + a C 2 )(z + C )2 a 3 (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 1 C 1 2 2 5 where C1 . z . Reference: N. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w(x. z . z = a3 z.5.4 with f (w) = ew . 5◦ . w(x. 1◦ . y . 2 + a C 2 )(x + C )2 a 1 (C 1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 ) 2 + (a 2 C 1 3 2 5 2 C3 (y + C 5 ) 2 . For other exact solutions.

3◦ . k1 . 1◦ . z . z . Suppose w(x. ∂z ∂z 1◦ . ρ2 = |t| w = U (χ) + ln (a2 x + a1 y )t 2 |x| z . Suppose w(x. y .5.4. . . η . Then the functions λ1 λ2 λ3 2 x + C3 . χ = (a 2 x + a 1 y )| z | | t| 2/k−2 “one-dimensional” solution. j C 1 C2 w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . ∂ x2 ∂ y2 For this linear equation.6 with λ1 = λ2 = 1 and λ3 = k . t) is a solution of this equation. r = a 2 x + a1 y 2 2 −2 2 2 k−1 x = a1 −1/2 x. . y . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). y = a2 −1/2 y. see equation 4. y . j C 1 C2 z + C5 . 4◦ . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).332 5. “three-dimensional” solution. 2 −2/k −k . w = H (ρ1 . z . Reference: N. w1 = w ( j C 1 C2 k¦l where C1 . where β is an arbitrary constant. and β are arbitrary constants. H. ∂2w ∂t2 = a1 ∂ ∂x eλ1 w ∂w ∂x + a2 ∂ ∂y eλ2 w ∂w ∂y + a3 ∂ ∂z eλ3 w ∂w ∂z . . j C 1 C2 y + C 4 . . k3 . There are solutions of the following forms: w = F (ξ . t). are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). C6 are arbitrary constants. For other exact solutions. ρ1 = y/x. 2◦ . −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . λ1 λ2 λ3 where C1 . t . y). k2 . Ibragimov (1994). y . z . η = y |t|β −1. z . Additive separable solution: w(x. ◦ 2 . j C 1 C2 y + C 4 . Reference: N. . j C1 t + C6 ) − ln C2 . HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a1 ew 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + a2 ∂ ∂w ew ∂y ∂y + a3 ∂ ∂w ekw . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C6 and β are arbitrary constants. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 2 a3 k3 a2 k2 a1 k1 e λ1 w + e λ2 w + eλ3 w − β 2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + k3 z + βt) + C2 . “two-dimensional” solution. y) is determined by the Laplace equation “three-dimensional” solution. . w1 = w ( j C 1 C2 x + C3 . Ibragimov (1994). ζ = z |t|kβ −1 w = G(r. ξ = x|t|β −1 . ρ2 ) + 2 ln |x/t|. ζ ) − 2β ln |t|. λ1 λ2 λ3 3◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. . C2 . where the function Θ = Θ(x. k¦l where C1 . t) = C1 t + C2 + 1 ln |z + C3 | + ln Θ(x. z . t) = C1 t + C2 + 1 1 1 ln |x + C3 | + ln |y + C4 | + ln |z + C5 |. Then the functions k 2 z + C5 . 6. Additive separable solution: w(x. k ∂ 2 Θ ∂ 2Θ + = 0. j C1 t + C6 ) − ln C2 . H.

t) = V (z1 . ρ). z . ψ (v ) = a2 b2 + a 3 b2 − b2 (2) a1 1e 2e 3.4. z . y . “Two-dimensional” solution (k1 .4. Φ(U ) = a1 b2 − b2 Ψ (U ) = a 2 c 2 + a 3 c2 . z .8: ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ λ1 U λ2 U λ3 U Φ( U ) + Ψ (U ) = 0. ζ = b1 t + b2 x. 2e 1. (1) where the function v = v (x. t) = F (ξ . t) = u(ξ . . ϕ (u ) = a 1 k 1 e + a2 k2 e + a3 k3 e . ζ ) − 2β ln |t|. “Two-dimensional” solution (bn and cn are arbitrary constants): w(x. t).4. . ρ2 = |t|λ3 /λ1 −1 |x|−λ3 /λ1 z . ζ = z |t|βλ3 −1 . There are more complicated “two-dimensional” solutions of the form w(x. a3 . where the function U = U (ζ . The solution specified in Item 7◦ can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters as shown in Item 6◦ . y . ρ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. z . y . a1 .6: ∂ ∂u ∂2u 2 λ1 w 2 λ2 w 2 λ3 w = ϕ (u ) . t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. y . η = b1 y + b2 z + b3 t. Relations (1) and equation (2) can be used to obtain two other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. y . z2 ). b2 .5. ∂x ∂x ∂η ∂η which can be reduced to a linear equation. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC η = y |t|βλ2 −1 . t) = U (ζ . y . ◦ 8◦ . ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. “Two-dimensional” solution (b1 . and k3 are arbitrary constants): w(x.4. There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form x 2 ln . 2 5◦ . η ). .4. λ1 ) (z . t) = W (ρ1 . z1 = b1 x + b2 y + b3 z + b4 t.8: ∂v ∂ ∂v ∂ λ2 v λ3 v e λ1 v + ψ (v ) = 0. η . a2 . w(x. λ2 ) 7 . ξ = k1 x + k2 y + k3 z . . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY PARAMETERS 333 4◦ . 2 λ1 w 2 λ2 w 2 + a 1 C1 e + a 2 C2 e = C3 . ξ = x|t|βλ1 −1 . z2 = c1 x + c2 y + c3 z + c4 t. . where the function u = u(ξ . z . ◦ 9 . 1e 2e ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ρ ∂ρ which can be reduced to a linear equation. k2 . ρ2 ) + λ1 t 10◦ +. z . t) = v (x. 2 2 λ2 w 2 λ3 w 2 + a 2 C1 e + a 3 C2 e = C3 . Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 a 1 e λ1 w a 2 e λ2 w a 3 e λ3 w 2 2 λ1 w 2 λ2 w 2 λ3 w = a 1 C1 e + a 2 C2 e + a 3 C3 e . C5 are arbitrary constants. 2 λ1 w 2 λ3 w 2 + a 1 C1 e + a 3 C2 e = C3 . Remark. and b3 are arbitrary constants): w(x. ρ = c1 y + c2 z . There is a “three-dimensional” solution of the form w(x.4.4. where β is an arbitrary constant. η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. ρ1 = |t|λ2 /λ1 −1 |x|−λ2 /λ1 y . 6◦ . C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 x + C5 C1 x + C2 z + C 3 t + C 4 y + C5 2 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C 4 z + C5 where C1 . λ3 ) ←− (y .

. z . 2◦ . η2 . z . and the function w(ρ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wρρ + 3ρ−1 wρ + A−1 f (w) = 0. Then the functions β −λ 1 β −λ 2 β −λ 3 β x + C2 . m C 1 y + C3 . η . t) = w(ρ). ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The equation admits translations in any of the variables x. ρ 2 = A (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 + (z + C 3 ) 2 − (t + C 4 ) 2 . y . x2 + y 2 + z 2 .334 7. y . y . β w(x. ξ=y+ x . C η = (C 2 − 1)x2 − 2Cxy + C 2 z 2 . r= sin θ ∂θ ∂θ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C5 are arbitrary constants. y . η . ζ = z |t| β . the Laplace operator on the right-hand side of the equation is expressed in cylindrical and spherical coordinates as ∂w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w 1 ∂ + + = r ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 r ∂r ∂r 1 ∂ ∂w ∂ 2w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w + + = 2 r2 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z r ∂r ∂r 4◦ . C2 . 1 ∂ ∂w sin θ . m C1 t + C5 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. t) = V (η1 . z . “Three-dimensional” solution: w = u(ξ . w1 = w ( m C 1 where C1 . ξ = x|t| β . 1◦ . t) = U (ξ . w(x. For the case of axisymmetric solutions. m C1 z + C4 . η3 ). Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Arbitrary Functions 4. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). t). Suppose w(x. ∂z 2 + r2 r= x2 + y 2 . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: C1 + 2 2 − k2 − k2 λ2 − k 1 2 3 −1/2 ∂2w = ∂2w + ∂2w + ∂2w f (w) dw dw = k1 x + k2 y + k3 z + λt + C2 . k3 . 3). 2. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a1 eλ1 w 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + a2 ∂ ∂w eλ2 w ∂y ∂y + a3 ∂ ∂w eλ3 w ∂z ∂z + beβw . + ∂ 2w . and λ are arbitrary constants. where C1 . . t) is a solution of this equation. + f (w). η = y |t| β .6. k1 . . y . .6. 2◦ . Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ f (y ) ∂w + ∂ f (z ) ∂w + g (w ) ∂t2 ∂x 1 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y ∂z 3 ∂z 1. and t. ηn = an x + bn y + cn z + dn t (n = 1. z . where the arbitrary constant A and the expression in square brackets must have like signs. 3◦ . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: λ 1 −β λ 2 −β λ 3 −β 2 ln |t|. 1◦ .1. Solution: w(x. ζ ) − 4. k2 .

ξ . “Three-dimensional” solution: w = v (z . 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂η x . The solutions specified in Items 4◦ and 5◦ can be used to obtain other “threedimensional” solutions by means of the cyclic permutations of the space variables. b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 w = W (ζ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . I. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where A. Polyanin and A. 2 b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . and k ≠ 2: w = w(r). EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 335 where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). ζ ). 2 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ Remark. and the function v = v (z . where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). C 5◦ . ζ ) is determined by the equation 1 ∂2v + 1+ 2 2 ∂z C ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v ∂v 2 2 − 4 ξ + 4 C ( ξ + ζ ) + 2(2C 2 − 1) + f (v ) = 0. and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation d2 w A dw + + Bf (w) = 0. t) is determined by the equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2 U 1 ∂U ∂2U 2 2 2 = ( A + B + C ) + + + f (U ). ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = axn + by m 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . B . dr2 r dr A= 2 2 2 + + . ξ2 = 4 η2 = n 4 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . t). ∂t2 ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 η ∂η 2. c. a(2 − n)2 4 ρ2 = 4 y 2−m z 2−k + . ζ 2 = n 4 The second and third solutions can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. D. η . m ≠ 2. 2 2 2 B a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k ) 4 where B and C are arbitrary constants (B and the expression in square brackets must have like signs). w = V (x. η . ρ). r2 = + ∂ ∂w cz k ∂z ∂z + f (w). Zhurov (1998). a. n) (z . η . b. 6◦ .4. x2−n y 2−m z 2−k 1 4 + + − (t + C ) 2 .6. Solution for n ≠ 2. t). ξ=y+ ζ = (C 2 − 1)x2 − 2Cxy − C 2 t2 . η= (Bx − Ay )2 + (Cy − Bz )2 + (Az − Cx)2 . “Three-dimensional” solution: w = U (ξ . k ) ←− (y . ξ . 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 z 2−k 1 y 2−m + − (t + C ) 2 . 2−n 2−m 2−k 2◦ . m) o¦p Reference: A. and the function u = u(ξ . ξ = Ax + By + Cz . η ). and C are arbitrary constants and the function U = U (ξ . t) is determined by the equation ∂2u = ∂t2 1+ 1 C2 ∂2u ∂2u ∂u ∂2u − 4ξ + 4C 2 (ξ 2 + η ) 2 + 2(2C 2 − 1) + f (u).

ν ) ←− (y . ∂2w ∂t2 = ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z ceνz ∂w ∂z + f (w). I. Solution for λ ≠ 0. aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 e−µy e−νz 1 + − (t + C ) 2 . η2 = q 4 bµ2 cν 2 4 e−λx 1 − (t + C ) 2 . Integrating yields its solution in implicit form: C2 − 2B where C2 and C3 are arbitrary constants. η1 =q 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cν 2 e−νz 1 y 2−m + − (t + C ) 2 . b. 1◦ . B a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cν 2 4 where B and C are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 A A= + . µ ≠ 0. t). r 2−n 2−m 2◦ . t). Polyanin and A. 4. B aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 4 where B and C1 are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + Bf (w) = 0. η ). HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂2w = aeλx 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂w beµy ∂y ∂y + ∂ ∂w ceνz ∂z ∂z + f (w). η1 ). ξ2 = 4 e−λx e−µy e−νz + + . 2◦ . r2 = x2−n y 2−m e−νz 1 4 + + − (t + C 1 ) 2 . λ) (z . D. a. c. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . ζ 2 = q 4 The second and third solutions can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). w = V (x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . µ) r¦s Reference: A. m ≠ 2. Solution for n ≠ 2. Zhurov (1998). b(2 − m)2 cν 2 4 2 w = V1 (x. and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). ξ2 = 4 y 2−m e−νz x2−n + + .336 3. ρ). bµ2 cν 2 −1/2 f (w) dw dw = C3 q r. aλ2 4 ρ2 = 4 e−µy e−νz + . r2 = 4 e−λx e−µy e−νz 1 + + − (t + C 1 ) 2 . 1◦ . wrr + wr + Bf (w) = 0. w = W (ζ .

4. Y (y ). η1 ). ρ2 ). w = U (ξ . and ϕ(t) are determined by the ordinary differential equations [f (x)Xx ]x + aX ln X + C1 X = 0. ρ3 ). t). ξ2 = 4 2 a(2 − n) bµ2 cν 2 e−µy e−νz 1 2 + − (t + C ) 2 . 2 η2 =t 4 2 η3 =t 4 e−νz 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 cν 2 2 w = W1 (ζ1 . ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ρ3 ). bµ2 4 e−νz 1 − (t + C ) 2 . w = V3 (z . η1 =t 4 bµ2 cν 2 4 ∂t2 axn w = V2 (y . 2 b(2 − m) 4 e−νz 1 − (t + C ) 2 . cν 2 4 ∂ beµy ∂w + ∂ ρ2 1 =4 ρ2 2 =4 y 2−m e−νz + . Solution for n ≠ 2. η3 ). a(2 − n)2 cν 2 4 y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . η2 ). EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 337 w = V2 (y . ρ2 ). 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 ∂w 5. bµ2 cν 2 2 w = W1 (ζ1 . ζ3 =t 4 ρ2 3 =4 ceνz x2−n y 2−m + . 2 a(2 − n) cν 2 4 e−µy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . cν 2 4 ρ2 1 =4 e−µy e−νz + . 2 a(2 − n) bµ2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 cν 2 x2−n e−µy + . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . w = w(r). 2 η2 =t 4 2 η3 =t 4 ∂2w = ∂ ∂w + e−νz 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . ζ3 =t 4 ρ2 2 =4 ρ2 3 =4 x2−n e−νz + . b(2 − m)2 cν 2 x2−n e−νz + . ζ2 =t 4 2 w = W3 (ζ3 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. [g (y )Yy ]y + aY ln Y + C2 Y = 0. and ν ≠ 0: x2−n e−µy e−νz 1 4 + + − (t + C ) 2 . + f (w). η3 ). ρ1 ). y . ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (x ) + g (y ) + h (z ) + aw ln w + bw.6. ζ1 =t 4 2 w = W2 (ζ2 . ζ2 =t 4 2 w = W3 (ζ3 . t) = X (x)Y (y )Z (z )ϕ(t). ρ1 ). wrr + 2−n r r 2◦ . w = V1 (x. Z (z ). w = V3 (z . a(2 − n)2 4 e−µy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . ϕtt − aϕ ln ϕ + (C1 + C2 + C3 − b)ϕ = 0. ζ1 =t 4 2 w = W2 (ζ2 . 2 a(2 − n) 4 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 . µ ≠ 0. z . r2 = 2 B a(2 − n) bµ2 cν 2 4 where B and C are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 1 w + Bf (w) = 0. η2 ). where the functions X (x). [h(z )Zz ]z + aZ ln Z + C3 Z = 0. a(2 − n)2 bµ2 6. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: e−µy e−νz x2−n + + .

where A should be set equal to b−C1−C2 −C3 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂U ∂ξ x 2λ 2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 ∂U = ϕ(η ). C2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). ◦ 2 . 2◦ . u C1 y + C3 .6.2. u C1 t + C5 ). 1 2 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z ∂z 1◦ . β . and the function U = U (ξ . t . . u C1 z + C4 . Ibragimov (1994). where C1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. y . z . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. and λ are arbitrary constants. a 1 C1 2 2 where C1 . y . “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. xa1 v¦w sinh λ + t cosh λ . t) is a solution of this equation. ϕ(η ) and ψ (η ) are arbitrary functions. η = C 1 x + C2 y u t 2 + a C2. z . w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . y . ξ = z + λt. η ). t) = U (ξ . z . H. η = C 1 x + C2 y u t 2 + a C2. C5 . z . −1/2 w3 = w x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ. η ) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation h (U ) − λ 2 and ϕ(η ) is an arbitrary function. Equations of the Form ∂ 2 w = ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ f (w ) ∂w + g (w ) ∂t2 ∂x 1 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y ∂z 3 ∂z 1.338 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES where C1 . y . Reference: N. t) = ϕ(t)Θ(x. ∂2w ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a + a + h (w ) . ∂η (1) . z . Suppose w(x. and the general solution can be written out in implicit form (C is an arbitrary constant): 2 aϕ2 ln ϕ + (A − 1 2 a)ϕ + B −1/2 dϕ = C u t. the function ϕ(t) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ϕtt − aϕ ln ϕ − Aϕ = 0. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z A particular solution of equation (1) is given by ϕ(t) = exp a − 2A a (t + B ) 2 + . y . . A particular and the general solutions of the last equations can be obtained from the formulas of Item 2◦. . z ). 4. 3◦ . . a 1 C1 2 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Here. 4 2a (1) where B is an arbitrary constant. C2 . y . −x 1/2 a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . Solutions in implicit form: h(w) dw = zϕ(η ) + ψ (η ). z ) satisfies the stationary equation ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ f (x) + g (y ) + h (z ) + aΘ ln Θ + (b − A)Θ = 0. where A is an arbitrary constant. and the function Θ(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions w1 = w(u C1 x + C2 .

and λ are arbitrary constants. β . ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = a + a2 g (w ) + a3 g (w ) . a3 /a2 sin β + z cos β . 1 ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . see equation 4. xa1 sinh λ z¦{ where C1 . ξ= √ a1 C a2 η = (C 2 − 1) x2 xy − C 2 t2 . In the special case ϕ(η ) = 0. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). t). z . y C1 y + C3 . Zaitsev. Reference: N.4. H. t) is a solution of this equation. y x +√ . t) = U (η ). z . z . 4◦ . w2 = w x. t) = H (ζ .4. (2) where the function u(y . “three-dimensional” solution. z . z . and the function v = v (ξ . y . . y . ξ . 2. C5 . equation (1) is an ordinary differential equation in ξ and can be easily integrated to obtain solutions of Item 2◦ . ζ ).4. ◦ r = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 2 2 2 2 2 −2 “three-dimensional” solution. y . “Three-dimensional” solutions: w = u(y . 1/2 ta1 −1/2 z . Relations (2) and equation (3) can be used to obtain another “three-dimensional” solution by means of the following renaming: (x. a2 ). z . . z . Then the functions w1 = w(y C1 x + C2 . a1 ) (y . the general solution of equation (1) can be written out in implicit form: 2 2 + a C2 ξ 2λ a1 C1 2 2 y η [h(U ) − λ ] = Φ(U ). ∂y 2 ∂z ∂z (3) which can be reduced to a linear equation. equation (1) can be solved using a characteristic system of ordinary differential equations. Ibragimov (1994). Relations (4) and equation (5) can be used to obtain another “three-dimensional” solution by means of the following renaming: (x. 5◦ .8: a2 ∂ ∂u ∂2u + h (u ) = 0. η ). a2 ). 2 w(x. ζ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = G(ξ . For other exact solutions. t) = F (r. t . Equation (3) is implicitly independent of the cyclic variable ζ (the constants of integration that appear in the solution will be arbitrary functions of ζ ). “one-dimensional” solution.6 with f (w) = a 1 and g (w) = a2 . a1 ) (y . and Moussiaux (2002). y . √ ζ = x y t a1 . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 339 In the special case λ = 0.6. w(x. ξ = x − a1 t 2 2 ζ = a 2 x + a1 y − a1 a2 t η = (a 2 x + a 1 y − a 1 a 2 t )z 7 . y . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. where Φ(U ) is an arbitrary function. y C1 t + C5 ).6. In the general case. y cos β + z w3 = w x cosh λ + a2 /a3 sin β . .2. + t cosh λ . “Three-dimensional” solution: w = v (z . Remark 1. − 2C √ a1 a1 a2 (4) where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). z ). “two-dimensional” solution. −y sinh λ. η ) is determined by the equation 1+ 1 C2 ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v ∂v ∂ ∂v 2 2 − 4 ξ + 4 C ( ξ + η ) + 2(2C 2 − 1) + h (v ) ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η 2 ∂η ∂z ∂z = 0. y . z . z ). Suppose w(x. see Polyanin. (5) Remark 2. y . 6◦ . w(x. y C1 z + C4 .

ζ ) is determined by the differential equation a2 ∂u ∂ ∂u ∂ g (u ) + a3 g (u ) = 0. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). y . z .340 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . y .2. z . q ). z . ξ ). w(x. 2 −2 p = (x − a 1 t )y . Suppose w(x. √ ζ = x | t a1 . ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z which can be reduced to a linear equation. where C1 . t) = V (η ). . t) = U (p. | C1 z + C4 .6. y . w(x.6 with f (w) = a 1 . Then the functions 3. w(x. For other exact solutions. | C1 y + C3 . z . ξ = x − a1 t −2 2 2 w(x. C5 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w1 = w(| C1 x + C2 . ζ ).8: ∂u ∂ ∂u ∂ g (u ) + h (u ) = 0. r. 2 q = zy −1 “two-dimensional” solution. y . ξ = x2 − a1 t2 w(x. ◦ “three-dimensional” solution. y . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. 4 . see equation 4. . y . . “Three-dimensional” solutions: w = u(y . y y= √ . and λ are arbitrary constants. | C1 t + C5 ). xa1 1/2 −1/2 ∂2w = a1 ∂2w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w + ∂ h (w ) ∂w sinh λ + t cosh λ). t) = U (p. z . z . “one-dimensional” solution. ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ .2. z . t) = W (ξ . p = (a 3 y + a 2 z )t . y . in which g (w) should be renamed a2 g (w) and h(w) renamed a3 g (w). ∂y2 ∂z 2 For solutions of this linear equation. z . t) = H (r. q ).6. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). z . where the function u(y . z .4. ζ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. a2 z z= √ a3 ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. z ). z ). . “Three-dimensional” solutions: w = u(y .4. ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z (1) which is implicitly independent of the cyclic variable ζ (the constants of integration that appear in the solution are arbitrary functions of ζ ). t) is a solution of this equation. 2 q = xt −1 η = (a3 y + a2 z )(x − a1 t ) 2 −1 4◦ . t) = G(ξ . y . There are solutions of the following forms: “three-dimensional” solution. y . see equation 4. 2 2 2 “two-dimensional” solution. z . “two-dimensional” solution. 2◦ . For other exact solutions. . “three-dimensional” solution. r = a 3 y 2 + a2 z 2 2 2 2 3◦ . where the function u(y . z . y . t) = F (x. √ ζ = x | t a1 . The transformation v= brings (1) to the Laplace equation g (u) du. w(x.6 with f (w) = a 1 . ξ = x − a1 t 2 2 r = a 3 y + a2 z . ζ ). 3◦ . t). y . z . The equation obtained is implicitly independent of the cyclic variable ζ (the constants of integration that appear in the solution will be arbitrary functions of ζ ). w2 = w(x cosh λ + ta1 sinh λ.

z . ξ = √ a1 C a2 a1 a1 a2 a3 By Cz Ax w = V (ζ . ζ = √ + √ + √ . z . w1 = w(} C1 x + C2 . . y . η . t). w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β . t). . z . Remark. Ibragimov (1994). in which f (w) should be renamed a 1 f (w) and g (w) renamed a2 f (w). H. a3) ←− (y . There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. a1 ) (z . Suppose w(x. −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β .6. ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w = a1 f (w ) + a2 f (w ) + h (w ) . t). and C are arbitrary constants. where C1 . t). t) is a solution of this equation. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. Reference: N. 3◦ . see equation 4. ◦ ∂2w ~¦ 2 . 2 2 −2 “three-dimensional” solution. t). q ). ρ = a 2 x2 + a 1 y 2 . a2 ) 3◦ .6. t . Ibragimov (1994). } C1 t + C5 ). z . t . ∂t2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ .2. 4◦ . y . . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). t) = W (ξ . z . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 341 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂2w = a1 f (w ) + a2 f (w ) + a3 f (w ) . −x a2 /a1 sin β + y cos β . and h(w) should be renamed a1 f (w). . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = W (ρ. Reference: N. H. The first and second solutions specified in Item 2◦ can be used to obtain other “threedimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). p = (a 2 x + a 1 y )t . z . in which f (w). z . where C1 . χ = (a 2 a 3 x + a 1 a 3 y + a 1 a 2 z )t 2 2 2 −2 “two-dimensional” solution. t) is a solution of this equation. . Then the functions 4. t) = U (p. η = (C 2 − 1) − 2C √ + C2 . respectively. Then the functions w1 = w(} C1 x + C2 . y .6. } C1 y + C3 . y .6. Suppose w(x. For other exact solutions. and a3 f (w). For other exact solutions. ξ = a2 x2 + a1 y 2 w(x. q = zt −1 “two-dimensional” solution. θ = a3 a1 a2 Ay Cy Bz Bx Az Cx √ −√ + √ −√ . z . B . g (w). y . } C1 t + C5 ). y . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z . see equation 4. θ. ◦ ~¦ 2 . t) = Ψ(χ). . “one-dimensional” solution. r = a2 a3 x2 + a1 a3 y 2 + a1 a2 z 2 w(x. } C1 y + C3 . 5.4. . w = U (ξ . y x2 xy z2 x + √ . + √ −√ a3 a3 a1 a2 a2 a1 2 2 2 where A. z .2. } C1 z + C4 . } C1 z + C4 . a2 f (w). t) = Φ(r.6. w2 = w x cos β + y a1 /a2 sin β .

342 6. 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . Suppose w(x. . 5◦ . Solution: C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 . . 2 2 2 h (w ) + C 1 f (w ) + C 2 g (w ) = C 3 . . . 3◦ . C5 are arbitrary constants. Solutions in implicit form: C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 t + C5 C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 t + C 4 x + C5 C1 x + C2 z + C 3 t + C 4 y + C5 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 t + C 4 z + C5 where C1 . 2◦ . k2 . . € C1 y + C3 . η= 2 2 2 C3 uηη = [η 2 f (u)uη ]η + C1 [g (u )u η ] η + C 2 [h (u )u η ] η . C5 are arbitrary constants. treating w in (1) as the independent variable. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (w ) + g (w ) + h (w ) . which admits the first integral 2 2 2 ξ 2 − C1 f (w ) − C 2 g (w ) − C 3 h (w ) w ξ = C 6 . . € C1 z + C4 . . . . . and λ are arbitrary constants. and the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(ξ ). see Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). Solution: (1) To the special case C6 = 0 there corresponds the first solution in Item 3◦ . . z . where C1 . 2 2 2 2 f (w ) + C 1 g (w ) + C 2 h (w ) = C 3 . which can be reduced to a second-order linear equation. 2 2 4◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and the function u(η ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = u(η ). 2 2 2 2 = C1 f (w ) + C 2 g (w ) + C 3 h(w). (3) x + C5 where C1 . we obtain a Riccati equation for ξ = ξ (w): 2 2 2 f (w ) − C 2 g (w ) − C 3 h(w). € C1 t + C5 ). k3 . where C1 . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 2 k1 f (w ) + k 2 g (w ) + k 3 h(w) dw − λ2 w = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + k3 z + λt) + C2 . C2 . C1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 . . Then the functions w1 = w(€ C1 x + C2 . t) is a solution of this equation. ξ= (ξ 2 w ξ ) ξ = [ϕ (w )w ξ ] ξ . . t + C5 where C1 . For C6 ≠ 0. 2 2 ϕ (w ) = C 1 f (w ) + C 2 g (w) + C3 h(w). C5 are arbitrary constants. 2 2 2 g (w ) + C 1 f (w ) + C 2 h (w ) = C 3 . . . . C5 are arbitrary constants. y . (2) C6 ξw = ξ 2 − C1 For exact solutions of equation (2). k1 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily).

where the function v = v (x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ρ). Formula (3) and equation (5) can be used to obtain two other “one-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining functions: (x. “Two-dimensional” solution (k1 . q . z2 ).4. and c are arbitrary constants): w(x. C 6 η u = η 2 f (u ) + C 1 g (u ) + C 2 (5) For exact solutions of equation (5). p = x/t. y . η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. t) = U (ζ . we obtain a Riccati equation for η = η (u): 2 2 2 h (u ) − C 3 . Remark. z . 10◦ +. ∂ ∂u ∂2u = ϕ (u ) . z 2 = b 1 x + b 2 y + b 3 z + b 4 t. s ) is determined by the differential equation ∂2Θ ∂2Θ ∂2Θ ∂2Θ ∂2Θ ∂2Θ + q 2 2 + r2 2 + 2pq + 2pr + 2rq 2 ∂p ∂q ∂r ∂p∂q ∂p∂r ∂r∂q ∂Θ ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂ ∂Θ ∂Θ + 2q + 2r = f (Θ ) + g (Θ ) + h (Θ ) . 7◦ .8: ∂v ∂ ∂v ∂ f (v ) + ψ (v ) = 0. ∂t2 ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. η ). z 1 = a 1 x + a 2 y + a 3 z + a 4 t. There are more complicated “two-dimensional” solutions of the form w(x. p2 q = y/t. z . where the function U = U (ζ . For results of the group analysis of the original equation.4. ξ = k 1 x + k2 y + k 3 z . η = ay + bz + ct. t) is determined by a differential equation of the form 3. b.4.4. t) = u(ξ . g ) 6 . see Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). s ). where the function u = u(ξ . ζ = a1 t + a2 x. z . where the function Θ = Θ(p.6. For C6 ≠ 0. which can be reduced to a second-order linear equation.4. The solutions specified in Items 7◦ and 8◦ can be used to obtain other “twodimensional” solutions by means of the cyclic permutations of variables and determining functions as shown in Item 5◦ . y . ψ (v ) = a2 g (v ) + b2 h(v ) − c2 . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 343 which admits the first integral 2 2 2 [η 2 f (u ) + C 1 g (u ) + C 2 h (u ) − C 3 ]u η = C 6 . q . 9◦ . h) ←− (y . z . t) = Θ(p. treating u in (4) as the independent variable. z . 1 g (U ) + b2 h(U ). “Three-dimensional” solution: w(x.6: 2 2 2 ϕ (u ) = k 1 f (u ) + k 2 g (u ) + k 3 h(u). t) = v (x. + 2p ∂p ∂q ∂r ∂p ∂p ∂q ∂q ∂r ∂r 11◦ . t). “Two-dimensional” solution (the an and bn are arbitrary constants): w(x. y . ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ρ ∂ρ which can be reduced to a linear equation. f ) (z . see Ibragimov (1994). t) = V (z1 .4. k2 . ρ = b 1 y + b2 z . Φ(U ) = a2 Ψ (U ) = b 2 2 f (U ) − a 1 . 8◦ .4. ∂x ∂x ∂η ∂η which can be reduced to a linear equation. “Two-dimensional” solution (a.8: ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ 2 2 Φ( U ) + Ψ (U ) = 0. ◦ (4) To the special case C6 = 0 there corresponds the second solution in Item 3 . s = z/t. and k3 are arbitrary constants): ◦ w(x. ρ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. y . y .

Remark. y 2−m z 2−k 1 x2−n 4 + + − (t + C ) 2 . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). B aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 4 where B and C1 are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wrr + 6r−1 wr + Bf (w) = 0. ∂2w ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ◦ 1 . z ). and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). a(2 − n)2 4 ρ2 = 4 y 2−m z 2−k + . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 For this linear equation. w = V (x. r2 = = aeλx ∂2w + beµy ∂2w + ceνz ∂2w ∂z 2 + f (w). y . ξ2 = 4 η2 =  4 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . Solution for λ ≠ 0. z ) is determined by the Poisson equation ∂ 2U ∂ 2 U ∂ 2 U + + + b = 0. m) 2. Other Equations 1. 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 z 2−k 1 y 2−m + − (t + C ) 2 . where the function U = U (x. 4 e−λx e−µy e−νz 1 + + − (t + C 1 ) 2 . k ) ←− (y . a.6. ζ 2 =  4 The second and third solutions can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. The above holds true if the constant b in the equation is replaced by an arbitrary function b = b(x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . z ). 4. µ ≠ 0. t). r2 = = axn ∂2w + by m ∂2w + cz k ∂2w ∂z 2 + f (w). b.344 7. c. f 3 (w ) ∂ ∂w ∂2w = f (w ) 2 ∂t ∂x ∂x Solution in implicit form: f (w) dw = at + U (x. 2 2 2 B a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k ) 4 where C and B are arbitrary constants (B ≠ 0) and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w + Bf (w) = 0. and k ≠ 2: w = w(r). b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 w = W (ζ . ρ). n) (z . η ).3. r r A=2 1−n 1−m 1−k + + . 2−n 2−m 2−k 2◦ . m ≠ 2. y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . y . Solution for n ≠ 2. HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES + ∂ ∂w f (w ) ∂y ∂y + ∂ ∂w f (w ) ∂z ∂z – a2 f (w ) + b. ∂2w ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ◦ 1 .

η2 ). w = U (ξ . + f (w).4. ρ2 ). Solution for n ≠ 2. a(2 − n)2 4 1 y 2−m − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 cν 2 2 w = W1 (ζ1 . ζ 2 = ‚ 4 (z . 2 η1 =‚ 4 2 η2 =‚ 4 2 η3 =‚ 4 e−νz 1 y 2−m + − (t + C ) 2 . ∂t2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . cν 2 4 + ceνz ∂2w ρ2 1 =4 ρ2 2 =4 y 2−m e−νz + . Solution for n ≠ 2. ρ = 4 + . ρ1 ). η ). w = w(r). λ) w = W (ζ . ξ2 = 4 a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cν 2 w = V1 (x. and ν ≠ 0: x2−n e−µy e−νz 1 4 + + − (t + C ) 2 . 2 a(2 − n) cν 2 4 y 2−m 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . ρ). 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m)2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . ρ3 ). b(2 − m)2 cν 2 x2−n e−νz + . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 345 2◦ . η 2 = ‚ 4 bµ2 cν 2 4 e−µy e−νz e−λx 1 2 2 − ( t + C ) .6. c. w = U (ξ . w = V (x. w = V2 (y . ξ 2 = 4 aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 e−µy e−νz 1 + − (t + C ) 2 . µ ≠ 0. and ν ≠ 0: x2−n y 2−m e−νz 1 4 + + − (t + C 1 ) 2 . m ≠ 2. r2 = 2 B a(2 − n) bµ2 cν 2 4 where B and C are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2(5 − 3n) 1 w + Bf (w) = 0. t). w = V3 (z . a. wrr + wr + Bf (w) = 0. r 2−n 2−m 2◦ . b. aλ2 4 bµ2 cν 2 The second and third solutions can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. ζ2 =‚ 4 2 w = W3 (ζ3 . w = w(r). r2 = 2 2 B a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cν 2 4 where B and C are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1−n 1−m A A=2 + +1 . b(2 − m)2 4 e−νz 1 − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 4. η3 ). ν ) ←− (y . µ) 3. η1 ). wrr + 2−n r r ∂2w = axn ∂2w + beµy ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ζ3 =‚ 4 ρ2 3 =4 x2−n y 2−m + . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: y 2−m e−νz x2−n + + . ζ1 =‚ 4 2 w = W2 (ζ2 . 2 b(2 − m) cν 2 4 e−νz 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . 1◦ . ∂2w ∂t2 = axn ∂2w ∂x2 + by m ∂2w ∂y 2 + ceνz ∂2w ∂z 2 + f (w). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: e−λx e−µy e−νz + + . t).

w = V3 (z . η1 ). w = V1 (x. ρ1 ).346 HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS WITH TWO OR THREE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . ζ1 =ƒ 4 2 w = W2 (ζ2 . a(2 − n)2 bµ2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . cν 2 4 ρ2 1 =4 e−µy e−νz + . 2 a(2 − n) bµ2 4 1 x2−n − (t + C ) 2 . ρ2 ). bµ2 cν 2 2 w = W1 (ζ1 . η1 =ƒ 4 bµ2 cν 2 4 2 η2 =ƒ 4 2 η3 =ƒ 4 e−νz 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . ζ2 =ƒ 4 2 w = W3 (ζ3 . a(2 − n)2 bµ2 cν 2 e−µy e−νz 1 2 + − (t + C ) 2 . η2 ). η3 ). w = V2 (y . ζ3 =ƒ 4 ρ2 2 =4 ρ2 3 =4 x2−n e−νz + . ξ2 = 4 e−µy e−νz x2−n + + . ρ3 ). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (ξ . bµ2 4 e−νz 1 − (t + C ) 2 . 2 a(2 − n) cν 2 4 e−µy 1 x2−n + − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 4 e−µy 1 − (t + C ) 2 . a(2 − n)2 cν 2 x2−n e−µy + . t).

where A. and C2 are arbitrary constants. x sin β + y cos β ). y ) is a solution of the equation in question.1 with f (w) = kwn . s= 1 4 k (1 w(x. r © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Solutions: w(x. 4◦ . where C1 . and D are arbitrary constants (n ≠ −1). 1 1−n − n) 2 1 1−n .Chapter 5 Elliptic Equations with Two Space Variables 5. 1◦ . 3◦ .1. 2 B=   k (n − 1)2 − A2 . Solution (generalizes the second solution of Item 2◦ ): w = w(r). = kwn .4. and β are arbitrary constants.1. This equation arises also in combustion theory and is a special case of equation 5. Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 2 2 + ∂ w = aw + bw n + cw 2n–1 5. Then the functions n−1 n−1 2 x + C2 . 2◦ . C2 . y ) = (Ax + By + C ) 1−n .4. 1. C 1 y + C3 ). Traveling-wave solution in implicit form (generalizes the first solution of Item 2 ◦ ): D+ 2kwn+1 (n + 1)(A2 + B 2 ) −1/2 dw = Ax + By + C . and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wrr + wr = kwn . C3 .1.1.1.1. B . 2(n + 1) . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Suppose w(x. C . C . r= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 . C1 . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. traveling-wave solutions and solutions with central symmetry are also treated there. w1 = C1 w ( C1     ∂2w + ∂2w w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . y ) = s (x + C1 )2 + (y + C2 )2 where A. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a steady heat and mass transfer equation with an nth-order volume reaction in two dimensions. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 The general properties of this type of equation are listed in 5.

where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants. (1 − n ) 2 −1/2 tan θ = y + C2 . x + C1 where the function u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (1 + ξ 2 )uξξ − 2(1 + n) 2(1 + n) ξuξ + u − kun = 0. 2. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.4. Zaitsev (2002). F. 1 1−n 1 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2 ξ= y + C2 . y ) = a(n + 1) 2b cosh2 z w(x. y ) = r 1−n U (θ). y ) = 2(n + 1) 2an w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 1◦ . Self-similar solution: w(x. y ) = − a(n + 1) 1 1−n ∂2w + ∂2w . D. y ) = b 1 a(1 − n)2 (x + C1 )2 + (y + C2 )2 − 4 an 1 1−n 1 1−n .4. Traveling-wave solutions for a > 0: 2b sinh2 z w(x. x + C1 where the function U = U (θ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation Uθθ + Integrating yields the general solution in implicit form: 4 2k U 2 + C3 U n+1 − n+1 (n − 1)2 ¢¤£ dU = C4 ¡ θ. ∂2w ∂2w + = awn + bw2n–1 . z= 1 2 √ a (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 √ a (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 if b(n + 1) > 0.5◦ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. z= 1 2 |a| (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 . Polyanin and V. Solutions: b(n + 1) a(1 − n)2 (x sin C1 + y cos C1 + C2 )2 − w(x. Multiplicative separable solution in polar coordinates (another representation of the solution of Item 5◦ ): w(x.1 with f (w) = aw + bw n . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. 2 r= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 .1 with f (w) = aw n + bw2n−1 . y ) = − a(n + 1) 3. 1 1−n . 1−n (1 − n ) 2 6◦ . .1. Traveling-wave solutions for a < 0 and b(n + 1) > 0: 2b cos2 z w(x. z= .1. y ) = (x + C1 ) 1−n u(ξ ). = aw + bwn . 4 U = kU n . Reference: A. 2◦ . if b(n + 1) < 0.

1.4. 2◦ . a(n + 1) 1 1 z= B=¥ √ a (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 . ¥ C1 y ). Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 1. where C1 and β are arbitrary constants. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Then the functions n−1 n−1 4 x. y . c b2 − a2 (n + 1)2 an 1/2 . w ) 5. w1 = C1 w ( ¥ C1 ∂2w ∂2w w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . 5. x sin β + y cos β ). y ) is a solution of the equation in question. ∂2w ∂2w + = aw – a(n + 1)wn + bw2n–1 . Traveling-wave solutions for a > 0: w(x.1. b2 c − 2 an a (n + 1)2 1/2 B=¥ . A=− b . A=− b .5. a(n + 1) c b2 − . The substitution u = w 1−n leads to an equation of the form 5. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants (the expressions in square brackets must be nonnegative). ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = aw + bwn + cw2n–1 . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. where the following renaming should be made: b → −a(n + 1) and c → b. 2◦ . z= √ a (1 − n)(x sin C2 + y cos C2 ). = a (x 2 + y 2 )w n . ∂x2 + 1◦ . 3◦ .2 are roots of the quadratic equation aλ2 − a(n + 1)λ + b = 0. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).1. This is a special case of equation 5. 1◦ .6. Traveling-wave solutions: w(x.1. A=− b .7: u ∂2u ∂2u + ∂x2 ∂y 2 + n 1−n ∂u ∂x 2 + ∂u ∂y 2 = a(1 − n)u2 + b(1 − n)u + c(1 − n).1. 2 a (n + 1)2 an √ z = a (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 . ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.2 with f (w) = aw n . 1/2 w(x. 2 2 + ∂ w = f (x.4. y ) = (A + B cosh z ) 1−n . y ) = λ + C1 exp z 1 1−n .1 with f (w) = aw + bw n + cw2n−1 .2. y ) = (A + B sinh z ) 1−n . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. a(n + 1) 1 z= B=¥ |a| (1 − n)(x sin C1 + y cos C1 ) + C2 . where λ = λ1. Traveling-wave solutions for a < 0: w(x. y ) = (A + B cos z ) 1−n . Suppose w(x.4. See also equation 5.

4. = aeβx wn .1. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. ∂2w ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 5.4.12 with f (z .5 with f (w) = kw n . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y This is a special case of equation 5.1. q1 (x) = γxm . ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 2.14 with f (u) = kun . This is a special case of equation 5.4 with f (w) = aw n .1. 4. + βxn y 2 + γxm y + µxk .2.4 with f (ξ .4.2◦ . + = k w + A11 x2 + A12 xy + A22 y 2 + B1 x + B2 y ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. and q0 (x) = µxk . ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w + a = b + cw + ¦ xn . ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w + ∂2w ∂y 2 ∂2w = c(ax + by )k wn . 2 2 ∂x ∂y x ∂x y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5.1.10 with f (z . ∂w .1.8 with a = b = 1. and h(x) = s x n . y . f (x) = α. ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w + ∂2w ∂y 2 ∂2w = a(x2 + y 2 )(xy )k wn . 3. + 4. 3.4. ζ ). This is a special case of equation 5. 1 (x2 − y 2 ). ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 1.2. ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂2w n + ∂2w ∂2w . b ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w a ∂w + + + = kwn . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.4.4. 6.1. w . The transformation w = U (z .2. 7.3 with f (w) = aw n . + =α ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z= 2 ζ = xy leads to a simpler equation of the form 5. g (x) = h 1 (x) = h0 (x) = p(x) = 0. w) = kw n . 2 2 + a∂ w = F x.2.1. w) = cz k wn .1.4. = a (x 2 + y 2 ) k w n . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. g (x) = c. = keax–by wn .6 with f (x) = b.4. 5. + ∂2w ∂y 2 = (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w ∂y + kwn .4.4.1: ∂2U ∂2U + = aU n . 2. w) = az k wn . q2 (x) = βxn .2 with f (w) = kw n .1. ∂w 5.3.

where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 5.4. Equations of the Form ∂ f1 (x.3. ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 + bceβx w2 + keµx w + § eνx . and h(x) = s xl .4. +a =c 1◦ .+ bcw2 + kw + § . + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w ∂y k . The substitution a wn+1 dw U = exp − n+1 leads to the two-dimensional Laplace equation for U = U (x. y ) ∂w + ∂ f2 (x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. y ) ∂w = g (w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equations of this form are encountered in stationary problems of heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. g (x) = keµx . 1.7 with f (x) = ceβx . v ) = 0. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y This is a special case of equation 5.4.4.1 with f (w) = cw k . 7. g (x) = k . 2◦ . g (x) = kxm . ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation.1. then the equation has the generalized separable solutions √ ¨ w(x.7 with f (x) = cxn .4.12 with f (w. y ) = A + C1 exp(σx) + C2 exp(−σx) exp y −b . and h(x) = s eνx . 9.4.4. If 2Abc + k + ab = −σ 2 < 0. and h(x) = s . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 3◦ . u. 10. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m = cwk . ∂w n ∂w m ∂2w ∂2w + = α + β + kw. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 5. 6.2. and g = g (w) is a source function that defines the law of heat (substance) release or absorption. f (x) = α. y ): ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. y ) = A + C1 cos(σx) + C2 sin(σx) exp y −b .9 with f (w) = aw n . Then the equation has the generalized separable solutions √ ¨ w(x. ∂2w + ∂2w = (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w k ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 ∂2w + ∂2w = awn ∂w 2 + ∂w 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 5. 2 ∂2w ∂2w n ∂w + a = cx + bcxn w2 + kxm w + § xl . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y Let A be a root of the quadratic equation bcA2 + kA + s = 0.2.2. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .2. +a = ceβx 8. f1 and f2 are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on the space coordinates x and y .4. and g (y ) = β .7 with f (x) = c. . see equation 5. For more complicated solutions. Suppose the inequality 2Abc + k + ab = σ 2 > 0 holds.2.10 with a = b = 1. Here.

(2 − n)(2 − m) ab(2 − n)2 (2 − m)2 3◦ . Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. y + m−1 1−m ln C1 . Suppose w(x.2. ∂ aeβx ∂w + ∂ beµy = cwm . is also a solution of the equation. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. For m = 4/n. the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + where A= (1) 4c 4 − nm . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . The substitution ζ = ξ 1−A brings (1) to the Emden–Fowler equation 2A B 1−A w k . where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + 3. ξ ξ 1/2 k−1 k−1 . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ). ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + beµy = cwm . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. Below are some exact solutions of equation (1). the exact solution can be represented in implicit form as C1 + 2cn2 wk+1 ab(k + 1)(2 − n)4 −1/2 dw = C2 © ξ .3.3.6 with f (w) = cw m . 3. 2◦ .4. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. 3. ξ = bµ2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 e−µy 4c n 1 w = wm . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and µ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m A w = Bwk .1◦ . is also a solution of the equation. Equation (1) admits an exact solution of the form 2(1 + k + A − Ak ) w= B (1 − k ) 2 1 k−1 ξ 1−k 2 with k ≠ 1. Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. wζζ = 2. ζ (2) ( 1 − A) 2 Over 20 exact solutions to equation (2) for various values of k can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003).3. 1◦ . where C1 is an arbitrary constant. B= . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C12−m y . µ where C1 is an arbitrary constant.4. Suppose w(x. 2 − n ξ ξ abµ2 (2 − n)2 ∂w 1/2 . 3.8 with f (w) = cw m .1. 2◦ . Here.

4. ∂ ∂w ∂2w + (αw + β ) ∂x2 ∂y ∂y = 0. abβ 2 µ2 (1) 3◦ . w = w(x) and w = w(y ). β µ where C1 is an arbitrary constant.4.1. Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). and g = g (w) is a source function that defines the law of heat (substance) release or absorption. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . nonlinear mechanics. y + ln C1 .2. 1. 4. whose solutions with m = −1 and m = −2 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). is also a solution of the equation. Equation (1) admits a solution of the form w= abmβ 2 µ2 c(1 − m)2 1 m−1 ξ 1−m . Below are some exact solutions of equation (1). This is a special case of equation 5. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (ay + c) + (bx +  ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y = kwn . Equations of the Form ∂ f1 (w ) ∂w + ∂ f2 (w ) ∂w = g (w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equations of this form are encountered in stationary problems of heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. The substitution ζ = ξ 2 brings (1) to the Emden–Fowler equation −1 m wζζ = 1 4 Aζ w . and heat and mass transfer theory.2 with f (w) = kw n . f1 = f1 (w) and f2 = f2 (w) are the temperature (concentration) dependent principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients). Suppose w(x.1◦ . ξ ξ A= 4c . Stationary Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation (for α = 1 and β = 0). where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ − 1 w = Awm . It arises in acoustics. Here.4.5. 2 3.4.8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = αw + β . 5. y ) is a solution of the equation in question.4. 2◦ . This is a special case of equation 5. ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy )1/2 . 2 ∂x ∂y (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w ∂y = kwn . are not considered in this subsection.1 with f (w) = kw n . This is a special case of equation 5.4.1. Simple solutions dependent on a single space variable. ∂ ∂x (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y ∂2w ∂2w + (bx + s ) 2 = kwn . The equation can be rewritten in the simpler form (ay + c) 5. 3. Then the function w1 = C1 w x + 1−m 1−m ln C1 .

y ) = (Ax + B ) C1 y + C2 − . respectively). 2 C2 where C1 . C1 . C1 . w(x. y ) = (Ax + B )y − 12A2 2 C1 β 1 y+A + + C 2 (x + B ) 2 − . (1) (2) (3) The nonlinear autonomous equation (1) is independent of the others. 3 αw + βw 3 1 1 − 3 αC2 w − 2 (αC3 + βC2 )w2 − βC3 w + C6 . Generalized separable solution quadratic in y (generalizes the third solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. B1 . Suppose w(x. . C2 .1◦ . y ) = Ay − 1 2 A αx + C1 x + C2 . 3◦ . . y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). 2◦ . w(x. Then the function w1 = 2 β C1 w (C 1 x + C 3 . Solution in parametric form: x = C1 wt + C2 w + C3 t + C4 . and λ are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . Solutions: 2 2 w(x. ψxx + 6αϕψ = 0. C 2 y + C 4 ) + 2 α C2 2 C1 −1 . The first two solutions are linear in y . α ( x + A) 2 B1 + B 2 ( x + A) 3 . χ(x) = x+A α 4(x + A)2 2 54 ϕ(x) = − where A. and C2 are arbitrary constants. ψ = ψ (x). . α where A. 2 3 2 1 1 y= 1 2 C1 t + C2 t − 3 αC1 w − 2 (αC3 + βC1 )w − βC3 w + C5 . y ) = − β + λ2  α β w(x. ψ (x) = ( x + A) 2 2 β αB1 1 1 C1 2 + C 2 ( x + A) 2 − − − αB1 B2 (x + A)3 − αB2 ( x + A) 8 . 5◦ . Solution in parametric form: x = C1 t2 + C2 wt + C3 t + C4 w − C1 2 2 y= 1 2 C2 t + C4 t − C1 t αw + 2βw 3 2 1 + C5 . B2 . and the fourth one is a traveling-wave solution. the third is quadratic in y . Equations (2) and (3) are solved successively (these are linear in the unknowns ψ and χ. its solution can be expressed in terms elliptic integrals. y ) = − α x+B x+B α 1 A(y + λx) + B . χxx + 2αϕχ = −2βϕ − αψ 2 . is also a solution of the equation. B . and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕxx + 6αϕ2 = 0. w(x. System (1)–(3) admits the following five-parameter family of solutions: 1 . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). C4 are arbitrary constants. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. α (Ax + B )4 + C1 x + C2 .

Self-similar solution (A and B are arbitrary constants): w = w(ζ ). ξ = y + B ln( x + A) + C . α α The functions f (x) and g (y ) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations (A is an arbitrary constant) fxx = Af 2 . α α where the function Ψ = Ψ(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation w= 6Ψ − 5B Ψξ + B 2 Ψξξ + (ΨΨξ )ξ = 0. (4) w(x. where B1 . where C is an arbitrary constant. Solution (A. B2 . Solution (A and λ are arbitrary constants): β 1 −2λx e Φ(u) − . α α z= y+B . Solution (generalizes the last solution of Item 2◦ ): β 1 f (x)g (y ) − . 10◦ . The general solution to this equation can be expressed in terms of Bessel functions. and k are arbitrary constants): w= β 1 (x + A)2k F (z ) − . ζ= x+A y+B where the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wζζ + [ζ 2 (αw + β )wζ ]ζ = 0. and C are arbitrary constants): β 1 ( x + A)−2 Ψ(ξ ) − . see Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). C1 . α α where the function Φ = Φ(u) is determined by solving the generalized-homogeneous ordinary differential equation 4λ2 Φ − 3λ2 uΦu + λ2 u2 Φuu + (ΦΦu )u = 0. On integrating the equation once and taking w to be the independent variable. 9◦ . Solution (A. B . and C2 are arbitrary constants. Its order can be reduced. y ) = which are independent. Its order can be reduced. B . (x + A)k+1 where the function F = F (z ) is determined by solving the generalized-homogeneous ordinary differential equation 2k (2k − 1)F − (k + 1)(3k − 2)zFz + (k + 1)2 z 2 Fzz + (F Fz )z = 0. C1  x = 3 Af + B1 C2  y = 2 Ag 3 + B2 g −3 −1/2 dg . u = (y + A)eλx . one obtains a Riccati equation for ζ = ζ (w): Cζw = (αw + β )ζ 2 + 1. (ggy )y = −Ag . 8◦ . Integrating the equations of (4) yields their general solutions in implicit form: −1/2 3 2 df .6◦ . w= Its order can be reduced. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 7◦ .

−A2 x2 + Bx + C β − . B . and x and y . v ): ∂2x ∂2x + ( αw + β ) = 0. Through appropriate translations in both variables. A. Gibbons (1989). u ) = 1 9ϕ ∂v + 3ϕtt u + 3ψt . Zaitsev (2002). Kodama and J. Solution: 2 2 w = U (η ) − 4αC1 x − 4αC1 C2 x. Solutions: .11◦ +. y = ϕ−1/3 u − ϕ−4/3 ψ dt. ¤ F ( t. D. Zaitsev and A. one obtains a linear equation for x = x(w. ∂u 1 3 x= 1 3 ϕ−2/3 dt. y ) = − Aα sinh2 (py + q ) α 2 2 p Ax + Bx + C β − .1: Y. has a first integral cubic in u t . ∂v ∂w −(αw + β ) ∂x ∂y = . The original equation can be rewritten as the system of equations ∂w ∂v = . and ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. which means that the equation is integrable by quadrature. C . y ) = Aα cosh2 (py + q ) α 2 2 p Ax + Bx + C β − . ∂v ∂w On eliminating y . ∂x ∂y −(αw + β ) ∂w ∂v = . u). V. ∂y ∂x The hodograph transformation x = x(w. References for equation 5. η = y + αC1 x2 + αC2 x. where v = −ϕ1/3 w(x. w(x. Polyanin (2001). F. y ) = − Aα cos2 (py + q ) α where A.1. one can make the equation homogeneous. V. D. w(x. Kozlov (1995). Let w(x. F. Polyanin and V. as the dependent ones) brings it to the linear system ∂x ∂y = . y = y (w. p. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂ ∂y 1 ∂w αw + β ∂y = 0. V. y ) − ϕ−1 (ϕt u + ψ )2 . y ) = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1◦ . α(Ay + D)2 α 2 2 p Ax + Bx + C β − . v ) (w and v treated as the independent variables. 12◦ . ∂w2 ∂v 2 13◦ . w(x. and q are arbitrary constants. Then the ordinary differential equation utt = F (t. 2. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (η ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (αU + β + α2 C2 )Uη + 2αC1 U = 8αC1 η + C3 . v ). w(x. D. y ) be any solution of the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation (with α = 1 and β = 0).5.

2◦ . ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (α 1 w + β 1 ) + (α 2 w + β 2 ) = γ. this equation ∂2w ∂ Up to the swap of the coordinates (x coincides with a special case of 5. √ w + β ∂y 1 w + β leads to the equation The substitution U = α ∂U ∂ 2U ∂ U + = 0. ∂x2 ∂y 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . see equation 5.4. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ .2. 2◦ .  C 1 y + C3 ). C3 . 4◦ . w1 = C1 w (  C1 γ − A 2 α1 y + B. 5. Suppose w(x. 3◦ . C1 1 1 w − 2 (αC3 − βC1 ) ln |αw + β | + C5 . The substitution αw + β = eU leads to an equation of the form 5.4. α2 ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β . see 5. where C1 . For other solutions with γ = 0. For m ≠ −1.8 with f (w) = α1 w + β1 and g (w) = α2 w + β2 .2.2◦ . Then the functions wm wm n−m−1 n−m−1 2 x + C2 . Solution in parametric form: x = C1 wt + C2 w + C3 t + C4 . where A. = αwn .1. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: (A2 α1 + B 2 α2 )w2 + 2(A2 β1 + B 2 β2 )w = γ (Ax + By )2 + C1 (Ax + By ) + C2 . C1 . C5 are arbitrary constants. . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). the substitution w = eV leads to an equation of the form 5. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ .1. Traveling-wave solutions linear in the coordinates: w(x. y ) is a solution of this equation. + = α ( m + 1 ) U ∂x2 ∂y 2 3◦ . 4.1. . x y ): ∂U ∂2U ∂ eU + = 0.1 (with swapped variables.4.4. . y = C 1 t2 + C 2 t − 2 α α where C1 . C2 .5. . B .8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = (αw + β ) −1 . x sin β + y cos β ). the substitution U = w m+1 leads to an equation of the form 5.4. 3◦ . For m = −1.1: n ∂2U ∂2U m+1 . ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂x2 + ∂y y ) and renaming the unknown function. and C2 are arbitrary constants. α ∂w = 0. and β are arbitrary constants. y ) = Ax  where A and B are arbitrary constants. For other exact solutions.1.1. ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 3.1: ∂2V ∂ 2V + = αenV .

(g m gy )y = −Aag n+1 . fn n+m+2 2Aa g n+m+2 + B2 dg = C2  y . C4 are arbitrary constants. ∂2w + aw4 ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . see 5. n + m + 2 ≠ 0. 4◦ .4. . . w(x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . (1) The functions f (x) and g (y ) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations (A is an arbitrary constant) (f n fx )x = Abf m+1 . 2◦ . 2 −1/2 z = yxmk−nk−1 . y ) = e2x H (η ). w(x. y ) = 2 x n−k+1 ξ = α 1 x + α2 y U (z ).5. w1 = C1 w (  C1 where C1 . w(x. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ wn + a2 wm = bwk . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). n m −2 C2 x + C3 . = by n w5 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. a1 k−n−1 k−m−1 2 x + C2 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. y . z ) is a solution of this equation. 2◦ . y ) is a solution of this equation.  C 1 y + C3 ). ξ = y + k ln x. z= k−m−1 yx n−k+1 traveling-wave solution. η = ye(n−m)x .1.  C 1 C2 y + C4 ). B2 . gm − 3◦ .8 with f (w) = aw n and g (w) = bwm . Suppose w(x. y ) = x−2k F (z ). Then the functions 6. where k is an arbitrary constant.4. . Suppose w(x.1 with f (y ) = by n . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y ) = x n−m G(ξ ). For other exact solutions of the original equation. There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. Then the functions 7. and C2 are arbitrary constants.∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ awn + bwm = 0.4. . C1 . self-similar solution. n+m+2 where B1 . y ) = F (ξ ). w1 = C1 w (  C1 where C1 .6. (2) which are independent. Integrating the equations of (2) yields their general solutions in implicit form: −1/2 2Ab f n+m+2 + B1 df = C1  x. y ) = f (x)g (y ). There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. 5. C2 . Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1.

2 ( 1 − A) (2) Over 20 exact solutions to equation (2) for various values of k can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). For m = 1 k−1 ξ 1−k . 1◦ .3.1 with f (y ) = beβy .5 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = cw k . 2. axn 2 ∂2w βy ∂ w + be = cwm . 2 4n − 4 .2. the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + where A= A w = Bwk . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ).2. 2. ξ ξ (1) 4c 3nm − 4n − 4m + 4 . 4. aeβx 1◦ . 3. 2 ∂2w 4∂ w + aw = beβy w5 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.4. 4c . . the general solution of (1) is written out in implicit form as 3n − 4 C1 + 2c(3n − 4)2 wk+1 ab(k + 1)(2 − n)4 −1/2 dw = C2  ξ .5. The substitution ζ = ξ 1−A brings (1) to the Emden–Fowler equation wζζ = 2A B ζ 1−A wk . This is a special case of equation 5. axn ∂2w ∂x2 + by m ∂2w ∂y 2 = cwk . 5.4.5. Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ).5. abβ 2 µ2 where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + 3 w = Awm .9 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = cw m . For k ≠ 1.4. B= (2 − n)(2 − m) ab(2 − n)2 (2 − m)2 2◦ . ∂2w ∂2w + beµy = cwm . Here. ξ ξ A= (1) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . equation (1) admits an exact solution of the form 2(1 + k + A − Ak ) w= B (1 − k ) 2 2.5.7 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = cw m . 2 ∂x ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. Below are some exact solutions of equation (1). ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m 1/2 .4. ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy )1/2 .

2 2. and C are arbitrary constants.2◦ . 6. β 1+σ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 2 wwrr + wwr + σ wr = αw2 + βw + γ . β 1+σ . Traveling-wave solutions for α(1 + σ ) < 0: w(x. α k1 x + k2 y + C. 1+σ 2 + k2 k1 2 γ (1 + σ ) β 2 (1 + σ ) 2 − . w ∂2w ∂2w + ∂x2 ∂y 2 – ∂w ∂x 2 – ∂w ∂y 2 = αwβ . 2◦ . y ) = A1 + B1 cosh z . The substitution ζ = ξ −2 brings (1) to the Emden–Fowler equation −3 m wζζ = 1 4 Aζ w . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂w 2 ∂w ∂2w ∂2w + + σ + 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y 1◦ . r © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1: ∂2U ∂2U + = αe(β −2)U . y ) = A + B cos z . Traveling-wave solutions for α(1 + σ ) > 0: 7. k2 . 2 2 α (1 + 2σ ) ασ A1 = − B1 =  z= w(x. w w(x. α 1 + 2σ z= 2 = αw2 + βw + γ . α 1 + 2σ α k1 x + k2 y + C. 2. There is a solution of the form ab(2 − m)β 2 µ2 w (ξ ) = c(1 − m)2 1 m−1 ξ 1−m . r= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 .1. Solution: w = w(r). ασ α (1 + 2σ )2 A2 = − B2 =  where k1 . y ) = A2 + B2 sinh z . and C are arbitrary constants. α 1 + 2σ z= − α k1 x + k2 y + C.1. α2 (1 + 2σ )2 ασ A=− B= where k1 .2. 1+σ 2 + k2 k1 2 γ (1 + σ ) β 2 (1 + σ ) 2 − . The substitution w = eU leads to an equation of the form 5. k2 . Below are some exact solutions of equation (1). 3◦ . whose solution for m = 3 can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). β 1+σ .2. 1+σ 2 + k2 k1 2 β 2 (1 + σ ) 2 γ (1 + σ ) − 2 .

Zaitsev (2002). w(x. 2 . 3a(y + C2 )2 3 2 2 (x + B ) 3 a 2 C1 (y + A)13 + aC1 (y + A)8 (x + B ) + 3C1 (y + A)3 (x + B )2 − . It follows that its solution can be obtained with the formulas given in Items 1◦ and 2◦ .10 with f (w) = c1 wn and g (w) = c2 wk .4◦ . w(x. y ) = β 2(1 + 2σ ) k1 x + k2 y 2 k1 2 2 γ (1 + σ ) β (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 − . w(x. other solutions can be constructed. where C1 . C1 . 2βσ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 w + k 1 ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 w + k 2 ) = 0. is also a solution of the equation. C 2 y + C 4 ) + C 5 y + C 6 . y ) = C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 .4. w(x. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 w n ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 w k ) = 0. . + 2 k2 +C 2 − γ (1 + 2σ ) . D. .10 with f (w) = c1 w + k1 and g (w) = c2 w + k2 . .4. Polyanin and V. u 5◦ . For γ = 0. y ) = −aC1 y 2 + C2 y + C3 ! 3C1 4 B2 x + C1 y + C 2 ! (Ax + By + C3 )3/2 . y ) = (Ay + B )(2C1 x + C2 )3/2 − 3 12A2 3/2 x + C2 (x + C 2 ) 3 9aA2 + 4A − + C3 y + C 4 . β → 0. y ) = − aA2 (y + C1 )7 + 4A(x + C2 )3/2 (y + C1 )5/2 − 7 3a(y + C1 )2 where A. w(x. we apply the change of variable w = u2 to the original equation to obtain ∂u ∂u ∂2u ∂2u 2 1 + + (1 + 2σ ) + = 1 2 αu + 2 β . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. a 1◦ . y ) = − (x + C 2 ) 3 3 + C3 y + C 4 . 4(1 + σ ) βσ where k1 . k2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C4 are arbitrary constants (the first solution is degenerate). Suppose w(x. C . .4. ¤ Reference: A. Then the function −3 2 w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . F. Ibragimov (1985). y ) = −aA3 y 2 − aA2 3 3 aC1 1 (Ay + B )4 + C3 y + C4 . . and γ → 2 β . w(x. = 0. and C2 are arbitrary constants. ◦ (x + C 1 ) 3 + C3 y + C 4 .4. where variables and parameters should be renamed as follows: 1 σ → 1 + 2σ . Solutions for α = 0: w(x. t) is a solution of the equation in question. α → 1 2 α. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 9. To this end. Solutions: w(x. apart from the solutions presented in Items 1◦ to 3◦ . C6 are arbitrary constants. . 8. 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y This equation is a special case of the original one. ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is an equation of steady transonic gas flow. . . y ) = 39 3 3a(y + A)2 4 (C1 x + C4 )3/2 . ¤ Reference: N. H. B . y ) = − y + C1 y + C1 3a(y + C1 )2 w(x. y ) = w(x. C1 . ∂w ∂ 2 w + ∂2w 10.

S. where the functions ψk = ψk (y ) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ψ1 + 2aψ2 ψ3 = 0. C6 . F. θx θxx = C4 θ + C1 . dθ = x + C8 . ψ4 + 18aψ4 A particular solution of the system is given by 45 4 aϕ2 ϕ3 = 18aϕ2 3 = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ψ3 (y ) = C1 (y + A)−2 + C2 (y + A)3 . .w(x. S. References for equation 5. and C8 are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . R. Svirshchevskii (1995). 3a where A. 3◦ . ψ3 + 18aψ3 ψ4 = 0. 27 2 2 ψ2 (y ) = C3 (y + A)−1 + C4 (y + A)2 − aC1 (y + A)−2 − 2aC1 C2 (y + A)3 − 1 (y + A)−2 . y ) = ϕ1 (y ) + ϕ2 (y )x3/2 + ϕ3 (y )x3 . C2 . and the function U = U (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation aUz Uzz + k 2 z 2 Uzz − 5k (k + 1)zUz + 3(k + 1)(3k + 2)U = 0. B2 . y ) = y −3k−2 U (z ). C4 are arbitrary constants and y0 is any number. D. 2 = 0. Generalized separable solution cubic in x: w(x. C1 . Generalized separable solution: w(x.1. where the functions ϕk = ϕk (y ) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations 9 aϕ2 ϕ1 + 8 2 = 0. . y ) = ψ1 (y ) + ψ2 (y )x + ψ3 (y )x2 + ψ4 (y )x3 . C7 . + 3C1 θ + C7 where C5 . ψ 4 (y ) = − 6◦ .10: S. . A. Self-similar solution: 0. 2 aC 2 (y + A)8 . y ) = η (y )θ(x) − aC1 y 0 (y − t)η 2 (t) dt + C2 y + C3 . The solutions to equations (1) and (2) can be written out in implicit form: 2 aC4 η 3 C5 − 3 2 3 2 C4 θ #¤$ (1) (2) −1/2 −1/3 dη = C6 " y . . Titov (1988).6. ψ1 (y ) = −2a y y0 (y − t)ψ2 (t)ψ3 (t) dt + B1 y + B2 . The general solution of the first equation can be written out in implicit form (it is expressed in terms of the Weierstrass function). where k is an arbitrary constant. Generalized separable solution: w(x. ϕ2 + ϕ3 + where the prime stands for the differentiation with respect to y . and the functions η (y ) and θ(x) satisfy the autonomous ordinary differential equations (C4 is an arbitrary constant) ηyy + aC4 η 2 = 0. Polyanin and V. 2 ψ2 + 2a(2ψ3 + 3ψ2 ψ4 ) = 0. B1 . where C1 . 4◦ . Zaitsev (2002). z = xy k . and C3 are arbitrary constants.

and C2 are arbitrary constants. . . t) is a solution of the equation in question. 4(a + 1) 3C1 where C1 . Self-similar solution: where k is an arbitrary constant. and the function θ = θ(y ) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation a θyy + θy + (Ay 1−a + B )2 = 0. y ) = − a − 3 (x + C 2 ) 3 9A2 b . + b ∂y 2 y ∂y ∂x ∂x2 For b < 0. . . B . . C4 are arbitrary constants. 6◦ . Then the function −3 2 w1 = C1 C2 w(C1 x + C3 . C2 y ) + C4 y 1−a + C5 . . Suppose w(x. y ϕ1 + where the prime stands for the differentiation with respect to y . C1 .2 are roots of the quadratic equation where A. y Integrating yields θ (y ) = − AB 3−a A2 B2 y2 − y − y 4−2a + C3 y 1−a + C4 . y ) = − 2 bC1 y 2 + C2 y 1−a + C3 % (C1 x + C4 )3/2 . . (y + C1 )2n+2 + A(y + C1 )n (x + C2 )3/2 + 16(n + 1)(2n + 1 + a) 9b (y + C1 )2 n2 + (a − 1)n + 5 4 (a − 3) = 0. Generalized separable solution: 3 w(x. this equation describes a transonic gas flow. 1◦ . y ) = (Ay 1−a + B )(2C1 x + C2 )3/2 + 9bC1 θ(y ). 2◦ . z = xy k . C5 are arbitrary constants. Generalized separable solution: w(x.∂w ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w a ∂w + = 0. where the functions ϕk = ϕk (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 9 a ϕ + bϕ2 = 0. 3◦ . C1 . . 4◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ϕ2 + ϕ2 + y 4 a ϕ3 + ϕ3 + 18bϕ2 3 = 0. and the n = n1. and C2 are arbitrary constants. 11. is also a solution of the equation. y ) = ϕ1 (y ) + ϕ2 (y )x3/2 + ϕ3 (y )x3 . 2(a + 1) 3−a 2(2 − a)(3 − a) w(x. where C1 . y ) = y −3k−2 U (z ). Generalized separable solutions: w(x. where A. and the function U = U (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation bUz Uzz + k 2 z 2 Uzz + k (a − 5k − 5)zUz + (3k + 2)(3k + 3 − a)U = 0. y 1 8 2 45 a bϕ2 ϕ3 = 0. 5◦ . Additive separable solution: w(x.

ψ4 + ψ4 + 18bψ4 y ψ1 + 8◦ . C2 . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). D.7◦ . This equation occurs in combustion theory and is a special case of equation 5. References for equation 5.2. Here. and the function θ = θ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation θx θxx = C1 θ + C2 . Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 1. R. Zaitsev (2002). y ) is a solution of the equation in question.11: S. &¤' where C3 and C4 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. S. y ) = ξ (y ) + η (y )θ(x). Polyanin and V. 5.2. y a 2 = 0.1. Titov (1988). A. the functions ξ (y ) and η (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations a η + bC1 η 2 = 0. x sin λ + y cos λ). C3 . w1 = w ( ( C 1 w2 = w(x cos λ − y sin λ. where the functions ψk = ψk (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations a ψ + 2bψ2 ψ3 = 0. F.1.1. Generalized separable solution cubic in x: w(x. where C1 . Equations with Exponential Nonlinearities 2 2 + ∂ w = a + beβw + ceγw 5. 1◦ . Its solution can be written out in implicit form: 2 3 2 C1 θ + 3C2 θ + C3 −1/3 dθ = x + C4 . S. y ηyy + where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y y a ξyy + ξy + bC2 η 2 = 0. y 1 a 2 + 3ψ2 ψ4 ) = 0.6. Svirshchevskii (1995). Then the functions β β x + C2 .1 with f (w) = ae βw . ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = aeβw . Generalized separable solution: w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. ( C 1 y + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. y ) = ψ1 (y ) + ψ2 (y )x + ψ3 (y )x2 + ψ4 (y )x3 . ψ2 + ψ2 + 2b(2ψ3 y a ψ3 + ψ3 + 18bψ3 ψ4 = 0. and λ are arbitrary constants.

The first four solutions are of traveling-wave type and the last one is a radial symmetric solution with center at the point (−A. 2(A2 + B 2 ) 1 if aβ > 0. The original equation is related to the linear equation ∂2U ∂2U + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 by the B¨ acklund transformation ∂U 1 ∂w + β = ∂x 2 ∂y ∂U 1 ∂w − 2β = ∂y ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1/2 1 2 aβ 1/2 1 2 aβ (1) exp exp 1 2 βw 1 2 βw sin U . y ) = 2(A2 + B 2 ) 1 ln β aβ (Ax + By + C )2 if aβ > 0. 4◦ . Sabitov (2001). A = B = 0. w(x. y ) = − w(x. 4|Φz (z )| 0¤1 where Φ = Φ(z ) is an arbitrary analytic (holomorphic) function of the complex variable z = x + iy with nonzero derivative. (k − r 2 )2 √ k = 5 ) 2 6. Functional separable solutions: w(x. D. C2 . and the second one has a singularity at the circumference r = k. B . For a = β = 1. w r =1 Example. y ) = ln β aβ cosh2 (Ax + By + C ) 2(A2 + B 2 ) 1 if aβ > 0. 2k 2k 2 (B 2 − A2 ) 1 ln . y ) = w(x. F. w(x. β aβ [A cosh(kx + C1 ) + B sin(ky + C2 )]2 2k 2 (A2 + B 2 ) 1 . Zaitsev and A. I. cos U . w(x. A. B . V. and k are arbitrary constants (x and y can be swapped to give another three solutions). y ) = 2 ln C1 eky 2 β √ 2aβ cos(kx + C2 ) . (2) (3) . r ≤ 1. References: D. and C are arbitrary constants.2◦ . ◦ 5 . the boundary value problem for the circle r = x2 + y 2 ≤ 1 with the boundary condition = 0 has the following two solutions (see the last solution in Item 2◦ with a = β = 1. and the bar over a symbol denotes the complex conjugate. General solution: w(x. y ) = ln β aβ β where A. Reference: S. ln β aβ sinh2 (Ax + By + C ) −2(A2 + B 2 ) 1 if aβ < 0. C1 . w(x. y ) = ln β aβ cos2 (Ax + By + C ) 8C 2 1 − ln (x + A)2 + (y + B )2 − C . References: I. Frank-Kamenetskii (1987). 0¤1 The √ first solution is bounded at every point inside the circle. y ) = − 2 ln β |a|β 2 1 + sign(aβ )Φ(z )Φ(z ) . −B ). Vekua (1960). Polyanin (1996). Solutions: w(x. ◦ 3 . and C = k ): w (r ) = ln 8k . N. N. Aristov (1999). Kh. y ) = ln β aβ [A sinh(kx + C1 ) + B cos(ky + C2 )]2 0¤1 where A.

Suppose there is a (particular) solution U = U (x. 2 2 ∂x ∂y 4. Rubel (1993). Z.) and L. Pukhnachov. = aeβw + be–2βw . and A. R. Andreev. ln − 2 2 2 2 2 β C1 + C2 4C3 (C1 + C2 ) where C1 . y ) = − 2 2 a2 β 2 − bβ (C1 + C2 ) aβ 1 + C3 exp(C1 x + C2 y ) + exp(−C1 x − C2 y ) . one obtains separable equations. Traveling-wave solution (generalizes the solution of Item 1◦ ): w(x. 2 2 C1 + C2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 The transformation = aeβw – be–βw . y ) of the Laplace equation (1). ∂2w ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. V. w = − F − ln Ψ(x) − k e−F sin U dy . Miller (Jr. and C3 are arbitrary constants. y ) + k . Rodionov (1999). References: A. The function Ψ(x) is determined where k = 1 2 aβ after substituting this expression for w into equation (3). ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . K. β where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the first-order autonomous ordinary differential equations (ϕx )2 = 2aβϕ3 + C1 ϕ2 + C2 ϕ + C3 . Solving these equations for the derivatives. Reference: R. + w(x. Zhdanov (1994). V.3. we be reduced to a linear equation with the help of the change of variable z = exp − 2 have 2 ∂U 2 F = dy . 2◦ . C2 . y ) = u(x. J. and C3 are arbitrary constants. (ψy )2 = 2aβψ 3 − C1 ψ 2 + C2 ψ − C3 − bβ . 3◦ . K. O. ∂2w + ∂2w aβ 1 + ln 2 2 β C1 + C2 2 2 a2 β 2 + bβ (C1 + C2 ) sin(C1 x + C2 y + C3 ) . in the integration x is treated as a parameter. Traveling-wave solution: w(x. Infeld (1992). 3¤4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . V. y ) = − 3. Caudrey (1980). V. Grundland and E. y ) = − b 1 ln − + C1 exp a β a β x sin C2 + y cos C2 b . Kaptsov. where C1 . which can 1 βw).1. A. Bullough and P. M. Then (2) can be treated as a first-order ordinary differential equation for w = w(y ) with parameter x. C2 . Traveling-wave solution for bβ > 0: 2. 1/2 3¤4 = aeβw + be2βw . β β ∂x . Finally.1: √ ∂2u ∂2u + = 2 ab sinh(βu). w(x. k= b 1 ln 2β a leads to an equation of the form 5. A. J. ∂x2 ∂y 2 Functional separable solution: + w(x. y ) = ∂2w ∂2w 1 ln[ϕ(x) + ψ (y )].

∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y = ceβw . ∂x2 ∂y 2 The substitution U = αx + βy + µw leads to an equation of the form 5. Here.6. Equations of the Form ∂ f1 (x.4. y .2.2.1: ∂2U ∂2U + = AµeU .2.1. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = A(x2 + y 2 )eβw . ∂2w ∂2w + = a + beβw + ce2βw . and g = g (w) is a source function that defines the law of heat (substance) release or absorption.1. w ) 5. y ) ∂w = g (w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equations of this form are encountered in stationary problems of heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. z= 2 The transformation ζ = xy leads to a simpler equation of the form 5.2. 1 (x2 − y 2 ). Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 1. 5.7: u ∂2u ∂2u + ∂x2 ∂y 2 − ∂u ∂x − ∂u ∂y + aβu2 + bβu + cβ = 0. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = Aeαxy+βx+γy eµw . ζ ). ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 4.2. ∂2w ∂2w + = Aeαx+βy eµw . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2U ∂2U + = AµeU . 1. w = U (z .1.1 with f (w) = ceβw . ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 2 The substitution u = e−βw leads to a equation with a quadratic nonlinearity of the form 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 3.5. 2 2 + ∂ w = f (x.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. y ) ∂w + ∂ f2 (x.1: ∂2U ∂2U + = AeβU . This is a special case of equation 5. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = A(x2 + y 2 )k eβw . This is a special case of equation 5. f1 and f2 are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on the space coordinates x and y .3.3 with f (w) = Aeβw .1: 2.2. The substitution U = αxy + βx + γy + µw leads to an equation of the form 5.1.4.

For A = 0. C . β z = yx 2−m . we obtain from (1) several n ab(2 − n)4 more families of exact solutions to the original equation: 3.1◦ . 3. Then the function w1 = w C 2−n x. There is an exact solution of the form w(x. 4◦ . Below are some exact solutions of equation (1). Here. 2 2λ2 1 ln β βB sinh2 (λξ + C ) −2λ2 1 w(ξ ) = ln β βB cosh2 (λξ + C ) −8λ2 C1 C2 1 w(ξ ) = ln β βB C1 eλξ + C2 e−λξ where λ. . y ) = U (z ) + n−2 ln x. is also a solution of the equation. n−2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . w(ξ ) = ln − β βB β ab(2 − n)4 where C is an arbitrary constant. Suppose w(x. B= . there is a solution of the form w (ξ ) = − Bβ 1 ln ξ2 . (2 − n)(2 − m) 3◦ . another family of exact solutions follows 3. which corresponds to m = n−1 from (1): 8C 2 4c(n − 1)2 1 − ln(ξ 2 + C ). if βB > 0. For A = 1. 2◦ . and C2 are arbitrary constants. ξ ξ B= 4c . For A ≠ 1. ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m 1/2 . C1 . C 2−m y + 2 2 2 ln C . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ). the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + where A= A w = Beβw . y ) is a solution of the equation in question. ab(2 − n)2 (2 − m)2 (1) 4 − nm . if βB > 0. n .1. if βB < 0. which corresponds to m = w (ξ ) = w (ξ ) = w (ξ ) = 2 1 ln β βB (ξ + C )2 2λ2 1 ln β βB cos2 (λξ + C ) if βB > 0. β where C is an arbitrary constant.2.3. β 2(1 − A) cn2 4 and B = .

4. a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 . λ A= n . Then the function w1 = w C 2−n x. abβ 2 µ2 β x. ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy 1 w = Aeλw . Suppose w(x. This is a special case of equation 5. is also a solution of the equation. β µ λ where C is an arbitrary constant. Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(ξ ). y − 2 2 2 ln C + ln C . β λ where C is an arbitrary constant. Functional separable solution: w=− cλ(2 − n) x2−n e−βy 1 ln + λ (1 − n) a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 e−βy x2−n + . Suppose w(x. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and β ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(ξ ). ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beβy ∂w ∂y z=y− = ceλw . µ 4◦ . ξ ξ n−2 ln x. 2◦ .8 with f (w) = ceλw . y ) is a solution of the equation in question. Here.6 with f (w) = ceλw . ξ2 = 4 where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + A w = ceλw . This is a special case of equation 5. ξ ξ β x.4. y ) = U (z ) + z=y+ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂ ∂x aeβx ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beµy ∂w ∂y = ceλw . y ) = U (z ) + 3. Then the function w1 = w x − 2 2 2 ln C . is also a solution of the equation. y ) is a solution of the equation in question.3. 2−n 2−n ln x. 3◦ . 2◦ . 1◦ . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. 3◦ . β 4◦ . the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ − A= 4c . There is an exact solution of the form w(x. Functional separable solution: w=− e−βx e−µy 1 ln cλ + λ aβ 2 bµ2 . λ 1/2 .3.2. y − ln C + ln C . 1◦ .

4. . ∂ ∂x (ay + c) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y (bx + 5 ) ∂w ∂y = keλw . This is a special case of equation 5. w(x. . C2 . are also solutions of the equation. w = w(x) and w = w(y ). y ) = ln(−aA2 y 2 + By + C ) − ln(−aAx + D). and q are arbitrary constants. This is a special case of equation 5. .4. k1 .2. w(x. 1. 5. f1 = f1 (w) and f2 = f2 (w) are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on the temperature (concentration) w. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 k1 w+ 2 ak2 eβw = C1 (k1 x + k2 y ) + C2 .4. Then the functions β y + C4 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. Equations of the Form ∂ f1 (w ) ∂w + ∂ f2 (w ) ∂w = g (w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equations of this form are encountered in stationary problems of heat and mass transfer and combustion theory. 6 C 1 C 2 where C1 . y ) = ln(Ay 2 + By + C ) + ln β β aA cosh2 (px + q ) 1 p2 1 . β 2 1 w(x. y ) is a solution of this equation.4. y ) = w(x. β where C1 . 1◦ .4. C . are not treated in this subsection. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .1 with f (w) = keλw . Suppose w(x.2 with f (w) = keλw . ∂ ∂w ∂2w + aeβw 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y = 0. p.4. ∂ ∂x (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y ∂2w ∂2w + ( bx + s ) = keλw . B . w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 3 . ln(Ay 2 + By + C ) + ln β β −aA sinh2 (px + q ) where A. D. Here. 3◦ . Additive separable solutions: 1 ln(Ay + B ) + Cx + D. ∂x2 ∂y 2 (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w ∂y = keλw . β β 1 p2 1 . y ) = 1 p2 1 . and g = g (w) is a source function that defines the law of heat (substance) release or absorption. and k2 are arbitrary constants. C4 are arbitrary constants. The equation can be rewritten in the form (ay + c) 5. 2◦ . Simple solutions dependent on a single coordinate. y ) = ln(Ay 2 + By + C ) + ln β β −aA cos2 (px + q ) w(x. .

5◦ . β −λ 2 ln |x|. w = U (ξ ) − β where k is an arbitrary constant and the function U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2(k + 1) + k (k − 1)ξUξ + k 2 ξ 2 Uξξ + (aeβU Uξ )ξ = 0. 2 λ λ λ2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . = beλw . and the function u(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 βu k1 uzz + ak2 (e uz )z = beλu . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). ∂y ∂y 1◦ . Czu = z 2 + aeβu . C2 . ξ = yx λ . u = u(z ). y ) = H (ζ ) − x. whose solution is expressed in terms of Bessel functions. we get a Riccati equation for z = z (u). Treating u as the independent variable. Self-similar solution (A and B are arbitrary constants): x+A . ξ = y |x|k . z = k1 x + k2 y .8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = ae βw .4. λ where the function U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2◦ . This equation admits the first integral z 2 + aeβu uz = C . 2 The substitution Θ(u) = (uz ) leads to the first-order linear equation 2 2 βu 2 (k 1 + ak2 e )Θu + 2ak2 βeβu Θ = 2beλu . 7◦ . where k1 and k2 are arbitrary constants. 7 C 1 y + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. y ) is a solution of this equation. Traveling-wave solution: 3◦ . η = y + k ln |x|. w1 = w ( 7 C 1 ∂2w + ∂ ∂w where C1 . Suppose w(x. For other solutions. z = y+B where the function u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (z 2 uz )z + (aeβu uz )z = 0. y ) = F (η ) − ln |x|. β 2 w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. w = u(z ). 2. see equation 5.4. β 6◦ . ζ = yex . There are exact solutions of the following forms: 2 w(x. Solution (generalizes the solution of Item 4◦ ): 2(k + 1) ln |x|.4◦ . Solution: w = U (ξ ) − (β − λ ) 2 2 2 (β − λ)(β − 2λ) + ξUξ + ξ Uξξ + (aeβU Uξ )ξ = beλU . β where k is an arbitrary constant. Then the functions ∂x2 aeβw λ−β λ x + C2 .

k1 . Then the functions 3. ξ = y + k ln |x|. C4 are arbitrary constants. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . 4◦ . β + γ ≠ 0. z = y |x|k−1 . 4. 8 C 1 C2 y + C4 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. 8 C 1 y + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equations (A is an arbitrary constant) ϕxx + β (ϕx )2 = Abe(γ −β )ϕ . . Suppose w(x. see 5. Remark. y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). 5◦ .4. w(x. which are independent of each other. Suppose w(x. w(x. C1 . η = ye(β −γ )x . Particular solutions to equations (2) are given by ϕ(x) = ψ (y ) = Ab(β − γ )2 1 ln (x + C 3 ) 2 . and k2 are arbitrary constants. eγψ − −1/2 where B1 . C2 . (1) Here. dψ = C2 8 y . There are exact solutions of the following forms: 2k ln |x|. β−γ 2(β + γ ) Aa(β − γ )2 1 ln − (y + C 4 ) 2 . and C2 are arbitrary constants. C2 . where k is an arbitrary constant. Then the functions eβw eγw λ−β λ−γ x + C2 . y ) = H (η ) + 2x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . y ) = F (z ) + β−γ 2 ln |x|. a = ceλw . y ) = G(ξ ) + β−γ w(x. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). For other exact solutions of the original equation. Additive separable solution: w(x. γ−β 2(β + γ ) where C4 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y ) is a solution of this equation.8 with f (w) = ae βw and g (w) = beγw . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and C3 are arbitrary constants. w1 = w ( 8 C 1 C2 where C1 . where C1 .∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aeβw + beγw = 0. (2) ψyy + γ (ψy )2 = −Aae(β −γ )ψ . w1 = w ( 8 C 1 ∂ ∂w +b ∂ ∂w where C1 . 2◦ . y ) is a solution of this equation. . Integrating yields the general solutions to the equations of (2) in implicit form: eβϕ 2Ab (β +γ )ϕ e + B1 β+γ 2Aa (β +γ )ψ e + B2 β+γ −1/2 dϕ = C1 8 x. 3◦ . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 −1 βw 2 −1 γw ak1 β e + bk2 γ e = C 1 (k 1 x + k 2 y ) + C 2 . B2 . . β γ x + C3 . . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily).4.

y ) = ln β aA2 sinh2 (Cx + D) C 2 sinh2 (Ay + B ) 1 . w(x. y ) = G(ξ ) + z = k 1 x + k2 y . and D are arbitrary constants. There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. 3. Self-similar solution: w = w(z ). see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).5. Then the functions β y + C4 .2. y ) = ln β a sinh2 (Bx + C ) β aA2 (x + C ) 2 B2 ( y + A) 2 1 1 cos2 (Ay + B ) 1 . Other Equations Involving Arbitrary Parameters 1.2. B . ∂2w ∂2w + = aeβw ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 . This is a special case of equation 5.4 with f (ξ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . This is a special case of equation 5. C .4.4. y ) = ln β aA2 sinh2 (Cx + D) 1 C 2 sinh2 (Ay + B ) ln . y ) = Axy + By + Cx + D. a The substitution U = exp − eβw dw leads to the two-dimensional Laplace equation for β U = U (x. y ) = ln 2 β a cos (Bx + C ) β aA2 (x + C )2 w(x. t) is a solution of this equation. . w 9 = w (C 1 x + C 3 . w ( x . 2 ln |x|. y ) = F (z ). @ C 1 C 2 ∂2w + aeβw ∂2w where C1 . ) − 2 ln |C2 |. w(x. λ−γ 5.9 with f (w) = aeβw . are also solutions of the equation. Suppose w(x. y ) = ln . y ): ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (z 2 + aeβw )wzz + 2zwz = 0. Solutions: w(x. w(x. w) = ceβw . y ) = w(x. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 + a ∂w x ∂x + b ∂w y ∂y = ceβw . . β−λ ξ = y |x| β −λ . w(x.2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. C4 are arbitrary constants.2◦ . 3◦ . β aA2 cos2 (Cx + D) 1 C 2 cos2 (Ay + B ) ln . ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . w(x. β aA2 cos2 (Cx + D) where A. y ) = ln . . 2. w(x. 1 B2 ( y + A) 2 1 sinh2 (Ay + B ) 1 . z = y/x. The first solution is degenerate and the others are representable as the sum of functions with different arguments. a > 0. = 0. y ) = C 2 cos2 (Ay + B ) 1 . 2◦ .

β 4◦ . the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + where A= (1) 3nm − 4n − 4m + 4 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Then the functions λ−β λ y + C2 . C2 . and k are arbitrary constants. 2 eβu + ak2 3◦ . β where C is an arbitrary constant. Suppose w(x. z = k 1 x + k2 y . β −λ 2 ln |x|. y ) is a solution of this equation.4. A C1 x + C3 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). Suppose w(x. and the function u(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2 2 βu (k 1 + ak2 e )uzz = beλu . Solution: = beλw .2(k + 1) ln |x + C1 |. where k1 and k2 are arbitrary constants.5 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = ce βw . and the function U = U (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = U (ζ ) − (k 2 ζ 2 + aeβU )Uζζ + k (k − 1)ζUζ + 4. λ where the function U (ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation F (u) = 2b 2 k1 eλu du + C2 . Then the function 2 ln C . 2◦ . Here. Its solution can be written out in implicit form as du √ = C1 A z . ξ λ λ2 λ2 5. C 2−m y + 2 2 2◦ . F (u ) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 1◦ . ab(2 − n)2 (2 − m)2 1/2 . y ) is a solution of the equation in question. is also a solution of the equation. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(ξ ). w1 = w C 2−n x. Traveling-wave solution: w = u(z ). ∂2w + aeβw ∂2w 2(k + 1) = 0. ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m A w = Beβw . ζ = (y + C2 )(x + C1 )k . ξ ξ B= 4c . C2 . (2 − n)(2 − m) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . axn 2 ∂2w m∂ w + by = ceβw . β where C1 . ξ = y |x| λ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . w1 = w ( A C 1 where C1 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. Solution: w = U (ξ ) − (β − λ ) 2 2 2 (β − λ)(β − 2λ) + ξU + ξ Uξξ + aeβU Uξξ = beλU .5.

1.4. which corresponds to m = n−1 from (1): 2 8C 4c(n − 1)2 1 − ln(ξ 2 + C ). abβ 2 µ2 1 1 ln − Aλξ 2 . another family of exact solutions follows 3. β 2(1 − A) c(3n − 4)2 4n − 4 and B = . aeβx ∂2w ∂x2 + beµy ∂2w ∂y 2 = ceλw . 2◦ . n . This is a special case of equation 5. y ) is a solution of the equation in question.7 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = ce βw . For A = 1. Below are some exact solutions of equation (1).3. For A ≠ 1. if βB < 0. Suppose w(x.2. 1◦ . the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + which admits the exact solution w=− ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w ∂y 2 3 w = Aeλw . equation (1) admits an exact solution of the form w (ξ ) = − Bβ 1 ln ξ2 .3◦ . Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). Here. 3. β µ λ where C is an arbitrary constant. . ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy )1/2 . if βB > 0. which corresponds to m = w (ξ ) = w (ξ ) = 2λ2 1 ln β βB cos2 (λξ + C ) if βB > 0. ξ ξ A= 4c . 6. B= w(ξ ) = ln − β βB β ab(2 − n)4 where C is an arbitrary constant. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . axn + beβy = ceλw .5.4. y − ln C + ln C . 2λ2 1 ln β βB sinh2 (λξ + C ) −2λ2 1 w(ξ ) = ln β βB cosh2 (λξ + C ) where λ and C are arbitrary constants. λ 4 7. Then the function w1 = w x − 2 2 2 ln C . we obtain from (1) 3n − 4 ab(2 − n)4 several more families of exact solutions to the original equation: 3.5. This is a special case of equation 5. For A = 0.9 with k = s = 0 and f (w) = ce λw . is also a solution of the equation.

B¤C References: R. y ) = arctanh f (x)g (y ) . A. z = 2bβ (1 − k 2 ) (x sin C1 + y cos C1 + C2 ) if |k | < 1.3. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: D+ 2a cosh(βw) β (A 2 + B 2 ) −1/2 dw = Ax + By + C .1 with f (w) = a sinh(βw). J. Bullough and P. + where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . 2◦ . Lee (1987). and A. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.3. Denote k = 2b Traveling-wave solutions: 1 − k sin z 1 arccosh . 1. gy = −Cg 4 + (aβ − B )g 2 − A.4. −C2 ): w = w(ξ ). and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wξξ + wξ = a sinh(βw). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. w=D β sin z − k 2. K.3.3. .1) ∂2U ∂2U + = a sin(βU ) ∂x2 ∂y 2 by the B¨ acklund transformation ∂U ∂w + =2 ∂x ∂y ∂U ∂w − =2 ∂y ∂x ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w a 1 sin 2 βU cosh β a 1 cos 2 βU sinh β 1 2 βw 1 2 βw 2 . H. β 2 1−z where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (y ) are determined by the first-order autonomous ordinary differential equations 2 fx = Af 4 + Bf 2 + C . = a sinh(βw) + b sinh(2βw). H. Caudrey (1980).5. B .1. and Y. C. ξ ◦ 3 . B . Solution with central symmetry about the point (−C1 . Functional separable solution: 1 1+z 4 arctanh z = ln . C. The original equation is related to (see 5. Cheb.1. w=D 2 arctanh β ξ k+1 tanh . ξ= k−1 2 2bβ (k 2 − 1) (x sin C1 + y cos C1 + C2 ) if |k | > 1. and C are arbitrary constants. 1◦ . Equations Involving Other Nonlinearities 5. ξ= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 . ∂y 2 a . where A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and D are arbitrary constants. w(x. Equations with Hyperbolic Nonlinearities ∂2w ∂2w + = a sinh(βw). C . Wing.

∂2w ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w 2 + ∂w 2 8. Equations with Logarithmic Nonlinearities = αw ln(βw). + = a coshn (βw) 7. y ) = A(x + B )2 E Aα −4A2 (x + B )(y + C ) + ( 4 2. B .4. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. On making the change of variable U = ln(βw).1. 6.6 with f (w) = k sinh(λw). ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. y ) = F (ξ ). and D are arbitrary constants. Equation (1) has a traveling-wave solution: U (x.2.4. ξ= De−2F + © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC dF . Equation (1) has exact solutions quadratic in the independent variables: 1.4.9 with f (w) = a coshn (βw).4.4.1 with f (w) = k sinh(βw). .1.4.8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = a cosh(βw).1 with f (w) = αw ln(βw). ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.2 with f (w) = a cosh(βw).4. the function F = F (ξ ) is defined implicitly by α 1 (F − 2 ) A2 + B 2 where A. ∂2w ∂2w + = a(x2 + y 2 ) sinh(βw). 2◦ .2 with f (w) = a sinh(βw). 9. one obtains an equation with a quadratic nonlinearity: 2 2 ∂U ∂U ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + + + = αU .3. ξ = Ax + By + C . (1) ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 1◦ . √ 1 α − A)(y + C )2 + 1 U (x.4. y ) = 1 4 α(x + A) + 4 α(y + B ) + 1. ∂x2 ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.3. −1/2 Here. ∂2w + ∂2w where A. = k sinh(βw). ∂ ∂w + a cosh(βw) = 0.1.3. B . axn by m ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂ aeβx + beµy = k sinh(λw). 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. 5. = a(x2 + y 2 ) cosh(βw).3. C . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 4. and C are arbitrary constants. . + ∂2w + ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = aeβx sinh(λw).4.4 with f (w) = a sinh(λw).1. 2 2 1 U (x.2.

2◦ .8 with f (x) = bxn and g (y ) = cy k . B1 .2 with f (w) = α ln(βw). Shercliff (1977). G¤H ∂2w + ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w C is an arbitrary constant. = axw + bw ln |w|. ζ= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 .6 with k = a2 = a0 = 0. Reference: V. and B2 are arbitrary constants. Andreev.1.4 with f (w) = a ln(λw). 4◦ . A.4. A. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. Multiplicative separable solution: b a2 1 a . A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. 5. Kazenin (1998).4. Equation (1) has a solution in the form of the sum of functions with different arguments: U (x. 4.3◦ . Here. A.2. 3. I. = aeβx ln(λw). ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.4. Kaptsov. A2 . K. A. O. Vyazmin. V. 2. ∂2w ∂2w + = α(x2 + y 2 ) ln(βw). G¤H where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. V. ζ References: J. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕxx = bϕ ln |ϕ| + (ax + C )ϕ. D. ∂2w ∂2w + = aw ln w + (bxn + cy k )w. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). + 1◦ . y ) = exp − x + (y + C )2 + 3 + b 4 b 2 where C is an arbitrary constant.1. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This equation is used for describing some flows of ideal stratified fluids. Polyanin. and D. Zhurov.3. the functions f = f (x) and g = g (y ) are defined implicitly by A1 F x = A2 F y = 1 α B1 e−2f + αf − 2 1 α B2 e−2g + αg − 2 −1/2 −1/2 df .1. It is a special case of equation 5. Multiplicative separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 1 ◦ ): w(x. w(x. Rodionov (1999). ψyy = bψ ln |ψ | − Cψ . where A1 . dg . The original equation admits exact solutions of the form w = w(ζ ). y ) = f (x) + g (y ). V. and A. Pukhnachov. and the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wζζ + wζ = αw ln(βw). V.

y b1 b2 x + + 2 + 2. Pukhnachov. 9. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. ∂2w + ∂2w = a lnn (βw) ∂w 2 References: G. where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation k+1 wr = a0 w + bw ln |w|. C is an arbitrary constant. V. Andreev.6.8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = a ln n (βw). C is an arbitrary constant. V. Traveling-wave solution: 10. ∂x2 ∂y 2 . w(x. O. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations k ϕxx + ϕx = bϕ ln |ϕ| + (a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 + C )ϕ. Kaptsov. y ) = exp Ax2 + 3◦ . y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.2. It also occurs in plasma physics. 2 2 ∂x ∂y x ∂x Grad–Shafranov equation (with k = −1 and a1 = a0 = 0). V. w = w(ξ ).4. [(a2 y + b2 )ψy ]y − kψ ln ψ − Cψ = 0.4. Solution for a1 = a2 = 0: 2◦ .4.9 with f (w) = a lnn (βw).4 with f (ξ . Rodionov (1999). (y + B )2 + A(k + 1) − + 4 b b 2 where B is an arbitrary constant. 2◦ . A. This equation is used to describe some steady-state axisymmetric (swirling) flows of ideal fluids. 1◦ . ∂2w + ∂ a lnn (βw) ∂w ∂x ∂x ∂y 1◦ . where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations [(a1 x + b1 )ϕx ]x − kϕ ln(βϕ) + Cϕ = 0. x ∂x y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. and A. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x.4. V.2. 2 a0 1 b . a1 a2 a1 a2 where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (ξwξ )ξ = kw ln(βw). Solutions for a1 = 0: A= 1 bI 8 b2 + 16a2 . w = w(r). 8. K. Rosen (1969). r = x2 + y 2 . ∂x2 ∂ (a 1 x + b 1 ) ∂w + ∂ (a 2 y + b 2 ) ∂w ∂y = kw ln(βw). ∂2w + ∂2w + a ∂w + b ∂w + ∂w 2 = 0. k ∂w ∂2w ∂2w + + = (a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 )w + bw ln |w|. 7. ξ= © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . wrr + r P¤Q = cwn ln(βw). w) = cw n ln(βw). ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. x ψyy = bψ ln |ψ | − Cψ .

∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m = k ln(βw).6 with f (w) = kw ln w and a special case of equation 5. y ) = 4 arctan cot A cos A (x − By ).∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. F = √ 1 + B2 where A and B are arbitrary constants. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC cosh F . ξ= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 . = α sin(βw). 15.6 with f (w) = k ln(λw).1 with f (w) = α sin(βw).4. = kw ln w. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. and D are arbitrary constants.1 with f (w) = kw ln w and a special case of equation 5. B . ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m = kw ln w.3. Equations with Trigonometric Nonlinearities 1.4.3. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5.1. ξ ◦ 3 . and A. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aeβx + beµy = k ln(λw).3. −C2 ): w = w(ξ ). C . Functional separable solution for α = β = 1: w(x.1 with f (w) = k ln(βw). 12.3.4.3. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5. 5. 2◦ . 11.3.3.4. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y This is a special case of equation 5.4.4. 13.4. dw = z . Traveling-wave solution: z = Ax + By + C .2 with f (w) = kw ln w. Solution with central symmetry about the point (−C1 .4.3. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wξξ + wξ = α sin(βw).9 with f (x) = aeβx and g (y ) = beµy . w = w(z ). G= √ 1 + B2 . where w(z ) is defined implicitly by D− 2α cos(βw) β (A 2 + B 2 ) −1/2 ∂2w + ∂2w 1◦ .9 with f (x) = axn and g (y ) = by m . ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aeβx + beµy = kw ln w.4. cosh G sin A (y + Bx). 14.

∂y 2 a . J. A. Miller (Jr.1. and A.4 with f (w) = a sin(λw). Denote k = 2b Traveling-wave solutions: 2. −i ∂y ∂x 2 k 2 R¤S where i2 = −1. ∂2w ∂2w + = α(x2 + y 2 ) sin(βw). K. Functional separable solution (generalizes the solution of Item 3 ◦ ): w(x. z= β 2 1 − k2 ξ k+1 2 tan arctan √ . Kaptsov.3. 2bβ (k 2 − 1) (x sin C1 + y cos C1 + C2 ) if |k | > 1. Rodionov (1999). V.4. and C are arbitrary constants. A.4. J. gy 2 = Cg 4 + (αβ − B )g 2 + A. O. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5.3. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 4. ∂x ∂y 2 k 2 w+w 1 w−w ∂ w ∂w = + k sin − sin .3. = aeβx sin(λw). ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a special case of equation 5. ξ= β 2 k2 − 1 ∂2w ∂y 2 2bβ (1 − k 2 ) (x sin C1 + y cos C1 + C2 ) if |k | < 1. and A. Pukhnachov. Bullough and P. 5◦ . References for equation 5. = α(x2 + y 2 ) cos(βw).4. 1 π leads to an equation of the form 5. Rubel (1993). V. ∂2w + ∂2w where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 6. ∂x2 w=T w=T z k+1 2 coth arctan √ . Auto-B¨ acklund transformations (α = β = 1): ∂w w+w 1 w−w ∂w = −i + k sin + sin .) and L. 3.1: R.1: The substitution βw = βu + 2 ∂2u ∂2u + = −α sin(βu).1. V.3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . K.2 with f (w) = α sin(βw).4◦ . Caudrey (1980). ∂2w ∂x2 + = α cos(βw). B . = a sin(βw) + b sin(2βw). β where the functions f = f (x) and g = g (y ) are determined by the first-order autonomous ordinary differential equations 2 fx = Af 4 + Bf 2 + C . + ∂2w + ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 5. Andreev. y ) = 4 arctan f (x)g (y ) . V.2 with f (w) = α cos(βw).1.

C2 . Suppose w = w(x. 5. Example 12). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .9 with f (w) = a cos(βw).3. y . U y + C2 ).1 and equations 5.3. 2◦ . Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 1. see Subsections 5. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = a cos(βw) ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 .4. B . 1◦ .3. Then the functions w1 = w(U x + C1 .4. and 5. w2 = w(x cos β − y sin β .1 (see also Subsection S.8 with f (w) = 1 and g (w) = a cos n (βw). C .1.1. For exact solutions of the original equation for some f (w). 8.3. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. w ) 5.1.4. ∂w ∂ aeβx ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂w beµy ∂y ∂y = k sin(λw). Solution with central symmetry about the point (−C1 . where C1 . This is a special case of equation 5. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function w = w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wζζ + wζ = f (w). This is a special case of equation 5.5. and D are arbitrary constants. 9. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). This is a special case of equation 5. 3◦ . 5. F (w ) = f (w) dw. −C2 ): w = w(ζ ).4. where A.1. and β are arbitrary constants. ζ= (x + C 1 ) 2 + (y + C 2 ) 2 .1.2.2.3. Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 2 2 + ∂ w = F (x.2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This is a stationary heat equation with a nonlinear source. x sin β + y cos β ).6 with f (w) = k sin(λw).4.7.4.1 with f (w) = k sin(βw). ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂ ∂y a cosn (βw) ∂w ∂y = 0.3.1 and 5. ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y = k sin(βw).4. ζ 4◦ . ∂2w ∂2w + = f (w). This is a special case of equation 5. 10.3. Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: C+ 2 F (w ) 2 A + B2 −1/2 dw = Ax + By + D.

Here. ∂2w ∂2w + = (x2 + y 2 )f (w). ∂x2 + w1 = w(x cos β − y sin β . Self-similar solution: 1 w = r2 f (w). 2 2 z= 1 2 (x − y ). where the function w = w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + 3◦ . x sin β + y cos β ). Then the function 3. Solution with central symmetry: w = w(r). F (w ) = f (w) dw. Suppose w = w(x. ζ ). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. the function w = w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wzz = f (w). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . ζ = xy leads to a simpler equation of the form 5. r= x2 + y 2 . ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 W¤X Reference: A. r r ζ = xy . F. ∂y 2 1◦ . The transformation w = U (z . Polyanin and V. Suppose w = w(x. w = w(ζ ). is also a solution of the equation. = (x2 + y 2 )k f (w). Then the function w1 = w(x cos β − y sin β .1: ∂2U ∂2U + = f (U ). whose general solution can be written out in implicit form as C1 + 2F (w) −1/2 dw = C2 V ζ . the function w = w(ζ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wζζ = f (w).4. where β is an arbitrary constant.1. Here. 4◦ . y ) is a solution of this equation. D. Functional separable solution: w = w(z ). 2 2 z= 1 2 (x − y ). F (w ) = f (w) dw. whose general solution can be written out in implicit form as C1 + 2F (w) −1/2 dw = C2 V z .2. Zaitsev (2002). x sin β + y cos β ). is also a solution of the equation. where β is an arbitrary constant. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w ∂2w . y ) is a solution of this equation. 5◦ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ .

4. transformation (3) coincides with transformation (2). D. ∂u2 ∂v 2 `¤a Reference: A. x2 + y 2 z=− − y ) for k = 2. 4.1: ∂2w ∂2w + = f (w). . for any integer k ≠ −1. Solution with central symmetry: w = w(r). where the function w = w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + 1 w = r2k f (w). . Zaitsev (2002). For k = Y 1. z= z= 3 1 3 (x − 3xy ). ζ = 1 2 ln(x2 + y 2 ). k+1 ζ= 1 k+1 r sin (k + 1)ϕ . Reference: A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . It follows from (2) that z2 + ζ 2 = 1 (x2 + y 2 )k+1 . (k + 1)2 4◦ .1.1: ∂2W ∂2W + = 4β −2 f (W ). 2(k + 1) ζ= (x + iy )k+1 − (x − iy )k+1 . y for k = −1. z= 2 ζ = xy 2 2 1 3 (3x y 3 for k = 1.1. u = exp 1 2 βx 1 2 βy The transformation cos . The transformation z= 1 k+1 r cos (k + 1)ϕ . . k+1 (3) `¤a where x = r cos ϕ and y = r sin ϕ. D. 2(k + 1)i i2 = −1 (2) leads to equation (1). F. Suppose k is an arbitrary constant (k ≠ −1). v ). Zaitsev (2002). Polyanin and V. x . Suppose k = Y 1. ∂x2 ∂y 2 w = W (u.2◦ . ζ = arctan x y ζ= 2 for k = −2 x + y2 leads to a simpler equation of the form 5. leads to the simpler equation (1). . F. ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 (1) For arbitrary f = f (w).4. Y 2. Polyanin and V. r= x2 + y 2 . v = exp 1 2 βx sin 1 2 βy leads to a simpler equation of the form 5. . and a solution of the form w = w(z 2 + ζ 2 ). where A and B are arbitrary constants. r r 3◦ . this equation admits a traveling-wave solution w = w(Az + Bζ ). The transformation 1 (x2 − y 2 ). . the transformation z= (x + iy )k+1 + (x − iy )k+1 . Y 2. ∂2w ∂2w + = eβx f (w). . In the general case.

5. leads to an equation of the form 5. w(x. y ) = ln |ϕ(z )|2 + ε|ψ (z )|2 .4: ∂2w ∂2w + = eβξ f (w). sin σ = b/β . 2◦ . y ) = ε|F (z )|2. ∂2w ∂2w + = eax–by f (w). y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). Multiplicative separable solution: where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕxx − a ln ϕ + f (x) + C ϕ = 0. Another representation of the general solution with β = −2: w(x.4. Φ ψ2 = Φ a exp − C 2 z z0 F dz . Kh. Suppose f (x. y ) = − |βF (z )| 1 + ε sign(β )Φ(z )Φ(z ) 2 ln . 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = aw ln w + f (x)w. the bar over a symbol denotes the complex conjugate. where ε = b 1 and F = F (z ) is a prescribed analytic function of the complex variable z = x + iy . η = x sin σ + y cos σ . β 4|Φz (z )| where Φ = Φ(z ) is an arbitrary analytic (holomorphic) function of the complex variable z = x + iy with nonzero derivative. The condition just mentioned means that the function Φ can only have simple zeros. ∂x2 ∂y 2 √ Let us represent the exponent of e in the form ax − by = β (x cos σ − y sin σ ). β= a 2 + b2 . and C is an arbitrary constant. Sabitov (2001). and Φ = Φ(z ) is an arbitrary holomorphic function satisfying the condition Φ (z∗ ) = b 1 2 aF (z∗ ) at any point z = z∗ where Φ(z∗ ) = 0. 1◦ . ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = f (x. The transformation ξ = x cos σ − y sin σ . cos σ = a/β . ψyy − a ln ψ − C ψ = 0. C ≠ 0 is any. Φ where |a| = 1. General solution: w(x. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 6. z0 is an arbitrary point in the complex plane. the holomorphic functions ϕ = ϕ(z ) and ψ = ψ (z ) are given by ϕ2 = C Φ exp a 2 z z0 F dz . c¤d Reference: I.1. y )eβw . Here.

w). Suppose w = w(x. ψyy − a ln ψ + g (y ) − C ψ = 0. ∂x2 ∂y 2 Solution: w = w(ξ ). w1 = w(x cos β − y sin β . ζ = xy . leads to the simpler equation e¤f 1 (x2 − y 2 ). = (x2 + y 2 )f (xy . 2 . is also a solution of the equation. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . ∂x2 ∂y 2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (a2 + b2 )wξξ = f (ξ .∂2w ∂2w + = aw ln w + f (x) + g (y ) w. ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 Reference: A. ∂2w ∂2w + = f (x2 + y 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ξ = ax + by . ξ = x2 + y 2 1/2 ∂2w + ∂2w . Solution with central symmetry: w = w(ξ ). w). ζ ). and C is an arbitrary constant. w). y ) = e−ay ϕ(x). Then the function 11. 2◦ . D. = f (x)w ln w + af (x)y + g (x) w. Self-similar solution: w = w(ζ ). ∂2w ∂2w + = f (ax + by . where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 wξξ + wξ = f (ξ 2 . where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations ϕxx − a ln ϕ + f (x) + C ϕ = 0. w). where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 9. w). 8. ∂x2 ∂y 2 Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . The transformation ◦ ∂2w ∂2w w = U (z . w). Polyanin and V. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). F. ϕxx = f (x)ϕ ln ϕ + g (x) − a2 ϕ. y ) is a solution of this equation. ξ 12. z= 2 ζ = xy ∂2U ∂2U + = f (ζ . 10. x sin β + y cos β ). where the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation + wζζ = f (ζ . where β is an arbitrary constant. U ). Zaitsev (2002).

√ law of heat The transformation ξ = x/ a. In the case of an incompressible fluid. z= 2 where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wzz = f (2z .4. ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 This equation describes steady-state mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a translationalshear fluid flow. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . w). Here. ∂2w ∂2w + = (x2 + y 2 )f (x2 – y 2 . the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 = 0. η = y/ b leads to an equation of the form 5. ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w = ∂2w + ∂2w z = a 2 x + (k − a 1 )y . Traveling-wave solution: 2. ∂x2 ∂y 2 This equation describes steady-state processes of heat/mass transfer or combustion in anisotropic media. y . 2 2 z= 1 2 (x − y ). w). U ). ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 – f (w). The substitution U = w + A11 x2 + A12 xy + A22 y 2 + B1 x + B2 y leads to an equation of the form 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 2 + b∂ w = F x. ζ = xy ∂ 2U ∂ 2 U + = f (2z . Remark.2. and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 kz + a2 c1 + (k − a1 )c2 wz = a2 2 + (k − a1 ) wzz − f (w ).1: ∂2w ∂2w + = f (w).4.1. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 1 (x2 − y 2 ). where k is a root of the quadratic equation k 2 − (a1 + b2 )k + a1 b2 − a2 b1 = 0.1. (a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) ∂x2 w = w(z ). ∂w 5. ∂w . ∂z 2 ∂ζ 2 14. ∂2w ∂x2 + ∂2w ∂y 2 = f w + A11 x2 + A12 xy + A22 y 2 + B1 x + B2 y . The transformation leads to the simpler equation w = U (z .4. Functional separable solution: w = w(z ). w .13. a ∂2w ∂2w + b = f (w). a and b are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) and f = f (w) is a kinetic function that defines the √ (substance) release. Equations of the Form a ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 1. ζ ).1: ∂2U ∂2U + = f (U ) + 2A11 + 2A22 . 2◦ .

ϕ2 (x) ϕ g 0. Here. ψxx = (4f ϕ + g )ψ . where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + 5. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. 4. respectively. ψ (x). and h are omitted): ϕxx = 4f ϕ2 + gϕ. the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations aϕxx = f1 (x)ϕx + kϕ ln ϕ + g1 (x) + C ϕ. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). 2003) ψ (x) = C1 ϕ(x) + C2 ϕ(x) dx . ∂x2 ∂y 2 x ∂x y ∂y Solution with central symmetry: + w = w(ξ ). which are linear in ψ and χ. g . where C is an arbitrary constant. equation (2) is given by ϕ = − 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Whenever a solution ϕ = ϕ(x) of the nonlinear equation (2) is found. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Solution: w = w(z ). the general solution to (3) is given by (see Polyanin and Zaitsev. the functions ψ = ψ (x) and χ = χ(x) can be determined successively from equations (3) and (4). Note that equation (2) has the trivial particular solution ϕ(x) ≡ 0. bψyy = f2 (y )ψy + kψ ln ψ + g2 (y ) − C ψ .∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w + b + cx – cy = (bx2 + ay 2 )f (w). w). z = xy . and χ(x) are determined by the following system of ordinary differential equations (the arguments of f . ξ ∂w ∂y + kw ln w + g1 (x) + g2 (y ) w. a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂2w ∂y 2 = f 1 (x ) ∂w a+b+1 wξ = f (ξ 2 . (1) ∂2w +a ∂2w = f (x ) ∂w 2 where the functions ϕ(x). Hence. ∂x Multiplicative separable solution: + f 2 (y ) w(x. w). 3. to which there corresponds solution (1) linear in y . then a particular solution to 1 g/f = const. a where the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation wzz = f (w). If the functions f and g are proportional. a ∂w b ∂w + + = f (x2 + y 2 . It is apparent from the comparison of equations (2) and (3) that (3) has the particular solution ψ = ϕ(x). (2) (3) (4) χxx = gχ + f ψ 2 + h − 2aϕ. 6. + g (x)w + h(x). ξ = x2 + y 2 1/2 ∂2w ∂2w .

Note two special cases of solution (6) that involve hyperbolic functions. In the special case f = const. y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (x) A exp y −b + B exp −y −b . the general solution of equation (5) is the sum of exponentials (or sine and cosine). B = − 2 3◦ . 2◦ . A = 2 . (4) then particular solutions of equation (2) are given by where k1 and k2 are roots of the quadratic equation bk 2 + αk + β = 0. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). h = βf ϕ = k1 . 8. These are: √ 1 1 . Generalized separable solution (generalizes the solutions of Item 1 ◦ ): √ √ w(x. In this case.∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y ◦ 1 . ψxx = 2bf ϕψ + gψ + abψ . Polyanin (1996). where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ψxx = 2bf ϕψ + gψ + abψ . D. y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (x) cos y b + c . (2) (3) Whenever a solution ϕ = ϕ(x) of equation (2) is found. (6) where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations b > 0.e. ∂y There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in y : + h 1 (x )y + h 0 (x ) w(x. ϕxx = bf ϕ2 + 4ABψ 2 + gϕ + h. 2. The books by Kamke (1977) and Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003) present a large number of exact solutions to the linear equation (5) for various f = f (x). y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (x) sinh y −b . and h are proportional. w(x. and h are omitted): ϕxx = bf ϕ2 + gϕ + h.. (1) where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the following system of ordinary differential equations (the arguments of f . ψxx = (2bf ϕ + g + ab)ψ . i¤p b < 0. (5) ψxx = (2bkn + α)f + ab ψ . which is linear in ψ . ϕxx = bf ϕ2 + ψ 2 + gϕ + h. g = αf . References: V. g . Generalized separable solutions: 7. (α. a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂2w ∂y 2 = f (x ) ∂w ∂y 2 + g (x ) ∂w ∂x ∂w + p(x)w + q2 (x)y 2 + q1 (x)y + q0 (x). y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (x) cosh y −b . If the functions f . Generalized separable solution (c is an arbitrary constant): √ w(x. b < 0. i. β = const). h w(x. B= 2 . equation (3) can be rewritten as n = 1. w(x. the functions ψ = ψ (x) can be determined by solving equation (3). F. V. Galaktionov (1995). y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (x) exp √ y −b . A = 2 √ 1 1 . g . Zaitsev and A. A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂2w +a ∂2w = f (x ) ∂w 2 + bf (x)w2 + g (x)w + h(x). ϕ = k2 .

∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x Solutions are sought in the traveling-wave form w = w(z ). f (w) dw . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 11. − g2 (y )ψy − kψ − h2 (y ) = −C . z = Ax + By + C . c1 Ak + c2 B k = C . a ∂2w +b ∂2w = f (x ) ∂w ∂x n + g (y ) ∂w ∂y m + kw. aϕxx − f (x) ϕx bψyy − g (y ) ψy n m Here. the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations − kϕ = C . ∂x ∂y w(x. ∂2w + ∂2w = f (w ) U= ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 . (1) (2) (3) where the constants A. Equations (1) and (2) are first solved for A and B and then equation (3) is used to evaluate C . ∂2w + ∂2w = (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w k − g1 (x)ϕx − kϕ − h1 (x) = C . y ): ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0.∂x2 ∂y 2 The substitution 9. Awz . n m Here. w(x. a ∂2w ∂x2 +b ∂2w ∂y 2 = f 1 (x ) ∂w ∂x n + f 2 (y ) ∂w ∂y m + g 1 (x ) Additive separable solution: ∂w ∂w + g 2 (y ) + h1 (x) + h2 (y ) + kw. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). dw . where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂x2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. where F (w) = exp F (w ) leads to the two-dimensional Laplace equation for U = U (x. and C are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations a 1 A k + a 2 B k = A. ∂w ∂x . b1 Ak + b2 B k = B . − kψ = −C . ∂x2 ∂y 2 Additive separable solution: 10. Bwz . B . The unknown function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (A2 + B 2 )wzz = z (wz )k + f w. y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). ∂w ∂y . 12. + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w ∂y k + f w. the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations aϕxx − f1 (x) ϕx bψyy − f2 (y ) ψy where C is an arbitrary constant.

Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: 1. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. 1 ∂w 1 ∂w = f 1 x.4. h = h(w) is the kinetic function (source function). the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + where A= (1) 4 4 − nm . Here. ξ ξ 1/2 ∂ ∂w + ∂ ∂w . 5. the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations aϕxx − f1 x. = f (w). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 14. w. f = f (x) and g = g (y ) are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on coordinates. ∂x2 ∂y 2 w ∂x w ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. axn by m w = w(ξ ). are not considered in this subsection. ∂w ∂y + kw. Here. = −C . ψy − kψ = −C . the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations a ϕ ϕxx − f1 x. which defines the law of heat (substance) release of absorption. Heat and Mass Transfer Equations of the Form ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w = h(w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equations of this form describe steady-state heat/mass transfer or combustion processes in inhomogeneous anisotropic media.3. 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x Additive separable solution: 13. a + f2 y . It is given by C1 + 2n2 F (w ) ab(2 − n)4 −1/2 dw = C2 q ξ . The simple solutions dependent on a single coordinate. ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m A w = Bf (w).∂w ∂2w ∂2w + b = f 1 x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1◦ . w(x. a family of exact solutions to the original equation with arbitrary f = f (w) follows from (1). where C is an arbitrary constant. (2 − n)(2 − m) ab(2 − n)2 (2 − m)2 For m = 4/n. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). y ) = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). w = w(x) or w = w(y ). x ϕ ϕ ψy ψyy − f2 y . bψyy − f2 y . F (w ) = f (w) dw. w + f2 y . ϕx − kϕ = C . a +b Here. Here. B= . ∂2w ∂2w where C is an arbitrary constant. b ψ ψ = C.

3. = f (w).3. wξξ − wξ = Af (w). ∂y ∂y The substitution ζ = |y | leads to an equation of the form 5. (1) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 1 A= . (2) wζζ = ( 1 − A) 2 A large number of exact solutions to equation (2) for various f = f (w) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). w = w(ξ ). Zaitsev and A.2◦ . D. ξ = bµ2 (x + C1 )2 + 4ae−µy where C1 is an arbitrary constant and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 1 f (w).4. 5.1: ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aζ n + bη m = f (w). ∂x2 6. F. 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y Functional separable solution for µ ≠ 0: 1/2 4. D. Polyanin (1996). ∂ ∂ n ∂w m ∂w a |x | + c + b |y | + t = f (w). C2 + abµ2 where C2 and C3 are arbitrary constants. ξ abβ 2 µ2 The substitution ζ = ξ 2 brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation −1 wζζ = 1 4 Aζ f (w ). η = y + s leads to an equation of the form 5. r¤s Reference: V.4. a = f (w). wξξ = abµ2 The general solution of this equation with arbitrary kinetic function f = f (w) is defined implicitly by −1/2 2 F ( w ) dw = C3 u ξ . w = w(ξ ). s = const) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003).4. Polyanin (1996). F (w) = f (w) dw. . ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ a (x + c ) n + b (y + t ) m = f (w). r¤s Reference: V. 1/2 ∂2w + ∂ beµ|y| ∂w ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aeβx + beµy ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0: whose solutions with f (w) = (kw + s )−1 and f (w) = (kw + s )−2 (k . η = |y | + s leads to an equation of the form 5.1: ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aζ n + bη m = f (w).3. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y The transformation ζ = |x| + c. ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂η ∂η 2. ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂η ∂η ∂ ∂w ∂2w + beµy = f (w). a . Zaitsev and A. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y The transformation ζ = x + c.4. The substitution ζ = ξ 1−A brings (1) to the generalized Emden–Fowler equation 2A B ζ 1−A f (w). F.

F.4. (ay + c) ∂2w ∂x2 + (bx + x ) ∂2w ∂y 2 = f (w). ξ = (a2 b)−1/3 x + (ab2 )−1/3 y + (a2 b)−2/3 c + (ab2 )−2/3 s . w ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. 5. The transformation ζ = |x|. w ) ∂w = h(x.4. there is an exact solution of the form w = w(ξ ). ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beµy ∂w ∂y = f (w). ∂ ∂x f (x ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y g (y ) ∂w ∂y = aw ln w + bw. This equation can be rewritten in the divergence form ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (ay + c) + (bx + s ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y For ab ≠ 0.3. Polyanin and V. ξ = bµ2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 e−µy 1/2 .6 with k = a. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and µ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). w ) ∂w + ∂ g (x. y . v¤w ∂w ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: Reference: A. y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). Zaitsev (2002).7. and h2 (y ) = 0. 2 2−n ξ abµ (2 − n)2 = kw ln w. h1 (x) = b.4. w(x. where the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations [f (x)ϕx ]x = kϕ ln ϕ + Cϕ. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. η = |y | leads to an equation of the form 5. This is a special case of equation 5.6. Equations of the Form ∂ f (x. ∂ ∂x f (x ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y g (y ) 4 n 1 wξ = f (w). = f (w).4. where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ = f (w). [g (y )ψy ]y = kψ ln ψ − Cψ . ∂ ∂x aeβ|x| ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y beµ|y| ∂w ∂y = f (w). 8. and C is an arbitrary constant. 10. where the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wξξ + 9. y . D. y .

where A. This solution is degenerate. y ) = ϕ(y )x + ψ (y ). Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. z = Ax + By + C . C1 . and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕxx + 6f ϕ2 = 0. Since ψ = ϕ(x) is a particular solution to equation (2). ∂ ∂w + = 0. and x0 are arbitrary constants. (1) (2) (3) where the constants A. c1 A2 + c2 B 2 = C . C2 . 4. For f = aeλx .∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Solutions are sought in the traveling wave form 2. a particular solution to (1) is given 2 −λx . Generalized separable solution linear in y : w(x. U (x. 2003) ψ (x) = C1 ϕ(x) + C2 ϕ(x) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. = f (w). ∂2w dx . the general solution is expressed as (see Polyanin and Zaitsev. (1) (2) (3) χxx + 2f ϕχ + 2ϕg + f ψ 2 = 0. f (x )w + g (x ) ∂x2 ∂y ∂y 1◦ . and C are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations a 1 A 2 + a 2 B 2 = A. B . ψxx + 6f ϕψ = 0. √ ∂y w + a ∂y √ The substitution U = w + a leads to the equation ∂x2 + ∂ ∂U ∂ U ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂U f (y ) ∂y ∂y = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y ) = ϕ(y )x2 + ψ (y )x + χ(y ). y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). 3. y ) = (Ax + B )y − x x0 ∂2w (x − t)(At + B )2 f (t) dt + C1 x + C2 . ϕ2 (x) which has a generalized separable solution of the form U (x. The nonlinear equation (1) is treated independently from the others. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). ψ = ψ (x). B . f (y ) ∂w = 0. Equations (1) and (2) are first solved for A and B and then equation (3) is used to evaluate C . Equations (2) and (3) are solved successively (these are linear in their respective by ϕ = − λ 6a e unknowns). b1 A2 + b2 B 2 = B . its solution can be expressed in terms of elliptic integrals. The unknown function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation zwzz + (Aa1 + Bb2 )wz = f (w). w = w(z ). 2◦ . For f ≡ const.

the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations e−ϕ [f eϕ ϕx ]x − kϕ − h1 (x) = C . Self-similar solution: w = w(z ). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 6. Suppose w(x. z = y/x. C2 . are also solutions of the equation. 2◦ . 7. Then the functions w1 = w(C1 x + C2 . ∂ ∂x f (x ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y g (x )w + h (x ) ∂w ∂y = 0. There are generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in y : w(x. ∂w ∂ f (x ) ∂x ∂x + ∂ ∂w g (y ) ∂y ∂y = kw ln w + h1 (x) + h2 (y ) w. where C1 . 1◦ . y ) is a solution of the equation in question. 2◦ . y C1 y + C3 ). 3◦ . ∂2w ∂2w + f ( w ) = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 8. Then the function w1 = w(C1 x + C2 . y C1 y + C3 ). e−ψ [geψ ψy ]y − kψ − h2 (y ) = −C . where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. This is a stationary anisotropic heat (diffusion) equation.5. and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . f (w) and g (w) are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients). y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). Here. C2 . Degenerate solution: w = C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . C1 . y ) is a solution of this equation. B . where A. Suppose w(x. where the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [z 2 + f (w)]wzz + 2zwz = 0. y ) = ϕ(x)y + ψ (x). ∂ ∂x f (w ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y g (w ) ∂w ∂y = 0. where C is an arbitrary constant. is also a solution of the equation. y ) = exp ϕ(x) + ψ (y ) . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: A2 f (w) + B 2 g (w) dw = C1 (Ax + By ) + C2 . w(x.

g (w)[C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . 1 1 Z (w ) + C 4 . and the differential operator Lf is defined as L f [ϕ ] ≡ 8◦ . Solution in parametric form: x = [C1 sin(λv ) + C2 cos(λv )]Z (w) + C3 . Solution in parametric form: x = [C 1 F (w ) + C 2 ]v + C 3 F (w ) + C 4 . y = (C1 eλv − C2 e−λv ) λ f (w ) w where C1 . . ζ= x+α . .3◦ . . Solution in parametric form: x = [C 1 F (w ) + C 2 ]v 2 + C 3 F (w ) + C 4 − 2 y= 1 C1 v 3 + C3 v − 2v 3 f (w ) g (w)[C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw dw. . . 6◦ . 4◦ . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . y+β (1) where the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [f (w)wζ ]ζ + [ζ 2 g (w)wζ ]ζ = 0. the function H = H (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lf [H ] + λ2 g (w)H = 0. y = [C2 sin(λv ) − C1 cos(λv )] λ f (w ) w where C1 . Integrating (1) and taking w to be the independent variable. g (w)[C1 F (w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . C5 are arbitrary constants. Self-similar solution (α and β are arbitrary constants): w = w(ζ ). G (w ) = g (w) dw. Solution in parametric form: x = (C1 eλv + C2 e−λv )H (w) + C3 . . one obtains a Riccati equation for ζ = ζ (w): Cζw = g (w)ζ 2 + f (w). . dw f (w) dw (3) . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. Solution in parametric form: x = C1 v 2 + C2 v − f (w)[2C1 G(w) + C3 ] dw + C4 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1 dϕ d . . y = −[2C1 G(w) + C3 ]v − C2 G(w) + C5 . (2) where C is an arbitrary constant. 1 1 H (w ) + C 4 . 7◦ . . y= 1 C1 v 2 + C3 v − 2 F (w ) = f (w) dw. . . . A large number of exact solutions to equation (2) for various f = f (w) and g = g (w) can be found in Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). where C1 . and the function Z = Z (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lf [Z ] − λ2 g (w)Z = 0.

v ): 1 ∂x ∂2x ∂ + g (w) 2 = 0. Solution in parametric form: x= 1 C1 v 2 + C3 v − 2 f (w)[C1 G(w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . y = C 1 v 2 + C2 v − 10◦ . g (w ) f (w)[C1 G(w) + C2 ] dw dw.9◦ . and the differential operator Lg is defined by (3) with f (w) = g (w). y as the dependent ones. F (w ) = f (w) dw. and the differential operator Lg is defined by (3) with f (w) = g (w). y = − [C 1 G (w ) + C 2 ]v − C 3 G (w ) + C 4 . 11◦ . C2 . v ). the function H = H (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lg [H ] + λ2 f (w)H = 0. 13◦ . where w. ∂w f (w) ∂w ∂v © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (7) . C3 . x = − [C2 sin(λv ) − C1 cos(λv )] λ g (w ) w y = [C1 sin(λv ) + C2 cos(λv )]Z (w) + C4 . where C1 . y = − [C 1 G (w ) + C 2 ]v 2 − C 3 G (w ) + C 4 + 2 12◦ . where C1 . C2 . ∂y ∂x (4) (5) x = x(w. C3 . v ). 14◦ . x = − (C1 eλv − C2 e−λv ) λ g (w ) w y = (C1 eλv + C2 e−λv )H (w) + C4 . Solution in parametric form: x = [2C1 F (w) + C3 ]v + C2 F (w) + C5 . G (w ) = g (w) dw. (6) f (w ) ∂v ∂w ∂v ∂w Eliminating y yields the following linear equation for x = x(w. g (w)[2C1 F (w) + C3 ] dw + C4 . y = y (w. and λ are arbitrary constants. the function Z = Z (w) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Lg [Z ] − λ2 f (w)Z = 0. v are treated as the independent variables and x. and λ are arbitrary constants. Solution in parametric form: x= 1 C1 v 3 + C3 v − 2v 3 f (w)[C1 G(w) + C2 ] dw + C5 . Solution in parametric form: 1 1 Z (w ) + C 3 . Solution in parametric form: 1 1 H (w ) + C 3 . ∂x ∂y − g (w ) ∂w ∂v = . The original equation can be represented as the sum of the equations f (w ) The hodograph transformation ∂w ∂v = . brings (4) to the linear system ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y = . − g (w ) = .

. F (w ) = f (w) dw. v ) is found in the form w v ∂x 1 ∂x (w. . −f ) and y = Φ(w. one finds an exact solution to the linear equation (7) for x = x(w. ∂w g (w) ∂w ∂v (8) The procedure for constructing exact solutions to the original equation consists of the following two stages. g ). We have 1 ∂y ∂2y ∂ + f (w) 2 = 0. v . v ) is defined by (9) and. this solution is substituted into the linear system (6). in conjunction with relation (11). .Likewise. . 1). v ). First. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . gives a solution to the original nonlinear equation in parametric form. v ) and then find x = x(w. (9) y= f ( w ) ∂w ∂v w0 v0 where w0 and v0 are any numbers. ϕk−1 (w) = Ak F (w) + Bk − 2k (2k − 1) where the Ak and Bk are arbitrary constants (k = n. ψk−1 (w) = Ak F (w) + Bk − 2k (2k + 1) where the Ak and Bk are arbitrary constants (k = n. v0 ) dη . g ) be a solution to equation (7). ξ ) dξ + g (w) ∂w w f (η ) w0 ∂y (η . in conjunction with relation (10). v . 16◦ . . −f ) also solve this system. Likewise. we can obtain another linear equation for y = y (w. one can first construct an exact solution to the linear equation (8) for y = y (w. Remark 1. v . f (w ) g (w)ϕk (w) dw dw. g ) be a solution to system of equations (6). Solutions to equation (7) with odd powers of v : n x= k=0 ψk (w)v 2k+1 . Then. from which the function y = y (w. F (w ) = f (w) dw. f . The function y = y (w. Let x = Φ(w. f ) solves equation (8). v . The function y = y (w. . Then y = Φ(w. ∂v where w0 and v0 are any numbers. Remark 2. Let x = Φ(w. −g . v ) from (6) in the form x=− v v0 1 ∂y (w. f (w ) g (w)ψk (w) dw dw. f . 15◦ . −g . v ) is defined by (9) and. v . y = Ψ(w. The thus obtained expressions of (5) define a solution to the original equation in parametric form. Then the functions x = Ψ(w. v0 ) dη . v . (11) where the functions ψk = ψk (w) are determined by the recurrence relations ψ n (w ) = A n F (w ) + B n . f . v ) from system (6). g . Solutions to equation (7) with even powers of v : n x= k=0 ϕk (w)v 2k . 1). ξ ) dξ − g (η ) (η . gives a solution to the original nonlinear equation in parametric form. (10) where the functions ϕk = ϕk (w) are determined by the recurrence relations ϕ n (w ) = A n F (w ) + B n . . .

we obtain a first-order linear equation for ξ = ξ (w): Cξw = ξ + A2 f (w) + B 2 g (w). Zaitsev and A. D. y ) is a solution of this equation. is added to the right-hand side of the original equation. 5.5. Traveling-wave solution: 9. ∂x ¯ 2 ∂y 2 For solutions of this linear equation. a 1 x + b 1 y + f (w ) ∂w + ∂ a 2 x + b 2 y + g (w ) ξ = Ax + By . ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . In the special case g (w) = k 2 f (w). equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 = 0. F. 2 ϕ (w ) = a 2 2 f (w ) + (k − a1 ) g (w ). w = w(z ). Remark 1. Other Equations 1. b 1 A2 + b2 B 2 = B . y . ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w = (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 ) ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂w z = a 2 x + (k − a 1 )y . a 1 A 2 + a 2 B 2 = A. are also solutions of the equation.4. = f (y )w 5 .4. . In the case of an incompressible fluid. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Remark 2. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Polyanin (2001). Zaitsev (2002). ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y This equation describes steady-state anisotropic heat/mass transfer in a translational-shear fluid flow. Then the functions w1 = C1 w ‚ ∂2w + aw4 ∂2w 2 C1 x + C2 .17◦ . h(w). Suppose w(x. leads to the Laplace equation u= f (w) dw €¤ ∂ 2 u ∂ 2u + = 0. F. ∂w ∂y = 0. where k is a root of the quadratic equation k 2 − (a1 + b2 )k + a1 b2 − a2 b1 = 0. the transformation x ¯ = kx. Polyanin and V.4. where the constants A and B are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations The desired function w(ξ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation (C is an arbitrary constant): ξ + A 2 f (w ) + B 2 g (w ) w ξ = C . A. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). ∂ ∂x ∂x ∂y Solutions are sought in the traveling-wave form w = w(ξ ). 10. Taking w to be the independent variable. D.8: V. The above remains the same if an arbitrary function. and the function w(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [ϕ(w)wz ]z = [kz + a2 c1 + (k − a1 )c2 ]wz . References for equation 5.

ζ ) = x ϕ(η ). ζ ) = ξ (kx + λζ ) ξ (x. equation (2) has exact solutions with the following structures. + g 1 (x ) ∂x ∂y There is a generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. 3. a(ψ n ψy )y − f (y )ψ n+1 − Cψ = 0. = f (y )wn+1 + g (x)w. ∂y ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). a(eλψ ψy )y − f (y )eλψ − C = 0. C .2◦ . where k . D. and C is an arbitrary constant. bringing it to the form ζ= 2 ∂2ξ 4∂ ξ + aξ = 0. 2. ∂2w ∂x2 + f 3 (x )w + f 2 (x )y 2 + f 1 (x )y + f 0 (x ) ∂2w = g 2 (x ) ∂w 2 ∂2w ∂ ∂w ∂y ∂y Additive separable solution: where the functions ψ = ψ (y ) and ϕ = ϕ(x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ϕxx − g (x) + Ceλϕ = 0. λ. Let u = u(y ) be any nontrivial particular solution of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation auyy − f (y )u = 0. (multiplicative separable solution). ξ= 2 u u simplifies the original equation considerably. and β are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev and A. ζ ) = Axζ + Bζ + Cx + D. ζ ) = g (x)h(ζ ) ξ (x. for example: ξ (x. F. where A. (1) w dy . to the linear equation aUyy − λf (y )U − λC = 0. β ƒ¤„ (traveling-wave solution). ∂x2 ∂ζ 2 The transformation (2) This equation is independent of f explicitly and has a degenerate solution ξ (x. 4. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). Reference: V. with the change of variable U = eλψ . ∂y 2 ∂y ∂w ∂w + h 1 (x )y + h 0 (x ) + … 3 (x)w + … 2 (x)y 2 + … 1 (x)y + … 0 (x). w = ϕ(x) + ψ (y ). The second equation can be reduced. Polyanin (1996). Furthermore. ∂x2 +a wn where the functions ψ = ψ (y ) and ϕ = ϕ(x) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C is an arbitrary constant) ϕxx − g (x)ϕ + Cϕn+1 = 0. and D are arbitrary constants. η = ζx −2β −1 (self-similar solution). ∂2w ∂x2 +a ∂ eλw ∂w = f (y )eλw + g (x). B .

Here. Here. ξ ξ (1) 2 2 A= 1 4 ab(2 − n) (2 − m) . F (w ) = f (w) dw. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. aeβx ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m 1/2 ∂2w + by m ∂2w + kxn–1 f (w) ∂w + † y m–1 f (w) ∂w . Reference: V. D. 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Functional separable solution for βµ ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Awξξ + where B= 1 4 (2 − n)(2 − m) ab(3nm − 4n − 4m + 4) + 2bk (2 − m) + 2as (2 − n) .2 ∂w ∂w ∂2w m∂ w + by + kxn–1 + † y m–1 = f (w). 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂w ∂w + keβx f (w) + † eµy f (w) = g (w). Polyanin (1996). ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy 1/2 ∂2w ∂2w . there is a functional separable solution of the form 8. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y For βµ ≠ 0. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. axn w = w(ξ ). aeβx + beµy w = w(ξ ). ξ = bµ2 e−βx + aβ 2 e−µy 1/2 . ξ ξ (1) 1 B= 4 βµ(3abβµ − 2bkµ − 2as β ). 2 F (w ) A −1/2 dw = C2 ‡ ξ . 2 ∂w ∂w ∂2w µy ∂ w + be + keβx + † eµy = f (w). B w = f (w). axn ∂x2 ∂y 2 w = w(ξ ). 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: 5. F (w ) = f (w) dw. there is a functional separable solution of the form 6. F. ∂x ∂y For n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2. ξ = b(2 − m)2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 y 2−m 1/2 . the function w = w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Awξξ + where 2 2 A= 1 4 abβ µ . Zaitsev and A. Solution of equation (1) with B = 0 and arbitrary f = f (w) in implicit form: C1 + ˆ¤‰ B w = f (w). = g (w). Solution of equation (1) with B = 0 and arbitrary f = f (w) in implicit form: C1 + 2 F (w ) A −1/2 dw = C2 ‡ ξ .

. the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Awξξ + where 2 2 A= 1 4 abβ (2 − n) . ξ ξ (1) 1 B= 4 β (2 − n) abβ (4 − 3n) + 2bkβ − 2as (2 − n) . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Here. ∂w ∂y . 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Functional separable solution β ≠ 0 and n ≠ 2: 9. µ = (ab2 )−1/3 . B . ξ = bβ 2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 e−βy 1/2 . ∂w ∂x . the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ = f w. Reference: V. there is a functional separable solution of the form 10. where β = (a2 b)−1/3 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 Solutions are sought in the traveling-wave form w = w(ξ ). . The desired function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξwξξ = f w. Equations (1) and (2) are first solved for A and B and then equation (3) is used to evaluate C . = g (w). βwξ .2 ∂w ∂w ∂2w βy ∂ w + be + kxn–1 +  eβy = f (w). ξ = Ax + By + C . Awξ . c1 A + c2 B = C . and C are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations a 1 A 2 + a 2 B 2 = A. axn w = w(ξ ). 12. ξ = (a2 b)−1/3 x + (ab2 )−1/3 y + (a2 b)−2/3 c + (ab2 )−2/3 s . Zaitsev and A. µwξ . F. Bwξ . Polyanin (1996). B w = f (w). axn w = w(ξ ). (a1 x + b1 y + c1 ) ∂2w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 ) ∂2w = f w. Here. (ay + c) ξ = bβ 2 x2−n + a(2 − n)2 e−βy 1/2 ∂2w + beβy ∂2w + kxn–1 f (w) ∂w +  eβy f (w) ∂w . D. Solution of equation (1) with B = 0 and arbitrary f = f (w) in implicit form: C1 + ’¤“ 2 F (w ) A −1/2 dw = C2 ‘ ξ . ∂w ∂w ∂2w ∂2w + ( bx + = f w. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y For β ≠ 0 and n ≠ 2.  ) ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y Functional separable solution for ab ≠ 0: w = w(ξ ). where the constants A. 2 2 2 2 (1) (2) (3) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . b1 A + b2 B = B . F (w ) = f (w) dw. 11.

Traveling-wave solution: ξ = Ax + By . ∂w ∂y = h w.∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w + f ( y ) = g 1 (x ) + g 2 (y ) + kw ln w + h1 (x) + h2 (y ) w. 14. and φ(x) is determined by the second-order linear ordinary differential equation φxx + f (x)φx + h(x)φ = 0. C1 y + C2 + φ(x). Awξ . and C are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξ = h w. w) = ξ + A2 f (w) + B 2 g (w). Bwξ . ∂w ∂y . where the constants A. ϕ(ξ . f1 (x) Here. 0. A 2 b1 + B 2 b2 = B . w )w ξ where the constants A. 2 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 1◦ . 16. y ) is a solution of this equation. where the prime stands for the differentiation with respect to x. 13. Bwξ . Awξ . ∂w ∂x . Generalized separable solution: w(x. b 1 A2 + b2 B 2 = B . where C is an arbitrary constant. ∂w ∂x . y ) = ϕ1 (x) + ϕ2 (x)y 3/2 + ϕ3 (x)y 3 . y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). w = w(ξ ). ∂x Traveling-wave solution: 15. ∂w ∂y . a 1 x + b 1 y + f (w ) ∂2w ∂x2 + a 2 x + b 2 y + g (w ) w = w(ξ ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . A 2 a 1 + B 2 a 2 = A. B . the functions ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations f1 (x)ϕxx = g1 (x)ϕx + kϕ ln ϕ + h1 (x) + C ϕ. ∂2w ∂y 2 = h w. B . where the functions ϕk = ϕk (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 9 g (x)ϕ2 ϕ1 + f (x)ϕ1 + 8 2 + h(x)ϕ1 = 0. ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂2w + f (x ) + g (x ) + h(x)w = 0. 2◦ . Then the function −3 w1 = C1 w x. 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ∂ a 1 x + b 1 y + f (w ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y a 2 x + b 2 y + g (w ) ξ = Ax + By . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. and C are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ξ + A2 f (w) + B 2 g (w) wξξ = h w. a 1 A 2 + a 2 B 2 = A. is also a solution of the equation. ϕ (ξ . f2 (y )ψyy = g2 (y )ψy + kψ ln ψ + h2 (y ) − C ψ . Suppose w(x. ϕ2 + f (x)ϕ2 + ϕ3 + f (x)ϕ3 + 45 4 g (x)ϕ2 ϕ3 + h(x)ϕ2 = 18g (x)ϕ2 3 + h(x)ϕ3 = 0.

η ) = 0. y ).3◦ . C2 . and C4 are arbitrary constants. whose solution can be written out in implicit form. η ) = xξ + yη − w(x. where C1 . 2 ψ2 + f (x)ψ2 + 2g (x)(2ψ3 + 3ψ2 ψ4 ) + h(x)ϕ2 = 0. ψ3 + f (x)ψ3 + 18g (x)ψ3 ψ4 + h(x)ϕ3 = 0. C 1 y + C 3 + C4 . leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂ 2u + f ( ξ . where a and b are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. y ) = ψ1 (x) + ψ2 (x)y + ψ3 (x)y 2 + ψ4 (x)y 3 . is also a solution of the equation. ∂y where u is the new dependent variable. Here. ∂η 2 ∂ξ 2 Exact solutions of this equation for some f (ξ . 2 ψ4 + f (x)ψ4 + 18g (x)ψ4 + h(x)ϕ4 = 0. ξ= ∂w . 4◦ . ξxx + f (x)ξx + bg (x)η 2 + h(x)ξ = 0. ∂x2 ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 1◦ . y ) is a solution of this equation. ∂2w +f −1 w1 = C1 w C1 x + C2 . η ) can be found in Polyanin (2002). Generalized separable solution cubic in y : w(x. and the function θ = θ(y ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation θy θyy = aθ + b. C4 . Then the function 17. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Generalized separable solution: w(x. and ξ and η are the new independent variables. = 0. ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w . the functions ξ = ξ (x) and η = η (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ηxx + f (x)ηx + ag (x)η 2 + h(x)η = 0. where the functions ψk = ψk (x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ψ1 + f (x)ψ1 + 2g (x)ψ2 ψ3 + h(x)ϕ1 = 0. The Legendre transformation u(ξ . y ) = ξ (x) + η (x)θ(y ). ∂x η= ∂w . 2◦ .

r 2−n 2−m 2−k 4◦ . Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. y .Chapter 6 Elliptic Equations with Three or More Space Variables 6. ζ ). ζ 2 = a(2 − n)2 c(2 − k )2 ξ2 = n−2 w(x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: wrr + w(x. k ≠ 2. is also a solution of the equation. n−2 ρ2 = zx 2−k .1. η 2 = b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 z 2−k x2−n + . 2◦ . ρ1 = yx 2−m . m ≠ 2. z ) = W (y .1. C12−m y . z ) = x p−1 F (ρ1 . y . w(x. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Power-Law Nonlinearities 6.3 with f (w) = s w p . y 2−m x2−n + . m ≠ 2. and p ≠ 1: 1 w= s (1 − p) p 1 1 1 + + + 1−p 2−n 2−m 2−k 1 p−1 1 1−p p−1 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 . 1◦ . n−2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z ). and k ≠ 2 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). A= + + − 1. p−1 p−1 axn ∂w + ∂ by m ∂w + ∂ cz k ∂w =   wp . Equations of the Form ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + ∂ h(z ) ∂w = aw p ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. z ) = V (x.3.1. y . Solution for n ≠ 2. r2 = 4 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 2 A wr = s w p . y . η ).1. z ) = U (ξ . ρ2 ). y . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 z 2−k y 2−m + . C12−k z . 3◦ . w(x. where C1 is an arbitrary constant. Suppose w(x. ∂ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 6. z ) is a solution of the equation in question.

y . is also a solution of the equation. w(x. β λ where C1 is an arbitrary constant. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES = ¡ wp .1. 1 1−p y 2−m e−λz x2−n + + 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cλ2 . λ where C1 is an arbitrary constant.1. z ) is a solution of the equation in question. w(x. z + 2◦ . y . and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 e−λz y 2−m + . y . m ≠ 2. ζ ). y . λ ≠ 0. λ ≠ 0. z ). 2−n ln x. ζ 2 = a(2 − n)2 cλ2 ξ2 = n−2 w(x. 3◦ . 2◦ .6 with f (w) = s w . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. η 2 = b(2 − m)2 cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . is also a solution of the equation. r2 = 4 e−βy e−λz x2−n + + . and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). z ) = U (ξ .3. z ) = V (x. Solution for n ≠ 2. y + 1−p 1−p ln C1 . 3. 2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cλ2 2 2 + − 1. ρ2 ). m ≠ 2. y 2−m x2−n + . n−2 ρ2 = z + = ¡ wp . Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. and p ≠ 1: 1 w= s (p − 1) p 1 1 + + 1−p 2−n 2−m 1 p−1 1−p ln C1 . z ) is a solution of the equation in question. ρ1 = yx 2−m . p−1 p−1 1◦ . λ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + beβy + ceλz ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z p This is a special case of equation 6. p−1 1◦ . r2 = 4 y 2−m e−λz x2−n + + . ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m + ceλz ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z p This is a special case of equation 6. 2−n 2−m where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = s wp . β ≠ 0. y . η ). r r A= 4◦ .406 2. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2.3. 3◦ . Suppose w(x. Solution for n ≠ 2. Then the function w1 = C1 w C12−n x. and p ≠ 1: 1 w= s (p − 1) p 1 + 1−p 2−n 1 p−1 1 1−p e−βy e−λz x2−n + + a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 cλ2 . z + ln C1 . C12−m y . a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 cλ2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .5 with f (w) = s w . β ≠ 0. z ) = W (y . z ) = x p−1 F (ρ1 . y . Suppose w(x.

y + ln C1 . is also a solution of the equation. y . 1◦ . ρ2 ). r r 4◦ . w(x. z ) = U (ξ . β γ λ where C1 is an arbitrary constant. and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). y .3. ζ ). z ) = V (x. y . λ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 a(2 − n) bβ 2 e−βy e−λz + . z ) = W (y . z ) = W (y . aβ 2 bγ 2 cλ2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr − 1 w = s wp . y . z ) is a solution of the equation in question. z ) = V (x. r r A= n . ξ2 = ρ2 = z − β x. Functional separable solution for β ≠ 0. e−βy x2−n + . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 407 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = s wp . z + ln C1 . z ). w(x. η ). w(x. ρ1 = y − x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: e−βx e−γy + . ρ2 ). 2−n ln x. y .6. y . aβ 2 bγ 2 e−γy e−λz + . η 2 = bβ 2 cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . z ) = exp p−1 γ w(x. and λ ≠ 0: p w= b(1 − p)2 1 p−1 e−βx e−γy e−λz + + aβ 2 bγ 2 cλ2 1 1−p . 2−n 4◦ . λ 4. Solution for p ≠ 1.1. ρ1 = y + β ξ2 = + ∂ ∂w beγy ∂y ∂y + ∂ ∂w ceλz ∂z ∂z ρ2 = z + = ¢ wp . ζ 2 = 2 a(2 − n) cλ2 n−2 2−n ln x. z ) = x p−1 F (ρ1 . y . η 2 = bγ 2 cλ2 e−βx e−λz + . ζ ). 3◦ . w(x. γ ≠ 0. r2 = 4 e−βx e−γy e−λz + + .4 with f (w) = s w p . η ). γ ≠ 0. y .1. z ) = U (ξ . z ). 2◦ . β ≠ 0. ∂w ∂ aeβx ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equation 6. y . Suppose w(x. Then the function w1 = C1 w x + 1−p 1−p 1−p ln C1 . ζ 2 = aβ 2 cλ2 β βx F (ρ1 . w(x. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. w(x.

. z ) = (C1 x + C2 )z + C3 x + C4 y + C5 − w(x. y . Solutions: w(x. z ) = |z |1/2 C1 (ax2 − y 2 ) + C2 x + C3 + C4 ) − . y . Equations of the Form ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w = 0 ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. Then the functions −2 w1 = C1 w ( C 2 x + C3 . . . b √ c w(x. C1 .408 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 6. . Suppose w(x. 2 2 w = u(ξ ) − 4bC1 x . b √ c w(x. z ) = C1 |z |1/2 sin( aC2 x + C3 ) exp(C2 y ) − . y . ξ = z + bC1 x2 + C2 y . . z ) = (C1 x + C2 )z + C3 (ax2 − y 2 ) − c w(x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function u(ξ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (bu + c + aC2 )uξ + 2bC1 u = 8bC1 ξ + C3 . z ) = A C 1 x + C2 y + C 3 z + C 4 − 2 2 c C1 + aC2 − . which means it is integrable by quadrature. . Solution: −2 4 1 12 bC1 (C1 x + C2 ) . Solution: 2 2 2 2 w = v (r) − 4bC2 x − 4abC1 y . −xa1/2 sin β + y cos β . . 2 b bC3 w(x. 2 bC1 w2 = w(x cos β + ya−1/2 sin β . z ). y . z ) = C1 |z |1/2 exp aC2 x sin(C2 y + C3 ) − . y . C 2 y + C 4 . . where C1 . With appropriate translations in both variables. Solution (generalizes the solution of Items 3◦ and 4◦ ): w = U (ζ ) + A1 x2 + A2 y 2 + A3 xy + A4 x + A5 y . . one can make the equation homogeneous. y . where A. C 1 C2 z + C 5 ) + £ £ £ 2 c(1 − C1 ) . one can make the equation homogeneous. z ) is a solution of this equation.2. ∂2w ∂x2 +a ∂2w ∂y 2 + ∂ ∂z (bw + c) ∂w ∂z = 0.1. 2◦ . 1◦ . C5 are arbitrary constants (the first solution is of the traveling-wave type). (bv + c)vr + 2b(aC2 + C1 )v = 8b(a2 C1 With appropriate translations in both variables. −2 4 1 12 bC1 (C1 x + C2 ) . b 3◦ . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function v (r) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 + C2 )r + C 3 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ζ = z + b(B1 x2 + B2 y 2 + B3 xy + B4 x + B5 y ). 5◦ . r = z + bC1 x2 + bC2 y 2 . y . 4◦ .

“Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the last three solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): c w(x. η ). A5 = −2b(B3B4 + 2aB2 B5 ). and B5 are arbitrary constants. one can make the equation homogeneous. η = λ+1 b x x w(x. where λ is an arbitrary constant. 1989). B3 . 8◦ . y . (1) ∂x2 ∂η 2 ∂2g ∂2g + = −bf 2 .1. r). ξ = . hxx + ahyy + bg 2 + 2bf h + 2cf = 0. y . (2) represents a Helmholtz equation. The substitution u = w + (c/b) leads to a special case of equation 6. the subscripts denote the corresponding partial derivatives. ∂x2 ∂η 2 9◦ . For solutions of these linear equations. Here. η = a−1/2 y . “two-dimensional” solution. y ) are determined by the system of differential equations fxx + afyy + 6bf 2 = 0. and h = h(x. 7◦ . which means it is integrable by quadrature. y )z + h(x. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). 2 2 A2 = −b(B3 + 4aB2 ). η ) − . where the functions f = f (x. z ) = H (ζ ). Given f = f (x. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 409 where B1 . y ). y . the coefficients An are expressed in terms of Bn by 2 2 A1 = −b(4B1 + aB3 ). There are solutions of the following forms: r = ax2 + y 2 y z c w(x.3 with n = 1.1. z ) = x2λ G(ξ . y )z 2 + g (x. “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution linear in z (generalizes the second and third solutions of Item 2◦ ): w = f (x. η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. “one-dimensional” solution. In the special case a = 1. z ) = |z |1/2U (x. ζ = (ax2 + y 2 )z −2 w(x. 6◦ . η ). y . y ). gxx + agyy + 6bf g = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. A4 = −2b(2B1B4 + aB3 B5 ). “two-dimensional” solution. and c > 0. Remark. η ) − . y ). B2 . b where the function U = U (x. z ) = F (z . g = g (x. where the functions f and g are determined by the system of differential equations ∂2f ∂2f + = 0.2. η = a−1/2 y . η )z + g (x. With appropriate translations in both variables. (2) ∂x2 ∂η 2 Equation (1) is the Laplace equation. the equation in question describes transonic flows of ideal polytropic gases (Pokhozhaev. and the function U (ζ ) is determined by the first-order ordinary differential equation 2 2 (bU + c + ab2 B5 + b2 B4 )Uζ + 2b(aB2 + B1 )U + 2(aA2 + A1 )ζ = C1 . B4 . A3 = −4bB3 (B1 + aB2 ). “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in z : w = f (x. 10◦ +. b < 0.

. y . y . Traveling-wave solution: w(x. y . z ) = (A1 x + B1 )y + (A2 x + B2 )z − 2 1 12 (a1 A1 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 + a 2 A2 2 )x − 3 (a1 A1 B1 + a2 A2 B2 )x − 2 (a1 B1 + a2 B2 )x + Cx + D . . y . Suppose w(x. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. 5◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. C . . z ) = f (x)y 2 + g (x)yz + h(x)z 2 + ϕ(x)y + ψ (x)z + χ(x). 4◦ . z ) is a solution of this equation. y . Then the functions ∂x2 ∂y 2 wn n −2 C2 z + C5 ). g (w) = a 1 w + b1 . Solution linear in y and z : w(x. η ).3. “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. where C1 . 1 1 1 η = a−1/2 y . B2 . . . ∂x2 ∂η 2 For this linear equation. ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w + (a 1 w + b 1 ) + (a 2 w + b 2 ) = 0. and k3 are arbitrary constants. A2 . z ) is a solution of this equation. ¤ C 2 y + C 4 . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). z ) = z n+1 [C1 (ax2 − y 2 ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 ]. and h(w) = a2 w + b2 . B . = 0. . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . and D are arbitrary constants. y . 3◦ .2. where C1 . where A1 . There is a generalized separable solution of the form w(x. k2 . ¤ C1 y + C3 . ∂z ∂z 1◦ .410 2. . y . see equation 6. z ). z ) = z n+1 [C1 ln(ax2 + y 2 ) + C2 ]. ¤ C 1 ∂2w +a ∂2w +b ∂ ∂w w2 = w(x cos β + ya−1/2 sin β . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). z ) = A k 1 x + k2 y + k 3 z + B − 2 2 2 k1 + b1 k 2 + b2 k 3 . . 2◦ . 3◦ . k1 . . Then the functions w1 = w(¤ C1 x + C2 . ¤ C1 z + C4 ). −xa1/2 sin β + y cos β . 1 √ w(x. w(x. . z ) = C1 z n+1 exp( aC2 x) cos(C2 y + C3 ).3 with f (w) = 1. . For other solutions. C4 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . 2◦ . z ) = z n+1 U (x. η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. y . . are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). B1 . where the function U = U (x. y . w1 = C1 w ( ¤ C 2 x + C3 . 3. Suppose w(x. 2 2 a1 k2 + a2 k3 where A. Solutions: w(x.

Ibragimov (1994). w(x. z ) = x C1 ln by 2 + az 2 + C2 n+1 . z ) is a solution of this equation. . ¥§¦ 7◦ . . Suppose w(x. ξ = . ζ = (ax2 + y 2 )z −2 . . w(x.5. k2 . z ) = x C1 (by 2 − ax2 ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 1 1 n+1 . 2◦ . η ). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: r = ax2 + y 2 .1: ∂ 2 u ∂ 2 u 2b(n + 2) n+1 + + u = 0. x x w(x. z ) = x2λ G(ξ . w1 = C1 w ( ¨ C 2 x + C3 . η = a−1/2 y . C4 and λ are arbitrary constants. . t2 = y + k2 ln |z |. ρ2 = y exp − . and λ are arbitrary constants. y . Then the functions n n −2 C2 y + C 4 . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. see equation 6.6. y . The solutions of Items 2◦ and 3◦ are special cases of a multiplicative separable solution w = u(x. ∂ ∂w ∂2w +a wn 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y +b ∂ ∂w wn ∂z ∂z = 0. ¨ C 1 C2 z + C5 ). For other solutions. ρ1 = x exp − . 4. Reference: N. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). w(x. y . ζ ). z ) = |x|−2/n H (z .2. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING POWER-LAW NONLINEARITIES 411 4◦ . 5◦ . y . √ √ w(x. z y w(x. z ) = W (ζ ). y )θ(z ). t1 = x + k1 ln |z |. t2 ). . z ) = u(x. 1◦ . z ) = exp − n+1 n+1 n+1 where k1 . . y . y .1. y . w(x. . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. . y . this equation is linear. −y b/a sin β + z cos β . z ) = F (z . ζ = y/x.1. y . where the function u = u(x. nz nz 2z V (ρ1 . where θ = θ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (θn θz )z = Cθ. . y . r). r = ax2 + y 2 . y cos β + z a/b sin β . y . where n should be set equal to zero and then k should be renamed n. where C1 . ∂x2 ∂η 2 n2 For n = −1 and n = −2. z ) = |z |2/n U (t1 . Remark. 6◦ . z ) = x C1 exp λ b y sin λ a z + C2 + C3 where C1 . w(x. η = nλ+1 . y . Degenerate solutions: w(x. z ) = S (r)z 2/n . C5 and β are arbitrary constants. η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5.1. η )z 2/n . ρ2 ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1 n+1 . ¨ C 1 w2 = w x.

see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). There are solutions of the following forms: r = by 2 + az 2 y w(x. z ) = F (x. z ) = |x|−2/n U (z1 . η ). z ) = W (θ). z ) = x−2/n Θ(y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 β1 w+ 2 2 bβ3 aβ2 wn+1 + wk+1 = C1 (β1 x + β2 y + β3 z ) + C2 . η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. “two-dimensional” solution.412 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 3◦ . y . y . z ) is a solution of the equation in question. C2 . z ) = e−2x V (ρ1 . with the transformation u = 1/Θ. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. y .  C 1 C2 z + C5 ). ∂2w ∂x2 +a ∂ ∂y wn ∂w ∂y +b ∂ ∂z wk ∂w ∂z = 0. z ) = z 2/n H (x. For other solutions. η ) 1 n+1 .  C 1 where C1 . and β3 are arbitrary constants. Reference: N. n2 √ For √ n = −2. where ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ϕzz = Cϕn+1 . η= √ a z. and h(w) = bw k . η = a z . ©§ 6◦ . w1 = C1 w (  C 2 x + C3 . ξ = nλ+1 . 4◦ . Suppose w(x. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For solutions of this linear equation. ρ1 = yenx . k2 . ρ2 = zenx “two-dimensional” solution.3. ξ = b y . ρ2 ). z2 ). η= z xnλ+1 “two-dimensional” solution. the equation obtained can be reduced. β1 . 1◦ . n+1 k+1 where C1 . β2 . ζ = z/y w(x. where the function Θ = Θ(y . “one-dimensional” solution. θ = (by + az )x where k1 . x w(x. y . z ) = (C1 x + C2 ) U (ξ . z ). C5 are arbitrary constants. . g (w) = aw n . . . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where the function U = U (ξ . w(x. y . 5. and λ are arbitrary constants. “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. z ) = x2λ G(ξ . to the Laplace equation. 2◦ . . 2 2 −2 “two-dimensional” solution. z ). see equation 6. This is a special case of equation 6.2. w(x. y . Remark. Then the functions n k −2 C2 y + C 4 . z1 = y + k1 ln |x|. y .3 with f (w) = 1. r). ξ= √ b y. ζ ). z ) is determined by the differential equation a ∂Θ ∂ Θn ∂y ∂y +b ∂ ∂Θ Θn ∂z ∂z + 2(n + 2) Θ = 0. w(x.2. y .5 with k = n. Ibragimov (1994). y .1. 5◦ . z2 = z + k2 ln |x| “two-dimensional” solution. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). The solutions of Items 2◦ and 3◦ are special cases of a multiplicative separable solution w = ϕ(x)u(y .

C12−m y . x). 2/n z1 = ye .3 with f (w) = a1 wn1 .3 with f (w) = s eλw . = 0. “two-dimensional” solution. ξ = nλ+1 . ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 6. ξ = c 1 y + c2 z . 1◦ . z ) = y 2/n G(ζ . There are exact solutions of the following forms: z y w(x. z ) = u(x. ζ = y −k/n z w(x. Zaitsev and A. 6◦ .8: a ∂v ∂ vn ∂y ∂y + ∂ ∂v ψ (v ) ∂η ∂η = 0. λ where C1 is an arbitrary constant. 5◦ . Polyanin (2001). Suppose w(x.4. ξ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. z ) = e −2x “two-dimensional” solution.1. z ) = v (y .2. y . V. y . This is a special case of equation 6. 4◦ . A. η = kλ+1 x x w(x. 2 ∂x ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. η ).2. 6. y . “one-dimensional” solution. nx z2 = ze y z kx w(x. and h(w) = a3 wn3 . ∂ ∂u ∂2u + ϕ (u ) = 0. z1 = a1 y + b1 z + c1 x. Zaitsev (2002).4.4. z ) = x2λ F (ξ . Ibragimov (1994).2. η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. Equations of the Form ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ g (y ) ∂w + ∂ h(z ) ∂w = aeλw ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1.2.1. “two-dimensional” solution. z ) = (y/x) § U (θ). Then the function 2 ln C1 . D. θ=x k/n−1 −k/n where λ is an arbitrary constant. z2 ).4. Polyanin and V. g (w) = a2 wn2 . y . where the function v = v (y . D. C12−k y + © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 2 2 . “Two-dimensional” solution (c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants): w(x.6. y . y . “Two-dimensional” solution (s1 and s2 are arbitrary constants): w(x.8: n 2 k ϕ(u) = ac2 1 u + bc2 u . which can be reduced to a linear equation. Equations with Three Space Variables Involving Exponential Nonlinearities 6. where the function u = u(x. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 413 3◦ . ξ ). w1 = w C12−n x. z ) = U (z1 . is also a solution of the equation. ∂ ∂x axn ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y by m ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z cz k ∂w ∂z =  eλw . y . F. References: N. z2 ). η ). z2 = a2 y + b2 z + c2 x. There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form (generalize the solutions of Items 3 ◦ and 4◦ ): w(x. z ) is a solution of the equation in question. 2 2 k ψ (v ) = s 1 + bs2 v . F.3. η = s 1 x + s2 z . a1 w n1 w n2 w n3 ∂ ∂w + a2 ∂ ∂w + a3 ∂ ∂w 6. H (z1 .3. y .

2 2 a(2 − n) b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 2 B B= + + − 1. Solution for n ≠ 2. z ) = F (ρ1 . r 2−n 2−m 2−k 4◦ . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. w(x. y . y 2−m e−λz x2−n + + .414 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. η 2 = b(2 − m)2 cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . z ) = F (ρ1 . λ σ where C1 is an arbitrary constant. ρ1 = yx 2−m . m ≠ 2. y . z ). z ). ζ ). 2. m ≠ 2. A =1− 1 1 1 − − . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 e−λz y 2−m + . z ) = U (ξ . y . ρ1 = yx 2−m . ζ ). y . y . wrr + wr = s eσw . w(x. w(x. z ) is a solution of the equation in question. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. ρ2 ) + σ λ ξ2 = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ζ 2 = a(2 − n)2 cλ2 n−2 2−n n−2 ln x. w(x. y 2−m x2−n + . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. η ). C12−m y . and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). m ≠ 2. and k ≠ 2 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). w(x. ρ2 = zx 2−k . y . z ) = U (ξ . z − 2◦ . ρ2 = z + ln x. y . y 2−m x2−n + . A=1− 1 1 − . Then the function 2 2 ln C1 + ln C1 . m ≠ 2. η ). and λ ≠ 0: w=− sσ x2−n y 2−m e−λz 1 ln + + 2 2 σ A a(2 − n) b(2 − m) cλ2 r2 = 4 . w1 = w C12−n x. z ) = W (y . ζ 2 = a(2 − n)2 c(2 − k )2 n−2 n−2 n−2 ln x. ρ2 ) + λ ξ2 = + ∂ by m ∂w + ∂ ceλz ∂w =  eσw . 2−n 2−m 3◦ . z ) = V (x. η 2 = b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 z 2−k x2−n + . z ) = V (x.1. y . ∂ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 6. Solution for n ≠ 2. is also a solution of the equation. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 z 2−k y 2−m + . z ) = W (y . r 2−n 2−m 4◦ . y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . and k ≠ 2: w=− x2−n y 2−m z 2−k sλ 1 + + ln λ A a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 r2 = 4 . wrr + wr = s eλw .5 with f (w) = s eσw . y .3. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cλ2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 2 B B= + − 1. 2 2 axn ∂w 1◦ . 2−n 2−m 2−k 3◦ . w(x. Suppose w(x.

γ ≠ 0. =  eσw . z ) is a solution of the equation in question. y . and λ ≠ 0: w=− s σ (2 − n ) x2−n e−βy e−λz 1 ln + + σ 1−n a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 cλ2 . z ) is a solution of the equation in question. w(x. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 415 ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + beβy + ceλz ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z σw This is a special case of equation 6. z ) = F (ρ1 .6. y . ρ2 ) + σ β ξ2 = ρ2 = z + 2−n ln x. η 2 = bβ 2 cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . 1◦ . ζ 2 = 2 a(2 − n) cλ2 2−n n−2 ln x.3. 2◦ . 3◦ . λ 4. ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ aeβx + beγy + ceλz ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z σw This is a special case of equation 6. is also a solution of the equation. ρ1 = y + ln x. w(x. 2 =  eσw . η ).2. ζ ). z ) = V (x. and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. Suppose w(x. γ ≠ 0. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. y . y − ln C1 . 3. 2 a(2 − n) bβ 2 e−βy e−λz + . and λ ≠ 0: w=− e−βx e−γy e−λz 1 ln s σ + + σ aβ 2 bγ 2 cλ2 . Solution for β ≠ 0. r r A= n .3. e−βy x2−n + . z − ln C1 + ln C1 . w(x. Then the function w1 = w x − 2 2 2 2 ln C1 . β ≠ 0. β γ λ σ where C1 is an arbitrary constant. 2−n 4◦ . y . y . z ) = U (ξ . z − ln C1 + ln C1 . z ).4 with f (w) = s e . 2◦ . Solution for n ≠ 2. Then the function w1 = w C12−n x. Functional separable solution for β ≠ 0. β λ σ where C1 is an arbitrary constant.1.6 with f (w) = s e . 1◦ . aβ 2 bγ 2 cλ2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z ) = W (y . 3◦ . Suppose w(x. β ≠ 0. 2 a(2 − n) bβ 2 cλ2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = s eσw . y − 2 2 2 ln C1 . y . and λ ≠ 0 (generalizes the solution of Item 2 ◦ ): w = w(r). r2 = 4 e−βy e−λz x2−n + + . is also a solution of the equation. r2 = 4 e−βx e−γy e−λz + + .1.

aβ 2 bγ 2 e−γy e−λz + . z ). ρ1 = y − x. √ w(x. η 2 = bγ 2 cλ2 e−βx e−λz + . r r 4◦ . η ) + ln(C1 z + C2 ). −xa1/2 sin β + y cos β . ∂x2 ∂η 2 For this linear equation. y . .  C1 y + C4 . z ) = ln b where C1 . . z ) = F (ρ1 . y . y . z ). y . 2 C2 w2 = w(x cos β + ya−1/2 sin β . w(x. z ) is a solution of this equation. σ γ w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z ) = W (y . Suppose w(x. z ) = C1 exp( a C2 x) sin(C2 y + C3 ) + ln(C4 z + C5 ). η = a−1/2 y . z ) = V (x. y . y . y . z ) = U (x. z ) = C1 (ax2 − y 2 ) + C2 xy + C3 x + C4 y + C5 + ln(C6 z + C7 ). w(x. where C1 . y .2. ∂z ∂z 1◦ . η ). λ 6. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in w1 are chosen arbitrarily). z ) = ln 2 2 (C 1 + aC2 )(z + C4 )2 . C2 z + C5 ) + ln 2 C1 . . ∂2w ∂x2 +a ∂2w ∂y 2 +b ∂ ew ∂w + a3 ∂ eλ2 w ∂w ∂y ∂y = beβw = 0.2. “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the first three solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): w(x. z ) = U (ξ . . . Then the functions w1 = w(C1 x + C3 . b cosh2 (C1 x + C2 y + C3 ) 4aC3 − 2 ln (y + C1 )2 + a(x + C2 )2 + C3 + 2 ln |z + C4 |. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (x. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. y . ξ2 = ρ2 = z − β x. ζ 2 = aβ 2 cλ2 β β w(x. Equations of the Form a1 ∂ eλ1 w ∂w + a2 ∂ eλ2 w ∂w ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 1. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: e−βx e−γy + . C7 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . . Solutions: w(x. y . 3◦ . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). w(x. z ) = C1 exp(C2 y ) sin( a C2 x + C3 ) + ln(C4 z + C5 ). w(x. y .416 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr − 1 w = s eσw . ζ ). √ w(x. . . ρ2 ) + x.

y . z ) = V (x. y .1. y . z ) = ln λ sinh2 (aC1 x + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 −bC1 z + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. 6◦ . . . z ) = C1 x + C2 + ln C3 ln(by 2 + az 2 ) + C4 . There are solutions of the following forms: w(x. η1 = x|z | . y . C 2 y + C 4 . η = a−1/2 y . z ) = G(ξ1 . r = ax2 + y 2 ξ1 = yx . w(x. Suppose w(x. . y . . η ) + 2 ln |z + C |. z ) = ln λ cos2 (aC1 x + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 −bC1 z + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. χ = (ax2 + y 2 )z −2 where k . λ √ √ 1 w(x. λ 1 w(x. z ).2. ζ2 = y + k2 ln |z | “two-dimensional”. C 2 z + C 5 ) + w2 = w x. y . −y b/a sin β + z cos β . . y . η ) is determined by a solvable differential equation of the form 5. Then the functions w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 3 . ρ2 ) + 2z .3 with f (w) = 1. z ) = C1 x + C2 + © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 1 C1 ln 2 . where the function V = V (x. η2 ) + 2k ln |z |. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. k1 . ζ2 ) + 2 ln |z |. z ) = V (ρ1 . λ C2 ∂2w a/b sin β . ρ2 = yez “two-dimensional”. z ) = C1 x + C2 + ln C3 (by 2 − az 2 ) + C4 yz + C5 . . η2 = y |z | “two-dimensional”. z ) = F (r. λ 1 w(x. ∂x2 ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . “one-dimensional”.2.6. . where C1 . z ) = H (η1 .3. y cos β + z 2◦ . “two-dimensional”. λ √ √ 1 w(x. ∂x2 ∂η 2 5◦ . y . 2. w(x. z ) = ln λ cos2 (bC1 x + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 −aC1 y + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. k−1 −1 “two-dimensional”. y . ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w +a eλw +b eλw = 0. y . g (w) = a. see equation 6. y . y . y . ζ1 = x + k1 ln |z |. . w(x. + C6 . ξ2 = z |x| k−1 k−1 w(x. EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 417 4◦ . z ) = C1 x + C2 + b C3 y + ln cos a C3 λz + C4 . z ) = ln λ sinh2 (bC1 x + C5 ) w(x. z ) is a solution of this equation.2. z ) = C1 x + C2 + ln C3 exp b C4 y cos a C4 z + C5 λ √ √ 2 2 −aC1 y + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. C5 and β are arbitrary constants. y . For other exact solutions.1: ∂2V ∂2V + = −2beV . Solutions: 1 ln(C3 y + C4 z + C5 ). ξ2 ) − 2k ln |x|. z ) = W (χ). z ) = U (ζ1 . and k2 are arbitrary constants. y . . and h(w) = be w . y . y . w(x. ρ1 = xez .

y . r = by 2 + az 2 “two-dimensional” solution. η = z + k2 ln |x| “two-dimensional” solution. . w(x.2. z ) = H (z1 . y . g (w) = ae λw . y . 1 ln V (ξ .3 with f (w) = 1. z ) = V (ρ1 . y . λ y w(x. 3◦ . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). η ). z ) = U (ξ . z2 ) − λ 2 w(x. . ρ2 ) − x.   − λ ln − 2C 2 cos (C1 x + C2 ) 1 f (x) = kλ 1   if kλ < 0.418 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES √ √ 2 2 aC1 y + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. ρ2 = zex λ by 2 + az 2 “one-dimensional” solution. ρ1 = yex . z1 = y |x|k−1 . − ln − 2 sinh2 (C1 x + C2 )   λ 2C1     kλ 1   cosh2 (C1 x + C2 ) if kλ > 0.3. y . z ) = W (ζ ). ξ = y + k1 ln |x|. z ) = G(x. . y . w(x. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). z ) = ln λ cosh2 (bC1 x + C5 ) . η ). where C1 . ζ = x2 6◦ . η = √ . τ = . For other exact solutions. C6 are arbitrary constants. λ y ξ= √ . − ln − 2   λ    kλ 1  2  if kλ < 0. η ) is determined by the Laplace equation ∂ 2 U ∂ 2U + = 0. z ) = ln λ cosh2 (aC1 x + C5 ) √ √ 2 2 bC1 z + C2 exp b C3 y cos a C3 z + C4 1 w(x. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 For solutions of this linear equation. a © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y . (2) 2 ∂ξ ∂η 2 For solutions of this linear equation. y . . z ) = f (x) + z η= √ .  − ln 2 λ 2C1 ∆V − kλ = 0. and h(w) = beλw . λ a b where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U = U (ξ . 2k ln |x|. η ) is a solution of the Poisson equation ∂2 ∂2 + . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. η ) − ln |x|. r). w(x. The general solution of equation (1) is expressed as  1 1   kλ(x + C1 )2 if kλ < 0. ∆= 5◦ . 4◦ . (1) and the function V = V (ξ . y . There are solutions of the following forms: z 2 “two-dimensional” solution. w(x. y . z2 = z |x|k−1 “two-dimensional” solution. λ 2 “two-dimensional” solution. τ ) + ln |y |. ξ = √ . z ) = C1 x + C2 + ln U (ξ . z ) = F (x. b where the function f = f (x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (k is an arbitrary constant) fxx + keλf = 0. . see equation 6. “Two-dimensional” solution (generalizes the first five solutions of Item 2 ◦ ): z y 1 w(x.

Reference: N. Ibragimov (1994). u 2 λu ϕ(u) = ac2 1 e + bc2 e . There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. where k is an arbitrary constant. “two-dimensional”. λ3 λ1 λ2 x + C3 . and h(w) = beλw . ζ2 ) − 2kx. y .2. Suppose w(x. C 1 C2 z + C5 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. C 1 C2 y + C 4 . 4◦ . ξ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. 5◦ . z ) = v (y . w(x. and k3 are arbitrary constants. η = |y | z ζ1 = ye . where the function v = v (y .6. see equation 6.8: a ∂v ∂ ev ∂y ∂y + ∂ ∂v ψ (v ) ∂η ∂η = 0. k2 . z ) = u(x. y . η ) + 2 ln |y |. −λ kx ξ2 = z |x|kλ−1 kλx “two-dimensional”. “Two-dimensional” solution (s1 and s2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. z 2 = a2 x + b2 y + c 2 z . “Two-dimensional” solution (c1 and c2 are arbitrary constants): w(x. y . 6◦ .3. . η = s 1 x + s2 z . 3◦ . y . z ) is a solution of this equation. k1 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .8: ∂ ∂u ∂2u + ϕ (u ) = 0. y . w1 = w ( C 1 C2 where C1 . λ w 1 = w (C 1 x + C 3 . EQUATIONS WITH THREE SPACE VARIABLES INVOLVING EXPONENTIAL NONLINEARITIES 419 ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂2w +a ew +b eλw = 0. ξ2 ) − 2k ln |x|.4. ξ ). z ) is a solution of this equation. z ) = U (z1 . “two-dimensional”. z2 ). z ) = H (ζ1 .2 with f (w) = 1. . w(x. Then the functions 4. For other exact solutions. where C1 . a1 ∂ eλ1 w ∂w + a2 ∂ eλ2 w ∂w + a3 ∂ eλ3 w ∂w = 0. z ) = V (ρ) + 2 ln |y/x|.4. ∂x2 ∂ξ ∂ξ which can be reduced to a linear equation. C5 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . . g (w) = ae w .2. y . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . η ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. z 1 = a1 x + b1 y + c 1 z . y . 2 λv 2 ψ (v ) = bs2 e + s1 . C 1 C 2 z + C5 ) − 2 ln |C2 |. w(x. z ) = F (ξ1 . . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form (generalize the solutions of Items 3 ◦ and 4◦ ): w(x. . . z ) = G(x. η ). . Then the function 3. y . where the function u = u(x. ξ = c 1 y + c2 z . “one-dimensional”. where C1 . Suppose w(x. . is also a solution of the equation.4. C 1 C 2 y + C 4 . which can be reduced to a linear equation. 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ .4. y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 w 2 −1 λw k1 w + ak2 e + bk3 λ e = C 1 (k 1 x + k 2 y + k 3 z ) + C 2 . C2 . ρ = |x| λ−1 ζ2 = ze |y | z −λ 7◦ . C5 are arbitrary constants. § ξ1 = y |x|k−1 .

y . Solution: 2 F (w ) aA2 + bB 2 + cC 2 −1/2 θ = Ax + By + Cz . where k is an arbitrary constant. f2 (y ). y .3. η1 = y |x|k(λ2 −λ1 )−1 . r w = w(r). η2 ) − 2k ln |x|. r2 = © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. z ) = U (ξ ) − w(x. The function w(θ) is defined implicitly by C1 + 2◦ . and g = g (w) is the kinetic function. and h(w) = a 3 e λ3 w . ξ = y |x| λ1 −β . ! C1 z + C4 ) + 2 ln |C1 |. For other exact solutions. . w = w(θ). 2◦ . (x + C 1 ) 2 (y + C 2 ) 2 (z + C 3 ) 2 + + . z ) is a solution of this equation. Here. Three-Dimensional Equations Involving Arbitrary Functions 6. z ) = V (ζ1 . and the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 wrr + wr = f (w). β −λ 1 β −λ 2 β −λ 3 x + C2 . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form β −λ 2 2 ln |x|. w(x. Suppose w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. 4◦ . dw = C2 ! θ. β −λ 3 6.2. a1 ∂ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . B . C2 . which defines the law of heat (substance) release or absorption. 5. and f3 (z ) are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on coordinates. . ζ2 = z exp k (λ3 − λ1 )x . C . C1 . y . Heat and Mass Transfer Equations of the Form ∂ f (x) ∂w + ∂ f (y ) ∂w + ∂ f (z ) ∂w = g (w ) ∂x 1 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y ∂z 3 ∂z Equations of this type describe steady-state heat/mass transfer or combustion processes in inhomogeneous anisotropic media. see equation 6. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs are chosen arbitrarily). F (w ) = f (w) dw. z ) = U (ξ . f1 (x). where A.3 with f (w) = a 1 eλ1 w . and C2 are arbitrary constants.1. Traveling-wave solution: +b ∂2w +c ∂2w = f (w). ! C 1 y + C3 . g (w) = a2 eλ2 w .3. η ) + λ1 − β η = z |x| λ1 −β . and C3 are arbitrary constants. y . w1 = w ( ! C 1 where C1 . a ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ◦ 1 . There is an exact solution of the form λ 2 −λ 3 λ 3 −λ 1 y 2 ln . ξ = |x| λ1 −λ2 |y | λ1 −λ2 z . . . y . ζ1 = y exp k (λ2 − λ1 )x . z ) = U (η1 . ζ2 ) − 2kx. a b c where C1 .420 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 2◦ . Then the functions eλ1 w ∂w + a2 ∂ eλ2 w ∂w + a3 ∂ eλ3 w ∂w = beβw . w(x. η2 = z |x|k(λ3 −λ1 )−1 . λ1 − λ 2 x ◦ 3 . 1.

3. Zhurov (1998). where A. ζ ). r r ξ2 = 4 A= 3◦ . see equation 6. I. z 2−m y 2−n + . and C are arbitrary constants and the function V = V (ζ .3. The transformation x = a x ∆w = f (w). y = b y ¯. η ). Polyanin and A. ξ ) is determined by the differential equation a ∂ 2 U ∂ 2 U B ∂U + + = f (U ). c) ←− (y . r2 = 4 y 2−n z 2−m x2 + + . Ax By Cz ζ= √ + √ +√ . “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (ξ .1. a c b ρ2 = Bx Ay √ −√ a b 2 2 2 + Cy Bz √ − √ c b + Az Cx √ −√ c a . B . η2 = 4 z 2−m x2 + .6. and the function U = U (ξ . 2 2 ∂ξ ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂η Remark. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = V (ζ . THREE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 421 3◦ . a ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w + by n + cz m ∂x2 ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ◦ 1 . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = w(r). For n = m = 0. η ) is determined by the equation 1+ 1 C2 ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U ∂U 2 2 − 4 ξ + 4 C ( ξ + η ) + 2(2C 2 − 1) = f (U ). ∂x2 ∂ξ 2 ξ ∂ξ B= 4◦ . 4a c(2 − m)2 y 2−n x2 + . D. ζ 2 = 4 "§# Reference: A. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = V (y . b) 4◦ . The solution specified in Item 3◦ can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. a c ab where C is an arbitrary constant (C ≠ 0). aC b η = (C 2 − 1) z2 x2 xy − 2C √ + C 2 . ∂2w = f (w). 4a b(2 − n)2 c(2 − m)2 2(4 − n − m) . “Two-dimensional” solution for n ≠ 2 and m ≠ 2: w = U (x. η ). ∂ζ 2 ∂ρ2 ρ ∂ρ A + B2 + C 2 √ √ √ ¯. (2 − n)(2 − m) where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = f (w).1. 4a b(2 − n)2 w = W (z . 2◦ . ρ) is determined by the equation ∂ 2V 1 ∂V 1 ∂2V + + = 2 f (V ). ρ). (2 − n)(2 − m) where the function U (x. ξ ). x y ξ= √ +√ . a) (z . z = c z ¯ brings the original equation to the form 5◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . b(2 − n)2 c(2 − m)2 4 − nm . 2.

r2 = 4 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m + cz k = f (w). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (x. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 1 1 1 + + 2−n 2−m 2−k where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = f (w). r r A=2 − 1. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. and λ ≠ 0: 5. m ≠ 2. r2 = 4 4. w = V (y . 2 a(2 − n) c(2 − k )2 y 2−m x2−n + . e−βx e−γy e−λz + + . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ . D. ζ ). 2 b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 z 2−k x2−n + . Zhurov (1998). ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ ∂w ∂ axn + by m + ceλz = f (w). There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: wrr − w = U (x. η ). 2◦ . w = w(r). I. Functional separable solution for β ≠ 0. ζ ). aβ 2 cλ2 e−βx e−γy + . ∂ aeβx ∂w + ∂ beγy ∂w + ceλz = f (w). ξ ). ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 e−γy e−λz + . ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 z 2−k y 2−m + . ζ 2 = 4 $§% Reference: A. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z 1◦ .422 3. and λ ≠ 0: w = w(r). aβ 2 bγ 2 w = W (z . γ ≠ 0. I. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . η ). Zhurov (1998). Polyanin and A. r2 = 4 y 2−m e−λz x2−n + + . m ≠ 2. Polyanin and A. D. r r A=2 − 1. and k ≠ 2: w = w(r). r r 2◦ . w = V (y . bγ 2 cλ2 e−βx e−λz + . ξ ). ζ 2 = 4 $§% Reference: A. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 ∂ ∂w w = W (z . aβ 2 bγ 2 cλ2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 1 w = f (w). Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cλ2 1 1 + 2−n 2−m where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = f (w).

r2 = 4 e−βy e−λz x2−n + + . a(2 − n)2 cλ2 y 2−m x2−n + . ξ ). + (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 This equation describes steady-state mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a threedimensional translational-shear fluid flow. ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 e−βy e−λz + . I. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (x. equation (1) can be solved by quadrature to obtain C1 + 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. D. and λ ≠ 0: w = w(r). (a1 x + b1 y + c1 z + d1 ) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 8C 1 ln − β βA − 2 ln(r 2 + C ). η ). w = V (y . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. equation (1) has the one-parameter solution w (r ) = where C is an arbitrary constant. Zhurov (1998). η ). ξ ). bβ 2 cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . ζ ). a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 ceλz ∂w = f (w). Example 2. w = V (y . THREE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 423 2◦ . 2−n r r −1/2 (1) Example 1. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (x. 7. 1. ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 e−λz y 2−m + . ∂ f 1 (x ) ∂w + ∂ f 2 (y ) ∂w + ∂ f 3 (z ) 6. ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This is a special case of equation 6.3. w = W (z .3. ζ 2 = 4 '§( Reference: A.6. a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 cλ2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + n 1 w = f (w). For n = 1 and f (w ) = Aeβw . β f (w ) dw dw = C2 & r. ζ ). Heat and Mass Transfer Equations with Complicating Factors ∂w ∂w + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) ∂x ∂y ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂w = + + – f (w).2. a(2 − n)2 cλ2 e−βy x2−n + .3. 2◦ . β ≠ 0. a(2 − n)2 bβ 2 ∂w w = W (z . 2 b(2 − m) cλ2 e−λz x2−n + . For n = 0 and any f = f (w ). ζ 2 = 4 6.3. ∂ axn ∂w + ∂ beβy ∂w + ∂ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ◦ 1 . = aw ln w + bw.6 with g1 (x) = b and g2 (y ) = g3 (z ) = 0. Polyanin and A.

∂y ∂w ∂ (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) + ∂z ∂z Solutions are sought in the form w = w(ζ ). = 0. ζ = Ax + By + Cz + D. C . In the case of an incompressible fluid. c1 A + c2 B + (c3 − k )C = 0. Then the functions . ) C1 z + C4 ). where the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (kζ + Ad1 + Bd2 + Cd3 )wζ = (A2 + B 2 + C 2 )wζζ − f (w). d1 A2 + d2 B 2 + d3 C 2 = D . and C .424 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES Let k be a root of the cubic equation a1 − k b1 c1 a2 b2 − k c2 a3 b3 = 0. Remark. ζ = Ax + By + Cz . c3 − k and the constants A. . The resulting expressions are then substituted into the last equation to evaluate D. 2. Solution: w = w(ζ ). One of the equations follows from the other two and. b1 A2 + b2 B 2 + b3 C 2 = B . where the constants A. . and C solve the degenerate system of linear algebraic equations (a1 − k )A + a2 B + a3 C = 0. B . The desired function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ζwζζ + (a1 A + b2 B + c3 C )wζ = f (w). can be omitted. are also solutions of the equation (the plus or minus signs in front of C1 are chosen arbitrarily). C4 are arbitrary constants. ∂ ∂x (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) ∂w = f (w). ) C1 y + C3 . . ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z This equation describes steady-state heat/mass transfer or combustion processes in inhomogeneous anisotropic media. z ) is a solution of the equation in question. where C1 . some of the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 + c3 = 0. and D are determined by solving the algebraic system of equations a 1 A 2 + a 2 B 2 + a 3 C 2 = A. B . y . The first three equations are first solved for A. w1 = w() C1 x + C2 . and h(w) are the principal thermal diffusivities (diffusion coefficients) dependent on the temperature w. 3. hence. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂ f (w ) ∂w + ∂ g (w ) ∂w + ∂ h (w ) ∂w 1◦ . f (w). Suppose w(x. b1 A + (b2 − k )B + b3 C = 0. . B . g (w). c1 A2 + c2 B 2 + c3 C 2 = C . Here.

z ) = U (x. ζ ) is determined by a differential equation of the form 5. (2) For exact solutions of this equation. η = z/x. y . k1 . and λ are arbitrary constants. z 2 = b1 x + b2 y + b 3 z . where C1 . Let g (w) = af (w) and h(w) = bf (w). ∂U ∂ f (U ) ∂x ∂x ∂ ∂U ψ (U ) ∂ζ ∂ζ ζ = ay + bz . one obtains a Riccati equation for θ = θ(w): 2 2 C 5 θ w = θ 2 f (w ) + C 1 g (w ) + C 2 h(w). y = a y . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). Then. g ) 4 . For C5 ≠ 0. + ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z 2 For solutions of this linear equation. (5) which can be reduced to a linear equation. C4 are arbitrary constants. Relations (1) and equation (2) can be used to obtain two other “one-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining functions: (x. . where the function U = U (x. there is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. ζ ). ψ (U ) = a2 g (U ) + b2 h(U ). θ= 2 2 [θ 2 f (w )w θ ] θ + C 1 [g (w )w θ ] θ + C 2 [h(w)wθ ]θ = 0. the transformation √ √ v = f (w) dw. f ) (z . . Relations (4) and equation (5) can be used to obtain two other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the cyclic permutations of variables and determining functions.8: + = 0. see (3). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. z ) = V (z1 . THREE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 425 2◦ . “Two-dimensional” solution (a and b are arbitrary constants): ◦ (3) (4) w(x. z = b z leads to the Laplace equation ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v + = 0. . k3 . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w(x. C2 . see Polyanin and Zaitsev (2003). and the function w(θ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w = w(θ). k2 . r = ax2 + y 2 . Solution: which admits the first integral 2 2 [θ 2 f (w ) + C 1 g (w ) + C 2 h(w)]wθ = C5 . z ) = W (ξ . y .4. 7◦ .4. (1) x + C4 where C1 . 6◦ . w(x. z2 ). η ). y . z 1 = a1 x + a2 y + a 3 z . h) ←− (y . z ) = u(r. y . Traveling-wave solution in implicit form: 2 2 2 k1 f (w ) + k 2 g (w ) + k 3 h(w) dw = C1 (k1 x + k2 y + k3 z ) + C2 . 3◦ . where the an and bn are arbitrary constants (the first solution generalizes the one of Item 3 ◦ ). C1 y + C 2 z + C 3 . z ). Then. 5◦ .6. treating w as the independent variable. ξ = y/x. Let g (w) = af (w). . which can be reduced to a second-order linear equation.

can be omitted. (1) 6. Other Equations 1. 2. ϕ(w) = A2 f1 (w) + B 2 f2 (w) + C 2 f3 (w). a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 c(2 − k )2 ∂2w + by m ∂2w + cz k ∂2w © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .4. with an additional term g (w) on the right-hand side.426 4.3. Remark 1. ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 The substitution + ∂2w + ∂2w ∂z 2 U= = f (w ) ∂w ∂x 2 + ∂w ∂y 2 + ∂w ∂z 2 . ∂ ∂x f 1 (w ) ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y f 2 (w ) ∂w ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z f 3 (w ) ∂w ∂z ∂w + (a 3 x + b 3 y + c 3 z + d 3 ) ∂w . and k ≠ 2: ∂x2 ∂y 2 w = w(r). b1 A + (b2 − k )B + b3 C = 0. and C solve the degenerate system of linear algebraic equations (a1 − k )A + a2 B + a3 C = 0. r2 = 4 y 2−m z 2−k x2−n + + . with an additional convective term. some of the equation coefficients must satisfy the condition a1 + b2 + c3 = 0. where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . B .1. z ): ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U + + = 0. Solution: w = w(ζ ). also has a solution of the form (1). ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 For solutions of this linear equation. axn = f (w). A more general equation. In the case of an incompressible fluid. see 6.3. dw . Remark. For a more complicated equation of the form (v ⋅ ∇)w = ∆w − f (w)|∇w| 2 . Remark 2. where the function w(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [ϕ(w)wζ ]ζ = (kζ + Ad1 + Bd2 + Cd3 )wζ . see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). Let k be a root of the cubic equation = (a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 ) a1 − k b1 c1 a2 b2 − k c2 a3 b3 = 0. y . hence. F (w ) leads to the three-dimensional Laplace equation for U = U (x. where g is an arbitrary function. ∂x ∂y ∂z This equation describes steady-state anisotropic heat/mass transfer with a volume chemical reaction in a three-dimensional translational-shear fluid flow. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. One of the equations follows from the other two and. c1 A + c2 B + (c3 − k )C = 0.1. ∂z 2 1◦ . ζ = Ax + By + Cz . c3 − k + (a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z + d 2 ) and the constants A. m ≠ 2.

a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 cν 2 1−n 1−m + 2−n 2−m where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = f (w). m ≠ 2. and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). µ ≠ 0. a. η ). aeλx = f (w). r r A=5−2 1 1 1 . There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form e−µy e−νz + . c. Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. ν ) ←− (y . y . n) (z . z ) = U (x. w = V (y . m) 3. r r A=2 + 1. a(2 − n)2 cν 2 y 2−m x2−n + . r r 2◦ . ξ 2 = 4 bµ2 cν 2 wrr + This solution can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of the variables and determining parameters: (x. + + 2−n 2−m 2−k z 2−k y 2−m + . z ) = U (x. k ) ←− (y . THREE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS INVOLVING ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS 427 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + A w = f (w). ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 e−νz y 2−m + . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . b. b. ζ ). 2◦ . axn 2 2 ∂2w m∂ w νz ∂ w + by + ce = f (w). 2 b(2 − m) c(2 − k )2 2◦ . a. aλ2 bµ2 cν 2 ∂2w + beµy ∂2w + ceνz ∂2w where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 5 w = f (w).6. ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . λ) (z . Functional separable solution for λ ≠ 0. ξ ). r2 = 4 e−λx e−µy e−νz + + . ρ2 = 4 This solution can be used to obtain other “two-dimensional” solutions by means of the following cyclic permutations of variables and determining parameters: (x. r2 = 4 y 2−m e−νz x2−n + + . ζ 2 = 4 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .3. y . There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (x. a(2 − n)2 b(2 − m)2 w = W (z . and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). ρ). ξ ). There is a “two-dimensional” solution of the form w(x. w(x. µ) 4. c. b(2 − m)2 cν 2 e−νz x2−n + .

where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). µ ≠ 0.4. x n ) k=1 ∂U . Functional separable solution for n ≠ 2. ζ ). ∂xk © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . x n ) ∂w ∂xk .1. z ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y )χ(z ). η ). 2◦ . . . The substitution U= leads to the linear equation dw . 2−n r r e−µy e−νz + . [f3 (z )χz ]z − aχ ln χ − [g3 (z ) − C1 − C2 ]χ = 0. Equations of the Form ∂ f (x ) ∂w + · · · + ∂ f (x ) ∂w ∂x1 1 1 ∂x1 ∂xn n n ∂xn n = g (x 1 . . F (w ) n k=1 where F (w) = exp f (w) dw . 6. . ξ ). . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . ∂2U = ∂x2 k n g k (x 1 . . . w = V (y . y . . w ) 1. a(2 − n)2 bµ2 ∂w ∂z = aw ln w + g1 (x)+ g2 (y )+ g3 (z ) w. . ξ2 = 4 η2 = 4 w = W (z .4. . . 2 a(2 − n) bµ2 cν 2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation wrr + 8 − 5n 1 w = f (w). ∂2w n ∂x2 k k=1 = f (w ) k=1 ∂w ∂xk 2 n + k=1 g k (x 1 . a(2 − n)2 cν 2 e−µy x2−n + . and ν ≠ 0: w = w(r). bµ2 cν 2 e−νz x2−n + . ∂ ∂x f 1 (x ) ∂w ∂x + ∂ ∂y f 2 (y ) ∂w ∂y + ∂ ∂z f 3 (z ) Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. ψ = ψ (y ). axn ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES 2 2 ∂2w µy ∂ w νz ∂ w + be + ce = f (w). .428 5. r2 = 4 e−µy e−νz x2−n + + . Equations with n Independent Variables 6. ζ 2 = 4 6. and χ = χ(z ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants) [f1 (x)ϕx ]x − aϕ ln ϕ − [g1 (x) + C1 ]ϕ = 0. x n . [f2 (y )ψy ]y − aψ ln ψ − [g2 (y ) + C2 ]ψ = 0. There are “two-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: w = U (x.

6. a k (2 − m k ) 2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w B dw + = f (w). Reference: A. there is an exact solution of the form w=− 0§1 1 ln bβ β n k=1 e−λk xk ak λ 2 k . EQUATIONS WITH n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES n 429 2. a k λ2 k where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w 1 dw − = f (w). For f (w ) = beλw . there is an exact solution of the form w= p b(1 − p)2 1 p−1 n k=1 e−λk xk ak λ 2 k 1 1−p . 2 dr r dr A Example 1. For f (w ) = beβw . r2 = A n k=1 e −λ k x k . 2 4. λ 2bλ n B= k=1 2 − 1. 2 − mk 2−m 1 1−p there is an exact solution of the form p + 1−p n k=1 1 b(1 − p) 1 2 − mk n k=1 xk k ak (2 − mk )2 . For f (w ) = w= bw p . n B= k=1 1 p−1 2 − 1. Functional separable solution: w = w(r). there is an exact solution of the form w=− 0§1 1 ln λ n k=1 xk k ak (2 − mk )2 2−m + 1 1−B ln . Functional separable solution: w = w(r). 2 − mk Reference: A. Example 2. 2 − mk © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . D. Example 2. 2 dr r dr A s B= k=1 2 − 1. r2 = A n k=1 mk x2− k . k=1 ∂ ∂xk a k eλk x k ∂w ∂xk = f (w). k=1 ∂w ∂ k ak xm k ∂xk ∂xk n + k=2 +1 ∂ ∂w b k eλk x k ∂xk ∂xk s = f (w). Functional separable solution: w = w(r).4. I. k=1 ∂ ∂xk k ak xm k ∂w ∂xk = f (w). D. For f (w ) = bw p . Polyanin and A. Zhurov (1998). dr2 r dr A Example 1. Zhurov (1998). I. 1◦ . r2 = A k=1 mk x2− k +A a k (2 − m k ) 2 n k=s +1 e −λ k x k . Polyanin and A. b k λ2 k where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w B dw + = f (w). n 3.

1). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x1 .1. k = 1. 5. k=1 f k (x k ) ∂2w ∂x2 k n + k=1 g k (x k ) ∂w ∂xk n = aw ln w + w k=1 hk (xk ). . ϕ2 = ϕ2 (x2 ). xn ) = ϕ1 (x1 )ϕ2 (x2 ) . . where the functions ϕ1 = ϕ1 (x1 ).1. k=1 ∂ ∂xk f k (x k ) ∂w ∂xk n = aw ln w + w k=1 gk (xk ). . . b k λ2 k = 4f (w).2. . . there is an exact solution of the form w= 1 c(1 − p) p + 1−p s k=1 1 p−1 1 1−p 1 2 − mk s k=1 e−λk xk xk k + 2 ak (2 − mk ) b k λ2 k k=s +1 n 2−m . y 2 = A1 1 a k (2 − m k ) 2 b k λ2 k k=s +1 k=1 s z 2 = A2 k=q +1 mk x2− k + A2 a k (2 − m k ) 2 n k=p+1 e −λ k x k . 5. where p q mk x2− e −λ k x k k + A . xn ) = ϕ1 (x1 )ϕ2 (x2 ) . Example 2. C1 + · · · + Cn = 0. dxk dxk The arbitrary constants C1 . 2. . . n. . 0 ≤ q ≤ s ≤ p ≤ n. . I. z ). n 5. ϕn = ϕn (xn ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations dϕk d f k (x k ) − aϕk ln ϕk − gk (xk ) + Ck ϕk = 0. this equation arises in plane problems of heat and mass transfer (see equations 5. Cn are related by a single constraint. ϕn (xn ). there is an exact solution of the form w=− 1 ln β s k=1 xk k e−λk xk + 2 ak (2 − mk ) b k λ2 k k=s +1 n 2−m + 1 1−B ln . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . . Cn are related by a single constraint. 2 − mk 2◦ . x2 . .1. C1 + · · · + Cn = 0. .1. and 5. . For f (w ) = cw p .4. where the functions ϕ1 = ϕ1 (x1 ). Zhurov (1998). . β 2cβ s B= k=1 2 − 1. .1. .1.2. Reference: A. Other Equations n 1. 5.430 ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS WITH THREE OR MORE SPACE VARIABLES Example 1. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x1 .2. 2. We divide the equation variables into two groups (responsible for both power-law and exponential terms) and look for exact solutions in the form w = w(y .3. 6.1. ϕn = ϕn (xn ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations dϕk d 2 ϕk − aϕk ln ϕk − hk (xk ) + Ck ϕk = 0. . . . 2 − mk 3§4 For B1 = B2 = 0 and A1 = A2 = 1.3. . .1. . Then we obtain the following equation for w: ∂ 2 w B1 ∂w ∂ 2 w B1 ∂w + + A + A1 2 ∂y 2 y ∂y ∂z 2 z ∂z q B1 = k=1 2 − 1.1. . x2 .3. ϕn (xn ). . D. For f (w ) = ceβw . ϕ2 = ϕ2 (x2 ). .4. . 2 − mk s B2 = k=q +1 2 − 1. . n. 5. f k (x k ) 2 + g k (x k ) dxk dxk The arbitrary constants C1 . . . . .1. k = 1. .3. . . Polyanin and A.

For f (w ) = cw p . 2 dr r dr A B=2 m1 k=1 1 − nk + pk −2 2 − nk qk + 2m2 − 1. Functional separable solution: w = w(r). a k (2 − m k ) 1 1−p Example 1. k=1 ak e λk x k ∂2w ∂x2 k n + k=1 b k eλk x k ∂w ∂xk = f (w). there is an exact solution of the form w=− 1 ln β n k=1 xk k ak (2 − mk )2 2−m + 1 1−B ln .4. r2 = A n k=1 mk x2− k a k (2 − m k ) 2 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w B dw + = f (w). b k λ2 k m2 k=1 where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w B dw + = f (w). β 2cβ m1 4. For f (w ) = ceβw . k=1 k ak xn k ∂2w ∂x2 k k –1 + a k pk x n k ∂w ∂xk + k=1 m1 k=1 b k eλk x k ∂2w ∂x2 k m2 + b k qk e λ k x k ∂w ∂xk = f (w). k=1 k ak xm k ∂2w ∂x2 k n + k=1 k –1 b k xm k ∂w ∂xk = f (w). Functional separable solution: w = w(r). B = 2n − 1 − 2 k=1 bk . Example 2. For f (w ) = cw p . a k λ2 k n where the function w(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 4 d2 w B dw + = f (w). there is an exact solution of the form w= 1 2c(1 − p) 1+p +B 1−p 1 p−1 n k=1 xk k ak (2 − mk )2 2−m . EQUATIONS WITH n INDEPENDENT VARIABLES n 431 2. Example 2. For f (w ) = ceβw . dr2 r dr A n B=2 k=1 a k (1 − m k ) + b k − 1. β 2cβ n 3. there is an exact solution of the form w=− 1 ln β n k=1 e−λk xk ak λ 2 k m2 + 1 1−B ln . λk © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. Functional separable solution: w = w(r). 2 dr r dr A Example 1. a k λk there is an exact solution of the form 1 2c(1 − p) 1+p +B 1−p 1 p−1 n k=1 w= e−λk xk ak λ 2 k 1 1−p . r2 = A nk x2− k +A a k (2 − n k ) 2 k=1 e −λ k x k . r2 = A n k=1 e −λ k x k .

K.5.1. and C3 are arbitrary constants. Calogero (1984). Equations Linear in the Mixed Derivative 7. C1 C2 t + C3 ) + ϕt (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Dt (wxx ) 2a+1 + Dx −w(wxx ) 2a+1 = 0. is also a solution of the equation. 1◦ .3 with f (u) = au2 .1. ∂2w ∂x∂t =w ∂2w ∂x2 +a ∂w ∂x 2 ∂2w =w ∂2w . where C1 .1. Calogero Equation + a. t) is a solution of the equation in question. which can be reduced to the canonical form by standard transformations. This is a special case of equation 7.1 for information about semilinear equations. 3◦ . Pavlov (2001). Saxton (1991). are not considered in this chapter. See Section S.  ¢¡ 1 1 References: F. and ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function.1. 7. where f (t) and g (z ) are arbitrary functions and z is the parameter. For hyperbolic equations that contain mixed derivatives.1.3 with f (u) = a.1. C2 . Semilinear equations. Conservation laws: Dt (wx )1/a + Dx −w(wx )1/a = 0. General solution in parametric form: w = f t ( t) + x = − f ( t) + g (z ) − at g (z ) − at 1−a a 1 a dz .1. see Section 3. 1. J. Then the function w1 = C1 w(C2 x + C2 ϕ(t). Hunter and R. ∂x∂t ∂x2 This is a special case of equation 7.Chapter 7 Equations Involving Mixed Derivatives and Some Other Equations Preliminary remarks. 2◦ . 2. M. Suppose w(x. V. dz .

Suppose w(x. y ) is defined implicitly by (4). where ψ (t) is an arbitrary function and the function ϕ(t) is defined implicitly by (C is an arbitrary constant) dϕ = t + C. (5) w= Φ( u ) where ψ (y ) is an arbitrary function. Degenerate solution linear in x: w(x. ∂y which is independent of z and can be treated as an ordinary differential equation. 1◦ . and x0 and y0 are any numbers. dt = dy . References: F. Formulas (4). = + vw . EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂w . dy = dt dz = ∂x ∂t defines the passage from x. v = Φ(u) = exp . (3) ∂x ∂z ∂t ∂y ∂z This results in the first-order equation ∂u = f (u). and u = u(z . Introduce the notation u du ∂w . 2◦ . Pavlov (2001). is also a solution of the equation. (6) dx = Φ( u ) Integrating the first relation in (6) yields y z dξ − w(z0 . Integrating yields its solution in implicit form: du = y + ϕ(z ). we obtain the equation ∂w u ∂w u = =⇒ = . y in accordance with the rule ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ =v . (1) u= ∂x f (u ) The transformation ∂z ∂z dx + dt (2) dz = v dx + vw dt. ∂x ∂2w ∂2w +f =w ∂x∂t ∂x2 Calogero equation. With the first relations of (1) and (3). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. The inverse of transformation (2) has the form 1 dz − w dy . y )) where w = w(z . Calogero (1984). (5). (7) x= y0 z0 Φ(u(ξ . t) = ϕ(t)x + ψ (t). ∂z v ∂z Φ( u ) whose general solution is given by u dz + ψ (y ). y ) is defined by (5). and (7) with y = t define the general solution of the equation in question in parametric form (z is the parameter). £¢¤ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . f (ϕ ) 3◦ . t to the new independent variables z .434 3. M. V. t + C2 ) + ϕt (t). Then the function −1 w1 = C1 w(C1 x + C1 ϕ(t). t) is a solution of this equation. τ ) dτ . (4) f (u ) where ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function.

1. where the functions f = f (y . z = w − ϕt (t).2. y . w(x. χ = χ(t). C5 and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. y . t) = − x + ϕy + ψ . Solutions: w(x. Pavlov (2001). 3◦ . “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w = f (y . differentiate the equation with respect to x. . see Lin. ¥¢¦ Dx = and the function Φ(u) is defined in (1). M. t) = C1 x + C2 y + ϕ + ϕt − C2 C1 4t(x + ϕ) − (y + C2 )2 + ϕt . and Tsien (1948). t)x2 + g (y . y . It describes the propagation of a sound beam in a nonlinear medium. 4◦ . t) are determined by the system of differential equations fyy = −6f 2 . Reissner. C 2 y + C 4 . C 1 w2 = w(x + λy + ϕ(t). . To this end. hyy = −2f h + gt − g 2 . where C1 . Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya Equation = 0. t) + ϕt (t) − λ2 . t) = (ϕy + ψ )x − 12ϕ2 6 2 2 . y + 2λt. and h = h(y . are also solutions of the equation. t). w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . Calogero (1984). Suppose w(x. Then the functions −2 2 −1 2 C2 t + C5 ). y . Dt [Φ(wx )] + Dx [−wΦ(wx )] = 0.7. gyy = −6f g + 2ft . V. . . 1. t). where ϕ(t) and F (z ) are arbitrary functions. y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Conservation law: where Dt = ∂ ∂t .3. EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 435 4◦ . t) = t where ϕ = ϕ(t). w(x. this relation determines the general y -independent solution of the original equation. 1 1 1 (ϕy + ψ )4 + ϕt y 3 + ψt y 2 + χy + θ. w(x. ∂x∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 Two-dimensional Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation.1. t)x + h(y . ∂ ∂x . t and y play the role of the space coordinates and x is a linear combination of time and a coordinate.1. t + C1 w(x. t). ∂2w –w ∂2w – ∂w 2 – ∂2w 1◦ . and θ = θ(t) are arbitrary functions. The equation of unsteady transonic gas flows (see 7. 2◦ . and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) = 2ϕx + (ϕt − 2ϕ2 )y 2 + ψy + χ. y . and then substitute w = −∂u/∂x. ψ = ψ (t). 7. t) is a solution of the equation in question. Solution in implicit form: tz + x + λy + λ2 t + ϕ(t) = F (z ). g = g (y . one should pass to the new variable τ = 2t. With λ = 0. References: F. the prime stands for the differentiation.1 with a = b = 1/2) 2uxτ + ux uxx − uyy = 0 can be reduced to the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation.

ζ = y 2 + αx. 2 R2 (gt − g 2 ) dy . g= + C 2 ( t) R 3 − t . D. 447–450). .1. References for equation 7.1. Solution: ∂V ∂V + 2q ∂p ∂q 2 + (36pV + 5) ∂V ∂V + 22qV + 10V 2 = 0. A. 2 2 R R 2R R2 1 1 C 3 ( t) 2 + C 4 ( t) R + (gt − g 2 ) dy − h= R 3 R 3R where ϕ(t). and µ are arbitrary constants. r = y + µt. Kodama (1988). 299– 300. α where α = α(t) is an arbitrary function and the function v = v (ζ .5. N. Kodama and J. f =− 5◦ . α The last equation has a particular solution of the form v = ζϕ(t). ∂ζ β= αt + 4 . Krasil’shchik (1997). where A and B are arbitrary constants. C1 (t).2. t). q ). where β . C4 (t) are arbitrary functions. z ). A particular solution of this system is given by C 1 ( t) ϕ ( t) 1 . pp.436 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS The subscripts y and t denote the corresponding partial derivatives. F. t) + ξ = yx−1/2 . “Two-dimensional” solution: αt + 4 x. t) is determined by the differential equation 2ξ − 5ξu ∂u ∂u −4 + 4u2 = 0. where the function ϕ = ϕ(t) is determined by the Riccati equation αϕt − α2 ϕ2 − (αt + 10)ϕ + βt − β 2 = 0. t) is determined by the differential equation α ∂v ∂2v ∂2v − (α2 v + 4ζ ) 2 − α2 ∂ζ∂t ∂ζ ∂ζ 2 − (αt + 10) ∂v + βt − β 2 = 0. where the function u = u(ξ .1. R = y + ϕ(t). q ) is determined by the differential equation 3p(3V p + 1) ∂2V ∂ 2V ∂2V + (4q 2 V + 1) 2 + 2q (6pV + 1) 2 ∂p ∂q ∂p∂q + 3p 9◦ . S. and the function u = u(r) is determined by the ordinary differential equation §¢¨ r2 (u − Ar + 4)urr + r2 (ur )2 − r(6u − Ar + 6)ur + 6(u + 1)u = 0. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = x−2 V (p. p = tx−3 . z = x + βy + λt. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = xu(ξ . pp. Y. H. ∂u ∂2u ∂2u + (ξ 2 u + 4) 2 + ξ 2 ∂ξ∂t ∂ξ ∂ξ w = v ( ζ . Gibbons (1989). 8◦ .1: Y. With λ = β 2 and µ = 2β . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . M. Ibragimov (1994. and the function U = U (r. Vinogradov and I. where the function V = V (p. 7◦ . 1995. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (r. . ∂ξ ∂t 6◦ . Polyanin and V. z ) is determined by the differential equation (λ − β 2 ) ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U + (µ − 2β ) − −U − 2 2 ∂z ∂r∂z ∂r ∂z 2 ∂U ∂z 2 = 0. we obtain an equation of the form 5. r = (At + B )−1 x−1 y 2 . Zaitsev (2002). A. ∂p ∂q w = u(r)x2 y −2 . q = yx−2 . . λ. .

ϕt − 2f ϕ2 2 y + ψy + χ. gχyy = −f (2ϕχ + ψ 2 ) + ψt . t).1. y . C is an arbitrary constant. where the function ϕ = ϕ(y . y . t). t) = leads to an equation of the form 7. ∂y 2 w(x. and the function U = U (z . t) + ϕ(t). ∂y 2 b u(x. g ϕ ψ f (ϕy + ψ )4 + t y 3 + t y 2 + χy + θ. ξ = x + λy + [f (t)ϕ(t) + λ2 g (t)] dt. f = f (t) and g = g (t). t)x2 + ψ (y . 2002). “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w = ϕ(y . Suppose w(x. C2 . ψ = ψ (t). EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 437 ∂w ∂ ∂2w w +a ∂x∂t ∂x ∂x The transformation 2. Then the functions −2 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C2 . D. χ = χ(t). λ is an arbitrary constant. and χ = χ(y . Zaitsev (2002). ψ = ψ (y . w(x. t) is a solution of the equation in question. a − τ = −bt ∂ 2u = 0. The subscripts y and t denote the corresponding partial derivatives.7. Zaitsev. 3◦ . t). Solutions: w(x. and Moussiaux. η = y + 2λ g (t) dt. where the function ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. t)x + χ(y . ∂t ∂z ∂z A complete integral of this equation is sought in the form U = A(t)z + B (t). y .2. C3 . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t) = (ϕy + ψ )x − 2 12gϕ 6g 2g where ϕ = ϕ(t). f = f (t) and g = g (t). the prime denotes a derivative with respect to t. 4◦ . and θ = θ(t) are arbitrary functions. w2 = w(ξ . Polyanin and V. and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. C1 y + C3 . τ ). Reference: A. t) = U (z . t) = 2ϕx + f dt + C −1 + ϕy + ψ . z = x + λy . t). ∂x∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 Generalized Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation.1. are also solutions of the equation. F. ©¢ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . gψyy = −6f ϕψ + 2ϕt . +b ∂2w = 0. y . η . y . which allows obtaining the general solution (see Polyanin. = 0.1: ∂ ∂u ∂2u − u ∂x∂τ ∂x ∂x 3. y . t) = −x w(x. t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation [ψ (t) is an arbitrary function] ∂U ∂U ∂U − f ( t) U − [f (t)ϕ(t) + λ2 g (t)] = ψ (t). y . where C1 . t) are determined by the system of differential equations gϕyy = −6f ϕ2 . t) + ϕ(t). w ∂2w – f (t) ∂ ∂w – g (t) ∂2w 1◦ .

t). see. t). For solutions of these linear equations. −y sin β + z cos β . z . t) are determined by the system of differential equations fyy + fzz = −6f 2 . z . “Three-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w = f (y . gyy + gzz = ft − f 2 . z + 2µt. for example. γ are arbitrary functions of t. z . ξ = y sin β + z cos β . where the functions f = f (y . and C is an arbitrary constant. ∂2w ∂x∂t – EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂w ∂x 2 –w ∂2w ∂x2 – ∂2w ∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂z 2 = 0. Suppose w(x. C 2 y + C 4 . The first equation represents the Laplace equation and the second one is a Poisson equation (for g ).438 4. t). ∂x2 ∂ξ 2 4◦ . hyy + hzz = −2f h + gt − g 2 . Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). g = g (y . t) are determined by the differential equations fyy + fzz = 0. C6 . Then the functions −2 2 −1 2 w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . and β are arbitrary constants. z . t) = 2α1 x + (α1 − 2α2 1 − α2 )y + α3 y + α2 z + βz + γ . “Three-dimensional” solution: w = u(x. Solutions: 2 2 w(x. t)x + g (y . w(x. C 1 C2 t + C6 ). t) and g = g (y .2. t). t). z . “Three-dimensional” generalized separable solution linear in x: w = f (y . w3 = w(x. z . and t denote the corresponding partial derivatives. t)x + h(y . . y + 2λt. y . z . t) is a solution of the equation in question. w2 = w(x + λy + µz + ϕ(t). λ. 3◦ . t) = C 4tx − y 2 − z 2 . β . µ. and h = h(y .1. t) + ϕt (t) − λ2 − µ2 .1: ∂2u − ∂x∂t ∂u ∂x 2 −u ∂2u ∂2u − = 0. 1◦ . z . Three-dimensional Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation. z . gyy + gzz = −6f g + 2ft . C 2 z + C 5 . z . where C1 . t) is determined by the Khokhlov– Zabolotskaya equation of the form 7. . t3/2 where α1 . z . y cos β + z sin β . where the functions f = f (y . t)x2 + g (y . z . . y . y . are also solutions of the equation. z . where β is an arbitrary constant and the function u = u(x. and ϕ = ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. α2 . ξ . The subscripts y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 5◦ . α3 . t). z . . 2◦ . ξ .

z . µ. ∂t∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 1◦ . z . . C 2 y + C 4 . and the 4 reduction of order with pu = 1−λ η (p) result in the first-order equation pηηp − η + 1 = 0. I. z . ζ = . where the functions f = f (y . z . z . y2 + z 2 y2 + z 2 U ( ζ ). are also solutions of the equation. z = z ¯ −a. at + C w(x. 1995). bgyy + cgzz = −ft − af . and β are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function. ∂2w +a ∂ ∂w +b ∂2w +c ∂2w bλ2 + cµ2 1 ϕ t ( t) − . z . Vinogradov.4: A. w2 = w(x + λy + µz + ϕ(t). t2 xt where the function U = U (ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. and V.1. ¢ 7◦ . y . t = t x=x ¯ −a. . Suppose w(x. t) − 3◦ . t) = u(ξ )t−λ . EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 439 6◦ . z − 2cµt. y . √ For λ = 1. Solution: 4tx − y 2 z2 V (q ). z . . b < 0. Ibragimov (1994. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 (1) (2) .2. For a < 0. t) = ζ 2 (ζ 2 U − ζ + 4)Uζζ + ζ 4 (Uζ )2 + ζ (2ζ 2 U − 3ζ + 12)Uζ + 4U = 0. t) is a solution of the equation in question. where λ is an arbitrary constant. S. 4◦ . C 1 C2 t + C6 ). C6 . z . M. y . Krasil’shchik.4. where α = α(t). and γ = γ (t) are arbitrary functions and C is an arbitrary constant. y . “Three-dimensional” generalized separable solution linear in x: w = f (y . β = β (t). t) = α ln(cy 2 + bz 2 ) − (βt + 4abcβ 2 )(cy 2 + bz 2 ) + 4bcβx + γ . the passage to the new independent variables according to √ √ √ √ ¯/ −a ¯ −b. V. Integrating yields (η − 1)eη = C1 p. y . Solutions: w(x. t) are determined by the differential equations bfyy + cfzz = 0. N. and c < 0. t).2. a a where C1 . t)x + g (y . y . t) = 2(4V + q 2 − q )Vqq + 8(Vq )2 + (1 − q )Vq + V = 0. Solution: References for equation 7. 8◦ . t) and g = g (y . q = . y − 2bλt. the change of variable ξ (u) = p(u) − 1− λ u. z . 2 t z2 where the function V = V (q ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x.1. and the function u = u(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [4u + (1 − λ)ξ ]uξξ + 4(uξ )2 = 0. ξ = tλ−2 (4xt − y 2 − z 2 ). C 2 z + C 5 . Then the functions −2 2 −1 2 w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . 4 For λ ≠ 1. λ. z . Lychagin (1986). Solution: w(x. H.7. y = y 5. = 0. we have u(ξ ) =  C1 ξ + C2 . . w leads to the three-dimensional Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya equation 7. 2◦ . t) = αy + βz + 1 x + γ.1. the passage to the inverse ξ = ξ (u).

t denote the corresponding partial derivatives. t) = V (ζ . bhyy + chzz = −2af h − gt − ag 2 . z . η = (cy 2 + bz 2 )x−1 . t. This remains true if the coefficients a. where ϕ = ϕ(t) is an arbitrary function.1.√ z . Reissner. equation (1) can be reduced to the Laplace equation. y . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. where k is an arbitrary constant.3. and t. H. z . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) = v (p.2 with f (t) = a and g (t) = −b. t). g = g (y . aϕ ζ = cy 2 + bz 2 + ϕx. and if bc < 0. w(x. where the functions f = f (y . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. t)x2 + g (y . t) = xU (η . Ibragimov (1994). t). and t. for example. t) are determined by the system of differential equations bfyy + cfzz = −6af 2 . and Tsien (1948). S. then by the scaling √ ¯ |c|. ξ = cy 2 + bz 2 . and h = h(y . 6 . Remark. 7. z . and c are functions of y . see. “Three-dimensional” generalized separable solution quadratic in x: w = f (y . t) is determined by the differential equation aϕ2 (aϕ2 V + 4bcζ ) 2 ∂V ∂V ∂2V 3 ∂ V + aϕ + aϕ2 aϕ2 − ϕt + 12bc ∂ζ 2 ∂t∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ − ϕtt ϕ + 2(ϕt )2 − 12bcϕt + 16b2c2 = 0.3. see Lin. Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). z . V. z . r = zxk/2 . where the function U = U (η . Likewise. bgyy + cgzz = −6af g − 2ft . ¢ References: P. Sukhinin (1978). ∂η ∂t 8◦ . 7◦ . z . t). respectively. ξ ). p = txk+1 . If bc > 0. z . There are “three-dimensional” solutions of the following forms: ◦ w(x. z . y . t) = u(x. z = z wave equation.440 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS The subscripts y . y . This is a special case of equation 7. For solutions of these linear equations. q . equation (2) can be reduced to a Poisson equation and a nonhomogeneous wave equation. ∂2w ∂x∂t +a ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂x2 –b ∂2w ∂y 2 = 0. t). This is an equation of an unsteady transonic gas flow. b. b. N. Equation of Unsteady Transonic Gas Flows 1. t) is determined by the differential equation η (aηU + 4bc) ∂ 2U ∂U ∂2U − η + aη 2 ∂η 2 ∂t∂η ∂η 2 − 2(aηU − 2bc) ∂U ∂U + + aU 2 = 0. The above remains true if the coefficients a. Kucharczyk (1967). and V = V (ζ . z . y . 5◦ .1. to the y=y ¯ |b|. Remark. q = yxk/2 . t) − ϕt − 4bc x. z . and c are functions of y . z . z . r)xk+2 . t)x + h(y .

and r = r(y . where f = f (s ) is an arbitrary function and s is the parameter. γ = γ (t). t) = f (y . t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation [σ (t) is an arbitrary function]: ∂U ∂U a ∂U + + aχ(t) − bλ2 = 2bϕ(t) − χt (t) z + σ (t). η . λ is an arbitrary constant. bgyy = 18af g + 3ft . t)x2 + h(y . “Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution cubic in x: w(x. ψ = ψ (t). ξ = x + λy + bλ2 t − 2abϕ(t). ∂t 2 ∂z ∂z This equation can be fully integrated—a complete integral is sought in the form U = f (t)z + g (t). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 2 . where the functions f = f (y . C 2 y + C 4 . 4◦ . t) + ϕtt (t)y 2 + 2bϕt (t)x + ψ (t)y + χ(t). y . t) = U (z . ψ = ψ (t). y . and the function U = U (z . w(x. and Moussiaux. Zaitsev. η = y + 2bλt. and δ = δ (t) are arbitrary functions. µ = µ(t).7. Solution: − bλ2 ∂U = 0. t) = 3◦ . t)x3 + g (y . where ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. t) + ϕ(t)y 2 + ψ (t)y + χ(t)x + θ(t). t). are also solutions of the equation. h = h(y . where ϕ = ϕ(t). 2002): z + bλ2 − as t + fs (s ) = 0. EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 441 1◦ . and θ = θ(t) are arbitrary functions. t) are determined by the differential equations bfyy = 18af 2 .1. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. and χ = χ(t) are arbitrary functions. t)x + r(y . 2 U = s z + bλ2 s − 1 2 as t + f (s ). w2 = w(ξ . λ is an arbitrary constant. Setting f = 0 and g = ϕ(t)y + ψ (t). The general solution of equation (1) can be written out in parametric form (Polyanin. y . 1 1 (γ + 6aγγt + 4a2 γ 3 )y 4 + (α + 2aαγ )y 3 12b2 tt 6b t 1 [2(γt + 2aγ 2 )x + βt + 2aβγ ]y 2 + (αx + δ )y + γx2 + βx + µ. 5◦ . where ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. ∂z (1) 2 1 aC1 t + C2 . z = x + λy . Suppose w(x. The subscripts y and t denote the corresponding partial derivatives. β = β (t). t) + ϕ(t)y + ψ (t). + 2b where α = α(t). U = C1 z + bλ2 C1 − 2 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. χ = χ(t). C 1 C2 t + C5 ) + C6 yt + C7 y + C8 t + C9 . where the Cn and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t). g = g (y . y . and the function U = U (z . bhyy = 6af h + 4ag 2 + 2gt . t). “Two-dimensional” solution of a more general form: w(x. bryy = 2agh + ht . t) = U (z . t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation ∂U a ∂U + ∂t 2 ∂z A complete integral of this equation is given by 2 2◦ . t). y . Then the functions −3 2 −1 2 w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . t). one can integrate the system with respect to y to obtain a solution dependent on six arbitrary functions. t) is a solution of the equation in question. z = x + λy .

© 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where α = α(t). where ϕ = ϕ(t). a complete integral is sought in the form U = f (t)z + g (t). y . χ = χ(t). Polyanin and V.442 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 6◦ . t) is a solution of this equation. η = y − 2λ g (t) dt. y . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. Semenova (1989). z = x + λy . µ = µ(t). . y . Mamontov (1969). O. 2g (t) ∂2w + f (t) ∂w ∂ 2 w + g (t) ∂2w ξ = x + λy − λ2 g (t) + f (t)ϕ(t) dt. = 0. t) is determined by the differential equation γt p + aγ 3 ¢ ∂v ∂p ∂2v ∂2v ∂v 2b[p(γt + 4b) − aγ 3 δ ] + γ = 0. y . Vorob’ev. A. µ = µ(t). β = β (t). 6g c=− γt + 2f γ 2 . t) = a(t)y 4 + b(t)y 3 + [c(t)x + d(t)]y 2 + [α(t)x + β (t)]y + γ (t)x2 + µ(t)x + δ (t). . r)t−1 . F. Then the functions 2. . ψ = ψ (t).1. r = yt−1/2 . g d=− µt + 2f γµ . y . and δ = δ (t) are arbitrary functions. ψ = ψ (t). Suppose w(x. D. t) = v (x. ∂x∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . where the function v = v (x. and δ = δ (t) are arbitrary functions. t) + γγtt −2(γt )2 −18bγt −40b2 4 y + 12abγ 3 where γ = γ (t). t) − t y 2 + ψ (t)y + ϕ(t)x + χ(t). λ is an arbitrary constant. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. where C1 . η . 12g b=− αt + 2f αγ .1: E. and E. V. r) is determined by the differential equation r ∂v ∂ 2 v ∂2v ∂v ∂2v − 2a + 2b 2 + 2 = 0. ϕ ( t) w2 = w(ξ . and θ = θ(t) are arbitrary functions. and the functions a = a(t). c = c(t). Generalized separable solution in the form of a polynomial of degree 4 in y : w(x. and d = d(t) are given by a=− ct + 2f γc . ∂z This equation can be fully integrated. 2◦ . . “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. V. Ignatovich. + ( γ − 2 b ) − t ∂p2 ∂t∂p ∂p aγ 3 References for equation 7. λ = λ(t). C7 and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t). are also solutions of the equation. γ = γ (t). −4 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C2 . 2 ∂x∂r ∂x ∂x ∂r ∂r 4b + γt p − δ y 2 + µy + λ. and χ = χ(t) are arbitrary functions. M. E. t) = v (p. t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation [σ (t) is an arbitrary function]: ∂U ∂U 1 + f ( t) ∂t 2 ∂z 2 + [f (t)χ(t) + λ2 g (t)] ∂U = −[2g (t)ϕ(t) + χt (t)]z + σ (t). and the function v = v (p. 2g 3◦ . t) = U (z .3. t) + ϕ(t)y 2 + ψ (t)y + χ(t)x + θ(t). C1 y + C3 . Zaitsev (2002). p = y 2 + γx. aγ 3 7◦ . and the function U = U (z . N. b = b(t). t) + C4 yt + C5 y + C6 t + C7 .

“Two-dimensional” generalized separable solution cubic in x: w(x. y . F.4. t) = u(p. ∂w 7. t) is determined by the differential equation γ ∂u ∂2u + γt p + f γ 3 ∂p∂t ∂p ∂2u ∂u + (γt + 2g ) + 2g (bp + c) = 0. and λ = λ(t) are arbitrary functions. 12g b= γt − 4g . gψyy + 18f ϕψ + 3ϕt = 0. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂ 2 w – = 0. t). c = c(t). ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 w(x. t).1. y ) = F y + G(x) . The first equation has the following particular solutions: ϕ = 0 g . y . are also solutions of the equation. f γ3 Reference: A. Equations of the Form ∂w ∂ w – ∂w ∂ w ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y 1. Zwillinger (1989. gθyy + 2f ψχ + χt = 0. The subscripts y and t denote the corresponding partial derivatives. w1 = C1 where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function. Here. gχyy + 6f ϕχ + 4f ψ 2 + 2ψt = 0. t). “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. 1◦ . t)x2 + χ(y . Reference: D. t)x3 + ψ (y . f = f (t) and g = g (t). ¢ 2. p = y 2 + γ (t)x. γ = γ (t). These equations can be treated as ordinary differential equations for y with parameter t. y . and the function u = u(p. 2 2 = F x. EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 443 4◦ . Then the functions −1 w(x. the constants of integration will be functions of t. and θ = θ(y . y ) is a solution of this equation. χ = χ(y . 397).1. ∂p2 ∂p where the functions a = a(t) and b = b(t) are given by a=− ¢ (bγ )t + 10gb . Suppose w(x. t) + a(t)y 4 + [b(t)p + c(t)]y 2 + µ(t)y + λ(t). General solution: where F (z ) and G(x) are arbitrary functions. and ϕ = − 3f (y + h)2 5◦ . p. t) = ϕ(y . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(y . D. t). µ = µ(t). Zaitsev (2002). Polyanin and V. where h = h(t) is an arbitrary function. ψ = ψ (y . t) are determined by the differential equations gϕyy + 18f ϕ2 = 0.7. ∂w . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C1 y + ϕ(x)) + C2 . ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂y ∂x∂y – ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y 2 = f (x). t)x + θ(y .

y ). (3) ∂y where ψ (w) is an arbitrary function. are also solutions of the equation. Generalized separable solutions: w(x. C1 y + C2 ) + C3 . w(x. w(x. η = w. ∂ξ (2) which is independent of η . 1 λ f (x) dx + C . It follows that w and v are functionally dependent. η ) = ∂w . 2◦ . ∂y where w = w(x. we obtain the first-order equation 2 ∂w = 2 f (x) dx + ψ (w). f (x) dx + C2 . y ) = ϕ(x)eλy − where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function and C and λ are arbitrary constants. Integrating (3) yields the general solution in implicit form: dw √ = ! y + ϕ(x). Generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in y : w(x. y + ϕ(x) . y ) is a solution of this equation. ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y 1◦ . 2F (x) + ψ (w) where ϕ(x) and ψ (w) are arbitrary functions. 3◦ . Then the functions −1 w1 = C1 w(x. U (ξ . On integrating (2) and taking into account the relations of (1). and C3 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function. Suppose w(x. where C1 . y ) = ! y 2 f (x) dx + C1 1/2 + ϕ(x). C2 . ∂w ∂ 2 w – ∂w ∂ 2 w f (x) dx. ∂w = f (x ) . 3◦ . (1) . w2 = w x. The equation can be rewritten as the relation that the Jacobian of the functions w and v = wy − f (x) dx is equal to zero.444 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2◦ . (1) brings the original equation to the first-order nonlinear equation U ∂U = f (ξ ). y ) = C1 y 2 + ϕ(x)y + 1 ϕ2 (x) − 2 4C1 where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. y ) = y f (x) dx + C + ϕ(x). The von Mises transformation ξ = x. F (x) = 3. which means that v is expressible in terms of w: ∂w − ∂y © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC f (x) dx = ϕ(w).

and C3 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function. This equation can be treated as a first-order ordinary differential equation in the independent variable y with parameter x. are also solutions of the equation. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂ 2 w + f (y ) = g (y )w + h(y )x + " (y ). Other Equations with Two Independent Variables 1. ∂w . Equation (1) can be treated as an ordinary differential equation in the independent variable y with parameter x. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w – = f (x ) + g (y ) . Integrating yields its general solution in implicit form: ϕ (w ) + −1 f (x) dx dw = y + ψ (x). ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w 2 ∂ 2 w ∂w 2 ∂ 2 w + 2 – 1 + = 0. 1934). Any solution of the first-order equation (1) for any ϕ(w) is a solution of the original equation. f ϕψyy + ϕy ψy = gψ + s . It is used in nonlinear electrodynamics and field theory. 1– © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . y ) is a solution of this equation. where C1 . – −1 w1 = C1 w(x. 4. ∂y where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function. g (U ) ∂y where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function. 2.5. = f (x )g ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y 1◦ . Suppose w(x. 2 ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x First integral: ∂w = ϕ(w) − g (y ) dy + f (x) dx. EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 445 where ϕ(w) is an arbitrary function.7. 2◦ . First integral: ∂w U dU = ϕ(w) + f (x) dx. C1 y + C2 ) + C3 . ∂t ∂x2 ∂x ∂t ∂x∂t ∂x ∂t2 Born–Infeld equation (see Born and Infeld. Then the functions 5. U= .1. y + ϕ(x) . This equation can be treated as a first-order ordinary differential equation in the independent variable y with parameter x. 7. where ψ (x) and ϕ(w) are arbitrary functions. ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution linear in x: w = ϕ(y )x + ψ (y ). where the functions ϕ(y ) and ψ (y ) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations f ϕϕyy + (ϕy )2 = gϕ + h.1. C2 . ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂ 2 w w2 = w x.

w(x. ∂η ∂ξ ∂u ∂v ∂u − (1 + 2uv ) + u2 = 0. we can reduce this system to the second-order linear equation u2 ∂2ξ ∂2ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂2ξ + (1 + 2uv ) + v 2 2 + 2u + 2v = 0. Solutions: where ϕ(z1 ) and ψ (z2 ) are arbitrary functions. α+β 1 − 2 2 fζ (ζ )g (ζ ) dζ 1 + [fζ (ζ )]2 − g 2 (ζ ) β α . ∂ξ v= ∂w . η as the dependent ones) leads to the linear system ∂ξ ∂η − = 0. ◦ 3 . where √ √ 1 + 4uv − 1 1 + 4uv − 1 . Chernikov (1966). v2 ∂ξ ∂η ∂η The hodograph transformation (where u.446 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS w(x. v2 ∂v ∂v ∂u On eliminating η . r= 2v 2u © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (1) Looking for solutions in the hyperbolic domain. Integrals of this equation are given by r = C1 and s = C2 . ∂v ∂u ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂η + (1 + 2uv ) + u2 = 0. Cauchy problem with initial conditions: w = f (x) at t = 0. 2◦ . η = x + t. s= . t) = ψ (x − t). we write out the equation of characteristics (2) . M. 1◦ . 2 ∂u ∂u∂v ∂v ∂u ∂v u2 dv 2 − (1 + 2uv ) du dv + v 2 du2 = 0. Reference: B. By the introduction of the new variables ξ = x − t. ∂η the Born–Infeld equation can be rewritten as the equivalent system of equations ∂u ∂v − = 0. The hyperbolicity condition 1 + [fx (x)]2 − g 2 (x) > 0 is assumed to hold. A. t) = ϕ(x + t). Barbashov and N. u= ∂w . v are treated as the independent variables and ξ . Solution in parametric form: t= x= w= #¢$ 1 2 β α 1 + [fζ (ζ )]2 1 + [fζ (ζ )]2 − g 2 (ζ ) β α dζ . ∂t w = g (x) at t = 0. f (α ) + f (β ) 1 + 2 2 g (ζ ) dζ 1 + [fζ (ζ )]2 − g 2 (ζ ) .

1◦ . where C1 . B. w = Re f3 (z ). a+ ∂w 2 2 ∂2u ∂2u 2 ∂ u − 2 ζτ − 1 + ζ = 0. The Legendre transformation w(x. ∂x τ= ∂w . ∂τ 2 ∂ζ∂τ ∂ζ 2 ζ= ∂w . ∂x η= ∂w . ∂y x= ∂u . t) + u(ζ . ξ = ϕ(r) + ψ (s ). we obtain ∂ξ ∂η + = 0. ∂t x= ∂u . leads to the linear equation 1 − τ2 3. 2 ∂η ∂ξ∂η ∂ξ 2 2◦ .2. y ) + u(ξ . ∂y ∂x2 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 Equation of minimal surfaces (with a = b = c = 1). EQUATIONS LINEAR IN THE MIXED DERIVATIVE 447 %¢& Passing in (1) to the new variables of (2). y ) + u(ξ . τ ) = xζ + tτ . Reference: R.7.1. is also a solution of the equation. ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x2 1◦ . Whitham (1974). C2 . where the fk (z ) are arbitrary analytic functions of the complex variable z = α + iβ with derivatives constrained by [f1 (z )]2 + [f2 (z )]2 + [f3 (z )]2 = 0. ∂r∂ s whose solution is the sum of two arbitrary functions with different arguments. . η ) = xξ + yη . The function η is found from system (3). −1 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 . The Euler transformation ∂u . r2 ∂r ∂r (3) ∂ξ 2 ∂η +s = 0. y ) is a solution of this equation. see Subsection S. Reference: G. the shape of a foam film bounded by a given contour. Then the function 4. x= y=η © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂ξ y= ∂u ∂η %¢& ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂2w = F y. 2◦ . ∂ξ∂η ∂η w(x. ∂ζ t= ∂u ∂τ = 0. Hilbert (1989). ξ ) . ∂ξ leads to the linear equation (for details. The Legendre transformation w(x. y ) + C 3 . ◦ 4 . Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂s ∂s Eliminating η yields the simple equation ∂2ξ = 0. For example. η ) = xξ . z can be taken as one of the functions fk (z ). ∂2w – 2b ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w + c+ ∂w 2 ∂2w ξ= ∂w . leads to the linear equation ∂2u ∂2u ∂2u + 2bξη + c + ξ2 = 0. for example.3) ∂u ∂ 2u = F (η . It describes. General solution in parametric form for a = b = c = 1: a + η2 x = Re f1 (z ). y = Re f2 (z ). Courant and D.

C1 y + C3 . Then the function 2. y ) + U (ξ . y . 2◦ . ∂x∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . Courant and D. is also a solution of the equation. Reference: A. ∂η 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂ξ 2 f = f (ξ 2 + η 2 ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .6. Suppose w(x. −1 w1 = C1 w(C1 x + C2 . C2 . . and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. D. and the function U = U (z . Other Equations with Three Independent Variables = 0. ψ = ψ (t).1. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. Then the functions 1. . y − 2bλt. A complete integral of this equation has the form ϕ(t) dt + C1 . t) + ϕ(t)y + ψ (t). ∂x η= ∂w . w is the velocity potential and f is the sound speed. ∂z U = A(t)z + B (t). where the functions A(t) and B (t) are given by A(t) = −2b '¢( F (u ) = f (u) du. y . t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation ∂U +F ∂t ∂U ∂z + bλ2 ∂U + 2bϕ(t)z = σ (t). t) is a solution of this equation. Hilbert (1989). η . where C1 . f2 – EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂w ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w 2 ∂ 2 w ∂w 2 ∂ 2 w 2 2 2 – 2 = 0. f = f (w x + wy ). . Reference: R. ∂ξ y= ∂U ∂η 2 ∂2U ∂2U 2 2 ∂ U + 2 ξη + f − η = 0. ∂2w +f ∂w ∂2w +b ∂2w w2 = w(x + λy − bλ2 t. Zaitsev (2002). ∂x∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . where C1 . . The Legendre transformation w(x. ∂y x= ∂U . t) + ϕ(t)y 2 + ψ (t)y + χ(t). C1 t + C4 ) + C5 yt + C6 y + C7 t + C8 . η = y − 2λ g (t) dt + C2 . F. η ) = xξ + yη . C8 and λ are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. and χ = χ(t) are arbitrary functions. 7. Suppose w(x. t) = U (z . B ( t) = σ (t) − F (A(t)) − bλ2 A(t) dt + C2 . leads to the linear equation f 2 − ξ2 '¢( ξ= ∂w . t) is a solution of this equation. where σ (t) is an arbitrary function. λ is an arbitrary constant. + f – ∂x ∂x2 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y ∂y ∂y 2 This equation describes a two-dimensional steady-state isentropic flow of a compressible gas. Polyanin and V. are also solutions of the equation. w1 = w(ξ . ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂2w ∂2w + f (t)Φ + g ( t ) = 0. and C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.448 5. z = x + λy . ξ = x + λy − λ2 g (t) dt + C1 . where ϕ = ϕ(t). y . t) + ϕ(t)y + ψ (t).

. . t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation ∂U ∂U ∂U + f ( t) Ψ + λ 2 g ( t) + 2g (t)ϕ(t)z = σ (t). Ψ(u) = Φ(u) du. . .2. C4 are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation k (k + 2)ϕϕxx = 4f (x). −1 ψψyy = C1 g (y ). . . y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ). Then the function w1 = w(x. C1 y ) + C2 xy + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . = f (x)g (y ). . . y ) is a solution of this equation. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. . y ) 7. . 7. = f (x )y k . y ) + C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . Generalized separable solutions: x ( x − t) f ( t) y dt + C3 xy + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . and χ = χ(t) are arbitrary functions. y ) = (C1 x + C2 )y k+1 + 3◦ . . y . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . where C1 . y ) = C1 x 0 k+2 ∂2w ∂2w (x − t)f (t) dt + C2 x + 1 C1 y 0 (y − τ )g (τ ) dτ + C3 y + C4 . t) = U (z .2. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. is also a solution of the equation. ∂2w ∂2w w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . . . . where C1 . C5 are arbitrary constants. . . where C1 .7. C4 are arbitrary constants. t) + ϕ(t)y 2 + ψ (t)y + χ(t). Generalized separable solution: w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. . is also a solution of the equation. ∂t ∂z ∂z where σ (t) is an arbitrary function. z = x + λy . k (k + 1) 0 (C1 t + C2 ) x ( x − t) f ( t) 1 dt + C3 xy + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 449 2◦ . where ϕ = ϕ(t). Equations of the Form ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 Suppose w(x. and the function U = U (z . Additive separable solution: w(x.2. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . C6 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . Equations Quadratic in the Highest Derivatives 2 ∂ 2 w = F (x. y ) = (C1 x + C2 )y k+2 + (k + 1)(k + 2) 0 (C1 t + C2 ) where C1 . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations (C1 is an arbitrary constant) ϕϕxx = C1 f (x). . 2◦ . Then the function −k−2 2 w1 = C1 w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . 2◦ . . w(x. 2.1. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. This equation can be fully integrated—a complete integral is sought in the form U = A(t)z + B (t). λ is an arbitrary constant. 1. ψ = ψ (t). Suppose w(x.

. . C4 are arbitrary constants. . ψ = ψ (x). and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations k (k + 1)ϕϕxx = f (x). ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = f (x)eλy . y ) = ϕ(x)eλy + 1 λ2 x x0 ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . 6. . ∂x2 ∂y 2 w(x. . 5. y − 2 ln |C1 | + C2 xy + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . Generalized separable solution: w(x. Then the function w1 = C1 w x. and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation λ2 ϕϕxx = 4f (x). 4. . . . . . Suppose w(x. ∂2w ∂2w = f (x)y 2k + g (x)y k + h(x)y k–1 . y ) = ) ( z − t) f (t) dt + C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . . z = ax + by . C4 are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation λ2 ϕϕxx = f (x). . y ) = ϕ(x)eλy/2 + C1 xy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . . y ) is a solution of this equation. is also a solution of the equation. where C1 . . C5 are arbitrary constants. C1 t + C 2 where C1 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 1 ab z 0 Solutions: w(x. where C1 . k (k + 1)ϕχxx = h(x). EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂2w ∂2w = f (ax + by ). . C4 are arbitrary constants. . and x0 is any number such that the integrand does not have a singularity at x = x0 . 2◦ .450 3. y ) = (C1 x + C2 )eλy + 1 λ2 x x0 ( x − t) f ( t) dt + C3 xy + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . ϕ ( t) where C1 . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . λ where C1 . k (k + 1)ϕψxx = g (x). C6 are arbitrary constants. y ) = ϕ(x)y k+1 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). . Generalized separable solution: w(x. Generalized separable solution: w(x. 3◦ . . . Generalized separable solution: 1◦ . . ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = f (x)e2λy + g (x)eλy .

V. 1◦ . In Lagrangian coordinates. y ). y ) is a solution of the homogeneous Monge–Amp` ere equation. S (ξ ) . y ) + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . and k are arbitrary constants. and meteorology.7. F where the an . takes the Monge–Amp` ere equation to an equation of the same form. Then the functions w1 = C1 w(C2 x + C3 y + C4 .2. N. the system of equations of the one-dimensional gas dynamics with plane waves is as follows: ∂V ∂u ∂u ∂p + = 0.2. w 2 = (1 + C 1 x + C 2 y )w y x . y ¯ = a 2 x + b2 y + c 2 .2. = 0. ¯ = k 2 (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )−2 F . The Monge–Amp` ere equation is encountered in differential geometry. t) = ∂w (x. y ¯ = y (1 + αx + βy )−1 . y = p(ξ . w ¯ = kw + a3 x + b3 y + c3 . 1 + C 1 x + C2 y 1 + C 1 x + C2 y ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . Then the function w1 = w(x. C2 . gas dynamics. − = 0. . The transformation x ¯ = a 1 x + b1 y + c 1 . ∂y x = ξ. 1◦ . References: M. C10 are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation. are also solutions of the equation. x ¯ = x(1 + αx + βy )−1 . . . y ) = − ∂V ∂p p. . References: S. . F where α and β are arbitrary constants. y ). 3◦ . where S = S (ξ ) is a prescribed entropy profile. Suppose w(x. t) ` re reduces the equations of the one-dimensional gas dynamics to the nonhomogeneous Monge–Amp e equation 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w − = F (x. p the pressure. ∂t ∂ξ ∂t ∂ξ where t is time. y ). B. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Rozhdestvenskii and N. L. and V the specific volume. ξ the Lagrangian coordinate. y ) is a solution of the Monge–Amp` ere equation. where C1 . and C3 are arbitrary constants. y ) – ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 Preliminary remarks. The equation of state is assumed to have the form V = V p. C5 x + C6 y + C7 ) + C8 x + C9 y + C10 . takes the Monge–Amp` ere equation to an equation of the same form. Khabirov (1990). w ¯ = w(1 + αx + βy )−1 . cn . bn . Suppose w(x. N. Yanenko (1983). S (ξ ) . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 0¢1 where F (x. N. 1. ∂x t= ∂w (x. Martin (1953). u the velocity. The Martin transformation u ( ξ . Monge–Ampere ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 2 ∂ 2 w = F (x. 2◦ . EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 451 ` equation 7. ◦ 0¢1 4 . Ibragimov (1994). The transformation ¯ = F (1 + αx + βy )4 . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Homogeneous Monge–Amp` ere equation. H.

w(x. C4 x + C5 y + C 6 C1 x + C2 y + C 3 + C7 x + C8 y + C 9 . . ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = A.w −x −y = 0. w(x. Ibragimov (1994).452 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2◦ . y= . = 0. b. . First integrals: ∂w ∂w = 0. v ) are arbitrary functions of two arguments (n = 1. y ) = (C1 x + C2 y )ϕ y x + C3 x + C4 y + C 5 . General solution in parametric form for A = a2 > 0: ψ (λ ) − ϕ (β ) (β + λ)[ψ (λ) − ϕ (β )] + 2ϕ(β ) − 2ψ (λ) β−λ . v ) and Φ2 (u. y ) = 2 w(x. where t is the parameter. References for equation 7. V. y ) = C1 y 2 + C2 xy + w(x. Goursat (1933). ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂w ∂w . w= . Solutions involving arbitrary constants: w(x. where the Φn (u. . 4C2 w(x. y ) = (C1 x + C2 y + C3 )ϕ where C1 .2. General solution in parametric form: w = tx + ϕ(t)y + ψ (t). Solutions involving one arbitrary function: w(x. Φ2 ∂x ∂x ∂y where Φ1 (u. Φ1 3◦ . and the Cn are arbitrary constants. where the a. 2a 2a 4a where β and λ are the parameters. − ax ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂w − ay . z ) are arbitrary functions of two arguments. y ) = ϕ(C1 x + C2 y ) + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . x= © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . y ) = 2 3¢4 (C1 x + C2 y + C3 )k+1 + C7 x + C8 y + C 9 . 2). w(x.2. N. y ) = 2 (C1 x + C2 y + C3 )k + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . ϕ = ϕ(β ) and ψ = ψ (λ) are arbitrary functions. and ϕ = ϕ(t) and ψ = ψ (t) are arbitrary functions. (C 4 x + C 5 y + C 6 ) k C1 (x + a)2 + C2 (x + a)(y + b) + C3 (y + b)2 + C5 x + C6 y + C7 . Khabirov (1990). First integrals for A = a2 > 0: Φ1 Φ2 ∂w ∂w + ay . + ax ∂x ∂y = 0. 4C1 C2 C2 y 2 + C3 y + 3 + C4 y + C 5 x + C6 . 2◦ . S. 5◦ .1: E. H. 4◦ . 1◦ . x + ϕ (t)y + ψ (t) = 0. y ) = 1 x + C1 2 C2 x2 + C 3 y + C 4 x + C 5 . 2. . C9 are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function.

∂y where u = u(ξ . Solutions: √ A x(C1 x + C2 y ) + ϕ(C1 x + C2 y ) + C3 x + C4 y . y ) = C1 y 2 + C2 xy + w(x. y ) = 6¢7 1 x + C1 x 2 1 C2 x2 − (x − t)f (t) dt + C3 y + C4 x + C5 .2. . (e) from the solution of equation 7. C6 are arbitrary constants. N. D. . Goursat (1933). c. where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function. y ) = 5 y 6¢7 f (x) dx + ϕ(x) + C1 y . Polyanin and V. . and s are arbitrary constants. y ) = C1 y 2 + C2 xy + 4C1 2 C2 A 1 C2 y 2 + C3 y + 3 − (x3 + 3C1 x2 ) + C4 y + C5 x + C6 .2. . C6 are arbitrary constants. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 453 3◦ . w1 = C1 ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . F. ∂x η= ∂w . (c) from the solution of equation 7. (d) from the solution of equation 7. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . where β is an arbitrary constant. where β is an arbitrary constant. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Rozhdestvenskii and N.2.7. η ) is the new independent variable. ξ= ∂w . k . 4◦ . w(x. References: M. B. y ) = x + C1 4C2 12C2 √ 2 A 2 2 (C 1 x − C 2 y + C3 )3/2 + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . The Legendre transformation u = xξ + yη − w(x. 4C2 2C2 0 where C1 .2. w(x.22 with α = 0 and f (u) = A. w(x. Martin (1953). where β is an arbitrary constant. Yanenko (1983). ◦ 3 .24 with α = 0 and f (u) = A.18 with α = 0 and f (u) = A. and c are arbitrary constants. Generalized separable solutions quadratic in y : w(x. 4C1 2C1 0 x C2 1 C2 y 2 + C3 y + 3 − (x − t)(t + C1 )f (t) dt + C4 y + C5 x + C6 .2. .2. ∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 A Reference: E. C6 are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function. L. y ) = 5 3C1 C2 where C1 . Another five solutions can be obtained: (a) from the solution of equation 7. . = f (x). . .2. Reference: A. Suppose w(x. leads to an equation of the similar form ∂2u ∂ξ∂η 6¢7 2 − ∂ 2u ∂ 2 u 1 = . . 2◦ . −1 w(x. w(x. where a. Zaitsev (2002). . C2 x 5 C1 y + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . Generalized separable solutions for f (x) > 0: w(x. b. and ξ and η are the new dependent variables. . . are also solutions of the equation.20 with f (u) = A. y ) is a solution of this equation. Then the functions 3.21 with f (u) = A.2. y ).2. N. b. where a. (b) from the solution of equation 7.2. y ) = 5 C2 1 ( C 2 − A) x 2 + C 3 y + C 4 x + C 5 .2.

Then the functions −3 2 w(x. Suppose w(x. where 5◦ .2. . . Solutions with f (x) = Axk can be obtained: (a) from the solution of equation 7. 3◦ . χ(x) = 2 a ϕ ( t) 4◦ .2. C5 are arbitrary constants.1. where β is an arbitrary constant. (b) from the solution of equation 7. See solution of equation 7. . Zaitsev (2002). . . ϕ(x) f (x) dx 1 f (x) dx 1 .2. and ϕ(x) and ψ (y ) are arbitrary where Dx = ∂x ∂y functions. Reference: S. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : 1 w(x. g = y f (x) dx + ϕ(x) + ψ (y ).454 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 4◦ . .2. y ) = C1 y 3 − 6C1 a 1 x y3 − (x − t)(C1 t + C2 )2 f (t) dt + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . V. 2◦ . C5 are arbitrary constants. . 5. = f (x )y . 4. w1 = A C1 ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w where C1 .2. y ) = @ C2 λ Another solution can be obtained from the solution of equation 7.2. Reference: A. ∂ ∂ . F (x) = 2C1 where C1 . w (x.22 with α = λ and f (u) = A. y ) = @ C2 λ √ 2 −A λx/2 e cosh(C1 x + C2 y + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . y ) = @ C2 λ √ 2 A λx/2 e sinh(C1 x + C2 y + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . are also solutions of the equation. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). . Conservation law: Dx y (wx wyy − wy wxy + gy ) − g − wx wy + Dy y (wy wxx − wx wxy + gx ) + (wx )2 = 0. C4 are arbitrary constants. F. Dy = . y ) = (C 1 x + C 2 ) 2 6 a where C1 . . . C1 x + C2 2C1 [ϕ(x)]3 2C1 [ϕ(x)]2 [ψ (t)]2 1 x ( x − t) t dt + C5 x + C6 . w (x. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. Solutions for f (x) = Aeλx : √ 2 A λx/2 e sin(C1 x + C2 y + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . ψ (x) = C3 ϕ(x) + C4 + − . Polyanin and V.7 in Item 3◦ with k = 1. D.2. y ) is a solution of this equation. Generalized separable solutions cubic in y : x 1 (x − t)f (t) dt + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . where β is an arbitrary constant. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ .2. Let us consider some specific functions f = f (x).18 with f (u) = A and α = k/2. y ) = C1 y 2 − y F (x) dx + 2C1 1 f (x) dx + C5 . . w(x.2. where β is an arbitrary constant. C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . ϕ(x) = 8¢9 x a (x − t)F 2 (t) dt + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . w (x.24 with f (u) = A and α = k/2. ◦ 8¢9 5 . 5. . Solutions that can be obtained by the formulas of Items 1◦ and 2◦ are omitted. w(x. Khabirov (1990).

Zaitsev (2002). . 2 1 ϕχxx = 1 2 (ψx ) − 2 h(x). Generalized separable solutions: w(x. . Reference: A. . Generalized separable solutions in the form of polynomials of degree 4 in y : w(x. . C4 are arbitrary constants. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. 1 y4 − (C1 x + C2 )3 12 where C1 . Then the functions −k−2 2 w(x. are also solutions of the equation. . . . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : 6. C¢D 4◦ . ϕψxx = 2ϕx ψx − 1 2 g (x). is also a solution of the equation. w(x. Polyanin and V. C5 are arbitrary constants. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . – −2 w(x. (x − t)(C1 t + C2 )3 f (t) dt + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + C1 ϕ2 (x) dx + C2 y + 1 2 C 2 1 x a (x − t)ϕ3 (t) dt + C3 x + C4 . EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 455 = f (x )y 2 .2. D.2. y ) is a solution of this equation. y ) = C1 y 4 − w(x. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations ϕϕxx = 2(ϕx )2 − 1 2 f (x). w1 = B C1 ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . F. . . .2. . = f (x )y k . . = f (x)y 2 + g (x)y + h(x). w1 = B C1 ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . . Then the function 5. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). y ) = 1 12C1 x a x a (x − t)f (t) dt + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . 3◦ . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . y ) = k +1 (C 1 x + C 2 ) (k + 1)(k + 2) a where C1 . . Suppose w(x. 2◦ .7 in Item 3◦ with k = 2. where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation ϕϕxx = 2(ϕx )2 − 1 2 f (x). See solution of equation 7. 2◦ . . ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w 7. C5 are arbitrary constants. y ) is a solution of this equation. y ) = x 1 C1 y k+2 − (x − t)f (t) dt + C2 x + C3 y + C4 .7. . ψ = ψ (x). – w(x. Suppose w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. C1 y ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . (k + 1)(k + 2) C1 a x 1 y k+2 − (x − t)(C1 t + C2 )k+1 f (t) dt + C3 x + C4 y + C5 .

y ) = Ay k+2 C1 xn+2 − + C2 y + C 3 x + C4 . Let us consider the case where f is a power-law function of x. in more detail. Another exact solution for f (x) = Axn can be obtained from the solution of equation 7. D. w(x. y ) = ϕ(x)y k+2 − 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) x a ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution: 8. 2003). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. 4◦ . Polyanin and V. The substitution ψ = U −n/2 brings it to the Emden–Fowler equation Uyy = 8A y k U n+1 . y ) = (C1 y + C2 )−n−1 xn+2 − (n + 1)(n + 2) a where C1 . Polyanin and V. see Item 3◦ with f (x) = Axn . Solutions: w(x. (n + 1)(n + 2) C1 (k + 1)(k + 2) Ay k+n+3 C1 xn+2 − + C2 y + C 3 x + C4 . = f (x)y 2k+2 + g (x)y k . and a solution of the same type: w(x.456 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 3◦ . There are also a multiplicative separable solution. D. C4 are arbitrary constants. F. y ) = n +1 (n + 1)(n + 2)y C1 (k + n + 2)(k + n + 3) Axk+n+3 C1 y k+2 − + C2 y + C 3 x + C4 . – w(x. F. ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (k + 1)(k + 2)ϕϕxx − (k + 2)2 (ϕx )2 + f (x) = 0. . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation k (k + 2)ϕϕxx − (k + 2)2 (ϕx )2 + 4f (x) = 0. y ) = (C1 x + C2 )−k−1 y k+2 − (k + 1)(k + 2) a y A (y − t)tk (C1 t + C2 )n+1 dt + C3 y + C4 x. E¢F Reference: A. .2. w(x. . w(x. y ) = ϕ(x)y k+2 2 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Reference: A. y ) = ψ (y )x n+2 2 . where α and β are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev (2002). n2 (n + 2) E¢F whose exact solutions for various values of k and n can be found in the books by Polyanin and Zaitsev (1995. f (x) = Ax n . w(x. . Zaitsev (2002). where the function ψ = ψ (y ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation n(n + 2)ψψyy − (n + 2)2 (ψy )2 + 4Ay k = 0.18 with f (u) = Auk and n = 2α + kβ . y ) = k +1 (k + 1)(k + 2)x C1 (k + n + 2)(k + n + 3) x A (x − t)tn (C1 t + C2 )k+1 dt + C3 y + C4 x.2.

ϕϕxx − (ϕx )2 + 4λ−2 f (x) = 0.2.2. Solutions: 2 ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w – ∂2w ∂2w = f (ax + by ). y ) = G 2◦ . λ where C1 . D. y − ln |C1 | + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . C4 and β are arbitrary constants. respectively. . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution: 10. y ) = C1 e βx+λy 3◦ . y ) = ϕ(x)eλy − H¢I ϕϕxx − (ϕx )2 + λ−2 f (x) = 0. x and z play the role of y and x in 7. F. Reference: A. . Suppose w(x. y ) = ϕ(x) exp where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation H¢I 1 2 λy .2. w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. . ∂2w ∂x∂y 1◦ . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . = f (x )g (y ) + A 2 . .2. . . Zaitsev (2002). C4 are arbitrary constants. . . x g ( t) 1 ( x − t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . Reference: A. Polyanin and V.2. . y ) is a solution of this equation. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ .3: 2 z = ax + by ∂2U ∂2U ∂2U = + b−2 f (z ). Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. y ) = C1 a x ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w (x − t)f (t) dt + C2 x − − 1 λy e + C3 y + C 4 . 2 C1 λ a where C1 . leads to an equation of the form 7. ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w = f (x)e2λy + g (x)eλy . D. are also solutions of the equation.3. ∂x∂z ∂x2 ∂z 2 Here. Generalized separable solutions: w(x. The transformation w = U (x. 2 λ a ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 x f (z ) dz + ϕ(z ) + C1 x + C2 y .7. 11. Then the functions 2 w1 = G C1 w x. a and b are any numbers. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 457 = f (x)eλy . w(x. – 12. C 1 λ2 x 1 (x − t)e−βt f (t) dt + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . F. z ). . . z = ax + by . y ) = C1 (x − t)f (t) dt − C1 b a where C1 . . Polyanin and V. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solutions: y x 1 (y − ξ )g (ξ ) dξ G Axy + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . b where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function. w(x. 2◦ . Zaitsev (2002). 9.

2. x and z play the role of y and x in 7. x and z play the role of y and x in 7. 16. respectively. . C4 are arbitrary constants. where C1 . 14. ∂2w 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 The transformation – ∂2w ∂2w = x2k+2 f (ax + by ) + xk g (ax + by ).2. ∂2w 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 The transformation – ∂2w ∂2w = e2λx f (ax + by ) + eλx g (ax + by ). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC 1◦ . 2 2 ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y x x This is a special case of equation 7.2. are also solutions of the equation.10: ∂2U ∂x∂z = ∂2U ∂2U + b−2 e2λx f (z ) + b−2 eλx g (z ). ∂2U ∂x∂z 2 z = ax + by leads to an equation of the form 7.2. w = U (x. z ). z ). Then the functions . x and z play the role of y and x in 7. w = U (x. respectively.2. w1 = P w(C1 x.2. C1 y ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . w = U (x.2. ∂x2 ∂z 2 Here.2. 17. .2.458 13. EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂2w 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 The transformation – ∂2w ∂2w = xk f (ax + by ). z ).9. 1 y ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w – = 4f .2. .7.8. 15. ∂2U ∂x∂z 2 z = ax + by leads to an equation of the form 7. ∂x2 ∂z 2 Here.18 with α = −2 and β = −1.2. 2 z = ax + by leads to an equation of the form 7.2. z ). . Suppose w(x. x and z play the role of y and x in 7.9: = ∂2U ∂2U + b−2 eλx f (z ). respectively.2.2.2. w = U (x.7: = ∂2U ∂2U + b−2 xk f (z ). y ) is a solution of the equation in question.8: ∂2U ∂x∂z = ∂ 2U ∂ 2 U + b−2 xk+2 f (z ) + b−2 xk g (z ).2. respectively.2. 2 z = ax + by leads to an equation of the form 7.10.2. ∂x2 ∂z 2 Here. ∂x2 ∂z 2 Here. ∂2w 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 The transformation – ∂2w ∂2w = eλx f (ax + by ).

∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = f (ax – by 2 ). Yanenko (1983). B. Khabirov (1990). Dy = . x ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y 2 + Dy − ∂w ∂ 2 w + x−3 F ∂x ∂x∂y y x = 0. are also solutions of the equation. . Rozhdestvenskii and N. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 459 2◦ . Reference: S. . y ) = Q F (z ) + C1 dz + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . 3◦ . F. R¢S Reference: A. References: M. 2◦ . and F (z ) = ∂x ∂y f (z ) dz . ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = x2α f (xβ y ). 18. 2◦ . L. . x where C is an arbitrary constant. Conservation law: Dx where Dx = R¢S y x Q f (z ) dz + C . Solutions: w = xϕ where ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function. 1◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. are also solutions of the equation. . . F (z ) = 1 a2 b f (z ) dz . y ) is a solution of this equation. C4 are arbitrary constants. . N. . Then the functions w1 = w(x + 2bC1 y + abC1 . D. w1 = C1 Q where C1 . where C1 . 19. Then the functions β −α−1 −β w(C1 x. Polyanin and V. C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . Integral: w−x R¢S ∂w ∂w −y ∂x ∂y Q f (z ) dz = C . 4◦ . Suppose w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z= y . .7. . Martin (1953). Khabirov (1990). Zaitsev (2002). N.2. R¢S Reference: S. Self-similar solution: w(x. y + aC1 ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . z = ax − by 2 . where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation [β (β + 1)zuz + (α − β )(β − α − 1)u]uzz + (α + 1)2 (uz )2 − f (z ) = 0. where C1 . V. y ) = xα−β +1 u(z ) z = xβ y . . y ) is a solution of this equation. C4 are arbitrary constants. Solutions: w(x. . z= y . 1◦ . V. . ∂ ∂ .

D. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . C4 are arbitrary constants. Reference: A. where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 (4ac − b2 )z + as 2 + ck 2 − bk s uz uzz + (4ac − b2 )(uz )2 + f (z ) = 0. are also solutions of the equation. EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = f (ax2 + bxy + cy 2 ). D.460 20. y ) = u(z ). F. 23. z = eβx y . 2x Solution: where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation x2 ϕϕxx − x2 (ϕx )2 + 2xϕϕx − ϕ2 + 4k −2 x4 f (x) = 0. . U¢V The substitution V (z ) = (uz )2 leads to a first-order linear equation. y ) = eµx U (z ). Then the functions where C1 . w1 = T C1 1◦ . 2◦ . Suppose w(x. ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w = eαx f (eβx y ). ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w = eky/x f (x). y ) = u(z ) z = ax2 + bxy + cy 2 . 22. Generalized self-similar solution: w(x. y ) is a solution of this equation. Reference: A. z = ax2 + bxy + cy 2 + kx + s y . C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . Zaitsev (2002). Solution for b2 ≠ 4ac: w(x. Solution: w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 α−2β 2β w(x − 2 ln C1 . Zaitsev (2002). where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. ∂x2 ∂y 2 w(x. where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation Integrating yields u (z ) = T U¢V F (z ) dz + C1 . Polyanin and V. µ= 1 2 α − β. where the function U = U (z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation β 2 zUz Uzz − µ2 U Uzz + (β + µ)2 (Uz )2 − f (z ) = 0. z F (z ) = b2 1 − 4ac f (z ) dz + C2 . F. Polyanin and V. 21. . y ) = exp ky ϕ(x). ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = f (ax2 + bxy + cy 2 + kx + W y ). . . 2(4ac − b2 )zuz uzz + (4ac − b2 )(uz )2 + f (z ) = 0.

ψ (x). V. β − (α + 1)2 zuz + (α + 2)(α + 1)u uz + f (z ) = 0. X¢Y where C1 . 2ϕψxx + f (x)ψ − 4ϕx ψx = 0. and the function ϕ = ϕ(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 (2βϕz + α2 ϕ)ϕzz − α2 ϕz + f (z ) = 0. ∂2w 2 ∂ 2 w 2 – ∂ 2 w ∂ 2 w = F x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w . w = y exp(αy −1 )ϕ(z ) + C1 y + C2 x + C3 . Suppose w(x. see Khabirov (1990) and Ibragimov (1994). C2 . is also a solution of the equation. C2 . Suppose w(x. Equations of the Form 1. z = xβ ey/x . y + C2 x + C3 ). = f (x )w 2 . y ) is a solution of this equation.3. its general solution can be expressed via the particular solution of the first equation). y . Then the function 2. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . 2ϕχxx + f (x)χ + g (x) − (ψx )2 = 0. Note that the second equation is linear in ψ and has a particular solution ψ = ϕ (hence. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. z = xy −1 + βy −2 .2. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂x∂y Solution: 25.7. w . – ∂2w ∂2w 2◦ . is also a solution of the equation. y ) = xα+2 u(z ). and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = y –4 exp(2αy –1 )f (xy –1 + βy –2 ). where C1 . The Cauchy problem for the Monge–Amp` ere equation is discussed in Courant and Hilbert (1989). where ϕ(x). y ) is a solution of this equation. y ) (without functional arbitrariness). ∂w ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y = f (x)w + g (x).2. Khabirov (1990). – w1 = C1 w(x. Reference: S. y + C1 x + C2 ). ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 = x2α f (xβ ey/x ). w(x. and χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2ϕϕxx + f (x)ϕ − 4(ϕx )2 = 0. For exact solutions of the nonhomogeneous Monge–Amp` ere equation for some specific F = F (x. V. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). ∂w . Then the function w1 = w(x. 7. Khabirov (1990). where the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation X¢Y z 2 βzuz + (α + 2)(α + 1)u uzz + z Reference: S. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 461 ∂x∂y Solution: 24.

A2 . y ) is a solution of this equation. Suppose w(x. y ) is a solution of this equation. k . and any three of the four constants A1 . z = ax2 + bxy + cy 2 + kx + s y . y + k−2 ln C . ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w – = f (x)eλy wk . λ n+2 ∂2w 2 – ∂2w ∂2w where C is an arbitrary constant. 2−k where the function U (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation U Uxx − (Ux )2 + (k − 2)2 λ−2 f (x)U k = 0. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . |A2 B1 − A1 B2 | = 1. w1 = C n+2 w(x. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . Suppose w(x. C k−2 y ). where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation uuxx − (ux )2 + λ−2 f (x)u2 = 0. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. is also a solution of the equation. y ) = eλy u(x). y ) = y 2−k U (x). C2 . 2◦ . ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w – = f (w). Suppose w(x. Then the function 3. where a. is also a solution of the equation. Then the function w1 = w(A1 x + B1 y + C1 . B1 . where C is an arbitrary constant. c. and B2 are arbitrary. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . and s are arbitrary constants and the function u = u(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2 (4ac − b2 )z + as 2 + ck 2 − bk s uz uzz + (4ac − b2 )(uz )2 + f (u) = 0. where C1 . y ) = u(z ). = f (x )y n w k . Functional separable solution: w(x. y ) is a solution of this equation. Multiplicative separable solution with k ≠ 2 and λ ≠ 0: w(x. 2◦ . A2 x + B2 y + C2 ). b. y ) = exp λy U (x). 2◦ . where the function U (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (n + 2)(n + k )U Uxx − (n + 2)2 (Ux )2 + (k − 2)2 f (x)U k = 0. 4. 5.462 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2◦ . Multiplicative separable solution with n ≠ −2 and k ≠ 2: w(x. Then the function w1 = Cw x. is also a solution of the equation.

Rozendorn (1984). There are exact solutions of the following forms: w(x. 2 0 F ( t) and C1 . y ) = ekx V (ξ ). 2 w= 1 4 a(x + C1 ) (y + C2 ). C7 are arbitrary constants. √ 1 ( a x + C )2 y + ϕ(x). © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC a 2 x + C4 x + C5 . w(x. η = y + k ln |x|. C6 are arbitrary constants. Generalized separable solution: w = C1 exp(C2 x + C3 y ) − 6◦ . . z = y |x|−k . w= 4 where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function and C is an arbitrary constant. y ) = |x|k+2 U (z ). C2 . . ∂2w 2 = ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f (x) exp ay x wk . and λ are arbitrary constants. C 2 y + C 4 x + C 5 ) + C 6 x + C 7 . 5◦ . is also a solution of the equation. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = F (x)y 2 + G(x)y + H (x). λ = . w= 4 where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function and C1 . y ) = exp x2 uuxx − (xux − u)2 + λ−2 x4 f (x)uk = 0. Solutions: −1 2 w = C1 eλy − 1 2 aλ x + C2 x + C3 . where F (x) = H (x) = 1 . . Suppose w(x. ∂x∂y Solution: 6. x 2−k where the function u = u(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. Then the function where C1 . . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y This equation is used in meteorology for describing wind fields in near-equatorial regions. w= 4 Reference: E. Solutions: `¢a −1 1 aC2 (x + C1 )2 tan(C2 y + C3 ). w= 4 2◦ . ∂w ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w = +a . C1 x + C2 G(x) = − C3 a (C 1 x + C 2 ) 2 + + C4 . . . 7. where k is an arbitrary constant. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 463 a λy u(x).2. C3 . 3◦ .7. −2 −1 w1 = C1 C 2 w (C 1 x + C 3 . 4◦ . . −1 1 aC2 (x + C1 )2 tanh(C2 y + C3 ). −1 1 aC2 (x + C1 )2 coth(C2 y + C3 ). . R. y ) is a solution of the equation in question. . y ) = x2 W (η ). 2 C1 x + C2 6C1 [G (t)]2 − aG(t) 1 x ( x − t) t dt + C5 x + C6 . 1◦ . w(x. w = ϕ(x). The first solution is a solution in additive separable form and the other four are multiplicative separable solutions. 2C3 ξ = ye−kx .

b y + C 4 ) + C 5 y + C 6 . . . ∂x∂y ∂y 1◦ . . ∂2w EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2 . where the function z (x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 2C 1 zxx + f (zx ) = 0. 1 C3 x 0 w = C1 exp(C2 x + C3 y ) − (x − t)f (t) dt + C4 x + C5 . Its general solution can be written out in parametric form as x = −2C1 dt + C3 . is also a solution of the equation. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). f ( t) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . dx dx + 2 ϕ (x) C1 x + C2 ( x − t) [ψt (t)]2 − f (t)ψ (t) dt + C5 x + C6 . ∂2w ∂2w ∂w where C1 . 3◦ . w= 1 4 f (x) dx + C 2 y + ϕ(x). 2◦ . C6 are arbitrary constants. f ( t) z = −2C1 t dt + C4 . y ) = ϕ(y )x + ψ (y ). . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x 1◦ . 9. 3◦ . where ψ (y ) is an arbitrary function and the function ϕ(y ) is defined implicitly by dϕ √ = b y + C. Solutions: w = ϕ(x). y ) is a solution of this equation. Additive separable solution: w(x. where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function and C is an arbitrary constant. Then the functions = −1 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 y + C 3 . Suppose w(x. Then the function = ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f (x ) −1 w1 = C1 w(x. . Generalized separable solution linear in x: w(x.464 8. . . ϕ ( t) and C1 . . y ) = C1 y 2 + C2 y + C3 + z (x). f (ϕ ) where C is an arbitrary constant. y ) is a solution of this equation. For C 2 = 0. C1 x + C2 1 2 x 0 ψ (x) = − ϕ2 (x) f (x) C3 + C4 . . . ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . are also solutions of the equation. C6 are arbitrary constants. where ϕ(x) = χ(x) = 1 . C5 are arbitrary constants. C1 y + C2 x + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 . . Suppose w(x. the last solution is an additive separable solution. 2◦ . . ∂w +f .

Degenerate solutions involving arbitrary functions: w(x. η= . y ) = ϕ(x)y k + C1 x + C2 y + C3 where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (k − 1)f (x)ϕϕxx − k (ϕx )2 = 0.2. = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 2 ∂ 2 w + g (x. leads to an equation of the form 7. u = xξ + yη − w(x.2. C6 are arbitrary constants. η ) is the new dependent variable and ξ and η are the new independent variables. y ) is a solution of this equation. . η= . η ) is the new dependent variable and ξ and η are the new independent variables. y ) = ϕ(x)eλy + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . C3 . y ) ∂ w 2 ∂x ∂y 2 . . 2 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂ξ ∂η F (ξ . ∂x ∂y ξ= ∂w ∂w . ∂2w 2 2 − ∂2u ∂2u 1 = . ∂x ∂y where u = u(ξ .7. . 7. w(x. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : [ϕ (t)]2 C2 x ( x − t) t dt + C3 x + C4 . ∂x ∂y where u = u(ξ . The Legendre transformation ∂w ∂w .4. C2 . ξ= ∂2u ∂ξ∂η 10. Then the function w1 = C1 w(x. w(x. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function. y ) = ϕ(x) + C1 y + C2 . y ).2. is also a solution of the equation. and λ are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕϕxx − (ϕx )2 = 0. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . Suppose w(x. . Generalized separable solution involving an arbitrary power of y : w(x. 2◦ . y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + [C1 ϕ(x) + C2 ]y + 1 2 0 f ( t) ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕϕxx − 2(ϕx )2 = 0. 4◦ . Equations of the Form 1. 5◦ . see Subsection 7. 3◦ . leads to the simpler equation 2 ∂2u ∂2u 1 ∂2u − = . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . η ) For exact solutions of this equation.2. y ) = ϕ(y ) + C1 x + C2 . C2 y + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 y + C6 . y ) = f (x. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 465 4◦ . where C1 . 2 2 ∂ξ ∂η f (ξ ) ∂x∂y The Legendre transformation = ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 +F ∂w ∂w . y ).2.2. Generalized separable solution involving an exponential of y : w(x.3: u = xξ + yη − w(x.

C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . See the solution of equation 7. Then the functions −1 w(x. Then the functions = f (x ) −2 w(x. .466 2. f ( t) ϕ ( t) g (x) dx + ϕ(x) + C1 y . .2. Generalized separable solution linear in y : w(x. 3.4. is also a solution of the equation. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + [C1 ϕ(x) + C2 ]y + 1 2 x 0 2 C1 [ϕt (t)]2 − g (t) dt + C3 x + C4 . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . are also solutions of the equation. . C1 y ) + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . 3◦ . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕϕxx − 2(ϕx )2 = 0. which has a particular solution ϕ = C6 . f ( t) ( x − t) g (t) dt + C2 x + C3 . . C1 y + C2 ) + C3 x + C4 y + C5 . . + g (x )y 2 . y ) is a solution of this equation. y ) is a solution of this equation. 3◦ . Generalized separable solution cubic in y : w(x. . y ) = ϕ(x)y 3 + C1 y − 1 6 x a 1 6C1 x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C3 x + C4 . . y ) is a solution of this equation. . C5 are arbitrary constants. y ) = C1 y 3 + C2 y − where C1 . .4. Then the function −3 2 w1 = C1 w(x. Suppose w(x. . ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 2 = f (x ) + g (x )y . . 2◦ .6 in Item 3◦ with k = 1. . ( x − t) where C1 . Suppose w(x. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . where C1 . . . w1 = c C1 ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w where C1 .2. 2◦ . For an exact solution quadratic in y . . . . A more general solution is given by w(x. . . C4 are arbitrary constants. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w(x. f ( t) ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2f (x)ϕϕxx − 3(ϕx )2 = 0. Suppose w(x. 4◦ . ∂2w EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2 + g (x). C4 are arbitrary constants. C4 are arbitrary constants.5 with g 2 = g0 = 0. 4. see equation 7. w1 = c C1 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . y ) = c y where ϕ(x) is an arbitrary function. are also solutions of the equation.

EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 467 2◦ . + g (x )y k . + g2 (x)y 2 + g1 (x)y + g0 (x). . y ) = 1 C1 y k+2 + C2 y − (k + 1)(k + 2) C1 x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C3 x + C4 . For an exact solution quadratic in y . Generalized separable solution: w(x. y ) = ϕ(x)y k+2 2 . . Additive separable solution: w(x.2. where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). 2◦ . . y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 1 g2 (x). are also solutions of the equation. f (x)ϕϕxx = 2(ϕx )2 − 2 f (x)ϕψxx = 2ϕx ψx − 1 2 g1 (x). . . 2 1 f (x)ϕχxx = 1 2 (ψx ) − 2 g0 (x).2. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . . 3◦ .4. 4◦ . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation k (k + 2)f (x)ϕϕxx − (k + 2)2 (ϕx )2 + 4g (x) = 0. . 4◦ . f ( t) where C1 .4. . y ) = ϕ(x)y 4 + C1 y − 1 12 x a 1 12C1 x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C3 x + C4 . 3◦ . 5. f ( t) ( x − t) g (t) dt + C2 x + C3 . See the solution of equation 7. C4 are arbitrary constants.5 with g 1 = g0 = 0. Suppose w(x. Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Generalized separable solution involving y to the power of four: w(x.2. w1 = d C1 ∂2w 2 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w where C1 . . C4 are arbitrary constants. see equation 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Then the functions −k−2 2 w(x. . y ) = ψ (x)y k+2 − 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . . f ( t) ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 3f (x)ϕϕxx − 4(ϕx )2 = 0. ψ = ψ (x).6 in Item 3◦ with k = 2. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : = f (x ) w(x. ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w 6.7. y ) = C1 y 4 + C2 y − where C1 . . C1 y ) + C 2 x + C3 y + C 4 . A more general solution is given by w(x. f ( t) ψ ( t) where the function ψ = ψ (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (k + 1)f (x)ψψxx − (k + 2)(ψx )2 = 0. y ) is a solution of this equation. C4 are arbitrary constants.

Generalized separable solution: w(x. f ( t) ψ ( t) where the function ψ = ψ (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ψψxx − (ψx )2 = 0. y ) is a solution of this equation.468 7. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . . y − where C1 . . . f ( t) ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (k + 1)(k + 2)f (x)ϕϕxx − (k + 2)2 (ϕx )2 + g (x) = 0. f ( t) . Suppose w(x. C4 are arbitrary constants. y ) = ϕ(x)eλy − x a ( x − t) h ( t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. λ 1◦ . ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w + g (x)eλy . . 4◦ . 8. Generalized separable solution: w(x. are also solutions of the equation. ∂x2 ∂y 2 1 λ2 Generalized separable solution: w(x. y ) = ϕ(x)y k+2 − 1 (k + 1)(k + 2) x a ( x − t) h ( t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w + g (x)e2λy + h(x)eλy . 3◦ . Then the functions w1 = C1 w x. C4 are arbitrary constants. ∂x2 ∂y 2 2 ln |C1 | + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . f ( t) ϕ ( t) where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕϕxx − (ϕx )2 + λ−2 g (x) = 0. y ) = ϕ(x) exp 1 2 λy 1 C 1 λ2 x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C3 x + C4 . . . y ) = ψ (x)eλy − 1 λ2 x a ( x − t) g ( t) dt + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation f (x)ϕϕxx − (ϕx )2 + 4λ−2 g (x) = 0. . 9. ∂2w ∂x∂y EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2 = f (x ) ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + g (x)y 2k+2 + h(x)y k . . y ) = C1 eλy + C2 y − where C1 . Additive separable solution: w(x.

y ) + C1 x + C2 y + C3 . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x) and ψ = ψ (y ) are determined by the ordinary differential equations f1 (x)ϕϕxx − C4 (ϕx )2 = 0. 3◦ . ∂2w 2 = ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f (x ) ∂2w ∂y 2 . y ) = ϕ(z ) + C1 x2 + C2 xy + C3 y 2 + C4 x + C5 y . Generalized separable solution for f2 g2 = 0: w(x.5. y ) is a solution of this equation. .2. w1 = w(x. ∂x2 ∂y 2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . . and C3 are arbitrary constants. Additive separable solution for f1 g1 ≠ 0: w(x. . where C1 . Degenerate solutions for f2 g2 = 0: w(x.2. C2 . ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 1◦ . C4 are arbitrary constants. 11. w(x. y ) = ϕ(y ) + C1 x + C2 . the equation should first be solved for ϕ zz . to this end. 7. 4◦ . Other Equations ∂x∂y The substitution 1. ∂2w ∂x∂y Solution: 2 = f (ax + by ) ∂2w ∂2w + g (ax + by ). C5 are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ(z ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation (abϕzz + C2 )2 = f (z )(a2ϕzz + 2C1 )(b2 ϕzz + 2C3 ) + g (z ). . y ) = C1 a x ∂2w 2 = f 1 (x )g 1 (y ) ∂2w ∂2w ( x − t) 1 f 2 ( t) dt − f 1 ( t) C1 y b (y − ξ ) g 2 (ξ ) dξ + C2 x + C3 y + C4 . y ) = ϕ(x) + C1 y + C2 . w(x. is also a solution of the equation. y ) − leads to an equation of the form 7. . . ∂x2 ∂y 2 z = ax + by . Suppose w(x. EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 469 + f2 (x)g2 (y ). .2. . y ) = ϕ(x)ψ (y ) + C1 x + C2 y + C3 .1: ∂2U ∂x∂y 2 (x − t)f (t) dt = ∂2U ∂2U . 2◦ . x a w = U (x. where C1 .2. where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and ϕ = ϕ(z ) is an arbitrary function. g 1 (ξ ) where C1 .7. which is easy to integrate. C4 g1 (y )ψψyy − (ψy )2 = 0. Then the function 10.

w is the stream function for the wind velocity. where C1 . ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y This equation is used in meteorology for describing horizontal air flows. a1 . 4◦ . + f (x) dx. . ∂w ∂w =Φ ∂y ∂x where Φ(u) is an arbitrary function. . 2f gxx + a1 gxx + b1 gx − 4fx gx + 2b2 f = 0. where the functions f (x).2: ∂ 2U ∂x∂y 4. . This system can be fully integrated. . R. . g2 = f (x). 2◦ . Suppose w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . and x and y are coordinates on the earth surface. To this end. . . g (x). to first-order linear equation. Remark. . equation (1) is first reduced. with the change of variable U (f ) = fx .470 2. Generalized separable solution linear in y : w = y (C1 e−λx + C2 ) + 2 C1 e−2λx + 2a1 λ= where C1 . ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂2w ∂y 2 + b1 ∂w + b2 ∂w e¢f . a2 . ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w = + a + a + b. ∂2w EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS 2 ∂x∂y First integral: = ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f (x ) ∂2w ∂x∂y . 2 + a C2 a 1 C1 2 2 b2 C1 b2 C2 x + C3 e−λx − x + C4 . 3. to a first-order linear equation. y ) − 1 2 a2 x − 2 a1 y leads to an equation of the form 7. 1 2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 The substitution 2 2 1 w = U (x. ∂2w 2 2 = ∂2U ∂2U + b − a 1 a2 . b1 ) (y . C4 are arbitrary constants. Then the function w 1 = w (x + C 1 . ◦ ∂2w ∂2w + a1 ∂2w + a2 1 . = ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 Reference: E. Equation (2) is linear in g and a fundamental system of solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equation has the form g 1 = 1. b1 b1 b1 a1 3◦ .2. The solutions of Items 3◦ and 4◦ can be used to obtain two other solutions by means of the following renaming: (x. Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : w = f (x)y 2 + g (x)y + h(x). Equation (3) is finally reduced. b2 ). y ) is a solution of the equation in question. and h(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2f fxx + a1 fxx + b1 fx − 4(fx )2 = 0. Rozendorn (1984). with the substitution V (x) = hx . y + C 2 ) + C 3 (b 2 x − b 1 y ) + C 4 . (1) (2) (3) 2f hxx + a1 hxx + b1 hx + 2a2 f + b2 g − (gx )2 = 0. Traveling-wave solution: w = C3 exp − b1 C1 + b2 C2 (C 1 x + C 2 y ) + C 4 .2. C4 are arbitrary constants. is also a solution of the equation.

EQUATIONS QUADRATIC IN THE HIGHEST DERIVATIVES 471 + g 2 (x ) ∂w ∂y . −2 w (C 1 x + C 2 . Z F = √ 1 + X2 © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2 5. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). . .3) U (x. 7. w(x. ∂2w 2 = ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f 1 (x ) ∂2w ∂x2 + f 2 (x ) ∂2w ∂y 2 + g 1 (x ) ∂w + g (x)w + h2 (x)y 2 + h1 (x)y + h0 (x). y ) = ψ2 (x)y 2 + ψ1 (x)y + ψ0 (x). ∂x Y = Z =x ∂U ∂U +y −U ∂x ∂y 2◦ . ∂x∂y ∂x There are generalized separable solutions linear and quadratic in y : w(x.2. ∂2w 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w – = . ξ= 1 2 (1) ln(1 + X 2 ) − ln Y . y ) = ϕ1 (x)y + ϕ0 (x). The transformation (1 + X 2 ) 2 t = arctan X . where the functions ϕ = ϕ(x). 8. ∂X 2 ∂X∂Y ∂Y 2 This equation is hyperbolic. Suppose w(x. see Subsection S. ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 This equation occurs in plane problems of plasticity. + h 1 (x ) ∂y ∂x ∂y There is a generalized separable solution of the form + g 1 (x ) w(x. C 3 y + C 4 ) + C 5 x + C 6 y + C 7 . w1 = h C1 1◦ . are also solutions of the equation. ∂y X= ∂U . Then the functions where C1 . . y ) = ∂U . ∂w ∂x and apply the Legendre transformation (for details. . ∂2w ∂x∂y 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂2w = f 1 (x ) 2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂x2 ∂y 2 + f 2 (x )w + f 3 (x )y 2 + f 4 (x )y + f 5 (x ) 2 ∂2w ∂y 2 2 ∂ w ∂2w ∂ w 2 + g ( x ) y + g ( x ) + g ( x ) w + g ( x ) y + g ( x ) y + g ( x ) 2 3 4 5 6 7 ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂y 2 2 ∂w ∂w ∂w + h 2 (x ) + h 3 (x )y + h 4 (x ) + g 1 (x)w + g 2 (x)y 2 + g 3 (x)y + g 4 (x). 6.2. 2f (x)ϕχxx − (ψx )2 + g (x)χ + h0 (x) = 0. y ) = ϕ(x)y 2 + ψ (x)y + χ(x). C7 are arbitrary constants. ψ = ψ (x). and χ = χ(x) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations 2f (x)ϕϕxx − 4(ϕx )2 + g (x)ϕ + h2 (x) = 0. ∂x∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2 Generalized separable solution quadratic in y : = f (x ) w(x. 2f (x)ϕψxx − 4ϕx ψx + g (x)ψ + h1 (x) = 0. Introduce the new variable to obtain a second-order linear equation: ∂2Z ∂2Z ∂2Z 2 2 2 + 2 XY ( 1 + X ) + Y ( X − 1 ) = 0. w is the generating function.7. y ) is a solution of the equation in question.

N. where the function ϕ = ϕ(x. τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U − = 0. τ= f (t) dt + C3 . Radayev (1988). and C3 are arbitrary constants. z=yq 2 x g (t) dt + C1 x 1/2 ∂w ∂w – f (t) ∂w ∂ 2 w – g (t) ∂w 2 + C2 . y . S. t) + C 4 . where C1 . Astafiev. . Then the function w 1 = C 1 w ( x + C 2 . Yu. N. The variable t = T − τ plays the role of “backward” time. τ= f (t) dt + C3 .1. ∂x y= ∂w .3. τ ). C2 . V. Suppose w(x. The original equation is invariant under the Legendre transformation x= i¢p ∂w . see Chernousko (1971) and Chernousko and Kolmanovskii (1978). “Two-dimensional” solution: ◦ w = u(ξ . ∂τ ∂z 2 i¢p Reference: A. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y This equation occurs in problems of optimal correction of random disturbances and is a consequence of the Bellman equation. where C1 . y + C 3 . ξ = y + C1 x + 1 C1 g (t) dt + C2 . 1. ∂x ∂y References: Yu. ∂y w=x ∂w ∂w +y − w. “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = U (z .472 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS brings (1) to a constant-coefficient linear equation: ∂2F ∂2F = − F. C4 are arbitrary constants. and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . τ ). . A. η ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂u ∂ 2 u − = 0. t). and L. Remark. t) is a solution of the equation in question. 1◦ . ∂t ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC (1) . I. 2◦ . . Equations with Quadratic Nonlinearities = 0. is also a solution of the equation. The solutions of Items 2◦ and 3◦ are special cases of a more general solution with the form w = U (z . V. τ ). Stepanova (2001). where C1 . τ= f (t) dt. ∂τ ∂ξ 2 4◦ .3. t) satisfies the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ϕ ∂ϕ = g (t). and the function u = u(ξ . z = y + ϕ(x. ∂t2 ∂ξ 2 (2) For solutions of equation (2). Radayev. Bratus’ and K. Bellman Type Equations and Related Equations 7. 7. see the books by Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). Volosov (2002). and the function U = U (z . . 3 .

and Moussiaux. (3) ∂t ∂x ∂x A complete integral of equation (3) is given by ζ = C 1 x + λ2 f ( t) + 1 g (t) dt + C2 . r¢s where ϕ = ϕ(C1 ) is an arbitrary function. and the function ζ = ζ (x. ◦ 6 . where λ is an arbitrary constant. λθ ∂t ∂y ∂y 7◦ . Polyanin and V. Cauchy problems and self-similar solutions of the equation for power-law f (t) and g (t) are discussed in Chernousko (1971) and Chernousko and Kolmanovskii (1978). Zaitsev (2002). F. t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ − λ 2 f ( t) − λ2 g (t) = 0. Zaitsev (2002). x− 2 C1 where ψ = ψ (C1 ) is an arbitrary function and the prime denotes a derivative with respect to the argument. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = eλx θ(y . Remark. x− λ2 2 C1 g (t) dt + ϕ (C1 ) = 0. The general integral of equation (3) can be represented in parametric form with the complete integral (4) and the two relations C2 = ϕ(C1 ). To the solution of Item 2◦ there corresponds ψ (C1 ) = const. C1 and C2 play the role of parameters. Reference: A. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . − ∂τ ∂z 2 A complete integral of equation (1) is given by ϕ = C1 x + 1 C1 g (t) dt + C2 .7. t). The general integral of equation (1) can be represented in parametric form with the complete integral (2) and the two relations (see Kamke. where λ is an arbitrary constant. 1965. ◦ r¢s 5 . (2) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. t) . 2002) C2 = ψ (C1 ). Polyanin and V. BELLMAN TYPE EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 473 and the function U = U (z . C1 (4) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. C1 and C2 play the role of parameters.3. t) is determined by the “two-dimensional” equation 2 ∂2θ ∂θ ∂θ − λf (t)θ 2 − g (t) = 0. Zaitsev. D. τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U = 0. and the function θ = θ(y . “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = t exp λy + ζ (x. and Polyanin. F. D. 1 g (t) dt + ψ (C1 ) = 0. Reference: A.

see Chernousko and Kolmanovskii (1978). w = U (z . τ= f (t) dt. τ ). ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 y ∂y ∂y This equation occurs in problems of optimal correction of random disturbances and is a consequence of the Bellman equation. ∂t ∂x ∂x © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t). “Two-dimensional” solutions: w = u exp λy + ζ (x. t) . t). τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U − = 0. the function ϕ = ϕ(x. t) = exp λ h(x) dx U (y . h(x) dx leads to an equation of the form 7. Polyanin and V. “Two-dimensional” solution: = 0. t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ϕ ∂ϕ = g (x. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ◦ 1 . t) ∂ 2 U n ∂U + ∂y 2 y ∂y ∂w ∂y 2 − g ( t) ∂U ∂y = 0. t) . t) = 0. The substitution z = 3. D. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002).474 2. ∂w ∂w – f (x. y .1. ∂w ∂ 2 w n ∂w ∂w 2 ∂w ∂w – f (t) + – g ( t ) h ( x ) = 0. t). Zaitsev (2002). t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ − λ2 f (x. The variable t = T − τ plays the role of “backward” time. (1) ∂t ∂x and the function U = U (z . and Moussiaux (2002). z = y + ϕ(x. Zaitsev.3. t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ − λ 2 f ( t) − λ2 g (x. Here. where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function ζ = ζ (x. ∂t ∂x ∂x v¢w Reference: A. w = u exp λy + ζ (x.1 for w = w(z . n + 1 is the dimensionality of the equations of motion of the controllable system (n is a nonnegative integer). t) can be found in Polyanin. t) ∂w ∂y 2 = 0. “Two-dimensional” solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 “Two-dimensional” solutions: 5. For solutions of equation (2). where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function ζ = ζ (x. 2◦ . t). ∂w ∂w ∂t ∂x EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS – f (t) ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y 2 – g (t)h(x) ∂w ∂y 2 = 0. t) is determined by the differential equation (λ is an arbitrary constant) λU 4. t) − λ2 g (x. F. 2 where the function U (y . y . (2) ∂τ ∂z 2 Complete integrals and the general solutions (integrals) of equation (1) for various g (x. ∂w ∂w – f (t) ∂U − λf (t)U ∂t – g (x. t) ∂w ∂ 2 w – g (x. t) = 0.

y . and C3 are arbitrary constants and the function u = u(ξ . The variable t = T − τ plays the role of “backward” time. t) is a solution of the equation in question. . τ ).2. τ ). is also a solution of the equation.7. where C1 . see Chernousko (1971) and Chernousko and Kolmanovskii (1978). . where C1 . Bratus’ and K. 2◦ . S. . 3◦ . C2 . τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U − = 0. . (k + 1)k+1 kk g (t) dt + C3 1 k+1 + C4 . C4 are arbitrary constants. Volosov (2002). C4 are arbitrary constants and the function U = U (z . “Two-dimensional” solution: w = u(ξ . ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂x k – f (t) ∂w ∂x k ∂2w ∂y 2 – g (t) ∂w ∂y k+1 = 0. ∂τ ∂z 2 A complete integral of equation (1) is given by ϕ = C1 x + 1 k C1 g (t) dt + C2 . A. t) + C 4 . This equation occurs in problems of optimal correction of random disturbances and is a consequence of the Bellman equation. Suppose w(x. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (z . . y + C 3 . ξ = y + C1 x + 1 k C1 g (t) dt + C2 . τ ). . η ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂u ∂ 2 u − = 0. Then the function w 1 = C 1 w ( x + C 2 . Equations with Power-Law Nonlinearities 1. ∂τ ∂ξ 2 4◦ . . .3. z = y + (x + τ= k C2 ) k+1 f (t) dt + C1 . ∂τ ∂z 2 x¢y Reference: A. where C1 . BELLMAN TYPE EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 475 7. (2) © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . (1) and the function U = U (z . where the function ϕ = ϕ(x. τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U − = 0. τ= f (t) dt + C3 . 1◦ . The solutions of Items 2◦ and 3◦ are special cases of the more general solution w = U (z . t). t) satisfies the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ϕ ∂t ∂ϕ ∂x k = g (t). τ= f (t) dt. z = y + ϕ(x.3.

2. The substitution z = 3. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = eλx θ(y .476 EQUATIONS INVOLVING MIXED DERIVATIVES AND SOME OTHER EQUATIONS where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. Zaitsev. F. The general integral of equation (3) can be expressed in parametric form with the complete integral (4) and the two relations C2 = ϕ(C1 ). ∂w ∂t ∂w ∂x k – f (t) ∂w ∂x k ∂2w ∂y 2 – g (t)h(x) ∂w ∂y k+1 = 0. t) ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y ◦ 1 . Polyanin and V. k g (t) dt + ψ (C1 ) = 0. where ϕ = ϕ(C1 ) is an arbitrary function. x − k+1 C1 where ψ = ψ (C1 ) is an arbitrary function and the prime denotes a derivative. and Moussiaux. Polyanin and V. D. t). where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function ζ = ζ (x. D. F. τ ). Zaitsev. [h(x)]1/k dx leads to an equation of the form 7. ◦ €¢ 5 . τ= f (t) dt. ◦ 6 . t) is determined by the first-order partial differential equation k k ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ − λ 2 f ( t) − λk+1 g (t) = 0.1 for w = w(z . = 0. Zaitsev (2002). x−k €¢ λk+1 k+1 C1 g (t) dt + ϕ (C1 ) = 0. and Polyanin. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . z = y + ϕ(x. Reference: A. 2002) ζ = C1 x + λ 2 f ( t) + λk+1 g (t) dt + C2 . 2002) C2 = ψ (C1 ). Cauchy problems and self-similar solutions of the equation for power-law f (t) and g (t) are discussed in Chernousko (1971) and Chernousko and Kolmanovskii (1978). t) is determined by the “two-dimensional” equation k+1 ∂2θ g (t) ∂θ ∂θ − f ( t) 2 − = 0. y . k C1 (4) where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.2. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = exp λy + ζ (x. The general integral of equation (1) can be expressed in parametric form with the complete integral (2) and the two relations (see Kamke. where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function θ = θ(y . t) . Reference: A. ∂t ∂y (λθ)k ∂y 7◦ . t). C1 and C2 play the role of parameters. C1 and C2 play the role of parameters. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = U (z . and Moussiaux.3. Zaitsev (2002). 1965. (3) ∂t ∂x ∂x A complete integral of this equation has the form (see Polyanin. k+1 ∂w k ∂ 2 w ∂w ∂w ∂w k – f (t) – g (x. t).

7. ∂w ∂w k – f (x. t) ∂w k ∂2w ∂y 2 – g (x. w = exp λy + ζ (x. where λ is an arbitrary constant. BELLMAN TYPE EQUATIONS AND RELATED EQUATIONS 477 Here. t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ϕ ∂t ∂ϕ ∂x k = g (x. t) can be found in Polyanin. Polyanin and V. t) . F. For solutions of equation (2). D. and Moussiaux (2002). Zaitsev (2002). and the function ζ = ζ (x. τ ) is determined by the linear heat equation ∂U ∂ 2 U − = 0. t) ∂w ∂y k+1 = 0. t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ζ ∂t ‚¢ƒ ∂ζ ∂x k − λ 2 f ( t) ∂ζ ∂x k − λk+1 g (x. Reference: A. “Two-dimensional” solution: w = exp λy + ζ (x. t) ∂ζ ∂x k − λk+1 g (x. see Tikhonov and Samarskii (1990) and Polyanin (2002). t) = 0. ∂τ ∂z 2 (2) Complete integrals and the general solutions (integrals) of equation (1) for various g (x. t). t) . Zaitsev. the function ϕ = ϕ(x. 2◦ . and the function ζ = ζ (x. where λ is an arbitrary constant.3. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . ∂t ∂x ∂x “Two-dimensional” solution: 4. t) is determined by the first-order nonlinear partial differential equation ∂ζ ∂t ∂ζ ∂x k − λ2 f (x. (1) and the function U = U (z . t) = 0.

is also a solution of the equation. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = (Ax + B )t + C + ϕ(x). Equations of the Form ∂w = F w . 2◦ . and C are arbitrary constants. Suppose w(x. ∂ w ∂t ∂x ∂x2 ∂w =F ∂2w where C1 . C 1 t + C3 ) + C4 x + C5 .1. C5 are arbitrary constants. Then the function w(x + C 1 . and λ are arbitrary constants and the function ψ (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F k 2 ψξξ = λψξ + A. kwξ . This subsection presents special cases where equation (1) admits exact solutions other than traveling wave (2). 2 8. 3◦ . ∂w . t) = F (A)t + 2 where A. In the general case. ξ = kx + λt.1. Equations Involving the First Derivative in t Preliminary remarks. where the function ϕ(x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation F ϕxx = Ax + B . equation (1) admits traveling-wave solution w = w(ξ ). k . Consider the equation ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w = F w. 1. ξ = kx + λt. t) = At + B + ψ (ξ ). . . . (2) where k and λ are arbitrary constants and the function w(ξ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation F w. is also a solution of the equation. k 2 wξξ − λwξ = 0. (1) ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . B . Then the function −2 2 w1 = C1 w (C 1 x + C 2 . w(x. Suppose w(x. . Generalized separable solution: w(x. . w(x. Additive separable solution: 1 Ax2 + Bx + C . . t) is a solution of equation (1). 2◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants. B . ∂t ∂x2 1◦ .1. . Solution: ◦ © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .Chapter 8 Second›Order Equations of General Form 8. 4 . where A. t + C2 ).

1◦ . t ∂u ∂x ∂2u . Special case 2. Ibragimov (1989). Sh. t where the function Θ(ζ ) is determined by the ordinary differential equation w(x. The transformation ¯ = αt + γ1 . K. k . B1 .18. 2λ where A1 . t) = 2 ξ = kx + λt. t) = 1 C x2 2 1 k  ¢¡ . whose general solution can be written out in implicit form: 1+k 2k u k + C3 1+k −1/2 du = £ x + C4 .3: ∂x ∂u =f ∂t 8◦ . and the γi are arbitrary constants (α ≠ 0. β1 β4 − β2 β3 ≠ 0) and the subscripts x and x ¯ denote the corresponding partial derivatives. C1 . F ¯x ¯x ¯) = α α References: I. the βi . k > 0. w ¯x ¯ = β3 x + β 4 w x + γ 3 . t) = a(1 − k )t + C1 1 1−k u(x) + C2 . N. The substitution u(x. where A. Gazizov. t) = ∂w brings the original equation to an equation of the form 1. and C3 are arbitrary constants.480 5◦ .6. where C1 . Ibragimov (1994). 6◦ . Generalized separable solution: 1 2 (x + A1 x + A2 ) ln(B1 t + B2 ) + C1 x + C2 . Self-similar solution: x ¯ = β 1 x + β2 w + γ 2 . t) = t Θ(ζ ). w(x. where α. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . 2◦ . x ζ= √ . and C2 are arbitrary constants. w (x. Equation: ∂2w ∂w =a ∂t ∂x2 w (x. Akhatov. 7◦ . B . where the function u(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation (u xx )k − u = 0. ∂x2 f (z ) = Fz (z ). Solution: w (x. Equation: ∂2w ∂w = a exp λ ∂t ∂x2 . F Θζζ + 1 2 ζ Θζ − Θ = 0. Special case 1. to this end. C2 . A2 . and λ are arbitrary constants and the function U (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F k 2 Uξξ + A = λUξ . Solution: SECOND-ORDER EQUATIONS OF GENERAL FORM 1 Ax2 + Bx + C + U (ξ ). R. and N. B2 . 2 2 1 w ¯ = β 1 β4 w + 1 2 β3 x + γ3 x + γ4 t + γ5 + β2 β3 (xwx − w ) + γ3 wx + 2 β4 wx . Additive separable solution: k + C2 x + aC1 t + C3 . H. H. the equation should first be solved for U xx . k ≠ 1. t) = U (x) − which is easy to integrate. The right-hand side of the equation becomes γ4 β1 β4 − β 2 β3 ¯ (w F (wxx ) + . and the function U (x) is determined by the ordinary differential equation 2aλ exp(λUxx ) + B1 (x2 + A1 x + A2 ) = 0. takes the equation in question to an equation of the same form.

C . Special case. ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . t) = At + B + ϕ(ξ ). . t) = θ (x) + C3 + C4 . t) = (at + C ) ln 2A2 (at + C ) − 1 + D. C4 are arbitrary constants and the function θ = θ (x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation aθx θxx + C1 θ + C1 C3 = 0. ∂t ∂x ∂x2 w (x. where the functions ψk = ψk (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ψ1 = 2aψ2 ψ3 . EQUATIONS INVOLVING THE FIRST DERIVATIVE IN t Special case 3. 3◦ . C1 t + C 2 where C1 . B . 2◦ . and λ are arbitrary constants. k . t) = ψ1 (t) + ψ2 (t)x + ψ3 (t)x2 + ψ4 (t)x3 . . 3. ∂2w where C1 . + aw. Generalized separable solution: where the functions ϕk = ϕk (t) are determined by the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations ϕ3 = 18aϕ2 3. Equation: ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w =a . . 2 ψ2 = 2a(2ψ3 + 3ψ2 ψ4 ). Suppose w(x. ∂t ∂x2 w (x. ϕ1 = ϕ2 = The prime denotes a derivative with respect to t.8. 2. ξ = kx + λt. whose solution can be written out in implicit form. t + C2 ) + C3 eat . 2 ψ4 = 18aψ4 . this equation has a more complicated exact solution of the form w(x. is also a solution of the equation. . 4 1◦ . cos2 (Ax + B ) Generalized separable solution: where A. k 2 ϕξξ − λϕξ − A = 0. Generalized separable solution: w (x. Then the function w1 = w(x + C1 . 8 45 aϕ2 ϕ3 . © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . t) is a solution of this equation. Generalized separable solution cubic in x: w (x. ψ3 = 18aψ3 ψ4 . ∂w =F ∂w . ∂2w where A. and C3 are arbitrary constants. C2 . and the function ϕ(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F kϕξ . B . t) = ϕ1 (t) + ϕ2 (t)x3/2 + ϕ3 (t)x3 . and D are arbitrary constants. Equation: 481 ∂2w ∂w = a ln . .1. ∂w =F ∂w . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 Apart from a traveling-wave solution. 9 aϕ2 2.

5. t) = U (ζ ) + 2C1 t. where C1 . + bw. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . Solution: x + C1 1 + aτ τ τF − 1 . 0 dτ .482 2◦ . the above solution converts to a traveling-wave solution. which is easy to integrate (the first equation is a Bernoulli equation and the second one is linear in ψ ). Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). Suppose w(x. Degenerate solution: SECOND-ORDER EQUATIONS OF GENERAL FORM w(x. ∂2w where the functions ϕ(t) and ψ (t) are determined by the system of ordinary differential equations where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F wz . wzz − λwz + aw = 0. e−at F (C1 eat . t) is a solution of this equation. Then the function w1 = w(x + aC1 ebt + C2 . t + C3 ) + C1 bebt . aτ τ = t + C2 . where C1 . ϕt = aϕ2 + bϕ. t) = ϕ(t)x + ψ (t). ψt = aϕψ + bψ + F (ϕ. C2 . ζ = x + aC1 t2 + C2 t. is also a solution of the equation. 3◦ . where C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants and the function U (ζ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F Uζ . 0). where λ is an arbitrary constant and the function w(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F wz . 2◦ . Degenerate solution: w(x. Degenerate solution: w(x. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . Uζζ + aU Uζ = C2 Uζ + 2C1 . Then the function 4. ∂w = aw ∂w +F ∂w . z = x + λt. t) is a solution of this equation. t) = − 3◦ . Traveling-wave solution: w = w(z ). . C2 . t + C3 ) + C1 . z = x + λt. is also a solution of the equation. ∂w = aw ∂w +F ∂w . ∂2w w(x. In the special case C1 = 0. and C3 are arbitrary constants. w1 = w(x + aC1 t + C2 . 2◦ . t) = (C1 x + C2 )eat + eat 3◦ . wzz + awwz − λwz + bw = 0. Suppose w(x. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 0) dt. ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x2 1◦ .

H. wx = g (w)(wx )k . t) of the original equation to a solution w ¯ (x ¯. t equation: ∂ ¯ ∂w ¯ = F w ¯. Solution: w(x. wx = g F ¯ (w)(wx )k . ∂x t w(y . . where C and λ are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ϕx ϕxx . t) = Ceλt ϕ(x). t x ¯ =− x x0 wx = ∂w . ∂t w ∂x w ∂x2 1◦ . R. and C3 are arbitrary constants. 2◦ . τ ) dτ . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. F ϕ ϕ This equation has particular solutions of the form ϕ(x) = eαx . In the special case it follows from (1) that ¯ w . (1) F 2◦ . and C3 are arbitrary constants. w ¯x . Burgan. 1 ∂w 1 ∂ 2 w ∂w = wF . Suppose w(x. τ ). t) = tϕ(z ). Fijalkow (1984).k ϕ ϕ = λϕz + ϕ. 2◦ . A. . t) dy − F w(x0 . Then the function 7. ϕz 2 ϕzz .8. The transformation 6. t0 ¯) = w ¯ (x ¯. M. Feix. t + C3 ). ¯ = t − t0 . C2 . Ibragimov (1994). w−3 wx . Suppose w(x. © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC . wx . is also a solution of the equation. wx (x0 . ∂w =F 1 ∂w . J. EQUATIONS INVOLVING THE FIRST DERIVATIVE IN t 483 ∂ ∂w = F w . C2 . t) ¯) of a similar converts a (nonzero) solution w(x. ¤¢¥ F w.1. wx = wF w−1 . N. Munier. t) is a solution of this equation. is also a solution of the equation. where C1 . References: W. Then the function w1 = C1 w(x + C2 . α2 ) − λ = 0. t) is a solution of this equation. C1 t + C3 ). and E. Strampp (1982). g ¯ (w) = w1−3k g (w−1 ). −1 w1 = C1 w(x + C2 . = λ. where k and λ are arbitrary constants and the function ϕ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F k 8. R. ∂t w ∂x w ∂x2 1◦ . t 1 w(x. ∂t ∂x 1◦ . z = kx + λ ln |t|. 1 ∂2w where C1 . where α is a root of the algebraic (or transcendental) equation F (α. ¯ ¯ ∂t ∂x ¯ where ¯ w.

t) is a solution of this equation. and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation eβϕ F ϕx . and β are arbitrary constants. k 2 zz = λΘz + Θ Θ 1−β 10. is also a solution of the equation. = A. Then the function 1 w1 = w(x + C1 . 1 ln(Aβt + B ) + ϕ(x). respectively. and C3 are arbitrary constants. t) = Ceλt ψ (ξ ). 9. ∂w ∂ 2 w ∂w = eβw F . z = kx + λ ln(t + C ).1. 1 ∂2w 1◦ . t) = − 1 2◦ . . β where C1 . k . w(x. and the function ψ (ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ψξξ ψξ = βψξ + λψ . k . k 2 ψ ψ This equation has particular solutions of the form ψ (ξ ) = eµξ . t) is a solution of the equation in question. t) = (t + C ) 1−β Θ(z ). C2 t + C3 ) + ln C2 . Solution: w(z . and the function ϕ(x) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation ϕx ϕxx . ψF k . and the function Θ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation Θ 1 Θ Θ. β where A and B are arbitrary constants. where C .1.1. 2◦ . k .8. and C3 are arbitrary constants. ∂w = wβ F 1 ∂w . C2 . ξ = kx + βt. t) = − 3◦ . ϕβ −1 F ϕ ϕ 3◦ . Solution: SECOND-ORDER EQUATIONS OF GENERAL FORM w(x. β w(x. λ. Then the function where C1 . where A and B are arbitrary constants. ∂t w ∂x w ∂x2 For the cases β = 0 and β = 1. β where C . Suppose w(x. k 2 Θξξ = λΘξ − . . t) = (1 − β )At + B 1 1−β ϕ(x). where C . and the function Θ(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation 1 eβ Θ F k Θξ . see equations 8.1. ϕxx + A = 0. C2 . Multiplicative separable solution: w(x. Θβ F k z . and λ are arbitrary constants. β −1 w 1 = C 1 w (x + C 2 . ∂t ∂x ∂x2 1◦ . ξ = kx + λ ln(t + C ). Suppose w(x. Solution: 1 ln(t + C ) + Θ(ξ ).7 and 8. C 1 t + C3 ). is also a solution of the equation. and λ are arbitrary constants.484 3◦ . Additive separable solution: © 2004 by Chapman & Hall/CRC .

8.1. EQUATIONS INVOLVING THE FIRST DERIVATIVE IN t

485

∂ 2 w ∂w ∂w . =F ∂t ∂x2 ∂x This is a special case of equation 8.1.1.2. 11. 1◦ . Suppose w(x, t) is a solution of the equation in question. Then the function
−1 w1 = C1 w (x + C 2 , C 1 t + C 3 ) + C 4 ,

where C1 , . . . , C4 are arbitrary constants, is also a solution of the equation. 2◦ . Solution: w(x, t) = At + B + ϕ(ξ ), ξ = kx + λt,

where A, B , k , and λ are arbitrary constants, and the function ϕ(ξ ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F kϕξξ /ϕξ = λϕξ + A. If A = 0, the equation has a traveling-wave solution. 3◦ . Solution: w(x, t) = tΘ(z ) + C , z = kx + λ ln |t|

where C , k , β , and λ are arbitrary constants, and the function Θ(z ) is determined by the autonomous ordinary differential equation F k Θzz /Θz = λΘz + Θ. . ∂t ∂x ∂x This is a special case of equ