# Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing

or instructional purposes only
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12.1 A 25-mm-diameter solid shaft is
subjected to both a torque of T = 150 N-m and
an axial tension load of P = 13 kN, as shown
in Fig. P12.1. Determine the normal and shear
stresses at point H and show them on a stress
element.

Fig. P12.1
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(25 mm) 490.874 mm
4
A
t
= =

4 4
(25 mm) 38, 349.520 mm
32
J
t
= =
Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
13, 000 N
26.483 MPa (T)
490.874 mm
P
A
o = = =

4
(150 N-m)(25 mm/ 2)
48.892 MPa
38, 349.520 mm
Tc
J
t = = = (sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Summary of stresses at H:

26.5 MPa
0 MPa
48.9 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t ÷
=
=
= Ans.

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12.2 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of
142 mm and an inside diameter of 128 mm is
subjected to both a torque of T = 7 kN-m and an
axial tension load of P = 90 kN, as shown in
Fig. P12.2. Determine the normal and shear
stresses at point H and show them on a stress
element.

Fig. P12.2
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
(142 mm) (128 mm) 2, 968.805 mm
4
A
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

4 4 4
(142 mm) (128 mm) 13,562,985 mm
32
J
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
(90 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
30.315 MPa (T)
2,968.805 mm
P
A
o = = =

4
(7 kN-m)(142 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1, 000 mm/m)
36.644 MPa
13,562,985 mm
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Summary of stresses at H:

30.3 MPa
0 MPa
36.6 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= Ans.

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12.3 A solid compound shaft consists of
segment (1), which has a diameter of 1.5 in.,
and segment (2), which has a diameter of 1.0 in.
The shaft is subjected to an axial compression
load of P = 7 kips and torques T
B
= 5 kip-in. and
T
C
= 1.5 kip-in., which act in the directions
shown in Fig. P12.3. Determine the normal and
shear stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K. For
each point, show the stresses on a stress
element.

Fig. P12.3
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
5 kip-in. 1.5 kip-in. 0 3.5 kip-in.
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =

2 2
1.5 kip-in. 0 1.5 kip-in.
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 4 4
1 1
(1.50 in.) 1.767146 in. (1.50 in.) 0.497010 in.
4 32
A J
t t
= = = =

2 2 4 4
2 2
(1.00 in.) 0.785398 in. (1.00 in.) 0.098175 in.
4 32
A J
t t
= = = =

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

1 1 1
1 1 2 4
1 1
7 kips (3.5 kip-in.)(1.50 in. / 2)
3.961 ksi (C) 5.282 ksi
1.767146 in. 0.497010 in.
F Tc
A J
o t
÷
= = = = = =

2 2 2
2 2 2 4
2 2
7 kips (1.5 kip-in.)(1.00 in. / 2)
8.913 ksi (C) 7.639 ksi
0.785398 in. 0.098175 in.
F T c
A J
o t
÷
= = = = = =
(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

Stress elements for points H and K are shown below.

Summary of stresses at H:

3.96 ksi
0 ksi
5.28 ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
÷
÷
=
=
= Ans.

Summary of stresses at K:

8.91 ksi
0 ksi
7.64 ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t =
÷ =
=
Ans.

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12.4 A solid compound shaft consists of
segment (1), which has a diameter of 40 mm,
and segment (2), which has a diameter of 25
mm. The shaft is subjected to an axial
compression load of P = 22 kN and torques T
B
=
725 N-m and T
C
= 175 N-m, which act in the
directions shown in Fig. P12.4. Determine the
normal and shear stresses at (a) point H and (b)
point K. For each point, show the stresses on a
stress element.

Fig. P12.4
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
725 N-m 175 N-m 0 540 N-m
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =

2 2
175 N-m 0 175 N-m
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 4 4
1 1
(40 mm) 1, 256.637 mm (40 mm) 251,327.412 mm
4 32
A J
t t
= = = =

2 2 4 4
2 2
(25 mm) 490.874 mm (25 mm) 38,349.520 mm
4 32
A J
t t
= = = =

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

1
1 2
1
1 1
1 4
1
( 22 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
15.915 MPa (C)
1, 256.637 mm
(540 N-m)(40 mm/ 2)(1,000 mm/m)
42.972 MPa
251,327.412 mm
F
A
Tc
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

2
2 2
2
2 2
2 4
2
( 22 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
40.744 MPa (C)
490.874 mm
(180 N-m)(25 mm/ 2)(1,000 mm/m)
58.671 MPa
38,349.520 mm
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

Stress elements for points H and K are shown below.

Summary of stresses at H:

15.92 MPa
0 MPa
43.0 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
÷
÷
=
=
= Ans.

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Summary of stresses at K:

40.7 MPa
0 MPa
58.7 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t =
÷ =
=
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.5 A tee-shaped flexural member (Fig. P12.5b) is subjected to an internal axial force of 2,200 lb, an
internal shear force of 1,600 lb, and an internal bending moment of 4,000 lb-ft, as shown in Fig. P12.5a.
Determine the normal and shear stresses at point H, which is located 1.5 in. below the top surface of the
tee shape. Show these stresses on a stress element.
Fig. P12.5a Fig. P12.5b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of tee shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(in.) (in.) (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
3
)
top flange 6 1 6.000 6.500 39.000
stem 1 6 6.000 3.000 18.000
12.000 in.
2

57.000 in.
3

3
2
57.0 in.
4.750 in.
12.0 in.
i i
i
y A
y
A
E
= = =
E
(measured upward from bottom edge of stem)

Moment of inertia about the z axis: (i.e., horizontal axis)
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 0.500 1.750 18.375 18.875
stem 18.000 −1.750 18.375 36.375
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 55.250

Axial stress at point H:

2
2, 200 lb
183.333 psi
12.00 in.
x
F
A
o = = =

Bending stress at point H: (y = 7.00 in. − 4.75 in. − 1.50 in. = 0.75 in.)

4
(4, 000 lb-ft)(0.75 in.)(12 in./ft)
651.584 psi
55.250 in.
x
z
My
I
o = ÷ = ÷ = ÷

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(6 in.)(1 in.)(1.75 in.) (1 in.)(0.50 in.)(1.0 in.) 11.000 in. Q = + =

3
4
(1, 600 lb)(11.000 in. )
318.552 psi (Note: Sense to be determined by inspection)
(55.250 in. )(1 in.)
VQ
It
t = = =

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Summary of stresses at H:

468 psi
0 psi
319 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t =
÷
=
÷
=
Ans.

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12.6 A flanged-shaped flexural member is subjected to an internal axial force of 12.7 kN, an internal
shear force of 9.4 kN, and an internal bending moment of 1.6 kN-m, as shown Fig. P12.6a. Determine
the normal and shear stresses at points H and K, as shown Fig. P12.6b. For each point, show these
stresses on a stress element.
Fig. P12.6a Fig. P12.6b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(mm) (mm) (mm
2
) (mm) (mm
3
)
top flange 35 6 210.0 62.0 13,020.0
web 6 53 318.0 32.5 10,335.0
bottom flange 50 6 300.0 3.0 900.0
828 mm
2

24,255 mm
3

3
2
24, 255.0 mm
29.293 mm
828 mm
i i
i
y A
y
A
E
= = =
E
(measured upward from bottom edge of bottom flange)

Moment of inertia about the z axis: (i.e., horizontal axis)
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
top flange 630.000 32.707 224,640.478 225,270.478
web 74,438.500 3.207 3,269.607 77,708.107
bottom flange 900.000 −26.293 207,404.100 208,304.100
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 511,282.685

Axial stress at point H:

2
12, 700 N
15.338 MPa
828 mm
x
F
A
o = = =

Bending stress at point H: (y = 65 mm − 15 mm − 29.293 mm = 20.707 mm)

4
( 1.600 kN-m)(20.707 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
64.799 MPa
511,282.685 mm
x
z
My
I
o
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(35 mm)(6 mm)(32.707 mm) (6 mm)(9 mm)(25.207 mm) 8, 229.522 mm Q = + =

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3
4
(9, 400 N)(8, 229.522 mm )
25.217 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(511.282.685 mm )(6 mm)
VQ
It
t = = =

Axial stress at point K:

2
12, 700 N
15.338 MPa
828 mm
x
F
A
o = = =

Bending stress at point K: (y = 15 mm − 29.293 mm = −14.293 mm)

4
( 1.600 kN-m)( 14.293 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
44.730 MPa
511,282.685 mm
x
z
My
I
o
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(50 mm)(6 mm)(26.293 mm) (6 mm)(9 mm)(18.793 mm) 8, 902.891 mm Q = + =

3
4
(13, 200 N)(8,902.891 mm )
27.280 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(511.282.685 mm )(6 mm)
VQ
It
t = = =
Summary of stresses at H:

80.1 MPa
0 MPa
25.2 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t ÷
=
=
= Ans.

Summary of stresses at K:

29.4 MPa
0 MPa
27.3 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
÷
÷
=
=
= Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.7 A flanged-shaped flexural member is subjected to an internal axial force of 6,300 lb, an internal
shear force of 8,500 lb, and an internal bending moment of 18,200 lb-ft, as shown P12.7a. Determine the
normal and shear stresses at points H and K, as shown Fig. P12.7b. Show these stresses on a stress
element for each point.
Fig. P12.7a Fig. P12.7b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(in.) (in.) (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
3
)
top flange 5 1 5.000 8.500 42.500
web 1 7 7.000 4.500 31.500
bottom flange 8 1 8.000 0.500 4.000
20 in.
2

78.000 in.
3

3
2
78.000 in.
3.900 in.
20.000 in.
i i
i
y A
y
A
E
= = =
E
(measured upward from bottom edge of bottom flange)
Moment of inertia about the z axis: (i.e., horizontal axis)
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 0.417 4.600 105.800 106.217
web 28.583 0.600 2.520 31.103
bottom flange 0.667 −3.400 92.480 93.147
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 230.467

Axial stress at point H:

2
6,300 lb
315.000 psi
20 in.
x
F
A
o = = =

Bending stress at point H: (y = 9 in. − 2.000 in. − 3.900 in. = 3.100 in.)

4
( 18, 200 lb-ft)(3.100 in.)(12 in./ft)
2,937.692 psi
230.466667 in.
x
z
My
I
o
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(5 in.)(1 in.)(4.600 in.) (1 in.)(1 in.)(3.600 in.) 26.600 in. Q = + =

3
4
(8,500 lb)(26.600 in. )
981.053 psi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(230.466667 in. )(1 in.)
VQ
It
t = = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Axial stress at point K:

2
6,300 lb
315.000 psi
20 in.
x
F
A
o = = =

Bending stress at point K: (y = 2 in. − 3.900 in. = −1.900 in.)

4
( 18, 200 lb-ft)( 1.900 in.)(12 in./ft)
1,800.521 psi
230.466667 in.
x
z
My
I
o
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(8 in.)(1 in.)(3.400 in.) (1 in.)(1 in.)(2.400 in.) 29.600 in. Q = + =

3
4
(8,500 lb)(29.600 in. )
1,091.698 psi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(230.466667 in. )(1 in.)
VQ
It
t = = =

Summary of stresses at H:

3, 250 psi
0 psi
981 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= Ans.

Summary of stresses at K:

1, 486 psi
0 psi
1, 092 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t =
÷ =
=
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.8 A hollow structural steel flexural member (Fig. P12.8b)
is subjected to the load shown in Fig. P12.8a. Determine the
normal and shear stresses at points H and K, as shown Fig.
P12.8b. Show these stresses on a stress element for each
point.

Fig. P12.8b Fig. P12.8a
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
outer rectangle 170.667 0.000 0.000 170.667
inner rectangle −123.047 0.000 0.000 −123.047
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 47.620

Bending stress at point H:

4
(325 kip-in.)(2.00 in.)
13.650 ksi (tension, by inspection)
47.620 in.
y
o = =

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(4 in.)(0.25 in.)(3.875 in.) 2(0.25 in.)(1.750 in.)(2.875 in.) 6.391 in. Q = + =

3
4
(13 kips)(6.391 in. )
3.489 ksi (Note: Sense to be determined by inspection)
(47.620 in. )(2)(0.250 in.)
VQ
It
t = = =

Bending stress at point K:

4
(325 kip-in.)(1.50 in.)
10.237 ksi (compression, by inspection)
47.620 in.
y
o = =

Summary of stresses at H:

0 ksi
13.65 ksi
3.49 ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(4 in.)(0.25 in.)(3.875 in.) 2(0.25 in.)(2.250 in.)(2.625 in.) 6.828 in. Q = + =

3
4
(13 kips)(6.828 in. )
3.728 ksi (Note: Sense to be determined by inspection)
(47.620 in. )(2)(0.250 in.)
VQ
It
t = = =

Summary of stresses at K:

0 ksi
10.24 ksi
3.73 ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
=
÷
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.9 A machine component is subjected to a load of
4,700 N. Determine the normal and shear stresses
acting at point H, as shown on Figs. P12.9a and
P12.9b. Show these stresses on a stress element.
Fig. P12.9a Fig. P12.9b
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
(12 mm)(18 mm) 216 mm
(12 mm)(18 mm)
5,832 mm
12
z
A
I
= =
= =

3
5 mm
(12 mm)(5 mm) 9 mm 390 mm
2
H
Q
| |
= ÷ =
|
\ .

Internal forces at H:

(4, 700 N)cos40 0
3, 600.409 N
(4, 700 N)sin40 0
3, 021.102 N
(4, 700 N)(50 mm)cos40
(4, 700 N)(25 mm)sin40 0
104, 492.9 N-mm
x H
H
y H
H
H
H
F V
V
F F
F
M M
M
E = ÷ + ° =
=
E = ÷ + ° =
=
E = ÷ °
+ ° =
=
Axial stress at H:

axial 2
3, 021.102 N
13.987 MPa (T)
216 mm
o = =
Shear stress at H:

3
4
(3, 600.409 N)(390 mm )
20.064 MPa
(5,832 mm )(12 mm)
H
t = =
Bending stress at H:

bend 4
(104, 492.9 N-mm)(4 mm)
71.669 MPa (C)
5,832 mm
(by inspection)
o = =

Summary of stresses at H:

13.987 MPa 71.669
0 MPa
57.7 MPa
20.1
M
M
a
Pa
P
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= ÷
=
÷ =
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.10 A load of 6,100 N acts on the machine part shown in Fig. P12.10a. The machine part has a
uniform thickness of 15 mm (i.e., 15-mm thickness in the z direction). Determine the normal and shear
stresses acting at points H and K, which are shown in detail in Fig. P12.10b. For each point, show these
stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.10a Fig. P12.10b Detail at pin A
Note: 15-mm thickness in the z direction
Solution
Section properties:

3
2 4
(15 mm)(40 mm)
(15 mm)(40 mm) 600 mm 80, 000 mm
12
z
A I = = = =
Equilibrium:

(6,100 N)cos40 0
(6,100 N)sin40 0
(6,100 N)(185 mm)sin40
(90 mm) 0
x x BC
y y
A
BC
F A F
F A
M
F
E = ÷ + ° =
E = + ° =
E = °
÷ =

8, 059.842 N
3,386.971 N 3,921.004 N
BC
x y
F
A A
=
= = ÷

Internal forces at H:

(6,100 N)cos40 0 4, 672.871 N
(6,100 N)sin40 0 3,921.004 N
(6,100 N)(135 mm)sin40 0
529,335.597 N-mm
x H H
y H H
H H
H
F F F
F V V
M M
M
E = ÷ + ° = =
E = + ° = = ÷
E = ÷ + ° =
=

Axial stress at H:

axial
2
4, 672.871 N
7.788 MPa (T)
600 mm
o = =
Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(15 mm)(10 mm)(20 mm 5 mm) 2, 250 mm
(3,921.004 N)(2,250 mm )
7.352 MPa
(80, 000 mm )(15 mm)
H
H
Q
t
= ÷ =
= =

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Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(529,335.597 N-mm)(10 mm)
66.167 MPa (C) (by inspection)
80, 000 mm
o = =

Internal forces at K:

0 8, 059.842 N
0
(40 mm) 0 322,393.697 N-mm
x BC K K
y K
K K BC K
F F V V
F F
M M F M
E = ÷ + = =
E = =
E = ÷ = =
Axial stress at K:

axial
0 MPa o =

Shear stress at K:

3
3
4
(15 mm)(15 mm)(20 mm 7.5 mm) 2,812.5 mm
(8, 059.842 N)(2,812.5 mm )
18.890 MPa
(80, 000 mm )(15 mm)
K
K
Q
t
= ÷ =
= =

Bending stress at K:

bend
4
(322,393.697 N-mm)(5 mm)
20.150 MPa (T) (by inspection)
80, 000 mm
o = =

Summary of stresses at H:

58.4 7 .7 MP 88 M a
0 MPa
7.35
Pa 66.167 MPa
MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷
=
=
÷ =

Summary of stresses at K:
0 MPa 20.150 M
0 MPa
20.2 MPa P
18.89 a
a
MP
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= + =
=

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12.11 A load of 2,700 N acts on the machine part shown in Fig. P12.11a. The machine part has a
uniform thickness of 12 mm (i.e., 12-mm thickness in the z direction). Determine the normal and shear
stresses acting at points H and K, which are shown in detail in Fig. P12.11b. For each point, show these
stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.11a Fig. P12.11b Detail at pin B
Note: 12-mm thickness in the z direction
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
(12 mm)(40 mm) 480 mm
(12 mm)(40 mm)
64, 000 mm
12
z
A
I
= =
= =

Equilibrium:

(2, 700 N)cos30 0
(2, 700 N)sin30 0
(2, 700 N)(125 mm)cos30 (185 mm) 0
x x
y y y
B y
F B
F A B
M A
E = ÷ ° =
E = + + ° =
E = ° ÷ =

1,579.911 N
2,338.269 N 2,929.911 N
y
x y
A
B B
=
= = ÷

Internal forces at H:

0
0 1,579.911 N
(135 mm) 0
213, 288.013 N-mm
x H
y y H H
H H y
H
F F
F A V V
M M A
M
E = =
E = ÷ = =
E = ÷ =
=

Axial stress at H:

axial
0 MPa o =

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Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(12 mm)(12 mm)(20 mm 6 mm) 2, 016 mm
(1,579.911 N)(2, 016 mm )
4.147 MPa
(64, 000 mm )(12 mm)
H
H
Q
t
= ÷ =
= =

Bending stress at H:

bend 4
(213, 288.013 N-mm)(8 mm)
26.661 MPa (T) (by inspection)
64, 000 mm
o = =

Internal forces at K:

0 2,338.269 N
0 1,350 N
(185 mm) (50 mm) 0
175,370.144 N-mm
x x K K
y y y K K
K K y x
K
F B V V
F A B F F
M M A B
M
E = ÷ = =
E = + + = =
E = ÷ + =
=

Axial stress at K:

axial 2
1,350 N
2.813 MPa (T)
480 mm
o = =

Shear stress at K:

3
3
4
(12 mm)(15 mm)(20 mm 7.5 mm) 2, 250 mm
(2,338.269 N)(2, 250 mm )
6.850 MPa
(64, 000 mm )(12 mm)
K
K
Q
t
= ÷ =
= =

Bending stress at K:

bend 4
(175,370.144 N-mm)(5 mm)
13.701 MPa (C) (by inspection)
64, 000 mm
o = =

Summary of stresses at H:

26.7 MPa
0 MPa
4
0 M
.15 M
Pa 26.661
a
MPa
P
x
y
xy
o
o
t ÷
= + =
=
= Ans.

Summary of stresses at K:

2.813 MPa 13.701
0 MPa
10.89 MPa
6.85
M
M
Pa
Pa
x
y
xy
o
o
t ÷
=
= ÷
=
÷ =
Ans.

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12.12 A 2.5-in.-diameter solid aluminum post is
subjected to a horizontal force of V = 6 kips, a vertical
force of P = 15 kips, and a concentrated torque of T =
22 kip-in., acting in the directions shown in Fig. P12.12.
Assume L = 4.5 in. Determine the normal and shear
stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K. For each point,
show these stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.12
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(2.5 in.) 4.908739 in. (2.5 in.) 3.834952 in.
4 32
(2.5 in.)
1.302083 in. (2.5 in.) 1.917476 in.
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

6 kips 15 kips 0 kips
0 kip-in. 22 kip-in. (6 kips)(4.5 in.) 27 kip-in.
x y z
x y z
F F F
M M M
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = = =

Axial stress magnitude at H due to F
y
:

2
15.000 kips
3.056 ksi
4.908739 in.
y
o = =

Shear stress magnitude at H due to F
x
:

3
4
(6.000 kips)(1.302083 in. )
1.630 ksi
(1.917476 in. )(2.5 in.)
xy
t = =

Torsion shear stress magnitude at H due to M
y
:

4
(22.000 kip-in.)(2.5 in./2)
7.171 ksi
3.834952 in.
y
xy
M c
J
t = = =

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(a) Summary of stresses at H:
1.63
0
0
k
k
si
3.06 ksi
5.5 si 7.171 ks 4 i ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷ + =
÷
Ans.

Axial stress magnitude at K due to F
y
:

2
15.000 kips
3.056 ksi
4.908739 in.
y
o = =

Bending stress magnitude at K due to M
z
:

4
(27.000 kip-in.)(2.50 in./2)
17.601 ksi
1.917476 in.
z
y
z
M x
I
o = = =

Shear stress magnitude at K due to M
y
:

4
(27.000 kip-in.)(2.5 in./2)
7.171 ksi
3.834952 in.
y
yz
M c
J
t = = =
(b) Summary of stresses at K:

3.056 ksi 17.601
0 ksi
14.55 ksi
7.17

ks
s
i
k i
z
y
yz
o
o
t ÷
=
= ÷ + =
= Ans.

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12.13 A 60-mm-diameter solid aluminum post is
subjected to a horizontal force of V = 25 kN, a vertical
force of P = 70 kN, and a concentrated torque of T =
3.25 kN-m, acting in the directions shown in Fig.
P12.13. Assume L = 90 mm. Determine the normal and
shear stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K. For each
point, show these stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.13
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(60 mm) 2,827.433 mm (60 mm) 1, 272,345 mm
4 32
(60 mm)
18, 000 mm (60 mm) 636,172.5 mm
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

25 kN 70 kN 0 kN
0 kN-m 3.25 kN-m (25 kN)(0.090 m) 2.25 kN-m
x y z
x y z
F F F
M M M
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = = =

Axial stress magnitude at H due to F
y
:

2
70, 000 N
24.757 MPa
2,827.433 mm
y
o = =

Shear stress magnitude at H due to F
x
:

3
4
(25, 000 N)(18,000 mm )
11.789 MPa
(636,172.5 mm )(60 mm)
xy
t = =

Shear stress magnitude at H due to M
y
:

6
4
(3.25 10 N-mm)(60 mm/2)
76.630 MPa
1, 272,345 mm
y
xy
M c
J
t
×
= = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Summary of stresses at H:

11.789 MPa 76.63
0 MPa
24.
0 MPa
8 MPa
64.8 M 64.841 MPa Pa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷ +
= =
÷
Ans.

Bending stress magnitude at K due to M
z
:

6
4
(2.25 10 N-mm)(60 mm/2)
106.103 MPa
636,172.5 mm
z
y
z
M x
I
o
×
= = =

Shear stress magnitude at K due to M
y
:

6
4
(3.25 10 N-mm)(60 mm/2)
76.630 MPa
1, 272,345 mm
y
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =

(b) Summary of stresses at K:

24.757 MPa 106.103 MPa
81.346 MPa
0 MPa
81.3 MPa
76.6 MPa
z
y
yz
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
÷
= =
= Ans.

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12.14 A 1.25-in.-diameter solid shaft is subjected to
an axial force of P = 520 lb, a horizontal shear force
of V = 275 lb, and a concentrated torque of T = 880
lb-in., acting in the directions shown in Fig. P12.14.
Assume L = 7.0 in. Determine the normal and shear
stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K. For each
point, show these stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.14
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(1.25 in.) 1.227185 in. (1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
4 32
(1.25 in.)
0.162760 in. (1.25 in.) 0.119842 in.
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

520 lb
0 lb
275 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷
=
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

880 lb-in.
(275 lb)(7 in.) 1,925 lb-in.
0 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
=
= ÷ = ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
520 lb
423.734 psi
1.227185 in.
x
o = =

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(275 lb)(0.162760 in. )
298.787 psi
(0.119842 in. )(1.25 in.)
xz
t = =

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Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(880 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
2, 294.683 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at H:
298.787 ps
424 psi
i 2, 29
0 psi
2,59 4 0 . psi 683 psi
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
=
= + =
÷
Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
520 lb
423.734 psi
1.227185 in.
x
o = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(880 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
2, 294.683 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(1,925 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
10, 039.240 psi
0.119842 in.
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at K:

1
423.734 psi 10, 039.240 p
0, 460 psi
0 psi
2, 290
si
psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
÷
=
= ÷
= ÷ ÷
=
Ans.

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12.15 A 30-mm-diameter solid shaft is subjected to
an axial force of P = 4,000 N, a horizontal shear
force of V = 2,200 N, and a concentrated torque of T
= 100 N-m, acting in the directions shown in Fig.
P12.15. Assume L = 125 mm. Determine the normal
and shear stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K.
For each point, show these stresses on a stress
element.

Fig. P12.15
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(30 mm) 706.858 mm (30 mm) 79,521.564 mm
4 32
(30 mm)
2, 250 mm (30 mm) 39, 760.782 mm
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

4, 000 N
0 N
2, 200 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷
=
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

100 N-m
(2, 200 N)(0.125 m) 275 N-m
0 N-m
x
y
z
M
M
M
=
= ÷ = ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
4, 000 N
5.659 MPa
706.858 mm
x
o = =

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(2, 200 N)(2,250 mm )
4.150 MPa
(39, 760.782 mm )(30 mm)
xz
t = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(100 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
18.863 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at H:
4.150
5.
MP
66 M
a
Pa
0 MPa
23.0 M 18.863 MPa Pa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
=
= + =
÷
Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
4, 000 N
5.659 MPa
706.858 mm
x
o = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(100 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)
18.863 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(275 N-m)(30 mm/2)
103.745 MPa
39, 750.782 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at K:

109.4
5

.6
MP
59 MPa 103.745 M
a
0 MPa
18.86 MPa
Pa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷ ÷
÷
=
=
÷ =
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.16 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of 114
mm and an inside diameter of 102 mm supports the
and shear stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K. For
each point, show these stresses on a stress element.

Fig. P12.16
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(114 mm) (102 mm) 2, 035.752 mm
4
(114 mm) (102 mm) 5,954,574.716 mm
32
(114 mm) (102 mm) 2,977,387.358 mm
64
1
(114 mm) (102 mm) 35, 028 mm
12
y z
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

20 kN 20, 000 N
7.5 kN 7,500 N
0 kN 0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= =
= ÷ = ÷
= =

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
5.20 kN-m 5.20 10 N-mm
0 N-mm
(7.50 kN)(400 mm)
3, 000 kN-mm 3.00 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷ = ÷ ×
=
= ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
20, 000 N
9.824 MPa
2, 035.752 mm
x
o = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
4
(5.20 10 N-mm)(114 mm/2)
49.777 MPa
5,954,574.716 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
4
(3.00 10 N-mm)(114 mm/2)
57.435 MPa
2,977, 287.358 mm
z
x
z
M y
I
o
×
= = =

Summary of stresses at H:

9.824 MPa 57.435 MPa
67.259 MP 67.3 MPa
0 MPa
49.8 MPa
a
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= +
= =
=
÷ = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
20, 000 N
9.824 MPa
2, 035.752 mm
x
o = =

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(7,500 N)(38,028 mm )
7.353 MPa
(2,977, 287.358 mm ) (114 mm) (102 mm)
xy
t = =
÷

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
4
(5.20 10 N-mm)(114 mm/2)
49.777 MPa
5,954,574.716 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

7.353 MPa 49.777
9.82 MPa
0
MPa
4
MPa
42. 2 4 MPa .424 MPa
x
z
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.17 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.17
Solution

(215 MPa)cos 25 ( cos 25 ) (70 MPa)sin25 ( sin25 )
189.1
0
189.1021 MPa (T) MPa
n n
n
F dA dA dA 

        
  Ans.

(215 MPa)sin25 ( cos25 ) (70 MPa)cos25 ( sin25 ) 0
55.5382 MPa 55.5 MPa
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA 

     

  
   Ans.

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12.18 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.18
Solution

(3, 000 psi)cos70 ( cos70 ) (1, 600 psi)sin70 ( sin7
1, 062
0 ) 0
1, 061.9022 p psi ( ) si T
n n
n
F dA dA dA 

        
  Ans.

(3, 000 psi)sin70 ( cos70 ) (1, 600 psi)cos70 ( sin70 ) 0
1, 478.411 1, 478 5 ps psi i
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA 

        
    Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.19 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.19
Solution

(190 MPa)cos40 ( cos40 ) (320 MPa)sin40 ( sin40 ) 0
20 20.7 MPa (C) .7197 MPa
n n
n
F dA dA dA 

        
   Ans.

(190 MPa)sin40 ( cos40 ) (320 MPa)cos40 ( sin40 ) 0
251.1260 M 251 a Pa P M
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA 

        
  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.20 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.20
Solution

(21.0 ksi)cos55 ( cos55 ) (12.5 ksi)sin55 ( sin55 ) 0
15. 15.30 ksi (C 2964 ksi )
n n
n
F dA dA dA 

        
   Ans.

(21.0 ksi)sin55 ( cos55 ) (12.5 ksi)cos55 ( sin5
3.
5 ) 0
3.9937 k 99 si ksi
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA 

        
  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.21 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.21
Solution

(270 MPa)cos30 ( cos30 )
(125 MPa)sin30 ( cos30 ) (125 MPa)cos30 ( sin30 ) 0
31 3 0. 11 MPa ( 7532 T) MPa
n n
n
F dA dA
dA dA

    
      
  Ans.

(270 MPa)sin30 ( cos30 )
(125 MPa)cos30 ( cos30 ) (125 MPa)sin30 ( sin30 )
54
0
54. . 4134 MP 4 MPa a
t nt
nt
F dA dA
dA dA

    
   
 
  
  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.22 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.22
Solution

(2,300 psi)cos55 ( cos55 ) (900 psi)sin55 ( sin55 )
(400 psi)sin55 ( cos55 ) (400 psi)cos55 ( sin55 ) 0
984.7089 p 985 psi (T si )
n n
n
F dA dA dA
dA dA

       
      
  Ans.

(2,300 psi)sin55 ( cos55 ) (900 psi)cos55 ( sin55 )
(400 psi)cos55 ( cos55 ) (400 psi)sin55 ( sin55 ) 0
520.9768 p 521 si psi
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA
dA dA

       
      
    Ans.

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12.23 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.23
Solution

(35 MPa)sin75 ( sin75 )
(25 MPa)sin75 ( cos75 ) (25 MPa)cos75 ( sin
20.2 MPa (
75 ) 0
20.155 ) M T 4 Pa
n n
n
F dA dA
dA dA

    
      
  Ans.

(35 MPa)cos75 ( sin75 )
(25 MPa)cos75 ( cos75 ) (25 MPa)sin75
30.4
( sin75 ) 0
30.4006 M Pa MPa
t nt
nt
F dA dA
dA dA

    
      
    Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.24 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Using the equilibrium equation approach, determine the
normal and shear stresses at this point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.24
Solution

(7.4 ksi)cos25 ( cos25 ) (14.6 ksi)sin25 ( sin 25 )
(9.3 ksi)sin25 ( cos25 ) (9.3 ksi)cos25 ( sin25 ) 0
3.6535 3.65 ksi (T ksi )
n n
n
F dA dA dA
dA dA

       
      
  Ans.

(7.4 ksi)sin25 ( cos 25 ) (14.6 ksi)cos 25 ( sin 25 )
(9.3 ksi)cos 25 ( cos 25 ) (9.3 ksi)sin25 ( sin
14.4
25 ) 0
14.40 0 k 44 k i si s
t nt
nt
F dA dA dA
dA dA

       
     

   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.25 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the
inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.25
Solution
The given stress values are:
4, 200 psi, 1,800 psi, 0 psi, 50
x y xy
         

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(4, 200 psi)cos (50 ) (1,800 psi)sin (50 ) 2(0 psi)sin(50 )cos(50 )
2, 791.6222 ps 2, 790 psi (T) i
n x y xy
          
      
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(4, 200 psi) (1,800 psi)]sin(50 )cos(50 ) (0 psi)[cos (50 ) sin (50 )]
1,181.7693 psi 1,182 psi
nt x y xy
            
        
    Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.26 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.26
Solution
The given stress values are:
90 MPa, 140 MPa, 0 MPa, 65
x y xy
           

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 90 MPa)cos (65 ) ( 140 MPa)sin (65 ) 2(0 MPa)sin(65 )cos(65 )
131.1 MPa 13 ( 1.06 ) 9 a C 7 MP
n x y xy
          
        
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 90 MPa) ( 140 MPa)]sin(65 )cos(65 ) (0 MPa)[cos (65 ) sin (65 )]
19.1511 19.1 MPa 5 MPa
nt x y xy
       

    
          
   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.27 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the
inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.27
Solution
The given stress values are:
5.5 ksi, 18.7 ksi, 0 ksi, 20
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 5.5 ksi)cos ( 20 ) (18.7 ksi)sin ( 20 ) 2(0 ksi)sin( 20 )cos( 20
2.67 k
)
2.6691 ksi si (C)
n x y xy
          
           
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 5.5 ksi) (18.7 ksi)]sin( 20 )cos( 20 ) (0 ksi)[cos ( 20 ) sin ( 20 )]
7.7777 k 7.7 ks s 8 i i
nt x y xy
            
            
 

  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.28 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.28
Solution
The given stress values are:
17, 700 psi, 12, 500 psi, 0 psi, 60
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(17, 700 psi)cos ( 60 ) ( 12,500 psi)sin ( 60 ) 2(0 psi)sin( 60 )cos( 60 )
4,950.00 4,950 psi 00 psi (C)
n x y xy
          
           
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(17, 700 psi) ( 12,500 psi)]sin( 60 )cos( 60 ) (0
13
psi)[cos ( 60 ) sin ( 60 )]
13, 076.9836 psi , 080 psi
nt x y xy
            
             
  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.29 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.29
Solution
The given stress values are:
8 ksi, 6 ksi, 10 ksi, 75
x y xy
         

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 8)cos (75 ) (6 ksi)sin (75 ) 2(10 ksi)sin(75 ) cos(75 )
10.06 ksi 10.0622 ks ( ) i T
n x y xy
          
       
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 8 ksi) (6 ksi)]sin(75 )cos(75 ) (10 ksi)[cos (75 ) sin (75 )]
5.1603 ks 5 i .16 ksi
nt x y xy
            
        

   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.30 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.30
Solution
The given stress values are:
82 MPa, 48 MPa, 26 MPa, 25
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(82 MPa)cos ( 25 ) (48 MPa)sin ( 25 ) 2( 26 MPa)sin( 25 )cos( 25 )
95.8445 MP 95.8 MPa T) a (
n x y xy
          
           
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(82 MPa) (48 MPa)]s
3.69
in( 25 )cos( 25 ) ( 26 MPa)[cos ( 25 ) sin ( 25 )]
3.6897 MPa MPa
nt x y xy
            
            
 

  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.31 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.31
Solution
The given stress values are:
108 MPa, 14 MPa, 72 MPa, 50
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(108 MPa)cos (50 ) ( 14 MPa)sin (50 ) 2( 72 MPa)sin(50 )cos(50 )
34.4987 MP 34.5 MPa (C) a
n x y xy
          
        
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(108 MPa) ( 14 MPa)]sin(50 )cos(50 ) ( 72 MPa)[cos (50 ) sin (50 )]
47.5706 MP 47.6 MPa a
nt x y xy
            
         

   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.32 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on
the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.32
Solution
The given stress values are:
2,150 psi, 860 psi, 1, 460 psi, 40
x y xy
           

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 2,150 psi)cos ( 40 ) (860 psi)sin ( 40 ) 2( 1, 460 psi)sin( 40 )cos( 40 )
531.4788 ps 531 psi (T i )
n x y xy
          
            
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 2,150 psi) (860 psi)]sin( 40 )cos( 40 ) ( 1, 460 psi)[cos ( 40 ) sin ( 40 )]
1, 735.6620 1, 736 ps si i p
nt x y xy
            
             

   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.33 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on
the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.33
Solution
The given stress values are:
18 MPa, 42 MPa, 30 MPa, 68.1986
x y xy
         

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(18 MPa)cos (68.1986 ) ( 42 MPa)sin (68.1986 )
2(30 MPa)sin(68.1986 )cos(68.1986 )
13.03 MPa (C 13.0345 M a ) P
n x y xy
          
    
  
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(18 MPa) ( 42 MPa)]sin(68.1986 )cos(68.1986 )
(30 MPa)[cos (68.1986 ) sin (68.1986 )]
42.4138 M 42. Pa 4 MPa
nt x y xy
            
     
 

 
   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.34 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.34
Solution
The given stress values are:
24 MPa, 80 MPa, 32 MPa, 33.6901
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(24 MPa)cos ( 33.6901 ) (80 MPa)sin ( 33.6901 )
2( 32 MPa)sin( 33.6901 )cos( 33.6901 )
70.7693 70.8 MPa MP (T a )
n x y xy
          
     
     
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(24 MPa) (80 MPa)]sin( 33.6901 )cos( 33.6901 )
( 32 MPa)[cos ( 33.690
38.2 MPa
1 ) sin ( 33.6901 )]
38.1538 MPa
nt x y xy
            
      
      
    Ans.

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12.35 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a
stressed body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this
point on the inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.35
Solution
The given stress values are:
3,800 psi, 2, 500 psi, 8, 200 psi, 59.0362
x y xy
           

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 3,800 psi)cos ( 59.0362 ) ( 2,500 psi)sin ( 59.0362 )
2(8, 200 psi)sin( 59.0362 )cos( 59.0362 )
10, 080 psi (C 10, 079.4185 ps ) i
n x y xy
          
       
    
   Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 3,800 psi) ( 2,500 psi)]sin( 59.0362 ) cos( 59.0362 )
(8, 200 psi)[cos ( 59.0362 ) sin ( 59.0362 )]
4, 432.3424 4, p 4 i 30 psi s
nt x y xy
            
        
     
    Ans.

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12.36 The stresses shown in the figure act at a point in a stressed
body. Determine the normal and shear stresses at this point on the
inclined plane shown.

Fig. P12.36
Solution
The given stress values are:
3.8 ksi, 9.4 ksi, 5.7 ksi, 38.6598
x y xy
         

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 3.8)cos (38.6598 ) (9.4 ksi)sin (38.6598 )
2(5.7 ksi)sin(38.6598 )cos(38.6598 )
6.9122 ksi 6.91 ksi (T)
n x y xy
          
    
  
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[( 3.8 ksi) (9.4 ksi)]sin(38.6598 )cos(38.6598 )
(5.7 ksi)[cos
7.69
(3
k
8.6598 ) sin (38.6598 )]
7.6902 ks si i
nt x y xy
            
     
   
  Ans.

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12.37 The stresses shown in Fig.
P12.37a act at a point on the free
surface of a stressed body.
Determine the normal stresses 
n

and 
t
and the shear stress 
nt
at
this point if they act on the rotated
stress element shown in Fig.
P12.37b.

(a) (b)
Fig. P12.37
Solution
The given stress values are:
50 MPa, 15 MPa, 40 MPa, 36
x y xy
           

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(50 MPa)cos ( 36 ) ( 15 MPa)sin ( 36 ) 2( 40 MPa)sin( 36 )cos( 36 )
65.5 65.6 MPa ( 853 MP T) a
n x y xy
          
            
  Ans.

To find 
t
, add 90° to the value of  used in Eq. (12.3):

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(50 MPa)cos ( 36 90 ) ( 15 MPa)sin ( 36 90 )
2( 40 MPa)sin( 36 90 )cos( 36 90 )
(50 MPa)cos (54 ) ( 15 MPa)sin (54 ) 2( 40 MPa)sin(54 )cos(54 )
30. 30.6 5853 M a MP P
t x y xy
          
          
         
        
   a (C) Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(50 MPa) ( 15 MPa)]sin( 36 )cos( 36 ) ( 40 MPa)[cos ( 36 ) sin ( 36 )]
18.5487 MP 18.5 M a 5 Pa
nt x y xy
            
              
  Ans.

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12.38 The stresses shown in Fig.
P12.38a act at a point on the free
surface of a stressed body.
Determine the normal stresses 
n

and 
t
and the shear stress 
nt
at
this point if they act on the
rotated stress element shown in
Fig. P12.38b.

(a) (b)
Fig. P12.38
Solution
The given stress values are:
1, 200 psi, 700 psi, 400 psi, 20
x y xy
        

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(1, 200 psi)cos (20 ) (700 psi)sin (20 ) 2(400 psi)sin(20 )cos(20 )
1,398.6262 psi 1,399 psi (T)
n x y xy
          
      
  Ans.

To find 
t
, add 90° to the value of  used in Eq. (12.3):

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(1, 200 psi)cos (20 90 ) (700 psi)sin (20 90 )
2(400 psi)sin(20 90 )cos(20 90 )
(1, 200 psi)cos (110 ) (700 psi)sin (110 ) 2(400 psi)sin(110 )cos(110 )
501.3738 p 5 si
n x y xy
          
       
      
      
  01 psi (T) Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(1, 200 psi) (700 psi)]sin(20 )cos(20 ) (400 psi)[cos (20 ) sin (20 )]
145.72 145.7 09 ps s i p i
nt x y xy
            
        
  Ans.

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12.39 The stresses shown in Fig.
P12.39 act at a point on the free
surface of a machine component.
Determine the normal stresses 
x
and

y
and the shear stress 
xy
at the point.

Fig. P12.39

Solution
Redefine the axes, calling the rotated axes x and y. The angle from the rotated element to the unrotated
element is now a positive value (since it is counterclockwise). Thus, the given stress values can be
expressed as:
35 MPa, 27 MPa, 50 MPa, 30
x y xy
          

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
, which is actually the normal stress in
the horizontal direction (i.e., the original x direction) on the unrotated element:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(35 MPa)cos (30 ) ( 27 MPa)sin (30 ) 2( 50 MPa)sin(30 )cos(30 )
23.8013 MP 23.8 MPa (C) a
n x y xy
          
        
   Ans.

To find 
t
, which is actually the normal stress in the vertical direction (i.e., the original y direction) on
the unrotated element, add 90° to the value of  used in Eq. (12.3):
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(35 MPa) cos (30 90 ) ( 27 MPa)sin (30 90 ) 2( 50 MPa)sin(30 90 ) cos(30 90 )
t x y xy
          
                 

2 2
(35 MPa)cos (120 ) ( 27 MPa)sin (120 ) 2( 50 MPa)sin(120 )cos(120 )
31.8013 MPa 31.8 MPa (T)
        
  Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
, which is actually the shear stress on the
horizontal and vertical faces of the unrotated element:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(35 MPa) ( 27 MPa)]sin(30 )cos(30 ) ( 50 MPa)[cos (30 ) sin (30 )]
51.8468 MP 51.8 MPa a
nt x y xy
            
         

   Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.40 The stresses shown in
Fig. P12.40 act at a point on the
free surface of a machine
component. Determine the
normal stresses 
x
and 
y
and
the shear stress 
xy
at the point.

Fig. P12.40
Solution
Redefine the axes, calling the rotated axes x and y. The angle from the rotated element to the unrotated
element is now a negative value (since it is clockwise) . Thus, the given stress values can be expressed
as:
18.2 ksi, 2.8 ksi, 5.0 ksi, 24
x y xy
         

The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.3)] gives 
n
, which is actually the normal stress in
the horizontal direction (i.e., the original x direction) on the unrotated element:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(18.2 ksi)cos ( 24 ) (2.8 ksi)sin ( 24 ) 2(5.0 ksi)sin( 24 )cos( 24
11.94 ks
)
i (T) 11.9366 ksi
n x y xy
          
          
  Ans.

To find 
t
, which is actually the normal stress in the vertical direction (i.e., the original y direction) on
the unrotated element, add 90° to the value of  used in Eq. (12.3):

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(18.2 ksi)cos ( 24 90 ) (2.8 ksi)sin ( 24 90 )
2(5.0 ksi)sin( 24 90 )cos( 24 90 )
(18.2 ksi)cos (66 ) (2.8 ksi)sin (66 ) 2(5.0 ksi)sin(66 )cos(66 )
9.0634 ksi 9.06
t x y xy
          
         
        
      
  ksi (T) Ans.

The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12.4)] gives 
nt
, which is actually the shear stress on the
horizontal and vertical faces of the unrotated element:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(18.2 ksi) (2.8 ksi)]sin( 24 )cos( 24 ) (5.0 ksi)[
9.0
cos ( 24 )
7 ksi
sin ( 24 )]
9.0679 ksi
nt x y xy
            
            
  Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.41 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to plane
stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and vertical planes
at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress
acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or
Fig. 12.16)

Instructors: Problems 12.41-12.44 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.41
Solution
The given stress values are:
30 MPa, 10 MPa, 26 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = = ÷

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(30 MPa) (10 MPa) (30 MPa) (10 MPa)
( 26 MPa)
2 2
20.0000 MPa 27.8568 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
47.86 MPa
p
o = and
2
7.86 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
27.86 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
20.00 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
26 MPa
tan 2 2.600
( ) / 2 [(30 MPa) (10 MPa)] / 2
34.48 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.42 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to plane
stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and vertical planes
at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress
acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or
Fig. 12.16)

Instructors: Problems 12.41-12.44 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.42
Solution
The given stress values are:
16 MPa, 22 MPa, 28 MPa
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = = ÷

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 16 MPa) (22 MPa) ( 16 MPa) (22 MPa)
( 28 MPa)
2 2
3.0000 MPa 33.8378 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
36.84 MPa
p
o = and
2
30.84 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
33.84 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
3.00 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
28 MPa
tan 2 1.4737
( ) / 2 [( 16 MPa) (22 MPa)] / 2
27.92 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.43 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to plane
stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and vertical planes
at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress
acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or
Fig. 12.16)

Instructors: Problems 12.41-12.44 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.43
Solution
The given stress values are:
4 ksi, 20 ksi, 15 ksi
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = =

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 4 ksi) (20 ksi) ( 4 ksi) (20 ksi)
(15 ksi)
2 2
8.0000 ksi 19.2094 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
27.21 ksi
p
o = and
2
11.21 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
19.21 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
8.00 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
15 ksi
tan 2 1.2500
( ) / 2 [( 4 ksi) (20 ksi)] / 2
25.67 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.44 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to plane
stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and vertical planes
at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress
acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or
Fig. 12.16)

Instructors: Problems 12.41-12.44 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.44
Solution
The given stress values are:
60 ksi, 10 ksi, 26 ksi
x y xy
o o t = = ÷ =

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(60 ksi) ( 10 ksi) (60 ksi) ( 10 ksi)
(26 ksi)
2 2
25.0000 ksi 43.6005 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
68.60 ksi
p
o = and
2
18.60 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
43.60 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
25.00 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
26 ksi
tan 2 0.7429
( ) / 2 [(60 ksi) ( 10 ksi)] / 2
18.30 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.45 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to plane
stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and vertical
planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or
Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.45-12.48 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.45
Solution
The given stress values are:
35 MPa, 85 MPa, 30 MPa
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 35 MPa) ( 85 MPa) ( 35 MPa) ( 85 MPa)
( 30 MPa)
2 2
60.0000 MPa 39.0512 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
20.95 MPa
p
o = ÷ and
2
99.05 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
39.05 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
60.00 MPa (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
30 MPa
tan 2 1.2000
( ) / 2 [( 35 MPa) ( 85 MPa)] / 2
25.10 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
99.05 MPa
49.5 MPa
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.46 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.45-12.48 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.46
Solution
The given stress values are:
16 MPa, 45 MPa, 10 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(16 MPa) (45 MPa) (16 MPa) (45 MPa)
( 10 MPa)
2 2
30.5000 MPa 17.6139 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
48.11 MPa
p
o = and
2
12.89 MPa
p
o = Ans.

max
17.61 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
30.50 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
10 MPa
tan 2 0.6897
( ) / 2 [(16 MPa) (45 MPa)] / 2
17.30 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
48.11 MPa
24.06 MPa
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.47 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.45-12.48 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.47
Solution
The given stress values are:
66 MPa, 90 MPa, 114 MPa
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 66 MPa) (90 MPa) ( 66 MPa) (90 MPa)
(114 MPa)
2 2
12.0000 MPa 138.1304 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
150.13 MPa
p
o = and
2
126.13 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
138.13 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
12.00 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
114 MPa
tan 2 1.4615
( ) / 2 [( 66 MPa) (90 MPa)] / 2
27.81 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
138.13 MPa t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.48 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.45-12.48 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.48
Solution
The given stress values are:
35 ksi, 15 ksi, 14 ksi
x y xy
o o t = = =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(35 ksi) (15 ksi) (35 ksi) (15 ksi)
(14 ksi)
2 2
25.0000 ksi 17.2047 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
42.20 ksi
p
o = and
2
7.80 ksi
p
o = Ans.

max
17.20 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
25.00 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
14 ksi
tan 2 1.4000
( ) / 2 [(35 ksi) (15 ksi)] / 2
27.23 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
42.20 ksi
21.10 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.49 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.49-12.52 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.49
Solution
The given stress values are:
45 ksi, 15 ksi, 8 ksi
x y xy
o o t = = = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(45 ksi) (15 ksi) (45 ksi) (15 ksi)
( 8 ksi)
2 2
30.0000 ksi 13.0000 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
47.00 ksi
p
o = and
2
13.00 ksi
p
o = Ans.

max
17.00 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
30.00 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
8 ksi
tan 2 0.5333
( ) / 2 [(45 ksi) (15 ksi)] / 2
14.04 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
47.00 ksi
23.50 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.50 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.49-12.52 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.50
Solution
The given stress values are:
12 ksi, 4 ksi, 14 ksi
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 12 ksi) (4 ksi) ( 12 ksi) (4 ksi)
( 14 ksi)
2 2
4.0000 ksi 16.1245 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
12.12 ksi
p
o = and
2
20.12 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
16.12 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
4.00 ksi (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
14 ksi
tan 2 1.7500
( ) / 2 [( 12 ksi) (4 ksi)] / 2
30.13 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
16.12 ksi t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.51 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.49-12.52 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.51
Solution
The given stress values are:
50 MPa, 35 MPa, 16 MPa
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = ÷ =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 50 MPa) ( 35 MPa) ( 50 MPa) ( 35 MPa)
(16 MPa)
2 2
42.5000 MPa 17.6706 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
24.83 MPa
p
o = ÷ and
2
60.17 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
17.67 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
42.50 MPa (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
16 MPa
tan 2 2.1333
( ) / 2 [( 50 MPa) ( 35 MPa)] / 2
32.44 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
60.17 MPa
30.09 MPa
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.52 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.49-12.52 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.52
Solution
The given stress values are:
70 MPa, 85 MPa, 56 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = ÷ =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(70 MPa) ( 85 MPa) (70 MPa) ( 85 MPa)
(56 MPa)
2 2
7.5000 MPa 95.6151 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
88.12 MPa
p
o = and
2
103.12 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
95.62 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
7.50 MPa (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
56 MPa
tan 2 0.7226
( ) / 2 [(70 MPa) ( 85 MPa)] / 2
17.93 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
95.6 MPa t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.53 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.53-12.56 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.53
Solution
The given stress values are:
10 ksi, 50 ksi, 32 ksi
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 10 ksi) ( 50 ksi) ( 10 ksi) ( 50 ksi)
( 32 ksi)
2 2
30.0000 ksi 37.7359 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
7.74 ksi
p
o = and
2
67.74 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
37.74 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
30.00 ksi (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
32 ksi
tan 2 1.6000
( ) / 2 [( 10 ksi) ( 50 ksi)] / 2
29.00 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
37.74 ksi t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.54 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.53-12.56 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.54
Solution
The given stress values are:
30 ksi, 50 ksi, 14 ksi
x y xy
o o t = = = ÷
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(30 ksi) (50 ksi) (30 ksi) (50 ksi)
( 14 ksi)
2 2
40.0000 ksi 17.2047 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
57.20 ksi
p
o = and
2
22.80 ksi
p
o = Ans.

max
17.20 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
40.00 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
14 ksi
tan 2 1.4000
( ) / 2 [(30 ksi) (50 ksi)] / 2
27.23 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
57.20 ksi
28.60 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.55 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.53-12.56 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.55
Solution
The given stress values are:
3.5 ksi, 6.0 ksi, 2.8 ksi
x y xy
o o t = = =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(3.5 ksi) (6.0 ksi) (3.5 ksi) (6.0 ksi)
(2.8 ksi)
2 2
4.7500 ksi 3.0663 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
7.82 ksi
p
o = and
2
1.68 ksi
p
o = Ans.

max
3.07 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
4.75 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
2.8 ksi
tan 2 2.2400
( ) / 2 [(3.5 ksi) (6.0 ksi)] / 2
32.97 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
7.82 ksi
3.91 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.56 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16)
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.53-12.56 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.56
Solution
The given stress values are:
50 MPa, 90 MPa, 30 MPa
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = ÷ =
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 50 MPa) ( 90 MPa) ( 50 MPa) ( 90 MPa)
(30 MPa)
2 2
70.0000 MPa 36.0555 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
33.94 MPa
p
o = ÷ and
2
106.06 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
36.06 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
70.00 MPa (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
30 MPa
tan 2 1.5000
( ) / 2 [( 50 MPa) ( 90 MPa)] / 2
28.16 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
106.06 MPa
53.03 MPa
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.57 The principal compressive stress on a vertical plane through a point in a wooden block is equal to
three times the principal compression stress on a horizontal plane. The plane of the grain is 25°
clockwise from the vertical plane. If the normal and shear stresses must not exceed 400 psi (C) and 90
psi shear, determine the maximum allowable compressive stress on the horizontal plane.
Solution
The principal compressive stress on a vertical plane (that is, the x face of a stress element) is equal to
three times the principal compression stress on a horizontal plane (that is, the y face of a stress element).
Thus, from the problem statement, we know that o
x
= 3o
y
. Since we are told that the stresses on the x
and y faces are principal stress, we also know that t
xy
= 0.

The plane of the wood grain is oriented 25° clockwise from the vertical plane; therefore, u = −25°.

We are told that the normal stress on the plane of the wood grain must not exceed −400 psi, or in other
words, o
n
≤ −400 psi. The normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)], which gives o
n
, can be
rearranged to solve for o
y
:

2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
400 psi 3 cos ( 25 ) sin ( 25 ) 2(0 psi)sin( 25 ) cos( 25 )
400 psi [3cos ( 25 ) sin ( 25 )]
400 psi 400 psi
151.3546 psi
[3cos ( 25 ) sin ( 25 )] 2.6428
n x y xy
y y
y
y
o o u o u t u u
o o
o
o
= + +
÷ > ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
÷ > ÷ ° + ÷ °
÷ ÷
s = = ÷
÷ ° + ÷ °
(a)

A second condition of the stresses acting on the plane of the wood grain is that the shear stress must not
exceed 90 psi, or in other words, t
nt
≤ 90 psi. The shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)],
which gives t
nt
, can be rearranged to solve for t
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
90 psi [3 ]sin( 25 ) cos( 25 ) (0 psi)[cos ( 25 ) sin ( 25 )]
90 psi 2 sin( 25 ) cos( 25 )
90 psi 90 psi
117.4935 psi
2sin( 25 ) cos( 25 ) 0.7660
nt x y xy
y y
y
y
t o o u u t u u
o o
o
o
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
± > ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
± > ÷ ÷ ° ÷ °
± ±
s = = ±
÷ ÷ ° ÷ °
(b)
Since we are told that o
y
is a compressive normal stress, it is clear that we must choose the negative
value for o
y
.

Compare the two limits found in Eqs. (a) and (b) to find that the maximum compression stress that may
be applied to the horizontal plane is
117.5 psi
y
o s ÷ Ans.

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12.58 At a point on the free surface of a stressed body, a normal stress of 64 MPa (C) and an unknown
positive shear stress exist on a horizontal plane. One principal stress at the point is 8 MPa (C). The
absolute maximum shear stress at the point has a magnitude of 95 MPa. Determine the unknown stresses
on the horizontal and vertical planes and the unknown principal stress at the point.
Solution
The absolute maximum shear stress can be found from Eq. (12-18)

max min
abs max
2
o o
t
÷
=
The absolute maximum shear stress at the point has a magnitude of 95
MPa. Suppose we assume that the given principal stress of −8 MPa is
o
min
. If this assumption is true, then

max min abs max
2 8 MPa 2(95 MPa) 182 MPa o o t = + = ÷ + =
However, this assumption cannot be true because the normal stress on the horizontal plane is o
y
= −64
MPa, which is more negative than the given principal stress of −8 MPa. Therefore, we now know that
the second principal stress must be negative and its magnitude must be greater than 64 MPa.

The point in question occurs on the free surface of a stressed body. From this information, we can know
that a state of plane stress exists at the point. Therefore,

3
0 (since it is a free surface)
z p
o o = =
Since both of the in-plane principal stresses must be negative, o
max
= o
p3
= 0. The minimum principal
stress can now be determined from the absolute maximum shear stress:

min max abs max
2 0 MPa 2(95 MPa) 190 MPa o o t = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
Thus, the two in-plane principal stresses are:

1
8 MPa
p
o = ÷ and
2
190 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

Since o
y
is given, o
x
can easily be determined from the principal of stress invariance:

1 2
1 2
( 8 MPa) ( 190 MPa) ( 64 MPa) 134 MPa
x y p p
x p p y
o o o o
o o o o
+ = +
= + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ Ans.
The maximum in-plane shear stress can be found from

1 2
max
( 8 MPa) ( 190 MPa)
91 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
Since o
x
, o
y,
and t
max
are known, the magnitude of t
xy
can be found from the expression

2
2
max
2
2
2
( 134 MPa) ( 64 MPa)
91 MPa
2
84 MPa
x y
xy
xy
xy
o o
t t
t
t
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
= ±
The problem states that a positive shear stress exists on a horizontal plane; therefore
84 MPa
xy
t = Ans.

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12.59 At a point on the free surface of a stressed body, the normal stresses are 20 ksi (T) on a vertical
plane and 30 ksi (C) on a horizontal plane. An unknown negative shear stress exists on the vertical
plane. The absolute maximum shear stress at the point has a magnitude of 32 ksi. Determine the
principal stresses and the shear stress on the vertical plane at the point.
Solution
Since o
x
and o
y
have opposite signs, the absolute maximum shear stress is
equal to the maximum in-plane shear stress:

max abs max
32 ksi t t = =
Since o
x
, o
y,
and t
max
are known, the magnitude of t
xy
can be found from
the expression

2
2
max
2
2
2
(20 ksi) ( 30 ksi)
32 ksi
2
19.9750 ksi
x y
xy
xy
xy
o o
t t
t
t
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
÷ ÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
= ±
The problem states that a negative shear stress exists on the vertical plane; therefore
19.98 ksi
xy
t = ÷ Ans.

From the principal of stress invariance:

1 2
1 2
(20 ksi) ( 30 ksi) 10 ksi
x y p p
p p
o o o o
o o
+ = +
+ = + ÷ = ÷ (a)
The maximum in-plane shear stress is equal to one-half of the difference between the two in-plane
principal stresses

1 2
max
1 2 max
2
2 2(32 ksi) 64 ksi
p p
p p
o o
t
o o t
÷
=
÷ = = = (b)
Add Eqs. (a) and (b) to find o
p1
:

1 p1
2 54 ksi 27 ksi 27 ksi (T)
p
o o = = = Ans.
and subtract Eq. (b) from Eq. (a) to find o
p2
:

2 p2
2 74 ksi 37 ksi 37 ksi (C)
p
o o = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

The point in question occurs on the free surface of a stressed body. From this information, we can know
that a state of plane stress exists at the point. Therefore,

3
0 (since the point is on a free surface)
z p
o o = = Ans.

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12.60 At a point on the free surface of a stressed body, a normal stress of 75 MPa (T) and an unknown
negative shear stress exist on a horizontal plane. One principal stress at the point is 200 MPa (T). The
maximum in-plane shear stress at the point has a magnitude of 85 MPa. Determine the unknown
stresses on the vertical plane, the unknown principal stress, and the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.
Solution
Since o
y
= 75 MPa is less than the given principal stress, we will assume
that o
p1
= 200 MPa. If this assumption is true, then o
p2
can be found from
o
p1
and t
max
:

1 2
max
2 1 max
2
2 200 MPa 2(85 MPa) 30 MPa
p p
p p
o o
t
o o t
÷
=
= ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear stress at the point has a magnitude of 85 MPa.
However, this assumption cannot be true because the normal stress on the horizontal plane is o
y
= −64
MPa, which is more negative than the given principal stress of −8 MPa. Therefore, we now know that
the second principal stress must be negative and its magnitude must be greater than 64 MPa.

From the principal of stress invariance:

1 2
(200 MPa) (30 MPa) (75 MPa) 155 MPa
x y p p
x
o o o o
o
+ = +
= + ÷ = Ans.

Since o
x
, o
y,
and t
max
are known, the magnitude of t
xy
can be found from the expression

2
2
max
2
2
2
(155 MPa) (75 MPa)
85 MPa
2
75 MPa
x y
xy
xy
xy
o o
t t
t
t
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
= ±
The problem states that a negative shear stress exists on the vertical plane; therefore
75 MPa
xy
t = ÷ Ans.

The point in question occurs on the free surface of a stressed body. From this information, we can know
that a state of plane stress exists at the point. Therefore,

3
0 (since it is a free surface)
z p
o o = =

Since both in-plane principal stresses are positive, the absolute maximum shear stress is found from

1 3 1
abs max
0
200 MPa
100 MPa
2 2 2
p p p
o o o
t
÷ ÷
= = = = Ans.

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12.61 For the state of plane stress shown, determine (a) the largest
value of o
y
for which the maximum in-plane shear stress is equal to
or less than 16 ksi and (b) the corresponding principal stresses.

Fig. P12.61
Solution
Since o
x
, t
xy,
and t
max
are known, the magnitude of o
y
can be found from the expression

2
2
max
2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
(30 ksi)
16 ksi (10 ksi)
2
(30 ksi)
(16 ksi) (10 ksi)
2
30 ksi 2 (16 ksi) (10 ksi) 30 ksi 2 (16 ksi) (10 ksi)
x y
xy
y
y
y
o o
t t
o
o
o
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
÷ | |
> +
|
\ .
÷
÷ >
÷ ÷ s s + ÷

5.02 ksi 54.98 ksi
55.0 ksi
y
y
o
o
s s
s Ans.

The corresponding principal stresses are:

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(30 ksi) (54.98 ksi) (30 ksi) (54.98 ksi)
(16 ksi)
2 2
42.49 ksi 16.0 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
58.5 ksi
p
o = and
2
26.5 ksi
p
o = Ans.

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12.62 For the state of plane stress shown, determine (a) the largest
value of t
xy
for which the maximum in-plane shear stress is equal to
or less than 150 MPa and (b) the corresponding principal stresses.

Fig. P12.62
Solution
Since o
x
, o
y,
and t
max
are known, the magnitude of t
xy
can be found from the expression

2
2
max
2
2
2 2 2
2
(120 MPa) ( 70 MPa)
150 MPa
2
(150 MPa) (95 MPa)
x y
xy
xy
xy
o o
t t
t
t
÷ | |
= +
|
\ .
÷ ÷ | |
> +
|
\ .
s ÷
116.1 MPa
xy
t s Ans.

The corresponding principal stresses are:

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(120 MPa) ( 70 MPa) (120 MPa) ( 70 MPa)
(116.1 MPa)
2 2
25 MPa 150 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
175 MPa (T)
p
o = and
2
125 MPa (C)
p
o = Ans.

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12.63 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress acting at the point
and show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
(e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).

Fig. P12.63
Solution
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(35 ksi, 20 ksi)
(5 ksi, 20 ksi)
20 ksi
(15 ksi) (20 ksi) 25 ksi
20 ksi 25 ksi 45 ksi
20 ksi 25 ksi 5 ksi
25 ksi
20 ksi
p
p
x
y
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
=
=
=
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and o
p1
is found
from:

20 ksi 20 ksi
tan 2 1.3333 2 53.13 thus, 26.57
(35 ksi) (20 ksi) 15 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to o
p1
is turned clockwise.

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12.64 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress acting at the point
and show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
(e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).

Fig. P12.64
Solution
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(90 ksi, 60 ksi)
(30 ksi, 60 ksi)
60 ksi
(30 ksi) (60 ksi) 67.08 ksi
60 ksi 67.08 ksi 127.08 ksi
60 ksi 67.08 ksi 7.08 ksi
67.08 ksi
60 ksi
p
p
x
y
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
=
=
=
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and o
p1
is found
from:

60 ksi 60 ksi
tan 2 2 2 63.43 thus, 31.72
(90 ksi) (60 ksi) 30 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to o
p1
is turned counterclockwise.

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12.65 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress acting at the point
and show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
(e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).

Fig. P12.65
Solution
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 100 MPa, 30 MPa)
(20 MPa, 30 MPa)
40 MPa
(60 MPa) (30 MPa) 67.08 MPa
40 MPa 67.08 MPa 27.08 MPa
40 MPa 67.08 MPa 107.08 MPa
67.08 MPa
60 MPa
p
p
x
y
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
= ÷
=
= ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and o
p2
is found
from:

30 MPa 30 MPa
tan 2 0.5 2 26.57 thus, 13.28
( 100 MPa) ( 40 MPa) 60 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to o
p2
is turned clockwise.

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12.66 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress acting at the point
and show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
(e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).

Fig. P12.66
Solution
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 55 MPa, 25 MPa)
(15 MPa, 25 MPa)
20 MPa
(35 MPa) (25 MPa) 43.01 MPa
20 MPa 43.01 MPa 23.01 MPa
20 MPa 43.01 MPa 63.01 MPa
43.01 MPa
20 MPa (C)
p
p
x
y
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
= ÷
=
= ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and o
p2
is found
from:

25 MPa 25 MPa
tan 2 0.7143 2 35.54 thus, 17.77
( 55 MPa) ( 20 MPa) 35 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to o
p2
is turned counterclockwise.

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12.67 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the stresses o
n
, o
t
, and t
nt
and show
them on a stress element that is properly rotated
with respect to the x-y element. The sketch must
include the magnitude of the angle between the x
and n axes and an indication of the rotation direction
(i.e., either clockwise or counterclockwise).

Fig. P12.67
Solution
2 2
(60 MPa, 15 MPa) ( 20 MPa, 15 MPa)
( 10 MPa, 30 MPa) (50 MPa, 30 MPa)
20 MPa (40 MPa) (15 MPa) 42.72 MPa
x y
n t
C R
= = ÷
= ÷ =
= = + =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 1 is
found from:

15 MPa 15 MPa
tan 2 0.3750 2 20.6
(60 MPa) (20 MPa) 40 MPa
p p
u u = = = = °
÷

The magnitude of the angle | between point n and point 2 is found from:

30 MPa 30 MPa
tan 1 45
( 10 MPa) (20 MPa) 30 MPa
| | = = = = °
÷ ÷

The angle o between point x and point n is thus
180 20.6 45 114.4 o = °÷ °÷ ° = °

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Since angles in Mohr’s circle are doubled, the actual angle between the x face and the n face is half of
this magnitude: 57.2°. By inspection, the 57.2° angle from point x to point n is turned in a
counterclockwise direction. The correct stresses on the n and t faces are shown in the sketch below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.68 Mohr’s circle is shown for a point in a
physical object that is subjected to plane stress.
(a) Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
and show
them on a stress element.
(b) Determine the stresses o
n
, o
t
, and t
nt
and show
them on a stress element that is properly rotated
with respect to the x-y element. The sketch must
include the magnitude of the angle between the x
and n axes and an indication of the rotation direction
(i.e., either clockwise or counterclockwise).

Fig. P12.68
Solution
2 2
(10 ksi, 30 ksi) (50 ksi, 30 ksi)
(65 ksi, 10 ksi) ( 5 ksi, 10 ksi)
30 ksi (20 ksi) (30 ksi) 36.06 ksi
x y
n t
C R
= =
= = ÷
= = + =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2 is
found from:

30 ksi 30 ksi
tan 2 1.5 2 56.3
(10 ksi) (30 ksi) 20 ksi
p p
u u = = = = °
÷

The magnitude of the angle | between point n and point 1 is found from:

10 ksi 10 ksi
tan 0.2857 15.9
(65 ksi) (30 ksi) 35 ksi
| | = = = = °
÷

The angle o between point x and point n is thus
180 56.3 15.9 107.8 o = °÷ °÷ ° = °

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Since angles in Mohr’s circle are doubled, the actual angle between the x face and the n face is half of
this magnitude: 53.9°. By inspection, the 53.9° angle from point x to point n is turned in a clockwise
direction. The correct stresses on the n and t faces are shown in the sketch below.

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12.69 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point using Mohr’s circle.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).

Instructors: Problems 12.69-12.72 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.69
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 15 ksi) (5 ksi)
5 ksi
2
(10 ksi) (12.5 ksi) 16.01 ksi
5 ksi 16.01 ksi 11.01 ksi
5 ksi 16.01 ksi 21.01 ksi
16.01 ksi
5 ksi
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ +
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= = ÷
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

12.5 ksi 12.5 ksi
tan 2 1.25 2 51.340 thus, 25.67
( 15 ksi) ( 5 ksi) 10 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.70 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point using Mohr’s circle.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).

Instructors: Problems 12.69-12.72 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.70
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(28 MPa) ( 50 MPa)
11 MPa
2
(39 MPa) (44 MPa) 58.80 MPa
11 MPa 58.80 MPa 47.80 MPa
11 MPa 58.80 MPa 69.80 MPa
58.80 MPa
11 MPa
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+ ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= = ÷
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 1 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

44 MPa 44 MPa
tan 2 1.1282 2 48.447 thus, 24.22
(28 MPa) ( 11 MPa) 39 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.71 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point using Mohr’s circle.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).

Instructors: Problems 12.69-12.72 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.71
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
(16 ksi) ( 3 ksi)
6.5 ksi
2
(9.5 ksi) (8 ksi) 12.42 ksi
6.5 ksi 12.42 ksi 18.92 ksi
6.5 ksi 12.42 ksi 5.92 ksi
12.42 ksi
6.5 ksi
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+ ÷
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 1
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

8 ksi 8 ksi
tan 2 0.8421 2 40.101 thus, 20.05
(16 ksi) (6.5 ksi) 9.5 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.72 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point using Mohr’s circle.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).

Instructors: Problems 12.69-12.72 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.72
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 12 ksi) (30 ksi)
9.0 ksi
2
(21 ksi) (18 ksi) 27.66 ksi
9.0 ksi 27.66 ksi 36.66 ksi
9.0 ksi 27.66 ksi 18.66 ksi
27.66 ksi
9.0 ksi
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ +
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found
from:

18 ksi 18 ksi
tan 2 0.8571 2 40.601 thus, 20.30
( 12 ksi) (9 ksi) 21 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.73 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.73-12.76 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.73
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle construction is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
(6 ksi) (18 ksi)
12 ksi
2
(6 ksi) (30 ksi) 30.59 ksi
12 ksi 30.59 ksi 42.59 ksi
12 ksi 30.59 ksi 18.59 ksi
30.59 ksi
12 ksi
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

30 ksi 30 ksi
tan 2 5 2 78.690 thus, 39.35
(6 ksi) (12 ksi) 6 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
30.59 ksi t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.74 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.73-12.76 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.74
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 35 MPa) ( 65 MPa)
50 MPa
2
(15 MPa) (24 MPa) 28.30 MPa
50 MPa 28.30 MPa 21.70 MPa
50 MPa 28.30 MPa 78.30 MPa
28.30 MPa
50 MPa (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 1
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

24 MPa 24 MPa
tan 2 1.6 2 57.995 thus, 29.00
( 35 MPa) ( 50 MPa) 15 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. Therefore

2 3
abs max
78.30 MPa 0 MPa
39.15 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.75 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.73-12.76 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.75
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(0 MPa) ( 45 MPa)
22.5 MPa
2
(22.5 MPa) (25 MPa) 33.63 MPa
22.5 MPa 33.63 MPa 11.13 MPa
22.5 MPa 33.63 MPa 56.13 MPa
33.63 MPa
22.5 MPa (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+ ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 1 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

25 MPa 25 MPa
tan 2 1.1111 2 48.013 thus, 24.01
(0 MPa) ( 22.5 MPa) 22.5 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
33.63 MPa t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.76 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.73-12.76 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.76
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 36 ksi) ( 18 ksi)
27 ksi
2
(9 ksi) (12 ksi) 15 ksi
27 ksi 15 ksi 12 ksi
27 ksi 15 ksi 42 ksi
15 ksi
27 ksi (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between
point x (i.e., the x face of the stress
element) and point 2 (i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

12 ksi 12 ksi
tan 2 1.3333 2 53.130 thus, 26.57
( 36 ksi) ( 27 ksi) 9 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
42 ksi 0 ksi
21 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.77 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.77-12.80 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.77
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(60 MPa) (90 MPa)
75 MPa
2
(15 MPa) (30 MPa) 33.54 MPa
75 MPa 33.54 MPa 108.54 MPa
75 MPa 33.54 MPa 41.46 MPa
33.54 MPa
75 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

30 MPa 30 MPa
tan 2 2 2 63.435 thus, 31.72
(60 MPa) (75 MPa) 15 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

1 3
abs max
108.54 MPa 0 MPa
54.27 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.78 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.77-12.80 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.78
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(55 MPa) (4 MPa)
29.5 MPa
2
(25.5 MPa) (28 MPa) 37.87 MPa
29.5 MPa 37.87 MPa 67.37 MPa
29.5 MPa 37.87 MPa 8.37 MPa
37.87 MPa
29.5 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 2 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

28 MPa 28 MPa
tan 2 1.0980 2 47.675 thus, 23.84
(55 MPa) (29.5 MPa) 25.5 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
37.87 MPa t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
12.79 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.77-12.80 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.79
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 250 psi) ( 500 psi)
375 psi
2
(125 psi) (200 psi) 235.8 psi
375 psi 235.8 psi 139.2 psi
375 psi 235.8 psi 610.8 psi
235.8 psi
375 psi (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

200 psi 200 psi
tan 2 1.6 2 57.995 thus, 29.00
( 250 psi) ( 375 psi) 125 psi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

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(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
610.8 psi 0 psi
305.4 psi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.80 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point.
(c) Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15
or Fig. 12.16).
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.77-12.80 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.80
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
(4.5 ksi) (9.1 ksi)
6.8 ksi
2
(2.3 ksi) (2 ksi) 3.05 ksi
6.8 ksi 3.05 ksi 9.85 ksi
6.8 ksi 3.05 ksi 3.75 ksi
3.05 ksi
6.8 ksi (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is
found from:

2 ksi 2 ksi
tan 2 0.8696 2 41.009 thus, 20.50
(4.5 ksi) (6.80 ksi) 2.3 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

(c) The orientation of the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the
sketch below.

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(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =

Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

1 3
abs max
9.85 ksi 0 ksi
4.92 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.81 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.81-12.84 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.81
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 90 MPa) ( 65 MPa)
77.5 MPa
2
(12.5 MPa) (42 MPa) 43.82 MPa
77.5 MPa 43.82 MPa 33.68 MPa
77.5 MPa 43.82 MPa 121.32 MPa
43.82 MPa
77.5 MPa (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 2 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

42 MPa 42 MPa
tan 2 3.3600 2 73.426 thus, 36.71
( 90 MPa) ( 77.5 MPa) 12.5 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise. The orientation of the principal
stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

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(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 35° counterclockwise from the x axis. In
Mohr’s circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on
the n plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(35°) = 70° counterclockwise from point x. The angle between
point n and point 1 is
180 73.426 70 36.574 | = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
77.5 MPa (43.82 MPa) cos(36.574 )
42.31 MPa 42.31 MPa (C)
n
C R o | = +
= ÷ + °
= ÷ = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(43.82 MPa)sin(36.574 ) 26.11 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is below the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane
surface tends to rotate the stress element counterclockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be constructed to show stress combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane, the o
p1
–o
p3

plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three circles are shown below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
121.32 MPa 0 MPa
60.66 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.82 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.81-12.84 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.82
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.

2 2
1
2
max
avg
(60 ksi) (24 ksi)
42 ksi
2
(18 ksi) (16 ksi) 24.08 ksi
42 ksi 24.08 ksi 66.08 ksi
42 ksi 24.08 ksi 17.92 ksi
24.08 ksi
42 ksi (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 1
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is
found from:

16 ksi 16 ksi
tan 2 0.8889 2 41.634 thus, 20.82
(60 ksi) (42 ksi) 18 ksi
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise. The orientation of the
principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 56.31° clockwise from the x axis. In Mohr’s
circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on the n

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(56.31°) = 112.78° clockwise from point x. The angle between point
n and point 2 is
180 41.634 112.62 25.746 | = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
42 ksi (24.08 ksi) cos(25.746 ) 20.31 ksi (T)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(24.08 ksi)sin(25.746 ) 10.46 ksi
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is below the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element counterclockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural
member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane,
the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3

plane. These three circles are
shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

1 3
abs max
66.08 ksi 0 ksi
33.04 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.83 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.81-12.84 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.83
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(105 MPa) (45 MPa)
75 MPa
2
(30 MPa) (35 MPa) 46.10 MPa
75 MPa 46.10 MPa 121.10 MPa
75 MPa 46.10 MPa 28.90 MPa
46.10 MPa
75 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 1
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

35 MPa 35 MPa
tan 2 1.1667 2 49.399 thus, 24.70
(105 MPa) (75 MPa) 30 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise. The orientation of the principal
stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 40° clockwise from the x axis. In Mohr’s

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on the n
plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(40°) = 80° clockwise from point x. The angle between point n and
point 2 is
180 49.399 80 50.601 | = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
75 MPa (46.10 MPa) cos(50.601 ) 45.74 MPa (T)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(46.10 MPa)sin(50.601 ) 35.62 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is above the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane
surface tends to rotate the stress element clockwise.

(d) Since the point in a
structural member is subjected
to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2

plane, the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and
the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three
circles are shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
121.10 MPa 0 MPa
60.55 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.84 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.81-12.84 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.84
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 54 MPa) ( 28 MPa)
41 MPa
2
(13 MPa) (15 MPa) 19.85 MPa
41 MPa 19.85 MPa 21.15 MPa
41 MPa 19.85 MPa 60.85 MPa
19.85 MPa
41 MPa (C)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x
(i.e., the x face of the stress element) and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

15 MPa 15 MPa
tan 2 1.1538 2 49.086 thus, 24.54
( 54 MPa) ( 41 MPa) 13 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise. The orientation of the
principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 36.87° counterclockwise from the x axis. In
Mohr’s circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on
the n plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(36.87°) = 73.74° counterclockwise from point x. The angle
between point n and point 2 is
73.74 49.086 24.654 | = ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
41 MPa (19.85 MPa) cos(24.654 ) 59.04 MPa (C)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(19.85 MPa)sin(24.654 ) 8.28 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is below the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element counterclockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural
member is subjected to plane
stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2

plane, the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and the
o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three
circles are shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
60.85 MPa 0 MPa
30.43 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.85 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.85-12.88 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.85
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
( 60 MPa) (100 MPa)
20 MPa
2
(80 MPa) (80 MPa) 113.14 MPa
20 MPa 113.14 MPa 133.14 MPa
20 MPa 113.14 MPa 93.14 MPa
113.14 MPa
20 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
÷ +
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 2 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

80 MPa 80 MPa
tan 2 1.0 2 45 thus, 22.5
( 60 MPa) (20 MPa) 80 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise. The orientation of the
principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 30° clockwise from the x axis. In Mohr’s

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on the n
plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(30°) = 60° clockwise from point x. The angle between point n and
point 1 is
180 45 60 75 | = ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
20 MPa (113.14 MPa) cos(75 ) 49.28 MPa (T)
n
C R o | = +
= + ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(113.14 MPa)sin(75 ) 109.28 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is above the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element clockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural
member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane,
the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3

plane. These three circles are
shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
113.14 MPa t t = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.86 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.85-12.88 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.86
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(100 MPa) (0 MPa)
50 MPa
2
(50 MPa) (210 MPa) 215.87 MPa
50 MPa 215.87 MPa 265.87 MPa
50 MPa 215.87 MPa 165.87 MPa
215.87 MPa
50 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 1 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p1
) is found from:

210 MPa 210 MPa
tan 2 4.2 2 76.608 thus, 38.30
(100 MPa) (50 MPa) 50 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise. The orientation of the principal
stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 21.80° counterclockwise from the x axis. In

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Mohr’s circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on
the n plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(21.80°) = 43.60° counterclockwise from point x. The angle
between point n and point 2 is
180 76.608 43.60 59.792 | = ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
50 MPa (215.87 MPa) cos(59.792 ) 58.61 MPa (C)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(215.87 MPa)sin(59.792 ) 186.56 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is above the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element clockwise.

(d) Since the point in a
structural member is subjected
to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2

plane, the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and
the o
p2
–o
p3
plane. These three
circles are shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
215.87 MPa t t = = Ans.

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12.87 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane
shear stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.85-12.88 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.87
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(120 MPa) (40 MPa)
80 MPa
2
(40 MPa) (180 MPa) 184.39 MPa
80 MPa 184.39 MPa 264.39 MPa
80 MPa 184.39 MPa 104.39 MPa
184.39 MPa
80 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 2 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

180 MPa 180 MPa
tan 2 4.5 2 77.471 thus, 38.74
(120 MPa) (80 MPa) 40 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise. The orientation of the
principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

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(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 30.96° clockwise from the x axis. In Mohr’s
circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on the n
plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(30.96°) = 61.93° clockwise from point x. The angle between point n
and point 2 is
180 77.471 61.93 40.599 | = ° ÷ ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
80 MPa (184.39 MPa) cos(40.599 ) 60.00 MPa (C)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(184.39 MPa)sin(40.599 ) 119.99 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is below the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element counterclockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural
member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane,
the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3

plane. These three circles are
shown on the right.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
184.39 MPa t t = = Ans.

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12.88 Consider a point in a structural member that is subjected to
plane stress. Normal and shear stresses acting on horizontal and
vertical planes at the point are shown.
(a) Draw Mohr’s circle for this state of stress.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress acting at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch (e.g., see Fig. 12.15 or Fig. 12.16).
(c) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane
and show these stresses on a sketch.
(d) Determine the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Instructors: Problems 12.85-12.88 should be assigned as a set. Fig. P12.88
Solution
(b) The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
avg
(25 MPa) (100 MPa)
62.5 MPa
2
(37.5 MPa) (140 MPa) 144.94 MPa
62.5 MPa 144.94 MPa 207.44 MPa
62.5 MPa 144.94 MPa 82.44 MPa
144.94 MPa
62.5 MPa (T)
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
C
o
o
t
o
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
= =

The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x (i.e.,
the x face of the stress element) and point 2 (i.e., the
principal plane subjected to o
p2
) is found from:

140 MPa 140 MPa
tan 2 3.7333 2 75.00 thus, 37.50
(25 MPa) (62.5 MPa) 37.5 MPa
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise. The orientation of the principal
stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress is shown on the sketch below.

(c) To determine the normal and shear stresses on the indicated plane, we must first determine the
orientation of the plane relative to the x face of the stress element. Looking at the stress element, we
observe that the normal to the indicated plane is oriented 50° clockwise from the x axis. In Mohr’s

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circle, all angle measures are doubled; therefore, point n (which represents the state of stress on the n
plane) on Mohr’s circle is rotated 2(50°) = 100° clockwise from point x. The angle between point n and
point 2 is
100 75 25 | = ° ÷ ° = °
The o coordinate of point n is found from:

cos
62.5 MPa (144.94 MPa) cos(25 ) 68.86 MPa (C)
n
C R o | = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point n is found from:

sin
(144.94 MPa)sin(25 ) 61.25 MPa
nt
R t | =
= ° = Ans.
Since point n is above the o axis, the shear stress acting on the plane surface tends to rotate the stress
element clockwise.

(d) Since the point in a structural
member is subjected to plane stress

3
0
z p
o o = =
Three Mohr’s circles can be
constructed to show stress
combinations in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane,
the o
p1
–o
p3
plane, and the o
p2
–o
p3

plane. These three circles are shown
below.

In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p2
plane (which is also the x-y plane).
Therefore

abs max max
144.94 MPa t t = = Ans.

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12.89 At a point in a stressed body, the principal
stresses are oriented as shown in Fig. P12.89. Use
Mohr’s circle to determine:
(a) the stresses on plane a-a.
(b) the stresses on the horizontal and vertical
planes at the point.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.

Fig. P12.89
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle can be found from the two principal stresses:

1 2
( 3 ksi) ( 20 ksi)
11.5 ksi
2 2
p p
C
o o +
÷ + ÷
= = = ÷
The radius of the circle is

1 2
( 3 ksi) ( 20 ksi)
8.5 ksi
2 2
p p
R
o o ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
(a) The stresses on plane a-a are found by rotating 270° counterclockwise from the o
p2
point on Mohr’s
circle. Therefore, the point at the top of the circle directly above the center corresponds to the state of
stress on plane a-a.
11.5 ksi 11.5 ksi (C)
a a
C o
÷
= = ÷ = Ans.
8.5 ksi (shear stress rotates the wedge element clockwise)
a a
R t
÷
= = Ans.

(b) The angle u
p
shown on the problem statement sketch is

1
1
tan (8/15) 14.0362
2
p
u
÷
= = °

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The o
p2
principal plane is rotated 14.0362° clockwise from the x face of the stress element. We need to
find the point on Mohr’s circle that corresponds to the x face of the stress element. Since we know the
location of o
p2
on Mohr’s circle, we can begin there and rotate 2u
p
in the opposite direction to find point
x. Therefore, beginning at point o
p2
, rotate 2(14.0362°) = 28.0724° counterclockwise to locate point x.
The o coordinate of point x is found from:

cos(2 )
11.5 ksi (8.5 ksi) cos(28.0724 ) 19.00 ksi (C)
x p
C R o u = ÷
= ÷ ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point x is found from:

sin(2 )
(8.5 ksi)sin(28.0724 ) 4.00 ksi (rotates element counterclockwise)
nt p
R t u =
= ° = Ans.
Similarly, the o coordinate of point y is found from:

cos(2 )
11.5 ksi (8.5 ksi)cos(28.0724 ) 4.00 ksi (C)
y p
C R o u = +
= ÷ + ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point y is also 4.00 ksi, and the shear stress on the y face rotates the stress element
clockwise.

The stresses on the vertical and horizontal faces of the stress element are shown below.

(c) Since both o
p1
and o
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear stress will be larger than the
maximum in-plane shear stress. The radius of the largest Mohr’s circle gives the absolute maximum
shear stress. In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p2
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

2 3
abs max
20 ksi 0 ksi
10.00 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.90 At a point in a stressed body, the principal
stresses are oriented as shown in Fig. P12.90. Use
Mohr’s circle to determine:
(a) the stresses on plane a-a.
(b) the stresses on the horizontal and vertical
planes at the point.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.

Fig. P12.90
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle can be found from the two principal stresses:

1 2
(200 MPa) (50 MPa)
125 MPa
2 2
p p
C
o o +
+
= = =
The radius of the circle is

1 2
(200 MPa) (50 MPa)
75 MPa
2 2
p p
R
o o ÷
÷
= = =
(a) The stresses on plane a-a are found by rotating 270° counterclockwise from the o
p1
point on Mohr’s
circle. Therefore, the point at the bottom of the circle directly underneath the center corresponds to the
state of stress on plane a-a.
125 MPa 125 MPa (T)
a a
C o
÷
= = = Ans.
75 MPa (shear stress rotates the wedge element counterclockwise)
a a
R t
÷
= = Ans.

(b) The angle u
p
shown on the problem statement sketch is

1
1
tan (3/ 4) 18.435
2
p
u
÷
= = °

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The o
p1
principal plane is rotated 18.435° counterclockwise from the x face of the stress element. We
need to find the point on Mohr’s circle that corresponds to the x face of the stress element. Since we
know the location of o
p1
on Mohr’s circle, we can begin there and rotate 2u
p
in the opposite direction to
find point x. Therefore, beginning at point o
p1
, rotate 2(18.435°) = 36.87° clockwise to locate point x.
The o coordinate of point x is found from:

cos(2 )
125 MPa (75 MPa) cos(36.87 ) 185.0 MPa (T)
x p
C R o u = +
= + ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point x is found from:

sin(2 )
(75 MPa)sin(36.87 ) 45.0 MPa (rotates element counterclockwise)
nt p
R t u =
= ° = Ans.
Similarly, the o coordinate of point y is found from:

cos(2 )
125 MPa (75 MPa)cos(36.87 ) 65.0 MPa (T)
y p
C R o u = ÷
= ÷ ° = Ans.
The t coordinate of point y is also 65.0 MPa, and the shear stress on the y face rotates the stress element
clockwise.

The stresses on the vertical and horizontal faces of the stress element are shown below.

(c) Since both o
p1
and o
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear stress will be larger than the
maximum in-plane shear stress. The radius of the largest Mohr’s circle gives the absolute maximum
shear stress. In this case, the absolute maximum shear stress occurs in the o
p1
–o
p3
plane; therefore,

1 3
abs max
200 MPa 0 MPa
100.0 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷
= = = Ans.

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12.91 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 40 MPa (T), o
y
= 20 MPa (C), o
z
= 20
MPa (T), t
xy
= +40 MPa, t
yz
= 0, and t
zx
= +30 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40°, 75°,
and 54° with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
40 MPa 20 MPa 20 MPa
40 MPa 0 MPa 30 MPa
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = ÷ =
= = =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:
cos(40 ) 0.7660 cos(75 ) 0.2588 cos(54 ) 0.5878 l m n = ° = = ° = = ° =

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(40)(0.7660) (40)(0.2588) (30)(0.5878) 58.63 MPa
(40)(0.7660) ( 20)(0.2588) (0)(0.5878) 25.47 MPa
(30)(0.7660) (0)(0.2588) (20)(0.5878) 34.74
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + ÷ + =
= · + · + · = + + = MPa

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(58.63)(0.7660) (25.47)(0.2588) (34.74)(0.5878)
71.92 MPa 71.9 MPa (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(58.63) (25.47) (34.74) 5, 292.40
and thus;
( ) 5, 292.40 (71.92) 10.95 MPa
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + + =
= ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2
(40) ( 20) (20) 40
(40)( 20) ( 20)(20) (20)(40) (40) (0) (30) 2,900
2 ( )
(40)( 20)(20) 2(40)(0)(30) [(40)(0) ( 20
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + ÷ + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
2 2
)(30) (20)(40) ] 30, 000 + = ÷
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2
(40) ( 2,900) ( 30,000) 0
p p p
o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ =

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The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
73.8 MPa (T)
9.41 MPa (T)
43.2 MPa (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
73.8 ( 43.2)
58.5 MPa
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.92 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 14 ksi (T), o
y
= 12 ksi (T), o
z
= 10 ksi
(T), t
xy
= +4 ksi, t
yz
= −4 ksi, and t
zx
= 0. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 40°, 60°,
and 66.2° with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
14 ksi 12 ksi 10 ksi
4 ksi 4 ksi 0 ksi
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = =
= = ÷ =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:
cos(40 ) 0.7660 cos(60 ) 0.5000 cos(66.2 ) 0.4035 l m n = ° = = ° = = ° =

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(14)(0.7660) (4)(0.5000) (0)(0.4035) 12.725 ksi
(4)(0.7660) (12)(0.5000) ( 4)(0.4035) 7.450 ksi
(0)(0.7660) ( 4)(0.5000) (10)(0.4035) 2.035 ks
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + + ÷ =
= · + · + · = + ÷ + = i

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(12.725)(0.7660) (7.450)(0.5000) (2.035)(0.4035)
14.294 ksi 14.29 ksi (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(12.725) (7.450) (2.035) 221.562
and thus;
( ) 221.562 (14.294) 4.152 ksi 4.15 ksi
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + + =
= ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2 2
(14) (12) (10) 36
(14)(12) (12)(10) (10)(14) (4) ( 4) (0) 396
2 ( )
(14)(12)(10) 2(4)( 4)(0) [(14)( 4) (12)(0) (10
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + ÷ + +
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
2
)(4) ] 1, 296 =
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2
(36) (396) (1, 296) 0
p p p
o o o ÷ + ÷ =

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The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
18.00 ksi (T)
12.00 ksi (T)
6.00 ksi (T)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
18.00 (6.00)
6.00 ksi
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.93 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 60 MPa (T), o
y
= 90 MPa (T), o
z
= 60
MPa (T), t
xy
= +120 MPa, t
yz
= +75 MPa, and t
zx
= +90 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 60°, 70°,
and 37.3° with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
60 MPa 90 MPa 60 MPa
120 MPa 75 MPa 90 MPa
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = =
= = =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:
cos(60 ) 0.5000 cos(70 ) 0.3420 cos(37.3 ) 0.7955 l m n = ° = = ° = = ° =

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(60)(0.5000) (120)(0.3420) (90)(0.7955) 142.635 MPa
(120)(0.5000) (90)(0.3420) (75)(0.7955) 150.442 MPa
(90)(0.5000) (75)(0.3420) (60)(0.7955)
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + + 118.380 MPa =

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(142.635)(0.5000) (150.442)(0.3420) (118.380)(0.7955)
216.940 MPa 217 MPa (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(142.635) (150.442) (118.380) 56, 991.450
and thus;
( ) 56, 991.450 (216.940) 99.642 MPa 99.6 MPa
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + + =
= ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2
(60) (90) (60) 210
(60)(90) (90)(60) (60)(60) (120) (75) (90) 13, 725
2 ( )
(60)(90)(60) 2(120)(75)(90) [(60)(75) (
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= + ÷ +
2 2
90)(90) (60)(120) ] 13,500 + =
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2
(210) ( 13,725) (13,500) 0
p p p
o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

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The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
262 MPa (T)
0.999 MPa (C)
51.5 MPa (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
262.485 ( 51.486)
157.0 MPa
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.94 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 0, o
y
= 0, o
z
= 0, t
xy
= +6 ksi, t
yz
= +10
ksi, and t
zx
= +8 ksi. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,
and z axes.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
0 ksi 0 ksi 0 ksi
6 ksi 10 ksi 8 ksi
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = =
= = =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.
Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:

2 2 2
1 l m n + + =
Since l = m = n in this instance,

2 2 2 2
1
3 1 0.5774
3
l m n l l m n + + = = = = = =
The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(0)(0.5774) (6)(0.5774) (8)(0.5774) 8.0836 ksi
(6)(0.5774) (0)(0.5774) (10)(0.5774) 9.2384 ksi
(8)(0.5774) (10)(0.5774) (0)(0.5774) 10.3932 ks
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + + = i

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(8.0836)(0.5774) (9.2384)(0.5774) (10.3932)(0.5774)
16.0028 ksi 16.00 ksi (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(8.0836) (9.2384) (10.3932) 258.7112
and thus;
( ) 258.7112 (16.0028) 1.620 ksi
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + + =
= ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

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1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2 2 2
(0) (0) (0) 0
(0)(0) (0)(0) (0)(0) (6) (10) (8) 200
2 ( )
(0)(0)(0) 2(6)(10)(8) [(0)(10) (0)(8) (0)(6) ] 960
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= + ÷ + + =
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2 3
(0) ( 200) (960) 200 960 0
p p p p p
o o o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
16.11 ksi (T)
5.75 ksi (C)
10.36 ksi (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
16.1116 ( 10.3605)
13.24 ksi
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.95 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 72 MPa (T), o
y
= 32 MPa (C), o
z
= 0, t
xy

= +21 MPa, t
yz
= 0, and t
zx
= +21 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal makes equal angles with the x, y,
and z axes.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
72 MPa 32 MPa 0 MPa
21 MPa 0 MPa 21 MPa
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = ÷ =
= = =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines, and in this case, all three angles are the same.
Therefore, l = m = n. The direction cosines are related by the identity:

2 2 2
1 l m n + + =
Since l = m = n in this instance,

2 2 2 2
1
3 1 0.5774
3
l m n l l m n + + = = = = = =
The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(72)(0.5774) (21)(0.5774) (21)(0.5774) 65.8236 MPa
(21)(0.5774) ( 32)(0.5774) (0)(0.5774) 6.3514 MPa
(21)(0.5774) (0)(0.5774) (0)(0.5774) 12.
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + ÷ + = ÷
= · + · + · = + + = 1254 MPa

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(65.8236)(0.5774) ( 6.3514)(0.5774) (12.1254)(0.5774)
41.3405 MPa 41.3 MPa (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + ÷ +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(65.8236) ( 6.3514) (12.1254) 4, 520.1119
and thus;
( ) 4, 520.1119 (41.3405) 53.0 MPa
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

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1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2
(72) ( 32) (0) 40
(72)( 32) ( 32)(0) (0)(72) (21) (0) (21) 3,186
2 ( )
(72)( 32)(0) 2(21)(0)(21) [(72)(0) ( 32)(21
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + ÷ + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
2 2
) (0)(21) ] 14,112 + =
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2
(40) ( 3,186) (14,112) 0
p p p
o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
81.3 MPa (T)
4.75 MPa (C)
36.6 MPa (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
81.3151 ( 36.5695)
58.9 MPa
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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12.96 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 60 MPa (T), o
y
= 50 MPa (C), o
z
= 40
MPa (T), t
xy
= +40 MPa, t
yz
= −50 MPa, and t
zx
= +60 MPa. Determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on a plane whose outward normal is oriented at angles of 30°, 80°,
and 62° with the x, y, and z axes, respectively.
(b) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
60 MPa 50 MPa 40 MPa
40 MPa 50 MPa 60 MPa
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = ÷ =
= = ÷ =

(a) The plane of interest is defined by its direction cosines:
cos(30 ) 0.8660 cos(80 ) 0.1736 cos(62 ) 0.4695 l m n = ° = = ° = = ° =

The three orthogonal components of the resultant stress are:

(60)(0.8660) (40)(0.1736) (60)(0.4695) 87.0757 MPa
(40)(0.8660) ( 50)(0.1736) ( 50)(0.4695) 2.4850 MPa
(60)(0.8660) ( 50)(0.1736) (40)(0.4695)
x x xy zx
y xy y yz
z zx yz z
S l m n
S l m n
S l m n
o t t
t o t
t t o
= · + · + · = + + =
= · + · + · = + ÷ + ÷ =
= · + · + · = + ÷ + 62.0580 MPa =

The normal component o
n
of the resultant stress is

(87.0757)(0.8660) (2.4850)(0.1736) (62.0580)(0.4695)
104.9758 MPa 105.0 MPa (T)
n x y z
S l S m S n o = · + · + ·
= + +
= = Ans.

The shear stress t
nt
on the oblique plane can be obtained from the relation
2 2 2
n nt
S o t = + .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
(87.0757) (2.4850) (62.0580) 11, 439.5534
and thus;
( ) 11, 439.5534 (104.9758) 20.4851 MPa 20.5 MPa
x y z
nt n
S S S S
S t o
= + + = + + =
= ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.

(b) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
(60) ( 50) (40) 50
(60)( 50) ( 50)(40) (40)(60) (40) ( 50) (60) 10,300
2 ( )
(60)( 50)(40) 2(40)( 50)(60) [(60)( 50
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + ÷ + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
2 2 2
) ( 50)(60) (40)(40) ] 394, 000 + ÷ + = ÷
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2 3 2
(50) ( 10,300) ( 394,000) 50 10,300 394,000 0
p p p p p p
o o o o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ + =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
110.9 MPa (T)
36.5 MPa (T)
97.4 MPa (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
110.8530 ( 97.3595)
104.1 MPa
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.97 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 60 MPa (T), o
y
= 40 MPa (C), o
z
= 20
MPa (T), t
xy
= +40 MPa, t
yz
= +20 MPa, and t
zx
= +30 MPa. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
60 MPa 40 MPa 20 MPa
40 MPa 20 MPa 30 MPa
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = ÷ =
= = =

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2
(60) ( 40) (20) 40
(60)( 40) ( 40)(20) (20)(60) (40) (20) (30) 4,900
2 ( )
(60)( 40)(20) 2(40)(20)(30) [(60)(20) (
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + ÷ + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ +
2 2
40)(30) (20)(40) ] 20, 000 ÷ + = ÷
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2 3 2
(40) ( 4,900) ( 20,000) 40 4,900 20,000 0
p p p p p p
o o o o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ + =

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
91.3 MPa (T)
3.97 MPa (T)
55.2 MPa (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
91.2804 ( 55.2464)
73.3 MPa
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,

( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
x p xy zx
y p yz xy
z p zx yz
l m n
m n l
n l m
o o t t
o o t t
o o t t
÷ + + =
÷ + + =
÷ + + =

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set o
p
= o
p1
= 91.2804 MPa and
rewrite these equations as:

[(60) (91.2804)] (40) (30) 0
[( 40) (91.2804)] (20) (40) 0
[(20) (91.2804)] (30) (20) 0
l m n
m n l
n l m
÷ + + =
÷ ÷ + + =
÷ + + =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

31.2804 40 30 0 l m n ÷ + + = (a)

40 131.2804 20 0 l m n ÷ + = (b)

30 20 71.2804 0 l m n + ÷ = (c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
0.3853 m l = (d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
0.5290 n l = (e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:

2 2 2
1 l m n + + =
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

2 2 2 2
(0.3853 ) (0.5290 ) 1.428254 1
0.8368
l l l l
l
+ + = =
=

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

0.3853(0.8368) 0.3224
0.5290(0.8368) 0.4426
m
n
= =
= =

From l, m, and n, determine the angles o, |, and ¸:

cos 0.8368 33.2
cos 0.3324 71.2
cos 0.4426 63.7
o o
| |
¸ ¸
= = °
= = °
= = °
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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12.98 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 18 ksi (T), o
y
= 12 ksi (T), o
z
= 6 ksi
(T), t
xy
= +12 ksi, t
yz
= −6 ksi, and t
zx
= +9 ksi. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
18 ksi 12 ksi 6 ksi
12 ksi 6 ksi 9 ksi
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= = =
= = ÷ =

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
2 2
(18) (12) (6) 36
(18)(12) (12)(6) (6)(18) (12) ( 6) (9) 135
2 ( )
(18)(12)(6) 2(12)( 6)(9) [(18)( 6) (12)(9) (6)(1
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= + + =
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + ÷ + +
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
2
2) ] 2, 484 = ÷
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2 3 2
(36) (135) ( 2, 484) 36 135 2, 484 0
p p p p p p
o o o o o o ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + + =

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
28.0 ksi (T)
14.22 ksi (T)
6.24 ksi (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
28.0170 ( 6.2355)
17.13 ksi
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,

( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
x p xy zx
y p yz xy
z p zx yz
l m n
m n l
n l m
o o t t
o o t t
o o t t
÷ + + =
÷ + + =
÷ + + =

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set o
p
= o
p1
= 28.0170 ksi and
rewrite these equations as:

[(18) (28.0170)] (12) (9) 0
[(12) (28.0170)] ( 6) (12) 0
[(6) (28.0170)] (9) ( 6) 0
l m n
m n l
n l m
÷ + + =
÷ + ÷ + =
÷ + + ÷ =

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which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

10.0170 12 9 0 l m n ÷ + + = (a)

12 16.0170 6 0 l m n ÷ ÷ = (b)

9 6 22.0170 0 l m n ÷ ÷ = (c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
0.6638 m l = (d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
0.2279 n l = (e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:

2 2 2
1 l m n + + =
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

2 2 2 2
(0.6638 ) (0.2279 ) 1.492615 1
0.8185
l l l l
l
+ + = =
=

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

0.6638(0.8185) 0.5434
0.2279(0.8185) 0.1865
m
n
= =
= =

From l, m, and n, determine the angles o, |, and ¸:

cos 0.8185 35.1
cos 0.5434 57.1
cos 0.1865 79.3
o o
| |
¸ ¸
= = °
= = °
= = °
Ans.

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12.99 At a point in a stressed body, the known stresses are o
x
= 18 ksi (C), o
y
= 15 ksi (C), o
z
= 12 ksi
(C), t
xy
= −15 ksi, t
yz
= +12 ksi, and t
zx
= −9 ksi. Determine:
(a) the principal stresses and the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
(b) the orientation of the plane on which the maximum tensile stress acts.
Solution
The known stresses are

z
18 ksi 15 ksi 12 ksi
15 ksi 12 ksi 9 ksi
x y
xy yz zx
o o o
t t t
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = = ÷

(a) The principal stresses can be obtained from the roots of the cubic equation [Eq. (12.27)]

3 2
1 2 3
0
p p p
I I I o o o ÷ + ÷ =

The three invariants have values of

1
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
( 18) ( 15) ( 12) 45
( 18)( 15) ( 15)( 12) ( 12)( 18) (15) (12) ( 9) 216
2 ( )
( 18)( 15)( 12) 2( 15)(12)( 9) [( 18
x y z
x y y z z x xy yz zx
x y z xy yz zx x yz y zx z xy
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o t t t
o o o t t t o t o t o t
= + +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2 2 2
)(12) ( 15)( 9) ( 12)( 15) ] 6, 507 + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
therefore, Eq. (12.27) is

3 2 3 2
( 45) (216) (6,507) 45 216 6,507 0
p p p p p p
o o o o o o ÷ ÷ + ÷ = + + ÷ =

The three roots of this cubic equation are the principal stresses:

1
2
3
9.15 ksi (T)
22.4 ksi (C)
31.7 ksi (C)
p
p
p
o
o
o
=
=
=
Ans.

The absolute maximum shear stress at the point is found from

max min
abs max
9.1477 ( 31.7286)
20.4 ksi
2 2
o o
t
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (b) in Section 12.10,

( ) 0
( ) 0
( ) 0
x p xy zx
y p yz xy
z p zx yz
l m n
m n l
n l m
o o t t
o o t t
o o t t
÷ + + =
÷ + + =
÷ + + =

Since we are interested in the orientation of the maximum tensile stress, set o
p
= o
p1
= 9.1477 ksi and
rewrite these equations as:

[( 18) (9.1477)] ( 15) ( 9) 0
[( 15) (9.1477)] (12) ( 15) 0
[( 12) (9.1477)] ( 9) (12) 0
l m n
m n l
n l m
÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ + + ÷ =
÷ ÷ + ÷ + =

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which can be simplified and rearranged to these three equations.

27.1477 15 9 0 l m n ÷ ÷ ÷ = (a)

15 24.1477 12 0 l m n ÷ ÷ + = (b)

9 12 21.1477 0 l m n ÷ + ÷ = (c)

Consider Eqs. (a) and (b). Eliminate n from these two equations to obtain the relationship
1.15967 m l = ÷ (d)

Repeat the process with Eqs. (b) and (c), eliminating m to obtain the relationship
1.08362 n l = ÷ (e)

The direction cosines are related by the identity:

2 2 2
1 l m n + + =
Substitute Eqs. (d) and (e) into this identity and solve for the direction cosine l:

2 2 2 2
( 1.15967 ) ( 1.08362 ) 3.51908 1
0.5331
l l l l
l
+ ÷ + ÷ = =
=

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (d) and (e) to determine direction cosines m and n:

1.15967(0.5331) 0.6182
1.08362(0.5331) 0.5776
m
n
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

From l, m, and n, determine the angles o, |, and ¸:

cos 0.5331 57.8
cos 0.6182 128.2
cos 0.5776 125.3
o o
| |
¸ ¸
= = °
= ÷ = °
= ÷ = °
Ans.

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13.1 The thin rectangular plate shown in Fig. P13.1 is
uniformly deformed such that c
x
= +890 µc, c
y
= −510 µc,
and ¸
xy
(a) Determine the normal strain c
AC
along diagonal AC of
the plate.
(b) Determine the normal strain c
BD
along diagonal BD of
the plate.

Fig. P13.1
Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate:

72 mm
tan 0.6667 33.690
108 mm
AC AC
u u = = = °

The given strain values are:
890 με 510 με 680 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain
along diagonal AC:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(890 με) cos (33.690 ) ( 510 με)sin (33.690 ) (680 μrad)sin(33.690 ) cos(33.690 )
773.078 με 773 με
AC x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= = Ans.

(b) From the geometry of the plate:
33.690
BD AC
u u = ÷ = ÷ °

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to
obtain the strain along diagonal BD:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(890 με) cos ( 33.690 ) ( 510 με)sin ( 33.690 ) (680 μrad)sin( 33.690 ) cos( 33.690 )
145.386 με 145.4 με
BD x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

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13.2 The thin rectangular plate shown in Fig. P13.2 is
uniformly deformed such that c
x
= −475 µc, c
y
= +750 µc,
and ¸
xy
(a) Determine the normal strain c
AC
along diagonal AC of
the plate.
(b) Determine the normal strain c
BD
along diagonal BD of
the plate.

Fig. P13.2
Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate:

2.5 in.
tan 1.2500 51.340
2.0 in.
AC AC
u u = = = °

The given strain values are:
475 με 750 με 1, 320 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = = ÷

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain
along diagonal AC:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 475 με) cos (51.340 ) (750 με)sin (51.340 ) ( 1, 320 μrad)sin(51.340 ) cos(51.340 )
371.956 με 372 με
AC x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ° + ÷ ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) From the geometry of the plate:
51.340
BD AC
u u = ÷ = ÷ °

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to
obtain the strain along diagonal BD:
2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 475 με) cos ( 51.340 ) (750 με)sin ( 51.340 ) ( 1, 320 μrad)sin( 51.340 ) cos( 51.340 )
915.851 με 916 με
BD x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

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13.3 The thin square plate shown in Fig. P13.3 is uniformly deformed
such that c
x
= +1,400 µc, c
y
= −650 µc, and ¸
xy
(a) Determine the normal strain c
n
in the plate.
(b) Determine the shear strain ¸
nt
in the plate.

Fig. P13.3
Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n axis is rotated 45° clockwise from the x axis; therefore, u =
−45°. The given strain values are:
1, 400 με 650 με 1, 200 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(1, 400 με)cos ( 45 ) ( 650 με)sin ( 45 ) (1, 200 μrad)sin( 45 )cos( 45 )
225.000 με 225 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[(1, 400 με) ( 650 με)]sin( 45 )cos( 45 ) (1, 200 μrad)[cos ( 45 ) sin ( 45 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
= = Ans.

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13.4 The thin square plate shown in Fig. P13.4 is uniformly deformed
such that c
x
= −450 µc, c
y
= −250 µc, and ¸
xy
(a) Determine the normal strain c
n
in the plate.
(b) Determine the shear strain ¸
nt
in the plate.

Fig. P13.4
Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n axis is rotated 45° counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore,
u = +45°. The given strain values are:
450 με 250 με 900 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 450 με)cos (45 ) ( 250 με)sin (45 ) (900 μrad)sin(45 )cos(45 )
100.0 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= Ans.

(b) The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[( 450 με) ( 250 με)]sin(45 )cos(45 ) (900 μrad)[cos (45 ) sin (45 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ° + ° ÷ °
= Ans.

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13.5 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle u shown in either
Fig. P13.5 or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of
the element.
c
x
= +520 µc, c
y
= −650 µc, ¸
xy

= 35°

Fig. P13.5
Solution
The n axis is rotated 35° counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = +35°. The given strain values
are:
520 με 650 με 750 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(520 με)cos (35 ) ( 650 με)sin (35 ) (750 μrad)sin(35 )cos(35 )
487.467 με 487 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= = Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = 35° + 90° = 125° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
(520 με)cos (125 ) ( 650 με)sin (125 ) (750 μrad)sin(125 )cos(125 )
617.467 με 617 με
t
c = ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[(520 με) ( 650 με)]sin(35 )cos(35 ) (750 μrad)[cos (35 ) sin (35 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ° + ° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

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13.6 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes are
rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and in the
direction indicated by the angle u shown in either Fig. P13.5
or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of the element.
c
x
= −1,230 µc, c
y
= +570 µc, ¸
xy

= 26°

Fig. P13.6
Solution
The n axis is rotated 26° clockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = −26°. The given strain values are:
1, 230 με 570 με 325 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 1, 230 με)cos ( 26 ) (570 με)sin ( 26 ) (325 μrad)sin( 26 )cos( 26 )
1, 012.147 με 1, 012 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = −26° + 90° = 64° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
( 1, 230 με) cos (64 ) (570 με)sin (64 ) (325 μrad)sin(64 )cos(64 )
352.147 με 352 με
t
c = ÷ ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[( 1, 230 με) (570 με)]sin( 26 )cos( 26 ) (325 μrad)[cos ( 26 ) sin ( 26 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.7 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle u shown in either
Fig. P13.5 or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of
the element.
c
x
= +946 µc, c
y
= −294 µc, ¸
xy

= 12°

Fig. P13.5
Solution
The n axis is rotated 12° counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = +12°. The given strain values
are:
946 με 294 με 362 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ = ÷

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(946 με)cos (12 ) ( 294 με)sin (12 ) ( 362 μrad)sin(12 )cos(12 )
818.779 με 819 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° °
= = Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = 12° + 90° = 102° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
(946 με)cos (102 ) ( 294 με)sin (102 ) ( 362 μrad)sin(102 )cos(102 )
166.779 με 166.8 με
t
c = ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[(946 με) ( 294 με)]sin(12 )cos(12 ) ( 362 μrad)[cos (12 ) sin (12 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.8 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle u shown in either
Fig. P13.5 or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of
the element.
c
x
= +480 µc, c
y
= −730 µc, ¸
xy

= 40°

Fig. P13.6
Solution
The n axis is rotated 40° clockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = −40°. The given strain values are:
480 με 730 με 510 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ = ÷

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(480 με)cos ( 40 ) ( 730 με)sin ( 40 ) ( 510 μrad)sin( 40 )cos( 40 )
231.183 με 231 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = −40° + 90° = 50° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
(480 με)cos (50 ) ( 730 με)sin (50 ) ( 510 μrad)sin(50 )cos(50 )
481.183 με 481 με
t
c = ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[(480 με) ( 730 με)]sin( 40 )cos( 40 ) ( 510 μrad)[cos ( 40 ) sin ( 40 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.9 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle u shown in either
Fig. P13.5 or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of
the element.
c
x
= −790 µc, c
y
= +310 µc, ¸
xy

= 32°

Fig. P13.5
Solution
The n axis is rotated 32° counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = +32°. The given strain values
are:
790 με 310 με 830 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = = ÷

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 790 με)cos (32 ) (310 με)sin (32 ) ( 830 μrad)sin(32 )cos(32 )
854.104 με 854 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ° + ÷ ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = 32° + 90° = 122° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
( 790 με)cos (122 ) (310 με)sin (122 ) ( 830 μrad)sin(122 )cos(122 )
374.104 με 374 με
t
c = ÷ ° + ° + ÷ ° °
= = Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[( 790 με) (310 με)]sin(32 )cos(32 ) ( 830 μrad)[cos (32 ) sin (32 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.10 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a
point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components c
n
, c
t
, and ¸
nt
at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle u shown in either
Fig. P13.5 or Fig. P13.6. Sketch the deformed shape of
the element.
c
x
= −190 µc, c
y
= +260 µc, ¸
xy

= 15°

Fig. P13.6
Solution
The n axis is rotated 15° clockwise from the x axis; therefore, u = −15°. The given strain values are:
190 με 260 με 1, 260 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 190 με)cos ( 15 ) (260 με)sin ( 15 ) (1, 260 μrad)sin( 15 )cos( 15 )
474.856 με 475 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting u = −15° + 90° = 75° in the normal strain
transformation equation:

2 2
( 190 με) cos (75 ) (260 με)sin (75 ) (1, 250 μrad)sin(75 )cos(75 )
544.856 με 545 με
t
c = ÷ ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

The shear strain ¸
nt
is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

2 2
2 2
2( )sin cos (cos sin )
2[( 190 με) (260 με)]sin( 15 )cos( 15 ) (1, 260 μrad)[cos ( 15 ) sin ( 15 )]
nt x y xy
¸ c c u u ¸ u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
= = Ans.

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13.11 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +420 µc, c
y
= −510 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
420 με, 510 με, 582 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(420 μ) ( 510 μ) (420 μ) ( 510 μ) 582 μ
2 2 2
45 μ 548.549 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
504 με
p
c = and
2
594 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,097 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
582 μ
tan2 0.6258
( ) [(420 μ) ( 510 μ)]
16.02 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 2
503.549 μ ( 593.549 μ) 1,097 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.12 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −800 µc, c
y
= +400 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
800 με, 400 με, 1,350 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 800 μ) (400 μ) ( 800 μ) (400 μ) 1,350 μ
2 2 2
200 μ 903.120 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
703 με
p
c = and
2
1,103 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,806 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
1,350 μ
tan2 1.1250
( ) [( 800 μ) (400 μ)]
24.18 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 2
703.120 μ ( 1,103.120 μ) 1,806 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.13 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −1,250 µc, c
y
= −415 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
1, 250 με, 415 με, 1,800 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 1, 250 μ) ( 415 μ) ( 1, 250 μ) ( 415 μ) 1,800 μ
2 2 2
832.5 μ 992.122 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
159.6 με
p
c = and
2
1,825 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,984 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
1,800 μ
tan2 2.1557
( ) [( 1, 250 μ) ( 415 μ)]
32.56 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 2
159.622 μ ( 1,824.622 μ) 1,984 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.14 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +460 µc, c
y
= −290 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
460 με, 290 με, 350 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(460 μ) ( 290 μ) (460 μ) ( 290 μ) 350 μ
2 2 2
85.0 μ 413.824 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
499 με
p
c = and
2
329 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
828 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
350 μ
tan2 0.4667
( ) [(460 μ) ( 290 μ)]
12.51 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 2
498.824 μ ( 328.824 μ) 828 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.15 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −760 µc, c
y
= −240 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
760 με, 240 με, 480 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 760 μ) ( 240 μ) ( 760 μ) ( 240 μ) 480 μ
2 2 2
500.0 μ 353.836 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
146.2 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
854 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
708 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
480 μ
tan2 0.9231
( ) [( 760 μ) ( 240 μ)]
21.36 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 3 2
0 ( 853.836 μ) 854 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.16 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +630 µc, c
y
= +1,050 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
630 με, 1, 050 με, 842 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(630 μ) (1, 050 μ) (630 μ) (1, 050 μ) 842 μ
2 2 2
840.0 μ 470.469 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
1,310 με
p
c = and
2
370 με
p
c = Ans.

max
941 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
842 μ
tan2 2.0048
( ) [(630 μ) (1, 050 μ)]
31.75 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 1 3
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.17 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −410 µc, c
y
= −1,090 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
410 με, 1, 090 με, 375 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 410 μ) ( 1, 090 μ) ( 410 μ) ( 1, 090 μ) 375 μ
2 2 2
750.0 μ 388.273 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
362 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
1,138 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
777 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
375 μ
tan2 0.5515
( ) [( 410 μ) ( 1, 090 μ)]
14.44 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 3 2
0 ( 1,138.273 μ) 1,138 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.18 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +1,020 µc, c
y
= +420 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
1, 020 με, 420 με, 730 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(1, 020 μ) (420 μ) (1, 020 μ) (420 μ) 730 μ
2 2 2
720.0 μ 472.467 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
1,192 με
p
c = and
2
248 με
p
c = Ans.

max
945 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
730 μ
tan2 1.2167
( ) [(1, 020 μ) (420 μ)]
25.29 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 1 3
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.19 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −540 µc, c
y
= −240 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
540 με, 240 με, 120 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 540 μ) ( 240 μ) ( 540 μ) ( 240 μ) 120 μ
2 2 2
390.0 μ 161.555 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
228 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
552 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
323 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
120 μ
tan2 0.4000
( ) [( 540 μ) ( 240 μ)]
10.90 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 3 2
0 ( 551.555 μ) 552 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.20 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +690 µc, c
y
= +370 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
690 με, 370 με, 290 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(690 μ) (370 μ) (690 μ) (370 μ) 290 μ
2 2 2
530.0 μ 215.928 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
746 με
p
c = and
2
314 με
p
c = Ans.

max
432 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
290 μ
tan2 0.9063
( ) [(690 μ) (370 μ)]
21.09 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 1 3
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.21 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= −610 µc, c
y
= −960 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
610 με, 960 με, 705 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 610 μ) ( 960 μ) ( 610 μ) ( 960 μ) 705 μ
2 2 2
785.0 μ 393.550 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
391 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
1,179 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
787 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
705 μ
tan2 2.0143
( ) [( 610 μ) ( 960 μ)]
31.80 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 3 2
0 ( 1,178.550 μ) 1,179 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.22 The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
c
x
= +850 µc, c
y
= +250 µc, ¸
xy
Solution
The given strain values are:
850 με, 250 με, 390 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(850 μ) (250 μ) (850 μ) (250 μ) 390 μ
2 2 2
550.0 μ 357.806 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
908 με
p
c = and
2
192.2 με
p
c = Ans.

max
716 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
390 μ
tan2 0.6500
( ) [(850 μ) (250 μ)]
16.51 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

For plane strain, c
z
= c
p3
= 0. Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:

abs max 1 3
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.23 through 13.26, the principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane
strain. Construct Mohr’s circle and use it to
(a) determine the strains c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
. (Assume c
x
> c
y
)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
13.23 c
p1
= +630 µc

c
p2
= −470 µc

u
p
= −20.10°
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle is at

1 2
(630 με) ( 470 με)
80 με
2 2
p p
C
c c +
+ ÷
= = =
and the radius of Mohr’s circle is equal to

1 2
(630 με) ( 470 με)
550 μ
2 2
p p
R
c c ÷
÷ ÷
= = =
The angle u
p
is given as −20.10°, and we are told to
assume that c
x
> c
y
. From this information, we know
that the c
p1
principal plane is rotated 20.10° in a
clockwise direction from the x face. Thus, to locate
point x on Mohr’s circle, begin at c
p1
and rotate
2(20.10°) = 40.20° in a counterclockwise direction.
The Mohr’s circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:

cos2
80 μ (550 μ)cos(40.20 )
500.0878 με 500 με
x p
C R c u = +
= + °
= = Ans.
and the shear strain ¸
xy
is computed from:

sin2
2
(550 μ)sin(40.20 )
xy
p
xy
R
x
¸
u
¸ c
=
= °
=
= = ÷ Ans.
The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:

cos2
80 μ (550 μ)cos(40.20 )
340.0878 με 340 με
y p
C R c u = ÷
= ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohr’s circle:

max
2 2(550 μ) 1,100 μrad R ¸ = = = Ans.

Since c
p1
and c
p2
are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum in-
plane shear strain:

abs max max
1,100 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.23 through 13.26, the principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane
strain. Construct Mohr’s circle and use it to
(a) determine the strains c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
. (Assume c
x
> c
y
)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
13.24 c
p1
= +760 µc

c
p2
= −930 µc

u
p
= +26.23°
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle is at

1 2
(760 με) ( 930 με)
85 με
2 2
p p
C
c c +
+ ÷
= = = ÷
and the radius of Mohr’s circle is equal to

1 2
(760 με) ( 930 με)
845 μ
2 2
p p
R
c c ÷
÷ ÷
= = =
The angle u
p
is given as +26.23°, and we are told to
assume that c
x
> c
y
. From this information, we know
that the c
p1
principal plane is rotated 26.23° in a
counterclockwise direction from the x face. Thus, to
locate point x on Mohr’s circle, begin at c
p1
and rotate
2(26.23°) = 52.46° in a clockwise direction. The
Mohr’s circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed
as:

cos2
85 μ (845 μ)cos(52.46 )
429.8713 με 430 με
x p
C R c u = +
= ÷ + °
= = Ans.
and the shear strain ¸
xy
is computed from:

sin2
2
(845 μ)sin(52.46 )
xy
p
xy
R
x
¸
u
¸ c
=
= °
=
= = + Ans.
The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:

cos2
85 μ (845 μ)cos(52.46 )
599.8713 με 600 με
y p
C R c u = ÷
= ÷ ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohr’s circle:

max
2 2(845 μ) 1,690 μrad R ¸ = = = Ans.
Since c
p1
and c
p2
are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum in-
plane shear strain:

abs max max
1,690 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.23 through 13.26, the principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane
strain. Construct Mohr’s circle and use it to
(a) determine the strains c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
. (Assume c
x
> c
y
)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
13.25 c
p1
= +1,500 µc

c
p2
= +335 µc

u
p
= +29.53°
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle is at

1 2
(1,500 με) (335 με)
917.5 με
2 2
p p
C
c c +
+
= = =
and the radius of Mohr’s circle is equal to

1 2
(1,500 με) (335 με)
582.5 μ
2 2
p p
R
c c ÷
÷
= = =
The angle u
p
is given as +29.53°, and we are told to
assume that c
x
> c
y
. From this information, we
know that the c
p1
principal plane is rotated 29.53° in
a counterclockwise direction from the x face. Thus,
to locate point x on Mohr’s circle, begin at c
p1
and
rotate 2(29.53°) = 59.06° in a clockwise direction.
The Mohr’s circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed
as:

cos2
917.5 μ (582.5 μ)cos(59.06 )
1, 216.9866 με 1, 217 με
x p
C R c u = +
= + °
= = Ans.
and the shear strain ¸
xy
is computed from:

sin2
2
(582.5 μ)sin(59.06 )
xy
p
xy
R
x
¸
u
¸ c
=
= °
=
= = + Ans.
The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:

cos2
917.5 μ (582.5 μ)cos(59.06 )
618.0134 με 618 με
y p
C R c u = ÷
= ÷ °
= = Ans.
(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohr’s circle:

max
2 2(582.5 μ) 1,165 μrad R ¸ = = = Ans.

Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to c
p1
:

abs max
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.23 through 13.26, the principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane
strain. Construct Mohr’s circle and use it to
(a) determine the strains c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
. (Assume c
x
> c
y
)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
13.26 c
p1
= −575 µc

c
p2
= −2,225 µc

u
p
= −37.98°
Solution
The center of Mohr’s circle is at

1 2
( 575 με) ( 2, 225 με)
1, 400 με
2 2
p p
C
c c +
÷ + ÷
= = = ÷
and the radius of Mohr’s circle is equal to

1 2
( 575 με) ( 2, 225 με)
825 μ
2 2
p p
R
c c ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
The angle u
p
is given as −37.98°, and we are told to
assume that c
x
> c
y
. From this information, we know
that the c
p1
principal plane is rotated 37.98° in a
clockwise direction from the x face. Thus, to locate
point x on Mohr’s circle, begin at c
p1
and rotate
2(37.98°) = 75.96° in a counterclockwise direction.
The Mohr’s circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed
as:

cos2
1, 400 μ (825 μ)cos(75.96 )
1,199.8556 με 1, 200 με
x p
C R c u = +
= ÷ + °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.
and the shear strain ¸
xy
is computed from:

sin2
2
(825 μ)sin(75.96 )
1, 600.7089 μrad 1, 601 μrad (negative since point plots above the axis)
xy
p
xy
R
x
¸
u
¸ c
=
= °
=
= = ÷ Ans.
The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:

cos2
1, 400 μ (825 μ)cos(75.96 )
1, 600.1444 με 1, 600 με
y p
C R c u = ÷
= ÷ ÷ °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.
(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohr’s circle:

max
2 2(825 μ) 1,650 μrad R ¸ = = = Ans.

Since c
p1
and c
p2
are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to the
absolute value of c
p2
:

abs max
2, 225 μrad ¸ = Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Using Mohr’s circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane
shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.27 c
x
= −300 µc

c
y
= +410 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 300 μ) (410 μ)
55 με
2
(355 μ) (160 μ) 389.39 με
55 με 389.39 με 444 με
55 με 389.39 με 334 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ +
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is
found from:

160 μ 160 μ
tan2 0.4507 2 24.261 thus, 12.13
( 300 μ) (55 μ) 355 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
779 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.28 c
x
= −240 µc

c
y
= −540 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 240 μ) ( 540 μ)
390 με
2
(150 μ) (250 μ) 291.55 με
390 με 291.55 με 98.5 με
390 με 291.55 με 682 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
) is found
from:

250 μ 250 μ
tan 2 1.6667 2 59.036 thus, 29.52
( 240 μ) ( 390 μ) 150 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 3 2
0 μ ( 681.55 μ) 682 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.29 c
x
= −400 µc

c
y
= −300 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 400 μ) ( 300 μ)
350 με
2
( 50 μ) (530 μ) 532.35 με
350 με 532.35 με 182.4 με
350 με 532.35 με 882 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= ÷ + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is
found from:

530 μ 530 μ
tan 2 10.6 2 84.611 thus, 42.31
( 400 μ) ( 350 μ) 50 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max 1 2
182.353 μ ( 882.353 μ) 1, 065 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.30 c
x
= +1,100 µc

c
y
= −1,000 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 1,100 μ) ( 1, 000 μ)
50 με
2
(1, 050 μ) (357.5 μ) 1,109.19 με
50 με 1,109.19 με 1,159 με
50 με 1,109.19 με 1, 059 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
) is
found from:

357.5 μ 357.5 μ
tan 2 0.3405 2 18.80 thus, 9.40
(1,100 μ) (50 μ) 1, 050 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
2, 220 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.31 c
x
= +900 µc

c
y
= +700 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
(900 μ) (700 μ)
800 με
2
(100 μ) (425 μ) 436.61 με
800 με 436.61 με 1, 237 με
800 με 436.61 με 363 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
)
is found from:

425 μ 425 μ
tan 2 4.250 2 76.76 thus, 38.38
(900 μ) (800 μ) 100 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 3
1, 236.61 μ (0 μ) 1, 247 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.32 c
x
= −825 µc

c
y
= −225 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 825 μ) ( 225 μ)
525 με
2
(300 μ) (210 μ) 366.20 με
525 με 366.20 με 158.8 με
525 με 366.20 με 891 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is found from:

210 μ 210 μ
tan2 0.7000 2 34.99 thus, 17.50
( 825 μ) ( 525 μ) 300 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 3 2
0 μ ( 891.20 μ) 891 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.33 c
x
= −1,300 µc

c
y
= −650 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 1, 300 μ) ( 650 μ)
975 με
2
( 325 μ) (650 μ) 726.72 με
975 με 726.72 με 248 με
975 με 726.72 με 1, 702 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= ÷ + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is
found from:

650 μ 650 μ
tan 2 2.0 2 63.44 thus, 31.72
( 1,300 μ) ( 975 μ) 325 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 3 2
0 μ ( 1, 701.72 μ) 1, 702 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.34 c
x
= +140 µc

c
y
= −280 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
(140 μ) ( 280 μ)
70 με
2
(210 μ) (405 μ) 456.21 με
70 με 456.21 με 386 με
70 με 456.21 με 526 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
+ ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
) is
found from:

405 μ 405 μ
tan 2 1.9286 2 62.59 thus, 31.30
(140 μ) ( 70 μ) 210 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
912 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.35 c
x
= +290 µc

c
y
= +1,540 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
(290 μ) (1, 540 μ)
915 με
2
( 625 μ) (330 μ) 706.77 με
915 με 706.77 με 1, 622 με
915 με 706.77 με 208 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
+
= =
= ÷ + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is
found from:

330 μ 330 μ
tan2 0.5280 2 27.834 thus, 13.92
(290 μ) (915 μ) 625 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 3
1, 621.77 μ (0 μ) 1, 622 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.36 c
x
= +970 µc

c
y
= +850 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
(970 μ) (850 μ)
910 με
2
(60 μ) (387.5 μ) 392.12 με
910 με 392.12 με 1, 302 με
910 με 392.12 με 518 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
+
= =
= + =
= + = + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
)
is found from:

387.5 μ 387.5 μ
tan2 6.4583 2 81.20 thus, 40.60
(970 μ) (910 μ) 60 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 1 3
1, 302.12 μ (0 μ) 1, 302 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.37 c
x
= −780 µc

c
y
= +120 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 780 μ) (120 μ)
330 με
2
( 450 μ) (475 μ) 654.31 με
330 με 654.31 με 324 με
330 με 654.31 με 984 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ +
= = ÷
= ÷ + =
= + = ÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and point 2
(i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p2
) is found from:

475 μ 475 μ
tan 2 1.0556 2 46.548 thus, 23.27
( 780 μ) ( 330 μ) 450 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1, 309 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
In Problems 13.27 through 13.38, the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point in a body
subjected to plane strain. Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the
absolute maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle u
p
, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion on a sketch.
13.38 c
x
= −235 µc

c
y
= −835 µc

¸
xy
Solution
The basic Mohr’s circle is shown.
2 2
1
2
max
( 235 μ) ( 835 μ)
535 με
2
(300 μ) (87.5 μ) 312.50 με
535 με 312.50 με 223 με
535 με 312.50 με 848 με
p
p
C
R
C R
C R
R
c
c
¸
÷ + ÷
= = ÷
= + =
= + = ÷ + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
The magnitude of the angle 2u
p
between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with c
p1
) is found
from:

87.5 μ 87.5 μ
tan 2 0.2917 2 16.260 thus, 8.13
( 235 μ) ( 535 μ) 300 μ
p p p
u u u = = = = ° = °
÷ ÷ ÷

By inspection, the angle u
p
from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:

abs max 3 2
0 μ ( 847.50 μ) 848 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.39 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= 550 µc, c
b
= −730 µc, c
c
= −375 µc, v = 0.30

Fig. P13.39
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
550 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
730 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
375 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
550 με
x
c = Ans.
and from Eq. (c):
375 με
y
c = ÷ Ans.
Using these two results, solve Eq. (b) to find ¸
xy
:

2 2
730 με (550 με) cos (45 ) ( 375 με)sin (45 ) sin(45 ) cos(45 )
xy
xy
¸
¸
÷ = ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= ÷ Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
550 με, 375 με, 1, 635 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ = ÷
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(550 μ) ( 375 μ) (550 μ) ( 375 μ) 1, 635 μ
2 2 2
87.5 μ 939.262 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
1, 027 με
p
c = and
2
852 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,879 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
1, 635 μ 1, 635 μ
tan2 1.7676
( ) [(550 μ) ( 375 μ)] 925 μ
30.25 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. The normal strain in the z direction can be computed
from Eq. 13.15:

0.30
( ) [(550 μ) ( 375 μ)] 75.0 με
1 1 0.30
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ + ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1,879 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.40 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= 650 µc, c
b
= −450 µc, c
c
= −585 µc, v = 0.12

Fig. P13.40
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
650 με cos (270 ) sin (270 ) sin(270 )cos(270 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
450 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
585 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
650 με
y
c = Ans.
and from Eq. (b):
450 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using these two results, solve Eq. (c) to find ¸
xy
:

2 2
585 με ( 450 με)cos (135 ) (650 με)sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
xy
xy
¸
¸
÷ = ÷ ° + ° + ° °
= Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
450 με, 650 με, 1,370 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 450 μ) (650 μ) ( 450 μ) (650 μ) 1,370 μ
2 2 2
100 μ 878.479 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
978 με
p
c = and
2
778 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,757 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
1,370 μ 1,370 μ
tan2 1.2455
( ) [( 450 μ) (650 μ)] 1,100 μ
25.62 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.12
( ) [( 450 μ) (650 μ)] 27.3 με
1 1 0.12
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = ÷
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1, 757 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.41 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= 730 µc, c
b
= 235 µc, c
c
= 335 µc, v = 0.33

Fig. P13.41
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
730 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
235 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
335 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (b):
235 με
y
c = Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
x xy
c ¸ = = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
830 με, 235 με, 395 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(830 μ) (235 μ) (830 μ) (235 μ) 395 μ
2 2 2
532.5 μ 357.089 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
890 με
p
c = and
2
175.4 με
p
c = Ans.

max
714 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
395 μ 395 μ
tan2 0.6639
( ) [(830 μ) (235 μ)] 595 μ
16.79 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
( ) [(830 μ) (235 μ)] 525 με
1 1 0.33
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ + = ÷
÷ ÷

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 1 3
889.589 μ ( 524.552 μ) 1, 414 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.42 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= −1,320 µc, c
b
= −840 µc, c
c
= −215 µc, v = 0.33

Fig. P13.42
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
1,320 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
840 με cos (60 ) sin (60 ) sin(60 )cos(60 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
215 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
1, 320 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
1, 320 με, 263.333 με, 721.688 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 1, 320 μ) ( 263.333 μ) ( 1, 320 μ) ( 263.333 μ) 721.688 μ
2 2 2
791.667 μ 639.800 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
151.9 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
1, 431 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1, 280 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
721.688 μ 721.688 μ
tan 2 0.6830
( ) [( 1, 320 μ) ( 263.333 μ)] 1, 056.667 μ
17.17 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
( ) [( 1, 320 μ) ( 263.333 μ)] 779.851 με
1 1 0.33
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 3 2
779.851 μ ( 1, 431.467 μ) 2, 210 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.43 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= −230 µc, c
b
= −130 µc, c
c
= 205 µc, v = 0.15

Fig. P13.43
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
230 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
130 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
205 με cos (240 ) sin (240 ) sin(240 )cos(240 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
230 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = = = = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
230 με, 126.667 με, 386.825 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 230 μ) (126.667 μ) ( 230 μ) (126.667 μ) 386.825 μ
2 2 2
51.667 μ 263.080 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
211 με
p
c = and
2
315 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
526 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
386.825 μ 386.825 μ
tan 2 1.0846
( ) [( 230 μ) (126.667 μ)] 356.667 μ
23.66 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.15
( ) [( 230 μ) (126.667 μ)] 18.235 με
1 1 0.15
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
526 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.44 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= −490 µc, c
b
= −375 µc, c
c
= 350 µc, v = 0.30

Fig. P13.44
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
490 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
375 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
350 με cos (60 ) sin (60 ) sin(60 )cos(60 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
490 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = = = = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
490 με, 146.667 με, 837.158 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 490 μ) (146.667 μ) ( 490 μ) (146.667 μ) 837.158 μ
2 2 2
171.667 μ 525.875 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
354 με
p
c = and
2
698 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1, 052 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
837.158 μ 837.158 μ
tan 2 1.3149
( ) [( 490 μ) (146.667 μ)] 636.667 μ
26.37 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.30
( ) [( 490 μ) (146.667 μ)] 147.143 με
1 1 0.30
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1, 052 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.45 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

c
a
= −1,450 µc, c
b
= −1,625 µc, c
c
= −440 µc, v = 0.15

Fig. P13.45
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
1, 450 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
1, 625 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
440 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
1, 450 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
1, 450 με, 615 με, 1,185 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 1, 450 μ) ( 615 μ) ( 1, 450 μ) ( 615 μ) 1,185 μ
2 2 2
1, 032.50 μ 724.819 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
308 με
p
c = ÷ and
2
1, 757 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1, 450 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
1,185 μ 1,185 μ
tan 2 1.4192
( ) [( 1, 450 μ) ( 615 μ)] 835 μ
27.42 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.15
( ) [( 1, 450 μ) ( 615 μ)] 364.412 με
1 1 0.15
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 3 2
364.412 μ ( 1, 757.319 μ) 2,120 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.46 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to
obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a
machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the
point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-
plane shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.

c
a
= 680 µc, c
b
= 1,830 µc, c
c
= 430 µc, v = 0.33

Fig. P13.46
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
680 με cos (270 ) sin (270 ) sin(270 )cos(270 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
1,830 με cos (30 ) sin (30 ) sin(30 )cos(30 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
430 με cos (150 ) sin (150 ) sin(150 )cos(150 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
680 με
y
c = Ans.
Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
1, 280 με and 1, 617 μrad
x xy
c ¸ = = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
1, 280 με, 680 με, 1, 616.581 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = =
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(1, 280 μ) (680 μ) (1, 280 μ) (680 μ) 1, 616.581 μ
2 2 2
980 μ 862.168 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
1,842 με
p
c = and
2
117.8 με
p
c = Ans.

max
1, 724 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
1, 616.581 μ 1, 616.581 μ
tan 2 2.6943
( ) [(1, 280 μ) (680 μ)] 600 μ
34.82 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = =
÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
( ) [(1, 280 μ) (680 μ)] 965.373 με
1 1 0.33
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ + = ÷
÷ ÷

Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 1 3
1,842.168 μ ( 965.373 μ) 2,810 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.47 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane
shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.

c
a
= 380 µc, c
b
= 590 µc, c
c
= −295 µc, v = 0.12

Fig. P13.47
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
380 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
590 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
295 με cos (225 ) sin (225 ) sin(225 )cos(225 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
380 με
x
c = Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
380 με, 85 με, 885 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ = ÷
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(380 μ) ( 85 μ) (380 μ) ( 85 μ) 885 μ
2 2 2
147.5 μ 499.862 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
647 με
p
c = and
2
352 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1, 000 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

1
885 μ 885 μ
tan 2 1.9032
( ) [(380 μ) ( 85 μ)] 465 μ
31.14 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.12
( ) [(380 μ) ( 85 μ)] 40.227 με
1 1 0.12
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ + ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1, 000 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.48 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane
shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle u
p
, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.

c
a
= 285 µc, c
b
= −470 µc, c
c
= 525 µc, v = 0.30

Fig. P13.48
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
285 με cos (30 ) sin (30 ) sin(30 )cos(30 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
470 με cos (150 ) sin (150 ) sin(150 )cos(150 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
525 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (c):
525 με
y
c = Ans.
Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
x xy
c ¸ = ÷ = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
298.333 με, 525 με, 871.799 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 298.333 μ) (525 μ) ( 298.333 μ) (525 μ) 871.799 μ
2 2 2
113.333 μ 599.565 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
713 με
p
c = and
2
486 με
p
c = ÷ Ans.

max
1,199 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = Ans.

2
871.799 μ 871.799 μ
tan 2 1.0589
( ) [( 298.333 μ) (525 μ)] 823.333 μ
23.32 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain c
z
= c
p3
is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.30
( ) [( 298.333 μ) (525 μ)] 97.143 με
1 1 0.30
z x y
v
c c c
v
= ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + = ÷
÷ ÷

Since c
p1
is positive and c
p2
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:

abs max max
1,199 μrad ¸ ¸ = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
13.49 A 10-mm-thick aluminum [E = 70 GPa; v = 0.33]
plate is subjected to biaxial stress with o
x
= 120 MPa and
o
y
= 60 MPa. The plate dimensions are b = 100 mm and h =
50 mm (see Fig. P13.49).
(a) Determine the change in length of edges AB and AD.
(b) Determine the change in length of diagonal AC.
(c) Determine the change in thickness of the plate.

Fig. P13.49
Solution
(a) From the generalized Hooke’s Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the
plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

6
6
6
1 1
( ) [120 MPa (0.33)(60 MPa)] 1, 431.4 10 mm/mm
70, 000 MPa
1 1
( ) [60 MPa (0.33)(120 MPa)] 291.4 10 mm/mm
70, 000 MPa
0.33
( ) [120 MPa 60 MPa] 848.6 10 mm/mm
70, 000 MPa
x x y
y y x
z x y
E
E
E
c o vo
c o vo
v
c o o
÷
÷
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ×
= ÷ = ÷ = ×
= ÷ + = ÷ + = ÷ ×

Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be
computed from the product of c
x
and plate dimension b:

6 4
(1, 431.4 10 mm/mm)(100 mm) 1, 431.4 10 mm 0.1431 mm
AB x
e b c
÷ ÷
= = × = × = Ans.

Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be
computed from the product of c
y
and plate dimension h:

6 3
(291.4 10 mm/mm)(50 mm) 14.571 10 mm 0.01457 mm
e h c
÷ ÷
= = × = × = Ans.

(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear
stress acting on the plate, we know that ¸
xy
= 0 (since Hooke’s Law relating shear stress and shear strain
is t
xy
= G¸
xy
).

The angle u between edge AB and diagonal AC is:

50 mm
tan 0.5 26.565
100 mm
u u = = = °

Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:

6 2 6 2
6
(1, 431.4 10 mm/mm) cos (26.565 ) (291.4 10 mm/mm)sin (26.565 )
1, 203.4 10 mm/mm
AC
c
÷ ÷
÷
= × ° + × °
= ×

The initial length of diagonal AC is:

2 2
(50 mm) (100 mm) 111.8034 mm
AC
L = + =

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The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of c
AC
and the initial diagonal length:

6
(1, 203.4 10 mm/mm)(111.8034 mm) 0.1345 mm
AC AC AC
e L c
÷
= = × = Ans.

Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean
theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 100.1431 mm. The final length of
side AD is 50.01457 mm. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

2 2
(100.1431 mm) (50.01457 mm) 111.93792 mm
AC
L' = + =
and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is
111.93792 mm 111.8034 mm 0.1345 mm
AC
e = ÷ = Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of c
z
and the plate thickness:

6
thick
(thickness) ( 848.6 10 mm/mm)(10 mm) 0.00849 mm
z
e c
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

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13.50 A 0.500-in.-thick titanium [E = 14,000 ksi; v = 0.32]
plate is subjected to biaxial stress with o
x
= 20 ksi and o
y
=
80 ksi. The plate dimensions are b = 10.00 in. and h = 4.00
in. (Fig. P13.50).
(a) Determine the change in length of edges AB and AD.
(b) Determine the change in length of diagonal AC.
(c) Determine the change in thickness of the plate.

Fig. P13.50
Solution
(a) From the generalized Hooke’s Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the
plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

6
6
6
1 1
( ) [20 ksi (0.32)(80 ksi)] 400.0 10 in./in.
14, 000 ksi
1 1
( ) [80 ksi (0.32)(20 ksi)] 5, 257.1 10 in./in.
14, 000 ksi
0.32
( ) [20 ksi 80 ksi] 2, 285.7 10 in./
14, 000 ksi
x x y
y y x
z x y
E
E
E
c o vo
c o vo
v
c o o
÷
÷
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ×
= ÷ = ÷ = ×
= ÷ + = ÷ + = ÷ × in.

Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be
computed from the product of c
x
and plate dimension b:

6
( 400 10 in./in.)(10 in.) 0.00400 in.
AB x
e b c
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be
computed from the product of c
y
and plate dimension h:

6
(5, 257.1 10 in./in.)(4.00 in.) 0.0210 in.
e h c
÷
= = × = Ans.

(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear
stress acting on the plate, we know that ¸
xy
= 0 (since Hooke’s Law relating shear stress and shear strain
is t
xy
= G¸
xy
).

The angle u between edge AB and diagonal AC is:

4.00 in.
tan 0.4 21.801
10.00 in.
u u = = = °

Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:

6 2 6 2
6
( 400 10 in./in.) cos (21.801 ) (5, 257.1 10 in./in.)sin (21.801 )
380.3 10 in./in.
AC
c
÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ × ° + × °
= ×

The initial length of diagonal AC is:

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2 2
(4.00 in.) (10.00 in.) 10.77033 in.
AC
L = + =

The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of c
AC
and the initial diagonal length:

6
(380.3 10 in./in.)(10.77033 in.) 0.00410 in.
AC AC AC
e L c
÷
= = × = Ans.

Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean
theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 9.996 in. The final length of side
AD is 4.0210 in. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

2 2
(9.996 in.) (4.0210 in.) 10.77445 in.
AC
L' = + =
and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is
10.77445 in. 10.77033 in. 0.00412 in.
AC
e = ÷ = Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of c
z
and the plate thickness:

6
thick
(thickness) ( 2, 285.7 10 in./in.)(0.500 in.) 0.001143 in.
z
e c
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

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13.51 A stainless steel [E = 190 GPa; v = 0.12] plate is subjected
to biaxial stress (Fig. P13.51). The strains measured in the plate
are c
x
= 2,400 µc and c
y
= 750 µc. Determine o
x
and o
y
.

Fig. P13.51
Solution
From Eq. (13.23):

2
6 6
2
( )
1
190, 000 MPa
[(2, 400 10 mm/mm) (0.12)(750 10 mm/mm)]
1 (0.12)
480.0122 MPa 480 MPa
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.

and

2
6 6
2
( )
1
190, 000 MPa
[(750 10 mm/mm) (0.12)(2, 400 10 mm/mm)]
1 (0.12)
200.1015 MPa 200 MPa
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.

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13.52 A metal alloy plate is subjected to tensile stresses of o
x
= 8
ksi and o
y
= 5 ksi (Fig. P13.52). The strains measured in the plate
are c
x
= +950 µc and c
y
= +335 µc. Determine Poisson’s ratio v
and the elastic modulus E for the material.

Fig. P13.52
Solution
Rewrite Eqs. (13.21) as:

x x y
y y x
E
E
c o vo
c o vo
= ÷
= ÷
Substitute the stress and strain values, taking care to convert the strain values to dimensionless
quantities.

6
6
(950 10 in./in.) 8 ksi (5 ksi)
(335 10 in./in.) 5 ksi (8 ksi)
E
E
v
v
÷
÷
× = ÷
× = ÷
Rearrange the equations to the form:

6
6
(950 10 in./in.) (5 ksi) 8 ksi
(335 10 in./in.) (8 ksi) 5 ksi
E
E
v
v
÷
÷
× + =
× + =
and solve simultaneously for the unknowns E and v:
6,582.2785 ksi 6,580 ksi E = = Ans.
0.349367 0.349 v = = Ans.

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13.53 A thin aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi; G = 3,800 ksi] plate
is subjected to biaxial stress (Fig. P13.53). The strains
measured in the plate are c
x
= 540 µc and c
z
= 1,220 µc.
Determine o
x
and o
z
.

Fig. P13.53
Solution
Derive an expression for v from Eq. (13.18):

2(1 )
1
2
1
2
E
G
E
G
E
G
v
v
v
=
+
+ =
= ÷

Determine Poisson’s ratio from this expression:

10, 000 ksi
1 1 0.3158
2 2(3, 800 ksi)
E
G
v = ÷ = ÷ =

The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):

2
6 6
2
( )
1
10, 000 ksi
[(540 10 in./in.) (0.3158)(1, 220 10 in./in.)]
1 (0.3158)
10.2775 ksi 10.28 ksi
x x z
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.
and

2
6 6
2
( )
1
10, 000 ksi
[(1, 220 10 in./in.) (0.3158)(540 10 in./in.)]
1 (0.3158)
15.4455 ksi 15.45 ksi
z z x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.

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13.54 A thin stainless steel [E = 190 GPa; G = 86 GPa] plate
is subjected to biaxial stress (Fig. P13.54). The strains
measured in the plate are c
x
= 625 µc and c
z
= 475 µc.
Determine o
x
and o
z
.

Fig. P13.54
Solution
Derive an expression for v from Eq. (13.18):

2(1 )
1
2
1
2
E
G
E
G
E
G
v
v
v
=
+
+ =
= ÷

Determine Poisson’s ratio from this expression:

190 GPa
1 1 0.10465
2 2(86 GPa)
E
G
v = ÷ = ÷ =

The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):

2
6 6
2
( )
1
190, 000 MPa
[(625 10 mm/mm) (0.10465)(475 10 mm/mm)]
1 (0.10465)
129.61 MPa 129.6 MPa
x x z
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.
and

2
6 6
2
( )
1
190, 000 MPa
[(475 10 mm/mm) (0.10465)(625 10 mm/mm)]
1 (0.10465)
103.814 MPa 103.8 MPa
z z x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= +
÷
= × + ×
÷
= = Ans.

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13.55 A thin brass [E = 100 GPa; G = 39 GPa] plate is subjected to
biaxial stress (Fig. P13.55). The normal stress in the y direction is
known to be o
y
= 125 MPa. If the strain gage measures a normal
strain of +725 µc in the indicated direction:
(a) determine the magnitude of o
x
that acts on the plate.
(b) determine the in-plane principal strains, c
p1
and c
p2
, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain ¸
max
in the plate. Show the
principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
(c) determine the absolute maximum shear strain in the plate.

Fig. P13.55
Solution
Derive an expression for v from Eq. (13.18):
1
2(1 ) 2
E E
G
G
v
v
= = ÷
+

Determine Poisson’s ratio from this expression:

100 GPa
1 1 0.28205
2 2(39 GPa)
E
G
v = ÷ = ÷ =

(a) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

2 2
725 με cos (40 ) sin (40 ) sin(40 )cos(40 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° °
Note that the shear strain ¸
xy
is related to the shear stress t
xy
by Eq. (13.22):
1
xy xy
G
¸ t =
Since t
xy
= 0, the shear strain ¸
xy
must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:

6 2 2
725 με 725 10 mm/mm cos (40 ) sin (40 )
x y
c c
÷
= × = ° + °
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for c
x
and c
y
to obtain an expression in terms of o
x
and o
y
:

6 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
725 10 cos (40 ) sin (40 )
1 1
( ) cos (40 ) ( ) sin (40 )
1 1
[ cos (40 ) sin (40 )] [ sin (40 ) cos (40 )]
[cos (40 ) sin (40 )] [sin (40 ) cos (40 )]
x y
x y y x
x x y y
y
x
E E
E E
E E
c c
o vo o vo
o vo o vo
o
o
v v
÷
× = ° + °
= ÷ ° + ÷ °
= ° ÷ ° + ° ÷ °
= ° ÷ ° + ° ÷ °

Substitute the known value of o
y
= 125 MPa and solve for o
x
:
6 2 2
2 2
100, 000 MPa 125 MPa
725 10 [sin (40 ) (0.28205) cos (40 )]
[cos (40 ) (0.28205) sin (40 )] 100, 000 MPa
88.334 MPa 88.3 MPa
x
o
÷
(
= × ÷ ° ÷ °
(
° ÷ °
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

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(b) Since the stresses o
x
and o
y
are now known, the normal strains in the x, y, and z directions can be
computed from Eqs. (13.21):

6
1 1
( ) [88.334 MPa (0.28205)(125 MPa)]
100, 000 MPa
530.775 10 mm/mm 531 με
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= × =

6
1 1
( ) [125 MPa (0.28205)(88.334 MPa)]
100, 000 MPa
1, 000.853 10 mm/mm 1, 001 με
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= × =

6
0.28205
( ) [88.334 MPa 125 MPa]
100, 000 MPa
601.711 10 mm/mm 602 με
z x y
E
v
c o o
÷
= ÷ + = ÷ +
= ÷ × = ÷

Since ¸
xy
= 0, these normal strains are also the principal strains. Therefore:

1 2 3
1, 001 με 531 με 602 με
p p p
c c c = = = ÷ Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear strain ¸
max
in the plate is:

max 1 2
1, 000.853 με 530.775 με 470 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
These results are shown on the sketch below.

(c) Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the
maximum in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into
account the non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 1 3
1, 000.853 μ ( 601.711 μ) 1, 603 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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13.56 An aluminum [E = 10,600 ksi; G = 4,000 ksi] plate is
subjected to biaxial stress (Fig. P13.56). The normal stress in the x
direction is known to be twice as large as the normal stress in the y
direction. If the strain gage measures a normal strain of +560 µc in
the indicated direction:
(a) determine the magnitudes of the normal stresses o
x
and o
y

acting on the plate.
(b) determine the in-plane principal strains, c
p1
and c
p2
, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain ¸
max
in the plate. Show the
principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
(c) determine the absolute maximum shear strain in the plate.

Fig. P13.56
Solution
Derive an expression for v from Eq. (13.18):
1
2(1 ) 2
E E
G
G
v
v
= = ÷
+

Determine Poisson’s ratio from this expression:

10, 600 ksi
1 1 0.325
2 2(4, 000 ksi)
E
G
v = ÷ = ÷ =

(a) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

2 2
560 με cos (40 ) sin (40 ) sin(40 )cos(40 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° °
Note that the shear strain ¸
xy
is related to the shear stress t
xy
by Eq. (13.22):
1
xy xy
G
¸ t =
Since t
xy
= 0, the shear strain ¸
xy
must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:

6 2 2
560 με 560 10 in./in. cos (40 ) sin (40 )
x y
c c
÷
= × = ° + °
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for c
x
and c
y
to obtain an expression in terms of o
x
and o
y
:

6 2 2
2 2
560 10 cos (40 ) sin (40 )
1 1
( ) cos (40 ) ( )sin (40 )
x y
x y y x
E E
c c
o vo o vo
÷
× = ° + °
= ÷ ° + ÷ °

It is known that o
x
= 2o
y
. Make this substitution to obtain the following expression:

6 2 2
2 2
(560 10 ) (2 ) cos (40 ) ( 2 ) sin (40 )
[(2 ) cos (40 ) (1 2 ) sin (40 )]
y y y y
y
E o vo o vo
o v v
÷
× = ÷ ° + ÷ °
= ÷ ° + ÷ °

6
2 2
(560 10 )
(2 ) cos (40 ) (1 2 ) sin (40 )
y
E
o
v v
÷
×
=
÷ ° + ÷ °

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Compute o
y
:

6
2 2
(560 10 )(10, 600 ksi) 5.9360 ksi
5.2645 ksi 5.26 ksi
(2 0.325) cos (40 ) [1 2(0.325)]sin (40 ) 1.12754
y
o
÷
×
= = = =
÷ ° + ÷ °
Ans.
and o
x
:
2 2(5.2645 ksi) 10.5290 ksi 10.53 ksi
x y
o o = = = = Ans.

(b) Since the stresses o
x
and o
y
are now known, the normal strains in the x, y, and z directions can be
computed from Eqs. (13.21):

6
1 1
( ) [10.5290 ksi (0.325)(5.2645 ksi)]
10, 600 ksi
831.898 10 in./in. 832 με
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= × =

6
1 1
( ) [5.2645 ksi (0.325)(10.5290 ksi)]
10, 600 ksi
173.829 10 in./in. 173.8 με
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= × =

6
0.325
( ) [10.5290 ksi 5.2645 ksi]
10, 600 ksi
484.239 10 in./in. 484 με
z x y
E
v
c o o
÷
= ÷ + = ÷ +
= ÷ × = ÷

Since ¸
xy
= 0, these normal strains are also the principal strains. Therefore:

1 2 3
832 με 173.8 με 484 με
p p p
c c c = = = ÷ Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear strain ¸
max
in the plate is:

max 1 2
831.898 με 173.829 με 658 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ = Ans.
These results are shown on the sketch below.

(c) Since both c
p1
and c
p2
are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the
maximum in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into
account the non-zero value of c
p3
:

abs max 1 3
831.898 μ ( 484.239 μ) 1, 316 μrad
p p
¸ c c = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.57 On the free surface of an aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi; v =
0.33] component, the strain rosette shown in Fig. P13.57 was used
to obtain the following normal strain data: c
a
= −500 µc, c
b
= −220
µc, and c
c
= +600 µc. Determine the normal stress that acts along
an axis that is rotated at an angle of u = 45° counterclockwise from
the positive x axis.

Fig. P13.57
Solution
Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is the
measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
500 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
220 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
600 με cos (60 ) sin (60 ) sin(60 )cos(60 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
500 με
x
c = ÷
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = =
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
10, 000 ksi
( ) [( 500 10 in./in.) (0.33)(420 10 in./in.)]
1 1 (0.33)
4.0557 ksi
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
10, 000 ksi
( ) [(420 10 in./in.) (0.33)( 500 10 in./in.)]
1 1 (0.33)
2.8616 ksi
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
=

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

10, 000 ksi
3, 759.4 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(3, 759.4 ksi)(946.854 10 rad) 3.5596 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × =

To summarize, normal and shear stresses in the x-y plane are:
4.0557 ksi, 2.8616 ksi, 3.5596 ksi
x y xy
o o t = ÷ = =

A normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can now be written to determine the normal stress
at an orientation of u = 45°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
( 4.0557 ksi) cos (45 ) (2.8616 ksi)sin (45 ) 2(3.5596 ksi)sin(45 ) cos(45 )
2.9626 ksi 2.96 ksi (T)
n x y xy
o o u o u t u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.58 On the free surface of an aluminum [E = 70 GPa; v = 0.35]
component, the strain rosette shown in Fig. P13.58 was used to obtain
the following normal strain data: c
a
= 980 µc, c
b
= 870 µc, and c
c
=
400 µc. Determine the normal stress that acts along an axis that is
rotated at an angle of u = 20° below the positive x axis.

Fig. P13.58
Solution
Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is the
measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
980 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
870 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
400 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
980 με
x
c =
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = =
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
70, 000 MPa
( ) [(980 10 ) (0.35)(290 10 )]
1 1 (0.35)
86.2735 MPa
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
=
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
70, 000 MPa
( ) [(290 10 ) (0.35)(980 10 )]
1 1 (0.35)
50.4957 MPa
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
=

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

70, 000 MPa
25, 925.9 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.35)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(25,925.9 MPa)(470 10 rad) 12.1852 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × =

To summarize, normal and shear stresses in the x-y plane are:
86.2735 MPa, 50.4957 MPa, 12.1852 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = =
A normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can now be written to determine the normal stress
at an orientation of u = −20°:
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(86.2735 MPa) cos ( 20 ) (50.4957 MPa) sin ( 20 ) 2(12.1852 MPa) sin( 20 ) cos( 20 )
74.2558 MPa 74.3 MPa (T)
n x y xy
o o u o u t u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.59 −420 µc 290 µc 570 µrad 28,000 ksi 0.12
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
28, 000 ksi
( ) [( 420 10 ) (0.12)(290 10 )]
1 1 (0.12)
10.94 ksi 10.94 ksi (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
28, 000 ksi
( ) [(290 10 ) (0.12)( 420 10 )]
1 1 (0.12)
6.81 ksi 6.81 ksi (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

28, 000 ksi
12, 500.0 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(12,500.0 ksi)(570 10 rad) 7.13 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.60 390 µc 820 µc −560 µrad 73 GPa 0.30
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
73, 000 MPa
( ) [(390 10 ) (0.30)(820 10 )]
1 1 (0.30)
51.020 MPa 51.0 MPa (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
73, 000 MPa
( ) [(820 10 ) (0.30)(390 10 )]
1 1 (0.30)
75.166 MPa 75.2 MPa (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

73, 000 MPa
28, 076.9 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.30)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(28, 076.9 MPa)( 560 10 rad) 15.72 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.61 620 µc −310 µc 870 µrad 14,000 ksi 0.32
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
14, 000 ksi
( ) [(620 10 ) (0.32)( 310 10 )]
1 1 (0.32)
8.123 ksi 8.12 ksi (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
14, 000 ksi
( ) [( 310 10 ) (0.32)(620 10 )]
1 1 (0.32)
1.741 ksi 1.741 ksi (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

14, 000 ksi
5, 303.0 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.32)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(5,303.0 ksi)(870 10 rad) 4.61 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.62 −530 µc 450 µc −525 µrad 190 GPa 0.10
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
190, 000 MPa
( ) [( 530 10 ) (0.10)(450 10 )]
1 1 (0.10)
93.081 MPa 93.1 MPa (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
190, 000 MPa
( ) [(450 10 ) (0.10)( 530 10 )]
1 1 (0.10)
76.192 MPa 76.2 MPa (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

190, 000 MPa
86, 363.6 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.10)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(86,363.6 MPa)( 525 10 rad) 45.3 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.63 465 µc −490 µc −600 µrad 6,500 ksi 0.35
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
6, 500 ksi
( ) [(465 10 ) (0.35)( 490 10 )]
1 1 (0.35)
2.174 ksi 2.17 ksi (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
6, 500 ksi
( ) [( 490 10 ) (0.35)(465 10 )]
1 1 (0.35)
2.424 ksi 2.42 ksi (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

6, 500 ksi
2, 407.4 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.35)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(2, 407.4 ksi)( 600 10 rad) 1.444 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.64 −1,020 µc −650 µc −750 µrad 96 GPa 0.33
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
96, 000 MPa
( ) [( 1, 020 10 ) (0.33)( 650 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
133.00 MPa 133.0 MPa (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
96, 000 MPa
( ) [( 650 10 ) (0.33)( 1, 020 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
106.288 MPa 106.3 MPa (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

96, 000 MPa
36, 090.2 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(36, 090.2 MPa)( 750 10 rad) 27.068 MPa 27.1 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.65 −720 µc 860 µc 1,080 µrad 15,000 ksi 0.34
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
15, 000 ksi
( ) [( 720 10 ) (0.34)(860 10 )]
1 1 (0.34)
7.252 ksi 7.25 ksi (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
15, 000 ksi
( ) [(860 10 ) (0.34)( 720 10 )]
1 1 (0.34)
10.434 ksi 10.43 ksi (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

15, 000 ksi
5, 597.0 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.34)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(5,597.0 ksi)(1,080 10 rad) 6.05 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
Problem c
x
c
y
¸
xy
E v
13.66 −380 µc 200 µc 310 µrad 100 GPa 0.11
Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
100, 000 MPa
( ) [( 380 10 ) (0.11)(200 10 )]
1 1 (0.11)
36.238 MPa 36.2 MPa (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
100, 000 MPa
( ) [(200 10 ) (0.11)( 380 10 )]
1 1 (0.11)
16.014 MPa 16.01 MPa (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

100, 000 MPa
45, 045.0 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.11)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(45, 045.0 MPa)(310 10 rad) 13.96 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes
of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.

Fig. P13.67
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.67
−1,250
µc
−670 µc −845 µc 10,600 ksi 0.33
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
1, 250 με cos (270 ) sin (270 ) sin(270 )cos(270 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
670 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
845 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a): 1, 250 με
y
c = ÷
From Eq. (b): 670 με
x
c = ÷
Solve Eq. (c) to determine: 230 μrad
xy
¸ = ÷
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
10, 600 ksi
( ) [( 670 10 ) (0.33)( 1, 250 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
12.8768 ksi 12.88 ksi (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
10, 600 ksi
( ) [( 1, 250 10 ) (0.33)( 670 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
17.4993 ksi 17.50 ksi (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

10, 600 ksi
3, 984.96 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(3,984.96 ksi)( 230 10 rad) 0.9165 ksi 0.917 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 12.8768) ( 17.4993) ( 12.8768) ( 17.4993)
( 0.9165)
2 2
15.1881 ksi 2.4864 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
12.70 ksi
p
o = ÷ and
2
17.67 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
2.49 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
15.19 ksi (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
0.9165 0.9165
tan2 0.3966
( ) / 2 [( 12.8768) ( 17.4993)] / 2 2.3113
10.82 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
17.67 ksi
8.84 ksi
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes
of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.

Fig. P13.68
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.68 −425 µc 420 µc 230 µc 100 GPa 0.28
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
425 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
420 με cos (60 ) sin (60 ) sin(60 )cos(60 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
230 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a): 425 με
x
c = ÷
Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: 575 με
y
xy
¸ =
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
100, 000 MPa
( ) [( 425 10 ) (0.28)(575 10 )]
1 1 (0.28)
28.6458 MPa 28.6 MPa (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
100, 000 MPa
( ) [(575 10 ) (0.28)( 425 10 )]
1 1 (0.28)
49.4792 MPa 49.5 MPa (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

100, 000 MPa
39, 062.5 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.28)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(39,062.5 MPa)(219.393 10 rad) 8.5700 MPa 8.57 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 28.6458) (49.4792) ( 28.6458) (49.4792)
(8.5700)
2 2
10.4167 MPa 39.9916 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
50.4 MPa
p
o = and
2
29.6 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
40.0 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
10.42 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
8.5700 8.5700
tan2 0.2194
( ) / 2 [( 28.6458) (49.4792)] / 2 39.0625
6.19 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
40.0 MPa t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the
planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress
at the point.

Fig. P13.69
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.69 760 µc 1,220 µc 1,270 µc 28,000 ksi 0.12
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
760 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
1, 220 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
1, 270 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (b): 1, 220 με
y
c =
Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) to find: 810 με
x
xy
¸ = ÷
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
28, 000 ksi
( ) [(810 10 ) (0.12)(1, 220 10 )]
1 1 (0.12)
27.1705 ksi 27.2 ksi (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
28, 000 ksi
( ) [(1, 220 10 ) (0.12)(810 10 )]
1 1 (0.12)
37.4205 ksi 37.4 ksi (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

28, 000 ksi
12,500 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(12,500 ksi)( 510 10 rad) 6.3750 ksi 6.38 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(27.1705) (37.4205) (27.1705) (37.4205)
( 6.3750)
2 2
32.2955 ksi 8.1796 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
40.5 ksi
p
o = and
2
24.1 ksi
p
o = Ans.

max
8.18 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
32.3 ksi (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
6.3750 6.3750
tan2 1.2439
( ) / 2 [(27.1705) (37.4205)] / 2 5.1250
25.60 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
40.4751 ksi
20.2 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane
shear stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and
the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress
at the point.

Fig. P13.70
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.70 125 µc 250 µc 815 µc 210 GPa 0.31
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
125 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
250 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
815 με cos (225 ) sin (225 ) sin(225 )cos(225 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a): 125 με
x
c =
Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: 940 με
y
xy
¸ =
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
210, 000 MPa
( ) [(125 10 ) (0.31)(940 10 )]
1 1 (0.31)
96.7408 MPa 96.7 MPa (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
210, 000 MPa
( ) [(940 10 ) (0.31)(125 10 )]
1 1 (0.31)
227.3896 MPa 227 MPa (T)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

210, 000 MPa
80,152.7 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.31)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(80,152.7 MPa)(565 10 rad) 45.2863 MPa 45.3 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(96.7408) (227.3896) (96.7408) (227.3896)
(45.2863)
2 2
162.0652 MPa 79.4866 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
242 MPa
p
o = and
2
82.6 MPa
p
o = Ans.

max
79.5 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
162.1 MPa (T) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

2
45.2863 45.2863
tan2 0.6933
( ) / 2 [(96.7408) (227.3896)] / 2 65.3244
17.37 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
241.5519 MPa
120.8 MPa
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch
that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the
planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress
at the point.

Fig. P13.71
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.71 −585 µc 785 µc −425 µc 15,000 ksi 0.15
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
585 με cos (30 ) sin (30 ) sin(30 )cos(30 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
785 με cos (150 ) sin (150 ) sin(150 )cos(150 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
425 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (c): 425 με
y
c = ÷
Solve Eqs. (a) and (b) to find: 275 με
x
xy
¸ = ÷
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
15, 000 ksi
( ) [(275 10 ) (0.15)( 425 10 )]
1 1 (0.15)
3.2417 ksi 3.24 ksi (T)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
15, 000 ksi
( ) [( 425 10 ) (0.15)(275 10 )]
1 1 (0.15)
5.8887 ksi 5.89 ksi (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

15, 000 ksi
6,521.7 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.15)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(6,521.7 ksi)( 1,581.940 10 rad) 10.3170 ksi 10.32 ksi
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(3.2417) ( 5.8887) (3.2417) ( 5.8887)
( 10.3170)
2 2
1.3235 ksi 11.2819 ksi
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
9.96 ksi
p
o = and
2
12.61 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
11.28 ksi (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
1.324 ksi (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
10.3170 10.3170
tan2 2.2599
( ) / 2 [(3.2417) ( 5.8887)] / 2 4.5652
33.07 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
11.28 ksi t t = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the stress components o
x
, o
y
, and t
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear
stress at the point. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that
indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of
maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.

Fig. P13.72
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.72 −80 µc −420 µc −1,190 µc 96 GPa 0.33
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
80 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
420 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
1,190 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a): 80 με
x
c = ÷
From Eq. (c): 1,190 με
y
c = ÷
Solve Eq. (c) to find: 430 μrad
xy
¸ =
From Eqs. (13.23), compute o
x
:

6 6
2 2
96, 000 MPa
( ) [( 80 10 ) (0.33)( 1,190 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
50.9249 MPa 50.9 MPa (C)
x x y
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
y
:

6 6
2 2
96, 000 MPa
( ) [( 1,190 10 ) (0.33)( 80 10 )]
1 1 (0.33)
131.0452 MPa 131.0 MPa (C)
y y x
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

96, 000 MPa
36, 090.2 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
(36,090.2 MPa)(430 10 rad) 15.5188 MPa 15.52 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = × = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 50.9249) ( 131.0452) ( 50.9249) ( 131.0452)
(15.5188)
2 2
90.9851 MPa 42.9610 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1
48.0 MPa
p
o = ÷ and
2
133.9 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
43.0 MPa (maximum in-plane shear stress) t = Ans.

avg
91.0 MPa (C) (normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress) o = Ans.

1
15.5188 15.5188
tan2 0.3874
( ) / 2 [( 50.9249) ( 131.0452)] / 2 40.0602
10.59 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
133.9461 MPa
67.0 MPa
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal
strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses
and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on
an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the
principal planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear
stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress
at the point.

Fig. P13.73
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.73 −910 µc −150 µc −620 µc 9,000 ksi 0.24
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
910 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
150 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
620 με cos (240 ) sin (240 ) sin(240 )cos(240 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
910 με
x
c = ÷ Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
910 με, 210 με, 542.709 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 910 μ) ( 210 μ) ( 910 μ) ( 210 μ) 542.709 μ
2 2 2
560 μ 442.869 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
117.131 με 117.1 με
p
c = ÷ = ÷ and
2
1,002.869 με 1,003 με
p
c = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

max
885.739 μrad 886 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = = Ans.

2
542.709 μ 542.709 μ
tan2 0.7753
( ) [( 910 μ) ( 210 μ)] 700 μ
18.89 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
(c) Use c
p1
and c
p2
in Eqs. (13.23) to compute o
p1
:

6 6
1 1 2
2 2
9, 000 ksi
( ) [( 117.131 10 ) (0.24)( 1, 002.869 10 )]
1 1 (0.24)
3.4172 ksi 3.42 ksi (C)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
p2
:

6 6
2 2 1
2 2
9, 000 ksi
( ) [( 1, 002.869 10 ) (0.24)( 117.131 10 )]
1 1 (0.24)
9.8460 ksi 9.85 ksi (C)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

1 2
max
( 3.4172 ksi) ( 9.8460 ksi)
3.2144 ksi 3.21 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = Ans.
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

1 2
avg
( 3.4172 ksi) ( 9.8460 ksi)
6.6316 ksi 6.63 ksi (C)
2 2
p p
o o
o
+
÷ + ÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.

(d) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
9.8460 ksi
4.92 ksi
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses and
the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal
planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.

Fig. P13.74
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.74 630 µc −315 µc 100 µc 103 GPa 0.28
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
630 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
315 με cos (120 ) sin (120 ) sin(120 )cos(120 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
100 με cos (60 ) sin (60 ) sin(60 )cos(60 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
630 με
x
c = Ans.
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ = = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
630 με, 353.333 με, 479.201 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = ÷ =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(630 μ) ( 353.333 μ) (630 μ) ( 353.333 μ) 479.201 μ
2 2 2
138.333 μ 546.941 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
685.274 με 685 με
p
c = = and
2
408.608 με 409 με
p
c = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

max
1,093.882 μrad 1,094 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = = Ans.

1
479.201 μ 479.201 μ
tan2 0.4873
( ) [(630 μ) ( 353.333 μ)] 983.333 μ
12.99 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) Use c
p1
and c
p2
in Eqs. (13.23) to compute o
p1
:

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6 6
1 1 2
2 2
103, 000 MPa
( ) [(685.274 10 ) (0.28)( 408.608 10 )]
1 1 (0.28)
63.8010 MPa 63.8 MPa (T)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
p2
:

6 6
2 2 1
2 2
103, 000 MPa
( ) [( 408.608 10 ) (0.28)(685.274 10 )]
1 1 (0.28)
24.2223 MPa 24.2 MPa (C)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

1 2
max
(63.8010 MPa) ( 24.2223 MPa)
44.0117 MPa 44.0 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷
= = = = Ans.
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

1 2
avg
(63.8010 MPa) ( 24.2223 MPa)
19.7894 MPa 19.79 MPa (T)
2 2
p p
o o
o
+
+ ÷
= = = = Ans.

(d) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative,

abs max max
44.0 MPa t t = = Ans.

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The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear strain
at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses and the
maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the
planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.

Fig. P13.75
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.75 120 µc 690 µc 970 µc 17,000 ksi 0.18
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
120 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
690 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
970 με cos (90 ) sin (90 ) sin(90 )cos(90 )
x y xy
c c ¸ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
120 με
x
c = Ans.
and from Eq. (c):
970 με
y
c = Ans.
Using these two results, solve Eq. (b) to find ¸
xy
:
xy
¸ = Ans.

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
120 με, 970 με, 290 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = = =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
(120 μ) (970 μ) (120 μ) (970 μ) 290 μ
2 2 2
545 μ 449.055 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ±

1
994.055 με 994 με
p
c = = and
2
95.945 με 95.9 με
p
c = = Ans.

max
898.109 μrad 898 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = = Ans.

2
290 μ 290 μ
tan2 0.3412
( ) [(120 μ) (970 μ)] 850 μ
9.42 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) Use c
p1
and c
p2
in Eqs. (13.23) to compute o
p1
:

6 6
1 1 2
2 2
17, 000 ksi
( ) [(994.055 10 ) (0.18)(95.945 10 )]
1 1 (0.18)
17.7682 ksi 17.77 ksi (T)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.
and o
p2
:

6 6
2 2 1
2 2
17, 000 ksi
( ) [(95.945 10 ) (0.18)(994.055 10 )]
1 1 (0.18)
4.8294 ksi 4.83 ksi (T)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = × + ×
÷ ÷
= = Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

1 2
max
(17.7682 ksi) (4.8294 ksi)
6.4694 ksi 6.47 ksi
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷
= = = = Ans.
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

1 2
avg
(17.7682 ksi) (4.8294 ksi)
11.2988 ksi 11.30 ksi (T)
2 2
p p
o o
o
+
+
= = = = Ans.

(d) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
17.7682 ksi
8.88 ksi
2 2
p
o
t = = = Ans.

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The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain normal strain
data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the strain components c
x
, c
y
, and ¸
xy
at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses and
the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal
planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.

Fig. P13.76
Problem c
a
c
b
c
c
E v
13.76 −400 µc −240 µc −1280 µc 212 GPa 0.30
Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where c
n
is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle u associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.

2 2
400 με cos (0 ) sin (0 ) sin(0 )cos(0 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (a)

2 2
240 με cos (45 ) sin (45 ) sin(45 )cos(45 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (b)

2 2
1, 280 με cos (135 ) sin (135 ) sin(135 )cos(135 )
x y xy
c c ¸ ÷ = ° + ° + ° ° (c)
From Eq. (a):
400 με
x
c = ÷
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y xy
c ¸ = ÷ =

(b) The x and y normal and shear strains have been found:
400 με, 1,120 με, 1, 040 μrad
x y xy
c c ¸ = ÷ = ÷ =
Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

2 2
1, 2
2 2
2 2 2
( 400 μ) ( 1,120 μ) ( 400 μ) ( 1,120 μ) 1, 040 μ
2 2 2
760 μ 632.456 μ
x y x y xy
p p
c c c c ¸
c
+ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ | | | |
= ± +
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ ±

1
127.544 με 127.5 με
p
c = ÷ = ÷ and
2
1,392.456 με 1,392 με
p
c = ÷ = ÷ Ans.

max
1, 264.911 μrad 1, 265 μrad (maximum in-plane shear strain) ¸ = = Ans.

1
1, 040 μ 1, 040 μ
tan2 1.4444
( ) [( 400 μ) ( 1,120 μ)] 720 μ
27.65 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
¸
u
c c
u c
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ° Ans.

(c) Use c
p1
and c
p2
in Eqs. (13.23) to compute o
p1
:

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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6 6
1 1 2
2 2
212, 000 MPa
( ) [( 127.544 10 ) (0.3)( 1,392.456 10 )]
1 1 (0.3)
127.0325 MPa 127.0 MPa (C)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.
and o
p2
:

6 6
2 2 1
2 2
212, 000 MPa
( ) [( 1,392.456 10 ) (0.3)( 127.544 10 )]
1 1 (0.3)
333.3103 MPa 333 MPa (C)
p p p
E
o c vc
v
÷ ÷
= + = ÷ × + ÷ ×
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

1 2
max
( 127.0325 MPa) ( 333.3103 MPa)
103.1389 MPa 103.1 MPa
2 2
p p
o o
t
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = Ans.
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

1 2
avg
( 127.0325 MPa) ( 333.3103 MPa)
230.1714 MPa 230 MPa (C)
2 2
p p
o o
o
+
÷ + ÷
= = = ÷ = Ans.

(d) For plane stress, o
z
= o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
are both negative,

2
abs max
333.3103 MPa
166.7 MPa
2 2
p
o
t
÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.77 A solid 20-mm-diameter shaft is subjected
aluminum [E = 70 GPa; v = 0.33]. A strain gage
is mounted on the shaft at the orientation shown
in Fig. P13.77.
(a) If P = 18.5 kN, determine the strain reading
that would be expected from the gage.
(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of c = 950
µc, determine the axial force P applied to
the shaft.

Fig. P13.77
Solution
(a) From the given diameter, the cross-sectional area of the shaft is

2 2
(20 mm) 314.15927 mm
4
A
t
= =
and thus, the normal stress in the shaft is

2
(18.5 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
58.88733 MPa
314.15927 mm
x
P
A
o = = =
At the location of the strain gage, the stresses in the shaft can be summarized as
58.887 MPa, 0 MPa, 0 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = =

From Eqs. (13.21), the normal strains in the x and y directions are

6
1 1
( ) [58.88733 MPa (0.33)(0 MPa)] 841.248 10 mm/mm
70, 000 MPa
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ×

6
1 1
( ) [0 MPa (0.33)(58.88733 MPa)] 277.612 10 mm/mm
70, 000 MPa
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ×
and since the shear stress is zero, the shear strain is also zero: ¸
xy
= 0.

Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at u = 145°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(841.248 με) cos (145 ) ( 277.612 με) sin (145 ) (0 μrad) sin(145 ) cos(145 )
473.154 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ° °
=
Therefore, the strain gage should be expected to read a normal strain of
473 με
n
c = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
950 με cos (145 ) sin (145 )
n x y xy
x y
c c u c u ¸ u u
c c
= + +
= ° + °
recognizing that there is no shear stress t
xy
= 0, and hence, ¸
xy
= 0.

From Eqs. (13.21), substitute for c
x
and c
y
:

2 2
1 1
950 με ( ) cos (145 ) ( )sin (145 )
x y y x
E E
o vo o vo = ÷ ° + ÷ °
and eliminate terms of o
y
since o
y
= 0 for the shaft:

2 2
950 με cos (145 ) sin (145 )
x x
E E
o vo
= ° ÷ °
Solve for o
x
:

2 2
6
2 2
(950 με)
[cos (145 ) sin (145 )]
(950 10 )(70, 000 MPa)
[cos (145 ) (0.33) sin (145 )]
118.2341 MPa
x
E
o
v
÷
=
° ÷ °
×
=
° ÷ °
=

The axial load P that causes this normal stress is

2 2
(118.2341 N/mm )(314.15927 mm ) 37,144.34 N 37.1 kN
x
P A o = = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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13.78 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of
100 mm and an inside diameter of 90 mm is
subjected to torque T. The shaft is made of
aluminum [E = 70 GPa; v = 0.33]. A strain gage is
mounted on the shaft at the orientation shown in
Fig. P13.78.
(a) If T = 2.75 kN-m, determine the strain reading
that would be expected from the gage.
(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of c = −1,630
µc, determine the torque T applied to the shaft.

Fig. P13.78
Solution
(a) The cross-sectional area of the hollow shaft is

2 2 2 2 2
( ) [(100 mm) (90 mm) ] 1, 492.257 mm
4 4
A D d
t t
= ÷ = ÷ =
and the polar moment of inertia for the shaft is

4 4 4 4 4
(100 mm) (90 mm) 3, 376, 230 mm
32 32
p
I D d
t t
( ( = ÷ = ÷ =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

The maximum shear stress in the hollow aluminum shaft (i.e., the shear stress on the outer surface) is
found from the elastic torsion formula:

max 4
(2.75 kN-m)(100 mm/ 2)(1,000 mm/m)(1,000 N/kN)
40.72589 MPa
3, 376, 230 mm
p
TR
I
t = = =
The normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero; therefore, the stresses in the shaft at the location
of the strain gage can be summarized as
0 MPa, 0 MPa, 40.726 MPa
x y xy
o o t = = = ÷
Note: The negative sign on t
xy
is determined by inspection. The stress element at the location of the
strain gage looks like this:

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

70, 000 MPa
26, 315.8 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear strain ¸
xy
from Eq. (13.22):

6
40.72589 MPa
26, 315.8 MPa
xy
xy
G
t
¸
÷
÷
= = = ÷ ×
Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at u = 55°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(0 με) cos (55 ) (0 με) sin (55 ) ( 1, 547.584 μrad)sin(55 ) cos(55 )
727.127 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ° + ÷ ° °
= ÷

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Therefore, the strain gage should be expected to read a normal strain of
727 με
n
c = ÷ Ans.

(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:

2 2
cos sin sin cos
1, 630 με sin(55 ) cos(55 )
n x y xy
xy
c c u c u ¸ u u
¸
= + +
÷ = ° °
recognizing that the normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero.

From Eq. (13.22), substitute for ¸
xy
:
1, 630 με sin(55 ) cos(55 )
xy
G
t
÷ = ° °
Solve for t
xy
:

6
( 1, 630 10 rad)(26,315.8 MPa)
91.2953 MPa
sin(55 ) cos(55 )
xy
t
÷
÷ ×
= = ÷
° °

The torque T that causes this shear stress is

2 4
(91.2953 N/mm )(3, 376, 230 mm )
6,164, 678 N-mm 6.16 kN-m
(100 mm/ 2)
xy p
I
T
R
t
= = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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14.1 Determine the normal stress in a ball, which has an outside diameter
of 220 mm and a wall thickness of 3 mm, when the ball is inflated to a
gage pressure of 110 kPa.
Fig. P14.1
Solution

220 mm
3 mm
220 mm 2(3 mm) 214 mm
(0.110 MPa)(214 mm)
1.962 MPa
4 4(3 mm)
a
D
t
d
pd
t
σ
=
=
= − =
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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14.2 A spherical gas-storage tank with an inside diameter of 30 ft is being constructed to store gas under
an internal pressure of 200 psi. The tank will be constructed from structural steel that has a yield
strength of 36 ksi. If a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to the yield strength is required, determine the
minimum wall thickness required for the spherical tank[tap2].
Solution

allow
36 ksi
12 ksi
FS 3.0
Y
σ
σ = = =

allow
(200 psi)(30 ft)(12 in./ft)
1.500 in.
4 4 4(12, 000 psi)
a
pd pd
t
t
σ
σ
≥ ∴ ≥ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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14.3 A spherical gas-storage tank with an inside diameter of 12 m is being constructed to store gas under
an internal pressure of 1.75 MPa. The tank will be constructed from structural steel that has a yield
strength of 250 MPa. If a factor of safety of 3.0 with respect to the yield strength is required, determine
the minimum wall thickness required for the spherical tank[tap3].
Solution

allow
250 MPa
83.3333 MPa
FS 3.0
Y
σ
σ = = =

allow
(1.75 MPa)(12 m)(1,000 mm/m)
63.0 in.
4 4 4(83.3333 MPa)
a
pd pd
t
t
σ
σ
≥ ∴ ≥ = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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14.4 A spherical pressure vessel has an inside diameter of 4 m and a wall thickness of 15 mm. The
vessel will be constructed from structural steel [E = 200 GPa; ν = 0.29] that has a yield strength of 250
MPa. If the internal pressure in the vessel is 1,200 kPa, determine (a) the normal stress in the vessel
wall, (b) the factor of safety with respect to the yield strength, (c) the normal strain in the sphere and (d)
the increase in the outside diameter of the vessel[tap4].
Solution
(a) Normal stress in the vessel wall

(1.200 MPa)(4,000 mm)
80 MPa
4 4(15 mm)
a
pd
t
σ = = = Ans.

(b) Factor of safety with respect to the yield strength

250 MPa
FS 3.125 3.13
80 MPa
Y
a
σ
σ
= = = = Ans.

(c) Normal strain in the sphere

6
1
( )
1
[80 MPa (0.29)(80 MPa)] 284 10 mm/mm 284 με
200, 000 MPa
x x y
E
ε σ νσ

= −
= − = × = Ans.

(d) Increase in outside diameter

[ ]
6
(284 10 mm/mm) 4,000 mm 2(15 mm) 1.145 mm D D ε

Δ = = × + = Ans.

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14.5 The normal strain measured on the outside surface of a spherical pressure vessel is 820 με. The
sphere has an outside diameter of 54 in. and a wall thickness of 0.50 in., and it will be fabricated from
an aluminum alloy [E = 10,000 ksi; ν = 0.33]. Determine (a) the normal stress in the vessel wall and (b)
the internal pressure in the vessel[tap5].
Solution
(a) Normal stress in the vessel wall

2
6 6
2
( )
1
10, 000 ksi
[(820 10 in./in.) (0.33)(820 10 in./in.)]
1 (0.33)
12.239906 ksi 12.24 ksi
x x y
E
σ ε νε
ν
− −
= +

= × + ×

= = Ans.

(b) Internal pressure

54 in.
0.50 in.
54 in. 2(0.50 in.) 53 in.
4 4(12.239906 ksi)(0.50 in.)
0.461842 ksi 462 psi
4 53 in.
a
a
D
t
d
pd t
p
t d
σ
σ
=
=
= − =
= ∴ = = = = Ans.

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14.6 A typical aluminum-alloy scuba diving tank is shown in Fig. P14.6. The outside diameter of the
tank is 200 mm and the wall thickness is 12 mm. If the air in the tank is pressurized to 20 MPa,
determine:
(a) the longitudinal and hoop stresses in the wall of the tank.
(b) the maximum shear stress in the plane of the cylinder wall.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress on the outer surface of the
cylinder wall.

Fig. P14.6
Solution
(a) Longitudinal and hoop stresses

200 mm
12 mm
200 mm 2(12 mm) 176 mm
D
t
d
=
=
= − =

long
(20 MPa)(176 mm)
73.3333 MPa 73.3 MPa
4 4(12 mm)
pd
t
σ = = = = Ans.

hoop
(20 MPa)(176 mm)
146.6667 MPa 146.7 MPa
2 2(12 mm)
pd
t
σ = = = = Ans.

(b) Maximum shear stress in the plane of the cylinder wall
If the longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the x axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the y axis, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a stress element
are:
73.3333 MPa, 146.6667 MPa, 0 MPa
x y xy
σ σ τ = = =
Since the shear stresses on the x and y faces (i.e., in the plane of the cylinder wall) are zero, these normal
stresses are, by definition, principal stresses. Therefore,

1
146.6667 MPa
p
σ = and
2
73.3333 MPa
p
σ =
The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from Eq. (12.16):

1 2
max
146.6667 MPa 73.3333 MPa
36.6667 MPa 36.7 MPa
2 2
p p
σ σ
τ

= = = = Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress on the outer surface of the cylinder wall
The outer surface of the cylinder wall is in a state of plane stress since the pressure acting on the outer
surface of the cylinder is simply atmospheric pressure (i.e., gage pressure = 0). Therefore, σ
z
= σ
p3
= 0.
Since σ
p1
and σ
p2
are both positive,

1
abs max
146.6667 MPa
73.3 MPa
2 2
p
σ
τ = = = Ans.

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14.7 A cylindrical boiler with an outside diameter of 3.60 m and a wall thickness of 40 mm is made of a
steel alloy that has a yield stress of 415 MPa. Determine[tap7]:
(a) The maximum normal stress produced by an internal pressure of 2 MPa.
(b) The maximum allowable pressure if a factor of safety of 3.3 with respect to yield is required.
Solution
(a) Maximum normal stress
3, 600 mm 40 mm 3, 600 mm 2(40 mm) 3,520 mm D t d = = = − =

hoop
(2 MPa)(3,520 mm)
88.0 MPa
2 2(40 mm)
pd
t
σ = = = Ans.

(b) Maximum allowable pressure if FS = 3.3

allow
415 MPa
125.7576 MPa
FS 3.3
Y
σ
σ = = =

allow
allow hoop
2 2(125.7576 MPa)(40 mm)
2.86 MPa
2 3,520 mm
pd t
p
t d
σ
σ σ ≥ = ∴ ≤ = = Ans.

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14.8 When filled to capacity, the unpressurized storage tank
shown in Fig. P14.8 contains water to a height of h = 24 ft. The
outside diameter of the tank is 8 ft and the wall thickness is 0.625
in. Determine the maximum normal stress and the absolute
maximum shear stress on the outer surface of the tank at its base.
(Weight density of water = 62.4 lb/ft
3
.)

Fig. P14.8
Solution
Water pressure

3 2
(62.4 lb/ft )(24 ft) 1, 497.6 lb/ft 10.4 psi p h γ = = = =

Hoop stress
(8 ft)(12 in./ft) 96 in. 0.625 in. 96 in. 2(0.625 in.) 94.75 in. D t d = = = = − =

hoop
(10.4 psi)(94.75 in.)
788.3174 psi 788 psi
2 2(0.625 in.)
pd
t
σ = = = = Ans.

Principal stresses

1 hoop
p2 long
788.3174 psi
0 psi (since the tank is unpressurized)
p
σ σ
σ σ
= =
= =

Maximum shear stress
The outer surface of the tank wall is in a state of plane stress since the pressure acting on the outer
surface is simply atmospheric pressure (i.e., gage pressure = 0). Therefore, σ
z
= σ
p3
= 0. Therefore,

1
abs max
788.3174 psi
394 psi
2 2
p
σ
τ = = = Ans.

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14.9 A tall open-topped standpipe (Fig. P14.9) has an inside diameter of
2,250 mm and a wall thickness of 8 mm. The standpipe contains water,
which has a mass density of 1,000 kg/m
3
.
(a) What height h of water will produce a circumferential stress of 16 MPa
in the wall of the standpipe?
(b) What is the axial stress in the wall of the standpipe due to the water
pressure?

Fig. P14.9
Solution
Longitudinal and hoop stresses

hoop
3
(2,250 mm)
16 MPa
2 2(8 mm)
113.7778 10 MPa
pd p
t
p
σ

= = =
∴ = ×

(a) Height h of water

3
3 2
3 2
113.7778 10 MPa
113.7778 10 N/m
11.59814 m 11.60 m
(1,000 kg/m )(9.81 m/s )
p gh
h
ρ

= = ×
×
∴ = = = Ans.

(b) Axial stress in the wall of the standpipe due to water pressure
Since the standpipe is open to the atmosphere at its upper end, the fluid pressure will not create stress in
the longitudinal direction of the standpipe; therefore,

long
0 σ = Ans.

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14.10 The pressure tank in Fig. P14.10 is fabricated
from spirally wrapped metal plates that are welded at
the seams in the orientation shown. The tank has an
inside diameter of 500 mm and a wall thickness of 6
mm. For a gage pressure of 1.5 MPa, determine (a) the
normal stress perpendicular to the weld and (b) the
shear stress parallel to the weld.
Fig. P14.10
Solution
(a) Normal stress perpendicular to the weld

long
(1.5 MPa)(500 mm)
31.25 MPa
4 4(6 mm)
pd
t
σ = = =

hoop
(1.5 MPa)(500 mm)
62.5 MPa
2 2(6 mm)
pd
t
σ = = =

The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the x axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the y axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
31.25 MPa, 62.5 MPa, 0 MPa
x y xy
σ σ τ = = =
The weld is oriented at 50° as shown; however, the angle θ required for the stress transformation
equations is the angle normal to the weld. Thus, θ = 50° + 90° = 140° (or θ = 50° − 90° = −40°). Using
this value of θ, the normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can be used to compute the
normal stress perpendicular to the weld:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(31.25 MPa)cos (140 ) (62.5 MPa)sin (140 ) 2(0 MPa)sin(140 )cos(140 )
44.1617 MPa 44.2 MPa (T)
n x y xy
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ = + +
= ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

(b) Shear stress parallel to the weld
Similarly, the shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives τ
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(31.25 MPa) (62.5 MPa)]sin(140 ) cos(140 ) (0 MPa)[cos (140 ) sin (140 )]
15.3876 MPa 15.39 MPa
nt x y xy
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − − + −
= − − ° ° + ° − °
= − = − Ans.

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14.11 The pressure tank in Fig. P14.11 is fabricated
from spirally wrapped metal plates that are welded at
the seams in the orientation shown. The tank has an
inside diameter of 500 mm and a wall thickness of 6
mm. Determine the largest allowable gage pressure if
the allowable normal stress perpendicular to the weld
is 100 MPa and the allowable shear stress parallel to
the weld is 30 MPa.
Fig. P14.11
Solution
The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the x axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the y axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
, , 0
4 2
x y xy
pd pd
t t
σ σ τ = = =
The weld is oriented at 50° as shown; however, the angle θ required for the stress transformation
equations is the angle normal to the weld. Thus, θ = 50° + 90° = 140° (or θ = 50° − 90° = −40°). Using
this value of θ, the normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can be used to compute the
normal stress perpendicular to the weld:

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
cos (140 ) sin (140 ) 2(0 MPa)sin(140 )cos(140 )
4 2
cos (140 ) sin (140 )
4 2
n x y xy
pd pd
t t
pd pd
t t
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ = + +
= ° + ° + ° °
= ° + °
The normal stress magnitude perpendicular to the weld σ
n
must not exceed 100 MPa; thus,

2 2
2 2
100 MPa cos (140 ) sin (140 )
4 2
1
cos (140 ) sin (140 )
2 2
(500 mm) 0.586824
0.413176
2(6 mm) 2
(29.441165)
pd pd
t t
pd
t
p
p
≥ ° + °
⎡ ⎤
≥ ° + °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎤
≥ +
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Based on the allowable normal stress,
3.3966 MPa p ≤ (a)

Similarly, the shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] can be used to compute the shear stress
parallel to the weld:

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2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
sin(140 )cos(140 ) (0 MPa)[cos (140 ) sin (140 )]
4 2
sin(140 )cos(140 )
4 2
nt x y xy
pd pd
t t
pd pd
t t
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − − + −
⎡ ⎤
= − − ° ° + ° − °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎤
= − − ° °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

The shear stress parallel to the weld τ
nt
must not exceed a magnitude of 30 MPa; thus,

30 MPa sin(140 ) cos(140 )
4 2
1
1 sin(140 )cos(140 )
2 2
(500 mm) 1
( 0.492404)
2(6 mm) 2
10.258414
pd pd
t t
pd
t
p
p
⎡ ⎤
≥ − − ° °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎛ ⎞
≥ − − ° °
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎡ ⎤
≥ − − −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Based on the allowable shear stress,
2.9244 MPa p ≤ (b)

Compare the results in Eqs. (a) and (b) to find that the maximum allowable gage pressure is

max
2.92 MPa p = Ans.

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14.12 The pressure tank in Fig. P14.12 is fabricated from spirally
wrapped metal plates that are welded at the seams in the orientation
shown. The tank has an inside diameter of 60 in. and a wall thickness
of 0.375 in. For a gage pressure of 160 psi, determine (a) the normal
stress perpendicular to the weld and (b) the shear stress parallel to the
weld.

Fig. P14.12
Solution
(a) Normal stress perpendicular to the weld

long
(160 psi)(60 in.)
6, 400 psi 6.4 ksi
4 4(0.375 in.)
pd
t
σ = = = =

hoop
(160 psi)(60 in.)
12,800 psi 12.8 ksi
2 2(0.375 in.)
pd
t
σ = = = =

The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the y axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the x axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
12.8 ksi, 6.4 ksi, 0 ksi
x y xy
σ σ τ = = =
The weld is oriented at 55° as shown. Relative to the positive x axis, this orientation is defined by an
angle of θ = 180° − 55° = 125°. Using this value of θ, the normal stress transformation equation [Eq.
(12-3)] can be used to compute the normal stress perpendicular to the weld:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(12.8 ksi) cos (125 ) (6.4 ksi)sin (125 ) 2(0 ksi)sin(125 )cos(125 )
8.5055 ksi 8.51 ksi (T)
n x y xy
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ = + +
= ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

(b) Shear stress parallel to the weld
Similarly, the shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives τ
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(12.8 ksi) (6.4 ksi)]sin(125 ) cos(125 ) (0 MPa)[cos (125 ) sin (125 )]
3.0070 ksi 3.01 ksi
nt x y xy
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − − + −
= − − ° ° + ° − °
= = Ans.

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14.13 The pressure tank in Fig. P14.13 is fabricated from spirally
wrapped metal plates that are welded at the seams in the orientation
shown. The tank has an inside diameter of 48 in. and a wall
thickness of 0.375 in. Determine the largest allowable gage pressure
if the allowable normal stress perpendicular to the weld is 12 ksi and
the allowable shear stress parallel to the weld is 7 ksi..

Fig. P14.13
Solution
The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the y axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the x axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
, , 0
2 4
x y xy
pd pd
t t
σ σ τ = = =
The weld is oriented at 55° as shown. Relative to the positive x axis, this orientation is defined by an
angle of θ = 180° − 55° = 125°. Using this value of θ, the normal stress transformation equation [Eq.
(12-3)] can be used to compute the normal stress perpendicular to the weld:

2 2
2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
cos (125 ) sin (125 ) 2(0 MPa)sin(125 )cos(125 )
2 4
cos (125 ) sin (125 )
2 4
n x y xy
pd pd
t t
pd pd
t t
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ = + +
= ° + ° + ° °
= ° + °
The normal stress magnitude perpendicular to the weld σ
n
must not exceed 12 ksi; thus,

2 2
2 2
12 ksi cos (125 ) sin (125 )
2 4
1
cos (125 ) sin (125 )
2 2
(48 in.) 0.671010
0.328990
2(0.375 in.) 2
(42.527678)
pd pd
t t
pd
t
p
p
≥ ° + °
⎡ ⎤
≥ ° + °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎤
≥ +
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Based on the allowable normal stress,
0.282169 ksi p ≤ (a)

Similarly, the shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] can be used to compute the shear stress
parallel to the weld:

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2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
sin(125 )cos(125 ) (0 MPa)[cos (125 ) sin (125 )]
2 4
sin(125 )cos(125 )
2 4
nt x y xy
pd pd
t t
pd pd
t t
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − − + −
⎡ ⎤
= − − ° ° + ° − °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ ⎤
= − − ° °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

The shear stress parallel to the weld τ
nt
must not exceed a magnitude of 7 ksi; thus,

7 ksi sin(125 ) cos(125 )
2 4
1
1 sin(125 ) cos(125 )
2 2
(48 in.) 1
( 0.469846)
2(0.375 in.) 2
15.035082
pd pd
t t
pd
t
p
p
⎡ ⎤
≥ − − ° °
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎛ ⎞
≥ − − ° °
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎡ ⎤
≥ − −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Based on the allowable shear stress,
0.465578 ksi p ≤ (b)

Compare the results in Eqs. (a) and (b) to find that the maximum allowable gage pressure is

max
282 psi p = Ans.

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14.14 A strain gage is mounted to the outer
surface of a thin-walled boiler as shown in Fig.
P14.14. The boiler has an inside diameter of 60.0
in. and a wall thickness of 1.000 in., and it is
made of stainless steel [E = 28,000 ksi; ν = 0.27].
Determine:
(a) the internal pressure in the boiler when the
(b) the maximum shear strain in the plane of the
boiler wall.
(c) the absolute maximum shear strain on the
outer surface of the boiler.

Fig. P14.14
Solution
(a) Internal pressure in the boiler
The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the x axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the y axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
, , 0
4 2
x y xy
pd pd
t t
σ σ τ = = =
From the generalized Hooke’s Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains on the outer surface of
the boiler can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

1 1
( )
4 2
x x y
pd pd
E E t t
ε σ νσ ν
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= − = −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

Thus,

6
4 2
(28, 000 ksi)(120 10 in./in.)
0.486957 ksi 487 psi
1 60.0 in. 1
0.27
2 2 2(1.000 in.) 2
x
x
d d
E p
t t
E
p
d
t
ε ν
ε
ν

⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
= −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦
×
∴ = = = =
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
− −
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Ans.

(b) Maximum shear strain in the plane of the boiler wall
The strain in the longitudinal direction is given as ε
x
= 120×10
−6
in./in. The strain in the circumferential
direction (i.e., the y direction) can be expressed with the generalized Hooke’s Law equations as:

1 1
( ) 1
2 4 2 2
y y x
pd pd pd
E E t t tE
ν
ε σ νσ ν
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞
⎡ ⎤
= − = − = −
⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

From the pressure computed in part (a), the strain in the y direction is:

6
(0.486957 ksi)(60.0 in.) 0.27
1 451.3 10 in./in.
2(1.000 in.)(28, 000 ksi) 2
y
ε

⎡ ⎤
= − = ×
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Since the longitudinal and hoop stresses are principal stresses, the corresponding strains are also
principal strains.

6
1
6
2
451.3 10 in./in.
120 10 in./in.
p y
p x
ε ε
ε ε

= = ×
= = ×

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The maximum shear strain in the plane of the boiler wall can be calculated from Eq. (13.12):

6 6 6
max 1 2
p p
γ ε ε
− − −
= − = × − × = × = Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear strain on the outer surface of the boiler
The strain in the radial direction (i.e., the out-of-plane direction) can be expressed with the generalized
Hooke’s Law equations as:

1
( ) 1
4 2 2 2
z x y
pd pd pd
E E t t tE
ν ν ν
ε σ σ
⎡ ⎤
⎡ ⎤
= − + = − + = − +
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎣ ⎦

From the pressure computed in part (a), the strain in the z direction is:

6
(0.27)(0.486957 ksi)(60.0 in.) 1
1 211.3 10 in./in.
2(1.000 in.)(28, 000 ksi) 2
z
ε

⎡ ⎤
= − + = − ×
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦

The strain in the z direction is also a principal strain; therefore,

6
3
211.3 10 in./in.
p z
ε ε

= = − ×
Since ε
p1
is positive and ε
p3
is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is

6 6 6
abs max
451.3 10 in./in. ( 211.3 10 in./in.) 662.6 10 rad 663 μrad γ
− − −
= × − − × = × = Ans.

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14.15 A closed cylindrical tank containing a
pressurized fluid has an inside diameter of 250
mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm. The
stresses in the wall of the tank acting on a
rotated element have the values shown in Fig.
P14.15. Determine the fluid pressure.

Fig. P14.15
Solution
Let the given stresses be designated as:
18 MPa, 27 MPa, 6 MPa
x y xy
σ σ τ = = =

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(18 MPa) (27 MPa) (18 MPa) (27 MPa)
(6 MPa)
2 2
22.50 MPa 7.50 MPa
x y x y
p p xy
σ σ σ σ
σ τ
+ − ⎛ ⎞
= ± +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
+ − ⎛ ⎞
= ± +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= ±

1
30.0 MPa
p
σ = and
2
15 MPa
p
σ =

Since this is a cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to internal pressure only, we know that the principal
stresses occur in the hoop and longitudinal directions. Thus, we can assert that:

1 hoop 2 long
and
2 4
p p
pd pd
t t
σ σ σ σ = = = =
The internal pressure can be calculated from either expression:

30 MPa
2
2(10 mm)(30 MPa)
2.40 MPa
250 mm
pd
t
p
=
∴ = = Ans.

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14.16 A closed cylindrical vessel (Fig. P14.16) contains a
fluid at a pressure of 720 psi. The cylinder, which has an
outside diameter of 64 in. and a wall thickness of 1.000
in., is fabricated from stainless steel [E = 28,000 ksi; ν =
0.27]. Determine the increase in both the diameter and the
length of the cylinder.
Fig. P14.16
Solution
64 in. 1.000 in. 64 in. 2(1.000 in.) 62 in. D t d = = = − =

long
(720 psi)(62 in.)
11,160 psi 11.16 ksi
4 4(1.0000 in.)
pd
t
σ = = = =

hoop
(720 psi)(62 in.)
22,320 psi 22.32 ksi
2 2(1.0000 in.)
pd
t
σ = = = =

From the generalized Hooke’s law, the strain in the longitudinal direction is:

[ ]
long hoop
6
1
( )
1
( )
1
11.16 ksi (0.27)(22.32 ksi)
28, 000 ksi
183.3429 10 in./in.
x x y
E
E
ε σ νσ
σ νσ

= −
= −
= −
= ×

Therefore, the change in length of the cylinder is:

6
(183.3429 10 in./in.)(16 ft)(12 in./ft) 0.0352 in.
x
L L ε

Δ = = × = Ans.

Similarly, the strain in the circumferential direction is:

[ ]
hoop long
6
1
( )
1
( )
1
22.32 ksi (0.27)(11.16 ksi)
28, 000 ksi
689.5286 10 in./in.
y y x
E
E
ε σ νσ
σ νσ

= −
= −
= −
= ×

The change in diameter of the cylinder is:

6
(689.5286 10 in./in.)(64 in.) 0.0441 in.
x
D D ε

Δ = = × = Ans.

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14.17 A strain gage is mounted at an angle of 30° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical
pressure vessel shown in Fig. P14.17. The pressure vessel is fabricated from aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi;
ν = 0.33], and it has an inside diameter of 48 in. and a wall thickness of 0.75 in. If the strain gage
measures a normal strain of 600 με, determine:
(a) the internal pressure in the cylinder.
(b) the absolute maximum shear stress on the
outer surface of the cylinder.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress on the
inner surface of the cylinder.

Fig. P14.17
Solution
(a) Internal pressure in the cylinder
A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
ε ε θ ε θ γ θ θ = + +
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

2 2
600 με cos (30 ) sin (30 ) sin(30 ) cos(30 )
x y xy
ε ε γ = ° + ° + ° °
Since this is a cylindrical pressure vessel, the shear stress τ
xy
must equal zero, and hence, the shear strain
γ
xy
must also equal zero. The strain transformation equation reduces to:

6 2 2
600 με 600 10 in./in. cos (30 ) sin (30 )
x y
ε ε

= × = ° + °
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for ε
x
and ε
y
to obtain an expression in terms of σ
x
and σ
y
:

6 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
600 10 cos (30 ) sin (30 )
1 1
( )cos (30 ) ( )sin (30 )
1 1
[ cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [ sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
[cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
x y
x y y x
x x y y
y
x
E E
E E
E E
ε ε
σ νσ σ νσ
σ νσ σ νσ
σ
σ
ν ν

× = ° + °
= − ° + − °
= ° − ° + ° − °
= ° − ° + ° − °

The normal stress σ
x
is the longitudinal stress caused by the internal pressure, and σ
y
is the hoop stress.
Substitute expressions for σ
long
and σ
hoop
to obtain:

long hoop 6 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
600 10 [cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
[cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
4 2
cos (30 ) sin (30 ) 2sin (30 ) 2 cos (30 )
4
E E
pd pd
tE tE
pd
tE
σ σ
ν ν
ν ν
ν ν

× = ° − ° + ° − °
= ° − ° + ° − °
⎡ ⎤ = ° − ° + ° − °
⎣ ⎦

Thus, the pressure p can be expressed as:

6
2 2 2 2
4 (600 10 )
cos (30 ) sin (30 ) 2sin (30 ) 2 cos (30 )
tE
p
d ν ν

×
=
⎡ ⎤ ° − ° + ° − °
⎣ ⎦

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Compute the internal pressure:

6
2 2 2 2
6
4(0.75 in.)(10,000 ksi)(600 10 in./in.)
(48 in.) cos (30 ) (0.33)sin (30 ) 2sin (30 ) 2(0.33)cos (30 )
4(0.75 in.)(10,000 ksi)(600 10 in./in.)
(48 in.)(0.67250)
0.5577621 ksi 558 ksi
p

×
=
⎡ ⎤ ° − ° + ° − °
⎣ ⎦
×
=
= = Ans.

(b) Absolute maximum shear stress on the outer surface of the cylinder
The principal stresses are:

long 2
(0.5577621 ksi)(48 in.)
8.921933 ksi
4 4(0.75 in.)
p
pd
t
σ σ = = = =

hoop 1
(0.5577621 ksi)(48 in.)
17.843866 ksi
2 2(0.75 in.)
p
pd
t
σ σ = = = =
The outer surface of the cylinder is in plane stress; therefore, the absolute maximum shear stress is:

abs max 1 2
17.843866 ksi 8.921933 ksi 8.92 ksi
p p
τ σ σ = − = − = Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress on the inner surface of the cylinder
Inside the cylinder, the pressure creates a stress in the radial direction; therefore,

0.5577621 ksi
p
p σ σ = = − = −
The absolute maximum shear stress inside the cylinder is

abs max 1 3
17.843866 ksi ( 0.5577621 ksi) 9.20 ksi
p p
τ σ σ = − = − − = Ans.

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14.18 A strain gage is mounted at an angle of 30°
with respect to the longitudinal axis of the
cylindrical pressure shown in Fig. P14.18. The
pressure vessel is fabricated from aluminum [E =
10,000 ksi; ν = 0.33], and it has an inside diameter
of 54 in. and a wall thickness of 1.00 in. If the
internal pressure in the cylinder is 720 psi,
determine:
(a) the expected strain gage reading (in με).
(b) the principal strains, the maximum shear strain,
and the absolute maximum shear strain on the outer
surface of the cylinder.

Fig. P14.18
Solution
A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

2 2
cos sin sin cos
n x y xy
ε ε θ ε θ γ θ θ = + +
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

2 2
cos (30 ) sin (30 ) sin(30 ) cos(30 )
n x y xy
ε ε ε γ = ° + ° + ° °
Since this is a cylindrical pressure vessel, the shear stress τ
xy
must equal zero, and hence, the shear strain
γ
xy
must also equal zero. The strain transformation equation reduces to:

2 2
cos (30 ) sin (30 )
n x y
ε ε ε = ° + °
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for ε
x
and ε
y
to obtain an expression in terms of σ
x
and σ
y
:

2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
cos (30 ) sin (30 )
1 1
( )cos (30 ) ( )sin (30 )
1 1
[ cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [ sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
[cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
n x y
x y y x
x x y y
y
x
E E
E E
E E
ε ε ε
σ νσ σ νσ
σ νσ σ νσ
σ
σ
ν ν
= ° + °
= − ° + − °
= ° − ° + ° − °
= ° − ° + ° − °

The normal stress σ
x
is the longitudinal stress caused by the internal pressure, and σ
y
is the hoop stress.
Substitute expressions for σ
long
and σ
hoop
to obtain:

long hoop 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
[cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
[cos (30 ) sin (30 )] [sin (30 ) cos (30 )]
4 2
cos (30 ) sin (30 ) 2sin (30 ) 2 cos (30 )
4
n
E E
pd pd
tE tE
pd
tE
σ σ
ε ν ν
ν ν
ν ν
= ° − ° + ° − °
= ° − ° + ° − °
⎡ ⎤ = ° − ° + ° − °
⎣ ⎦

The expected strain gage reading is thus:

2 2 2 2
6
(720 psi)(54 in.)
cos (30 ) (0.33)sin (30 ) 2sin (30 ) 2(0.33)cos (30 )
4(1.00 in.)(10,000,000 psi)
653.67 10 in./in. 654 με
n
ε

⎡ ⎤ = ° − ° + ° − °
⎣ ⎦
= × = Ans.

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(b) Principal strains on outer surface of cylinder
The principal stresses are:

long 2
(720 psi)(54 in.)
9, 720 psi
4 4(1.00 in.)
p
pd
t
σ σ = = = =

hoop 1
(720 psi)(54 in.)
19, 440 psi
2 2(1.00 in.)
p
pd
t
σ σ = = = =
From the generalized Hooke’s Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the plate
can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

6
long hoop
6
6
hoop long
6
long hoop
6
1 1
( ) [9, 720 psi (0.33)(19, 440 psi)] 330.48 10 in./in.
10 10 psi
1 1
( ) [19, 440 psi (0.33)(9, 720 psi)] 1, 623.24 10 in./in.
10 10 psi
0.33
( ) [
10 10 psi
x
y
x
E
E
E
ε σ νσ
ε σ νσ
ν
ε σ σ

= − = − = ×
×
= − = − = ×
×
= − + = −
×
6
9, 720 psi 19, 440 psi] 962.28 10 in./in.

+ = − ×

Therefore:

1 2 3
1, 623 με 330 με 962 με
p p p
ε ε ε = = = − Ans.

Maximum shear strain

6 6
max 1 2
1, 623.24 10 330.48 10 1, 293 μrad
p p
γ ε ε
− −
− = − = × × =

Absolute maximum shear strain

6 6
abs max 1 3
( 1, 623.24 10 962.28 10 ) 2,590 μrad
p p
γ ε ε
− −
− = − = × − × =

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14.19 The pressure vessel in Fig. P14.19 consists of spirally wrapped steel plates that are welded at the
seams in the orientation shown. The cylinder has an inside diameter of 600 mm and a wall thickness of 8
mm. The ends of the cylinder are capped by two rigid end plates. The gage pressure inside the cylinder
is 3.6 MPa and compressive axial loads of P = 160 kN are applied to the rigid end caps. Determine:
(a) the normal stress perpendicular to the weld
seams.
(b) the shear stress parallel to the weld seams.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress in the
cylinder.

Fig. P14.19
Solution
(a) Normal stress perpendicular to the weld

long
(3.6 MPa)(600 mm)
67.5 MPa
4 4(8 mm)
pd
t
σ = = =

hoop
(3.6 MPa)(600 mm)
135.0 MPa
2 2(8 mm)
pd
t
σ = = =
The compressive axial load also creates a normal stress in the x direction.

2 2 2 2 2
axial
2
(616 mm) (600 mm) 15,280.7 mm
4 4
160, 000 N
10.471 MPa
15,280.7 mm
A D d
P
A
π π
σ
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ = − = − =
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

= = = −

The longitudinal axis of the cylinder is defined as the x axis and the circumferential direction is defined
as the y axis; therefore, the normal and shear stresses on longitudinal and circumferential faces of a
stress element are:
57.029 MPa, 135.0 MPa, 0 MPa
x y xy
σ σ τ = = =
The weld is oriented at 25° as shown. The angle θ required for the stress transformation equations is the
angle normal to the weld, which is also 25°. Using this value of θ, the normal stress transformation
equation [Eq. (12-3)] can be used to compute the normal stress perpendicular to the weld:

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(57.029 MPa) cos (25 ) (135.0 MPa)sin (25 ) 2(0 MPa)sin(25 )cos(25 )
70.955 MPa 71.0 MPa (T)
n x y xy
σ σ θ σ θ τ θ θ = + +
= ° + ° + ° °
= = Ans.

(b) Shear stress parallel to the weld
Similarly, the shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] gives τ
nt
:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(57.029 MPa) (135.0 MPa)]sin(25 ) cos(25 ) (0 MPa)[cos (25 ) sin (25 )]
29.865 MPa 29.9 MPa
nt x y xy
τ σ σ θ θ τ θ θ = − − + −
= − − ° ° + ° − °
= = Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress in the cylinder
The principal stresses on the outside of the cylinder are:

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1 hoop 2 long axial 3
135.0 MPa 57.029 MPa 0
p p p
σ σ σ σ σ σ = = = + = =
On the outside surface of the cylinder:

1
abs max
0
135 MPa
67.5 MPa
2 2
p
σ
τ

= = =

Inside the cylinder, the third principal stress is equal in magnitude to the internal pressure:

3.6 MPa
p
p σ σ = = − = −

On the inside surface of the cylinder:

1 3
abs max
135 MPa ( 3.6 MPa)
69.3 MPa
2 2
p p
σ σ
τ

− −
= = =

Thus, the absolute maximum shear stress in the cylinder is

abs max
69.3 MPa τ = Ans.

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15.1 A 3-in.-diameter solid shaft is subjected to
both a torque of T = 25 kip-in. and an axial
tension load of P = 40 kips, as shown in Fig.
P15.1.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the
surface of the shaft.
(b) Show the stresses of part (a) and their
directions on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.1
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(3 in.) 7.06858 in.
4
A
t
= =

4 4
(3 in.) 7.95216 in.
32
J
t
= =
Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
40 kips
5.659 ksi (T)
7.06858 in.
P
A
o = = =

4
(25 kip-in.)(3 in. / 2)
4.716 ksi
7.95216 in.
Tc
J
t = = = (sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(5.659) (0) (5.659) (0)
( 4.716)
2 2
2.829 5.499
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
8.33 ksi
p
o = and
2
2.67 ksi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 5.50 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 2.83 ksi ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
4.716 4.716
tan2 1.666
29.5
7
( ) / 2 [(5.659) (0)] / 2 2.829
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 2
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
o o
u
u
o
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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15.2 A 90-mm-diameter solid shaft is subjected
to both a torque of T = 4,000 N-m and an axial
tension load of P = 150 kN, as shown in Fig.
P15.2.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the surface
of the shaft.
(b) Show the stresses of part (a) and their
directions on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.2
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(90 mm) 6, 361.725 mm
4
A
t
= =

4 4
(90 mm) 6, 441, 246.688 mm
32
J
t
= =
Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
150, 000 N
23.579 MPa (T)
6,361.725 mm
P
A
o = = =

4
(4, 000 N-m)(90 mm/ 2)
27.945 MPa
6, 441, 246.688 mm
Tc
J
t = = = (sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(23.579) (0) (23.579) (0)
( 27.945)
2 2
11.789 30.330
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1
42.1 MPa
p
o = and
2
18.54 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 30.3 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 11.79 MPa shear st (T) ress) o = Ans.

1
27.945 27.945
tan2 2.370
33.56
4
( ) / 2 [(23.579) (0)] / 2 11.789
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
xy
p
x y
p
x
t
u
o
u
o
o
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
=
÷ ÷
÷ ° Ans.

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15.3 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of
400 mm and an inside diameter of 350 mm is
subjected to both a torque of T = 300 kN-m and
an axial tension load of P = 1,200 kN, as shown
in Fig. P15.3.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the surface
of the shaft.
(b) Show the stresses of part (a) and their
directions on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.3
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
(400 mm) (350 mm) 29, 452.431 mm
4
A
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

4 4 9 4
(400 mm) (350 mm) 1.040 10 mm
32
J
t
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
(1, 200 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
40.744 MPa (T)
29,452.431 mm
P
A
o = = =

9 4
(300 kN-m)(400 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1, 000 mm/m)
57.690 MPa
1.040 10 mm
Tc
J
t = = =
×

(sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(40.744) (0) (40.744) (0)
(57.690)
2 2
20.372 61.181
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
81.6 MPa
p
o = and
2
40.8 MPa
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 61.2 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 20.4 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

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1
57.690 57.690
tan2 2.8319
( ) / 2 [(40.744) (0)] / 2 20.372
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 35 of ) .28
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o o
u o = °
= = = =
÷ ÷
Ans.

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15.4 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of
4.50 in. and an inside diameter of 4.00 in. is
subjected to both a torque of T = 600 lb-ft and
an axial tension load of P = 7,000 lb, as shown
in Fig. P15.4.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the surface
of the shaft.
(b) Show the stresses of part (a) and their
directions on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.4
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
(4.50 in.) (4.00 in.) 3.337942 in.
4
A
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

4 4 4
(4.50 in.) (4.00 in.) 15.125051 in.
32
J
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
7, 000 lb
2, 097.1 psi (T)
3.337942 in.
P
A
o = = =

4
(600 lb-ft)(4.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
1, 071.1 psi
15.125051 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress determined by inspection)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(2, 097.1) (0) (2, 097.1) (0)
(1, 071.1)
2 2
1, 048.5 1, 498.9
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
2,547.4 psi
p
o = and
2
450 psi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 1, 49 ar s 9 tr psi ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 1, 049 psi shear st (T) ress) o = Ans.

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1
1, 071.1 1, 071.1
tan2 1.0215
( ) / 2 [(2, 079.1) (0)] / 2 1, 048.5
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 22. of ) 80
xy
p
x y
p p
x u
t
u
o o
o
= = = =
÷
°
÷
= Ans.

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15.5 A solid 2-in.-diameter shaft is used in an aircraft engine to transmit 130 hp at 2,100 rpm to a
propeller that develops a thrust of 1,800 lb. Determine the magnitudes of the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the shaft.
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(2 in.) 3.141593 in.
4
A
t
= =
4 4
(2 in.) 1.570796 in.
32
J
t
= =

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
1,800 lb
572.958 psi (T)
3.141593 in.
P
A
o = = =
The torque in the propeller shaft is:

( )
550 lb-ft/s
130 hp
1 hp
325.131 lb-ft
2,100 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
t e
| |
|
\ .
= = =
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

4
(325.131 lb-ft)(2 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
2, 483.817 psi
1.570796 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress cannot be established definitively from the information given)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(572.957) (0) (572.957) (0)
(2, 483.817)
2 2
286.479 2,500.283
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1
2, 790 psi
p
o = and
2
2, 210 psi
p
o = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 2,50 ar s 0 tr psi ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane s 286 psi (T hear str s) ) es o = Ans.

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15.6 A solid 40-mm-diameter shaft is used in an aircraft engine to transmit 100 kW at 1,600 rpm to a
propeller that develops a thrust of 12 kN. Determine the magnitudes of the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at any point on the outside surface of the shaft.
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(40 mm) 1, 256.637 mm
4
A
t
= =
4 4
(40 mm) 251,327.412 mm
32
J
t
= =

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
(12 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
9.549 MPa (T)
1, 256.637 mm
P
A
o = = =
The torque in the propeller shaft is:

( )
1,000 N-m/s
100 kW
1 kW
596.831 N-m
1,600 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
t e
| |
|
\ .
= = =
| || || |
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

4
(596.831 N-m)(40 mm/ 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
47.494 MPa
251,327.412 mm
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress cannot be established definitively from the information given)

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(9.549) (0) (9.549) (0)
(47.494)
2 2
4.775 47.734
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 52.5 MPa 43.0 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 47.7 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 4.78 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.7 A 3.5-in.-diameter shaft must support an axial tensile load of unknown magnitude while it is
transmitting a torque of 60 kip-in. Determine the maximum allowable value for the axial load if the
tensile principal stress on the outside surface of the shaft must not exceed 9,000 psi.
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(3.5 in.) 9.621128 in.
4
A
t
= =
4 4
(3.5 in.) 14.732351 in.
32
J
t
= =

Shear stress magnitude:
The torque in the shaft is:

4
(60 kip-in.)(3.5 in. / 2)
7,127.172 psi
14.732351 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress cannot be established definitively from the information given)

Principal stress calculations:
The tensile principal stress must not exceed 9,000 psi; therefore:

2
2
1
2
2
2 2
0 0
9, 000 psi (7,127.172 psi)
2 2
x y x y
p xy
x x
o o o o
o t
o o
+ ÷ | |
= + +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
> + +
|
\ .

Rearrange and then square both sides of the equation to obtain:

2 2
2
9, 000 psi (7,127.172 psi)
2 2
x x
o o | | | |
÷ > +
| |
\ . \ .

and further reduce this equation to compute o
x
:

2 2
2 2
2 2
2
(9, 000 psi) (9, 000 psi) (7,127.172 psi)
4 4
(9, 000 psi) (7,127.172 psi) (9, 000 psi)
30, 203,321.49 psi
3,355.925 psi
9, 000 psi
x x
x
x
x
o o
o
o
o
÷ + > +
÷ >
s =

The axial force applied to the shaft must be limited to:

2
(3,355.925 psi)(9.621128 in. ) 32, 288 lb 32.3 kips
x
P A o s = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.8 A solid 60-mm-diameter shaft must transmit a torque of unknown magnitude while it is supporting
an axial tensile load of 40 kN. Determine the maximum allowable value for the torque if the tensile
principal stress on the outside surface of the shaft must not exceed 100 MPa.
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(60 mm) 2,827.433 mm
4
A
t
= =
4 4
(60 mm) 1, 272,345 mm
32
J
t
= =

Normal stress magnitude:
The axial stress created by the 40 kN tensile load is:

2
(40 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
14.147 MPa (T)
2, 827.433 mm
P
A
o = = =

Principal stress calculations:
The tensile principal stress must not exceed 100 MPa; therefore:

2
2
1
2
2
2 2
(14.147 MPa) 0 (14.147 MPa) 0
100 MPa
2 2
x y x y
p xy
xy
o o o o
o t
t
+ ÷ | |
= + +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
> + +
|
\ .

Rearrange and then square both sides of the equation to obtain:

2 2
2
14.147 14.147
100
2 2
xy
t
| | | |
÷ > +
| |
\ . \ .

and further reduce this equation to compute t
xy
:

2 2
2
2 2 2
14.147 14.147
100 MPa
2 2
(92.9265) (7.0735)
92.65689 MPa
xy
xy
xy
t
t
t
| | | |
÷ > +
| |
\ . \ .
÷ >
s

The torque applied to the shaft must be limited to:

2 4
6
(92.65689 N/mm )(1,272,345 mm )
3.930 10 N-mm
60 mm/ 2
3.93 kN-m
J
T
c
t
s = = × = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
15.9 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of
150 mm and an inside diameter of 130 mm is
subjected to an axial tension load of P = 75 kN
and torques T
B
= 16 kN-m and T
C
= 7 kN-m,
which act in the directions shown in Fig. P15.9.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the surface
of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.9
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
16 kN-m 7 kN-m 0 9 kN-m
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ + = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 2
(150 mm) (130 mm) 4,398.230 mm
4
A
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

4 4 4
(150 mm) (130 mm) 21, 661, 281 mm
32
J
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
(75 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
17.052 MPa (T)
4,398.230 mm
P
A
o = = = (same o for both points H and K)

1
4
(9 kN-m)(150 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1, 000 mm/m)
31.162 MPa
21, 661, 281 mm
H
Tc
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point H is shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Principal stress calculations for point H:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(17.052) (0) (17.052) (0)
(31.162)
2 2
8.526 32.307
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 40.8 MPa 23.8 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 32.3 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 8.53 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
31.162 31.162
tan2 3.6548
( ) / 2 [(17.052) (0)] / 2 8.526
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 37 .35 of )
xy
p
x
p p
y
x
t
u
o o
o u = °
= = = =
÷ ÷
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.10 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter
of 150 mm and an inside diameter of 130 mm is
subjected to an axial tension load of P = 75 kN
and torques T
B
= 16 kN-m and T
C
= 7 kN-m,
which act in the directions shown in Fig.
P15.10.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point K on the surface
of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.10
Solution
Equilibrium:

2 2
7 kN-m 0 7 kN-m
x
M T T E = ÷ + = =

Section properties:

2 2 2
(150 mm) (130 mm) 4,398.230 mm
4
A
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

4 4 4
(150 mm) (130 mm) 21, 661, 281 mm
32
J
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
(75 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
17.052 MPa (T)
4,398.230 mm
P
A
o = = = (same o for both points H and K)

2
4
(7 kN-m)(150 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1, 000 mm/m)
24.237 MPa
21, 661, 281 mm
K
T c
J
t = = =
(sense of shear stress to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point K is shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Principal stress calculations for point K:

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(17.052) (0) (17.052) (0)
( 24.237)
2 2
8.526 25.493
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 34.2 MPa 17.17 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 25.7 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 8.53 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
24.237 24.237
tan2 2.8426
3
( ) / 2 [(17.052) (0)] / 2 8.526
(clockwise from the axis to the direction 5 3 of ) . 1
xy
p
x
p
y
p
x
t
u
o o
u o = ÷ °
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.11 A compound shaft consists of two
pipe segments. Segment (1) has an outside
diameter of 220 mm and a wall thickness of
10 mm. Segment (2) has an outside diameter
of 140 mm and a wall thickness of 15 mm.
The shaft is subjected to an axial
compression load of P = 100 kN and torques
T
B
= 8 kN-m and T
C
= 12 kN-m, which act
in the directions shown in Fig. P15.11.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point K on the
surface of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.11
Solution
Equilibrium:

2 2
12 kN-m 0 12 kN-m
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 2
2
4 4 4
2
(140 mm) (110 mm) 5,890.486 mm
4
(140 mm) (110 mm) 23,341, 052 mm
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
2 2
2
2 2
2 4
2
( 100 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
16.977 MPa (C)
5,890.486 mm
(12 kN-m)(140 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
35.988 MPa
23,341, 052 mm
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point K is shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Principal stress calculations for point K:

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 16.977) (0) ( 16.977) (0)
(35.988)
2 2
8.488 36.976
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 28.5 MPa 45.5 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 37.0 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 8.49 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

2
35.988 35.988
tan2 4.240
3
( ) / 2 [( 16.977) (0)] / 2 8.488
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 8.3 6 )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
o o
o u
u
= ÷ °
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.12 A compound shaft consists of two
pipe segments. Segment (1) has an outside
diameter of 220 mm and a wall thickness of
10 mm. Segment (2) has an outside diameter
of 140 mm and a wall thickness of 15 mm.
The shaft is subjected to an axial
compression load of P = 100 kN and torques
T
B
= 8 kN-m and T
C
= 12 kN-m, which act
in the directions shown in Fig. P15.12.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the
surface of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.12
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
8 kN-m 12 kN-m 0 4 kN-m
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 2
1
4 4 4
1
(220 mm) (200 mm) 6,597.345 mm
4
(220 mm) (200 mm) 72,900, 658 mm
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

1
1 2
1
1 1
1 4
1
( 100 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
15.158 MPa (C)
6,597.345 mm
(4 kN-m)(220 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
6.036 MPa
72,900, 658 mm
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point H is shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Principal stress calculations for point H:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 15.158) (0) ( 15.158) (0)
(6.036)
2 2
7.579 9.688
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 2.11 MPa 17.27 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 9.69 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 7.58 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

2
6.036 6.036
tan2 0.796
19.2
4
( ) / 2 [( 15.158) (0)] / 2 7.579
(clockwise from the axis to the directio 7 n of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
u
o
u
t
o
o
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.13 A compound shaft consists of two
pipe segments. Segment (1) has an outside
diameter of 6.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.375 in. Segment (2) has an outside
diameter of 4.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.50 in. The shaft is subjected to an axial
compression load of P = 50 kips and torques
T
B
= 30 kip-ft and T
C
= 8 kip-ft, which act in
the directions shown in Fig. P15.13.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point H on the
surface of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.13
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
30 kip-ft 8 kip-ft 0 22 kip-ft
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =

Section properties:

2 2 2
1
4 4 4
1
(6.50 in.) (5.75 in.) 7.215846 in.
4
(6.50 in.) (5.75 in.) 67.930422 in.
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

1
1 2
1
1 1
1 4
1
50 kips
6.929 ksi (C)
7.215846 in.
(22 kip-ft)(6.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
12.631 ksi
67.930422 in.
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point H is shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Principal stress calculations for point H:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 6.929) (0) ( 6.929) (0)
( 12.631)
2 2
3.465 13.097
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 9.63 ksi 16.56 ksi
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 13.1 ar s 0 tr ksi ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 3.46 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

2
12.631 12.631
tan2 3.6456
( ) / 2 [( 6.929) (0)] / 2 3.465
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 3 of ) 7.33
p
xy
p
x y
p
x
t
u
o o
o u
÷ ÷
= = = =
÷
=
÷ ÷
°
÷
Ans.

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15.14 A compound shaft consists of two
pipe segments. Segment (1) has an outside
diameter of 6.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.375 in. Segment (2) has an outside
diameter of 4.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.50 in. The shaft is subjected to an axial
compression load of P = 50 kips and torques
T
B
= 30 kip-ft and T
C
= 8 kip-ft, which act in
the directions shown in Fig. P15.14.
(a) Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress at point K on the
surface of the shaft.
(b) Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.14
Solution
Equilibrium:

2 2
8 kip-ft 0 8 kip-ft
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 2
2
4 4 4
2
(4.50 in.) (3.50 in.) 6.283185 in.
4
(4.50 in.) (3.50 in.) 25.525440 in.
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
2 2
2
2 2
2 4
2
50 kips
7.958 ksi (C)
6.283185 in.
(8 kip-ft)(4.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
8.462 ksi
25.525440 in.
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

The stress element for point K is shown below.

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Principal stress calculations for point K:

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 7.958) (0) ( 7.958) (0)
(8.462)
2 2
3.979 9.351
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 5.37 ksi 13.33 ksi
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 9.35 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 3.98 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

2
8.462 8.462
tan2 2.126
32.4
8
( ) / 2 [( 7.958) (0)] / 2 3.979
(clockwise from the axis to the directio 1 n of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
u
o
u
t
o
o
= = = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ° Ans.

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15.15 The cylinder in Fig. P15.15 consists of spirally
wrapped steel plates that are welded at the seams in
the orientation shown. The cylinder has an outside
diameter of 320 mm and a wall thickness of 8 mm.
The ends of the cylinder are capped by two rigid end
plates. The cylinder is subjected to tension axial loads
of P = 85 kN and torques of T = 40 kN-m, which are
applied to the rigid end caps in the directions shown
in Fig. P15.15. Determine:
(a) the normal stress perpendicular to the weld seams.
(b) the shear stress parallel to the weld seams.
(c) the absolute maximum shear stress in the cylinder.

Fig. P15.15
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
(320 mm) (304 mm) 7,841.415 mm
4
(320 mm) (304 mm) 190,954,144 mm
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
4
(85 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
10.840 MPa (T)
7,841.415 mm
(40 kN-m)(320 mm/ 2)(1, 000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
33.516 MPa
190,954,144 mm
P
A
Tc
J
o
t
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

A stress element for a point on the weld seam is shown below.

(a) Normal stress perpendicular to the weld seams:
The normal stress perpendicular to the weld seam can be determined by Mohr’s circle or the stress
transformation equations directly. From the normal stress transformation equation Eq. (12.3):

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(10.840 MPa)cos ( 35 ) (0)sin ( 35 ) 2(33.516 MPa)sin( 35 )cos( 3
38.8 MPa
5 )
38.768 MPa (T T ) ( )
n x y xy
o o u o u t u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

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(b) Shear stress parallel to the weld seams:
The shear stress parallel to the weld seam can be determined from the shear stress transformation
equation [Eq. (12.4)]:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(10.840 MPa) (0)]sin( 35 )cos( 35 ) (33.516 MPa)[cos ( 35 ) sin ( 35 )]
6.370 M 6.37 Pa MPa
nt x y xy
t o o u u t u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ ÷ °
= ÷ ÷ = Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(10.840) (0) (10.840) (0)
( 33.516)
2 2
5.420 33.951
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
39.371 MPa and 28.531 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷
The outer surface of the cylinder is in plane stress; therefore, o
p3
= 0. Since o
p1
and o
p2
have opposite
signs, the absolute maximum shear stress will be equal to the maximum in-plane shear stress:

abs max max
34.0 MPa t t = = Ans.

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15.16 The cylinder in Fig. P15.16 consists of spirally wrapped steel
plates that are welded at the seams in the orientation shown. The
cylinder has an inside diameter of 36 in. and a wall thickness of
0.375 in. The end of the cylinder is capped by a rigid end plate. The
cylinder is subjected to a compressive load of P = 100 kips and a
torque of T = 240 kip-ft, which are applied to the rigid end cap in the
directions shown in Fig. P15.16. Determine:
(a) the normal stress perpendicular to the weld seams.
(b) the shear stress parallel to the weld seams.
(c) the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress on the
outside surface of the cylinder.
Fig. P15.16
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
(36.750 in.) (36.000 in.) 42.853287 in.
4
(36.750 in.) (36.000 in.) 14,176.7379 in.
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
4
100 kips
2.334 ksi (C)
42.853287 in.
(240 kip-ft)(36.750 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
3.733 ksi
14,176.7379 in.
P
A
Tc
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stresses to be determined by inspection)

A stress element for a point on the weld seam is shown below.

(a) Normal stress perpendicular to the weld seams:
The normal stress perpendicular to the weld seam can be determined by Mohr’s circle or the stress
transformation equations directly. From the normal stress transformation equation Eq. (12.3):

2 2
2 2
cos sin 2 sin cos
(0)cos ( 60 ) ( 2.334 ksi)sin ( 60 ) 2(3.733 ksi)sin( 60 )cos
4.98 ksi (C)
( 60 )
4.9829 ksi (C)
n x y xy
o o u o u t u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ÷ ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷ °
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) Shear stress parallel to the weld seams:
The shear stress parallel to the weld seam can be determined from the shear stress transformation
equation [Eq. (12.4)]:

2 2
2 2
( )sin cos (cos sin )
[(0) ( 2.334 ksi)]sin( 60 )cos( 60 ) (3.733 ksi)[cos ( 6
0.856
0 ) sin ( 60 )]
0.8560 s ks k i i
nt x y xy
t o o u u t u u = ÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ° ÷ ° + ÷ ° ÷
÷
÷ °
= ÷ = Ans.

(c) Principal stresses and the maximum shear stress:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(0) ( 2.334) (0) ( 2.334)
(3.733)
2 2
1.167 3.911
x y x y
p p xy
o o o o
o t
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 2.74 ksi 5.08 ksi
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 3.91 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 1.167 ksi shear st (C) ress) o = Ans.

1
36.3
3.733 3.733
tan2 3.199
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 2.334)] / 2 1.167
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of 2 )
xy
p
x y
p p
x
t
u
o
o u
o
= = = =
÷ ÷
°
÷
= Ans.

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15.17 A hollow shaft is subjected to an axial load P and a
torque T, acting in the directions shown in Fig. P15.17.
The shaft is made of aluminum [E = 70 GPa; v = 0.33],
and it has an outside diameter of 100 mm and an inside
diameter of 90 mm. A strain gage is mounted at an angle
of 35° with respect to the longitudinal axis of the shaft, as
shown in Fig. P15.17.
(a) If P = 45,000 N and T = 3,100 N-m, determine the
strain reading that would be expected from the gage.
(b) If the strain gage gives a reading of −1,700 µc when
the axial load has a magnitude of P = 52,000 N, what is
the magnitude of the torque T applied to the shaft?

Fig. P15.17
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
(100 mm) (90 mm) 1, 492.257 mm
4
(100 mm) (90 mm) 3,376, 230 mm
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

(a) Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
4
45,000 N
30.156 MPa (C)
1, 492.257 mm
(3,100 N-m)(100 mm/ 2)(1,000 mm/m)
45.909 MPa
3,376, 230 mm
P
A
Tc
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

(sense of shear stress to be determined by inspection)

A stress element showing the normal and shear stresses is shown below.

Generalized Hooke’s Law:
Since the stresses are known, the normal strains in the x and y directions can be computed from Eqs.
(13.21):

6
1 1
( ) [ 30.156 MPa (0.33)(0)]
70, 000 MPa
430.795 10 mm/mm 430.795 με
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷
= ÷ × = ÷

6
1 1
( ) [0 (0.33)( 30.156 MPa)]
70, 000 MPa
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷
= × =

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From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

70, 000 MPa
26, 316.8 MPa
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

6
45.909 MPa
26, 316.8 MPa
xy
xy
G
t
¸
÷
÷
= = = ÷ ×

Strain transformation equation:
Determine the strain that should be measured by the strain gage oriented at u = +35°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
( 430.795 με)cos (35 ) (142.162 με)sin (35 ) ( 1, 744.549 μrad)sin(35 )cos(35 )
1, 061.968 με 1, 062 με
n x y xy
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ÷ ° + ° + ÷ ° °
÷ = ÷ = Ans.

(b) Normal stress magnitude:
For an applied load of P = 52,000 N:

2
52,000 N
34.847 MPa
1, 492.257 mm
P
A
o
÷
= = = ÷

Generalized Hooke’s Law:
The normal stresses are known; therefore, the normal strains in the x and y directions can be computed
from Eqs. (13.21):

6
1 1
( ) [ 34.847 MPa (0.33)(0)]
70, 000 MPa
497.808 10 mm/mm 497.808 με
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷
= ÷ × = ÷

6
1 1
( ) [0 (0.33)( 34.847 MPa)]
70, 000 MPa
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷
= × =

Strain transformation equation:
The strain gage measures a normal strain of c
n
= –1,700 µc at an orientation of u = +35°. From the
normal strain transformation equation, determine the shear strain:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
1, 700 με ( 497.808 με) cos (35 ) (164.277 με) sin (35 ) sin(35 ) cos(35 )
n x y xy
xy
c c u c u ¸ u u
¸
= + +
÷ = ÷ ° + ° + ° °
therefore:

2 2
( 497.808 με) cos (35 ) (164.277 με) sin (35 ) 1, 700 με
sin(35 ) cos(35 )
xy
¸
÷ ° + ° +
= ÷ = ÷
° °

Shear stress:
The shear stress t
xy
can be computed from Eq. (13.20):

6
(26,315.789 MPa)( 3, 022.289 10 rad) 79.534 MPa
xy xy
G t ¸
÷
= = ÷ × = ÷

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Torque:
The torque required to produce this shear stress magnitude is found from:

2 4
(79.534 N/mm )(3,376, 230 mm )
5,370, 496 N-mm
100 mm
5,370
/ 2
N-m
J
T
c
t
= = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.18 A solid 3-in.-diameter shaft is subjected to an axial
load P and a torque T, acting in the directions shown in
Fig. P15.18. The shaft is made of aluminum [E = 10,000
ksi; v = 0.33]. Strain gages a and b are mounted on the
shaft at the orientations shown in Fig. P15.18.
(a) If P = 43 kips and T = 27 kip-in., determine the strain
readings that would be expected from the gages.
(b) If the strain gage readings are c
a
= 870 µc and c
b
=
−635 µc, determine the axial force P and the torque T
applied to the shaft.

Fig. P15.18
Solution
Section properties:

2 2
(3 in.) 7.06858 in.
4
A
t
= =

4 4
(3 in.) 7.95216 in.
32
J
t
= =
(a) Normal and shear stress magnitudes:

2
43 kips
6.083 ksi (T)
7.06858 in.
P
A
o = = =

4
(27 kip-in.)(3 in. / 2)
5.093 ksi
7.95216 in.
Tc
J
t = = = (sense of shear stress determined by inspection)
A stress element showing the normal and shear stresses is shown below.

Generalized Hooke’s Law:
Since the stresses are known, the normal strains in the x and y directions can be computed from Eqs.
(13.21):

6
1 1
( ) [6.083 ksi (0.33)(0)]
10, 000 ksi
608.325 10 in./in. 608.325 με
x x y
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= × =

6
1 1
( ) [0 (0.33)(6.083 ksi)]
10, 000 ksi
200.747 10 in./in. 200.747 με
y y x
E
c o vo
÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ × = ÷

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

10, 000 ksi
3, 759.398 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
E
G
v
= = =
+ +

and compute the shear stress t
xy
from Eq. (13.20):

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6
5.093 ksi
3, 759.398 ksi
xy
xy
G
t
¸
÷
= = = ×

Strain transformation equation:
Determine the strain that should be measured by strain gage a, which is oriented at u
a
= +60°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(608.325 με)cos (60 ) ( 200.747 με)sin (60 ) (1,354.728 μrad)sin(60 )cos(60 )
588.135 με 588 με
a x a y a xy a a
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= = Ans.

Determine the strain that should be measured by strain gage b, which is oriented at u
b
= +150°:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
(608.325 με)cos (150 ) ( 200.747 με)sin (150 ) (1,354.728 μrad)sin(150 )cos(1
180.6
50 )
180 μ .558 μ ε ε
b x b y b xy b b
c c u c u ¸ u u = + +
= ° + ÷ ° + ° °
= ÷ = ÷ Ans.

(b) Generalized Hooke’s Law:
Using the generalized Hooke’s Law and recognizing that the normal stress in the y direction is o
y
= 0,
the normal strains in the x and y directions can be expressed as:

1
( )
x
x x y
E E
o
c o vo = ÷ = and
1
( )
x
y y x
E E
vo
c o vo = ÷ = ÷
Write a strain transformation equation for each strain gage. For gage a:

2 2
2 2
cos sin sin cos
sin(60 ) cos(60 )
cos (60 ) sin (60 )
a x a y a xy a a
xy
x x
E E G
c c u c u ¸ u u
t
o vo
= + +
° °
° °
= ÷ +
which can be further simplified with Eq. (13.18):

2(1 )
E
G
v
=
+

to

2 2
2(1 ) sin(60 ) cos(60 )
cos (60 ) sin (60 )
xy
x x
a
E E E
v t
o vo
c
+ ° °
° °
= ÷ +
A similar expression can be written for gage b:

2 2
2(1 ) sin(150 ) cos(150 )
cos (150 ) sin (150 )
xy
x x
b
E E E
v t
o vo
c
+ ° °
° °
= ÷ +

We now have two equations for the two unknowns o
x
and t
xy
:

| |
| |
6 2 2
6 2 2
(10, 000 ksi)(870 10 ) cos (60 ) (0.33)sin (60 ) 2(1 0.33)sin(60 ) cos(60 )
(10, 000 ksi)( 635 10 ) cos (150 ) (0.33)sin (150 ) 2(1 0.33)sin(150 ) cos(150 )
x xy
x xy
o t
o t
÷
÷
( × = ° ÷ ° + + ° °
¸ ¸
( ÷ × = ° ÷ ° + + ° °
¸ ¸

Solve simultaneously for o
x
and t
xy
:

xy
3.507 ksi 7.546 ksi
x
o t = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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2
(3.507 ksi)(7.06858 in. ) 24.793 kips 2 (T) 4.8 kips (T) P A o = = = = Ans.

Torque:

4
(7.546 ksi)(7.95216 in. )
40.003 kip-in.
3 i
40.0 kip-in.
n. / 2
J
T
c
t
= = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.19 A flanged-shaped flexural member is subjected to an internal axial force of P = 8.5 kN, an internal
shear force of V = 13.2 kN, and an internal bending moment of M = 2.1 kN-m, as shown Fig. P15.19a.
Determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress acting at points H and K, as shown Fig.
P15.19b. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch for each point.
Fig. P15.19a Fig. P15.19b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(mm) (mm) (mm
2
) (mm) (mm
3
)
top flange 35 6 210.0 62.0 13,020.0
web 6 53 318.0 32.5 10,335.0
bottom flange 50 6 300.0 3.0 900.0
828 mm
2

24,255 mm
3

3
2
24, 255.0 mm
29.293 mm
828 mm
i i
i
y A
y
A
(measured upward from bottom edge of bottom flange)

Moment of inertia about the z axis: (i.e., horizontal axis)
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
top flange 630.000 32.707 224,640.478 225,270.478
web 74,438.500 3.207 3,269.607 77,708.107
bottom flange 900.000 −26.293 207,404.100 208,304.100
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 511,282.685

Axial stress at point H:

2
8, 500 N
10.266 MPa
828 mm
x
F
A

Bending stress at point H: (y = 65 mm − 15 mm − 29.293 mm = 20.707 mm)

4
( 2.100 kN-m)(20.707 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
85.048 MPa
511,282.685 mm
x
z
My
I

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(35 mm)(6 mm)(32.707 mm) (6 mm)(9 mm)(25.207 mm) 8, 229.522 mm Q

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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3
4
(13, 200 N)(8, 229.522 mm )
35.411 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(511.282.685 mm )(6 mm)
VQ
It

Stress element at H:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(95.314) (0) (95.314) (0)
(35.411)
2 2
47.657 59.373
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 107.0 MPa 11.72 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 59.4 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 47.7 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) Ans.

1
35.411 35.411
tan2 0.7430
( ) / 2 [(95.314) (0)] / 2 47.657
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 18 of ) .31
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Axial stress at point K:

2
8, 500 N
10.266 MPa
828 mm
x
F
A

Bending stress at point K: (y = 15 mm − 29.293 mm = −14.293 mm)

4
( 2.100 kN-m)( 14.293 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
58.708 MPa
511,282.685 mm
x
z
My
I

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(50 mm)(6 mm)(26.293 mm) (6 mm)(9 mm)(18.793 mm) 8, 902.891 mm Q

3
4
(13, 200 N)(8,902.891 mm )
38.308 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(511.282.685 mm )(6 mm)
VQ
It

Stress element at K:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 48.442) (0) ( 48.442) (0)
(38.308)
2 2
24.221 45.323
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 21.1 MPa 69.5 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 45.3 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 24.2 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

2
38.308 38.308
tan2 1.581
28.85
6
( ) / 2 [( 48.442) (0)] / 2 24.221
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.

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permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.20 A hollow structural steel flexural member (Fig.
P15.20b) is subjected to the load shown in Fig. P15.20a.
Determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at points H and K, as shown Fig. P15.20b. Show
these stresses on an appropriate sketch for each point.

Fig. P15.20b Fig. P15.20a
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
outer rectangle 500.000 0.000 0.000 500.000
inner rectangle −392.964 0.000 0.000 −392.964
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 107.036

Bending stress at point H:

4
(325 kip-in.)(3.00 in.)
9.109 ksi (tension, by inspection)
107.036 in.
y

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(6 in.)(0.25 in.)(4.875 in.) 2(0.25 in.)(1.750 in.)(3.875 in.) 10.703 in. Q

3
4
(13 kips)(10.703 in. )
2.600 ksi (Note: Sense to be determined by inspection)
(107.036 in. )(2)(0.250 in.)
VQ
It

Stress element at H:

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(0) (9.109) (0) (9.109)
(2.600)
2 2
4.555 5.244
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 9.80 ksi 0.690 ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 5.24 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 4.56 ksi ( shear str s T) es ) Ans.

2
2.600 2.600
tan2 0.5708
( ) / 2 [(0) (9.109)] / 2 4.555
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 4. ) 86 1
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.

Bending stress at point K:

4
(325 kip-in.)(2.00 in.)
6.073 ksi (compression, by inspection)
107.036 in.
y

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(6 in.)(0.25 in.)(4.875 in.) 2(0.25 in.)(2.750 in.)(3.375 in.) 11.953 in. Q

3
4
(13 kips)(11.953 in. )
2.904 ksi (Note: Sense to be determined by inspection)
(107.036 in. )(2)(0.250 in.)
VQ
It

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Stress element at K:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(0) ( 6.073) (0) ( 6.073)
(2.904)
2 2
3.036 4.201
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
an 1.165 ksi 7.24 d ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 4.20 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 3.04 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

1
21.8
2.904 2.904
tan2 0.9562
( ) / 2 [(0) (6.073)] / 2 3.036
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction o ) 6 f
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.21 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point H, as shown on Figs. P15.21a and P15.21b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.21a Fig. P15.21b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
top flange 200 16 68,266.667 167.000 89,244,800.000 89,313,066.667
web 9 318 24,118,074.000 0.000 0.000 24,118,074.000
bottom flange 200 16 68,266.667 −167.000 89,244,800.000 89,313,066.667
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 202,744,207.333

Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at H:
V = 72.32 kN

Bending moment at H:
M = 86.79 kN-m

Bending stress at point H: (y = 50 mm)

4
(86.79 kN-m)(50 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
21.404 MPa
202,744,207 mm
x
z
My
I

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(200 mm)(16 mm)(167 mm) (9 mm)(109 mm)(104.5 mm) 636, 914.50 mm Q

3
4
(72,320 N)(636,914.50 mm )
25.243 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(202,744, 207 mm )(9 mm)
VQ
It

Stress element at H:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 21.404) (0) ( 21.404) (0)
( 25.243)
2 2
10.702 27.418
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
an 16.72 MPa 38.1 d MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 27.4 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 10.70 MPa shear st (C) ress) Ans.

2
25.243 25.243
tan2 2.3588
( ) / 2 [( 21.404) (0)] / 2 10.702
(counterclockwise from the axis to the dir 33.51 ection of )
y
p
xy
p
x
p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.22 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point K, as shown on Figs. P15.22a and P15.22b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.22a Fig. P15.22b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
top flange 200 16 68,266.667 167.000 89,244,800.000 89,313,066.667
web 9 318 24,118,074.000 0.000 0.000 24,118,074.000
bottom flange 200 16 68,266.667 −167.000 89,244,800.000 89,313,066.667
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 202,744,207.333

Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at K:
V = −32.68 kN

Bending moment at K:
M = 222.43 kN-m

Bending stress at point K: (y = −35 mm)

4
(222.43 kN-m)( 35 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
38.398 MPa
202,744,207 mm
x
z
My
I

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(200 mm)(16 mm)(167 mm) (9 mm)(124 mm)(97 mm) 642, 652.0 mm Q

3
4
(32,680 N)(642,652.0 mm )
11.510 MPa (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(202,744, 207 mm )(9 mm)
VQ
It

Stress element at K:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(38.398) (0) (38.398) (0)
(11.510)
2 2
19.199 22.385
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 41.6 MPa 3.19 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 22.4 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 19.20 MPa shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
11.510 11.510
tan2 0.5995
( ) / 2 [(38.398) (0)] / 2 19.199
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 15 of ) .47
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.23 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point H, as shown on Figs. P15.23a and P15.23b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.23a Fig. P15.23b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 8 0.625 0.1628 6.6875 223.6133 223.7760
web 0.35 12.75 60.4529 0.0000 0.0000 60.4529
bottom flange 8 0.625 0.1628 −6.6875 223.6133 223.7760
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 508.0050

Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at H:
V = 12.00 kips

Bending moment at H:
M = 48.00 kip-ft

Bending stress at point H: (y = −1.50 in.)

4
(48.00 kip-ft)( 1.50 in.)(12 in./ft)
1.701 ksi
508.005 in.
x
z
My
I

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(8 in.)(0.625 in.)(6.6875 in.) (0.35 in.)(4.875 in.)(3.9375 in.) 40.156 in. Q

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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3
4
(12 kips)(40.156 in. )
2.710 ksi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(508.005 in. )(0.35 in.)
VQ
It

Stress element at H:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(1.701) (0) (1.701) (0)
(2.710)
2 2
0.850 2.840
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 3.69 ksi 1.990 ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 2.84 ar s 0 tr ksi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 0.850 ksi shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
2.710 2.710
tan2 3.187
36.2
0
( ) / 2 [(1.701) (0)] / 2 0.850
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 9
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
15.24 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point K, as shown on Figs. P15.24a and P15.24b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.24a Fig. P15.24b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 8 0.625 0.1628 6.6875 223.6133 223.7760
web 0.35 12.75 60.4529 0.0000 0.0000 60.4529
bottom flange 8 0.625 0.1628 −6.6875 223.6133 223.7760
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 508.0050

Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at K:
V = −18.00 kips

Bending moment at K:
M = 72.00 kip-ft

Bending stress at point K: (y = 2.0 in.)

4
(72.00 kip-ft)(2.0 in.)(12 in./ft)
3.402 ksi
508.005 in.
x
z
My
I

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(8 in.)(0.625 in.)(6.6875 in.) (0.35 in.)(4.375 in.)(4.1875 in.) 39.850 in. Q

3
4
(18 kips)(39.850 in. )
4.034 ksi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(508.005 in. )(0.35 in.)
VQ
It

Stress element at K:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 3.402) (0) ( 3.402) (0)
(4.034)
2 2
1.701 4.378
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 2.68 ksi 6.08 ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 4.38 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 1.701 ksi shear st (C) ress) Ans.

2
4.034 4.034
tan2 2.372
33.5
0
( ) / 2 [( 3.402) (0)] / 2 1.701
(clockwise from the axis to the directio 7 n of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.25 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point H, as shown on Figs. P15.25a and P15.25b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.25a Fig. P15.25b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of tee shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(in.) (in.) (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
3
)
top flange 8 2 16.000 9.000 144.000
stem 2 8 16.000 4.000 64.000
32.000 in.
2

208.000 in.
3

3
2
208.00 in.
6.50 in.
32.00 in.
i i
i
y A
y
A
(measured upward from bottom edge of stem)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 5.333 2.500 100.000 105.333
stem 85.333 −2.500 100.000 185.333
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 290.667

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at H:
V = 620 lb

Bending moment at H:
M = 2.760 lb-ft

Bending stress at point H: (y = −2.0 in.)

4
(2, 760 lb-ft)( 2.00 in.)(12 in./ft)
227.890 psi
290.667 in.
x
z
My
I

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(2 in.)(4.5 in.)(4.25 in.) 38.250 in. Q

3
4
(620 lb)(38.250 in. )
40.794 psi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(290.667 in. )(2 in.)
VQ
It

Stress element at H:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
(227.890) (0) (227.890) (0)
( 40.794)
2 2
113.945 121.027
x y x y
p p xy

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

1 2
an 235.0 psi 7.08 d psi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 121. ar s 0 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 113.9 psi shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
40.794 40.794
tan2 0.35
9.8
80
( ) / 2 [(227.890) (0)] / 2 113.945
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 5
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.26 For the simply supported beam shown, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear
stress acting at point K, as shown on Figs. P15.26a and P15.26b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch.

Fig. P15.26a Fig. P15.26b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of tee shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(in.) (in.) (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
3
)
top flange 8 2 16.000 9.000 144.000
stem 2 8 16.000 4.000 64.000
32.000 in.
2

208.000 in.
3

3
2
208.00 in.
6.50 in.
32.00 in.
i i
i
y A
y
A
(measured upward from bottom edge of stem)

Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
top flange 5.333 2.500 100.000 105.333
stem 85.333 −2.500 100.000 185.333
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 290.667

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Shear-force and bending-moment diagram:

Shear force at K:
V = −1,380 lb

Bending moment at K:
M = −1,040 lb-ft

Bending stress at point K: (y = −2.0 in.)

4
( 1, 040 lb-ft)( 2.00 in.)(12 in./ft)
85.872 psi
290.667 in.
x
z
My
I

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(2 in.)(4.5 in.)(4.25 in.) 38.250 in. Q

3
4
(1,3800 lb)(38.250 in. )
90.800 psi (Sense to be determined by inspection)
(290.667 in. )(2 in.)
VQ
It

Stress element at K:

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
1, 2
2
2
2 2
( 85.872) (0) ( 85.872) (0)
(90.800)
2 2
42.936 100.439
x y x y
p p xy

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1 2
and 57.5 psi 143.4 psi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 100. ar s 4 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 42.9 psi ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

2
90.800 90.800
tan2 2.114
32.35
8
( ) / 2 [( 85.872) (0)] / 2 42.936
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.

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15.27 For the vertical flexural member shown,
determine the principal stresses and the maximum
shear stress acting at points H and K, as shown on
Figs. P15.27a and P15.27b. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch for each point.
Fig. P15.27a Fig. P15.27b
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
(12 in.)(6 in.) 72 in.
(6 in.)(12 in.)
864 in.
12
z
A
I

3
3
3.25 in.
(6 in.)(3.25 in.) 2.75 in. 85.3125 in.
2
85.3125 in.
H
K H
Q
Q Q

Internal forces at H:

6 kips 0
6 kips
16 kips 8 kips 0
24 kips
(6 kips)(18 in.) (8 kips)(34 in.) 0
164 kip-in.
x H
H
y H
H
H
H
F V
V
F F
F
M M
M
Axial stress at H:

axial
2
24 kips
0.333333 ksi 333.333 psi (C) (by inspection)
72 in.

Shear stress at H:

3
4
(6 kips)(85.3125 in. )
0.098741 ksi 98.741 psi
(864 in. )(6 in.)
H

Bending stress at H:

bend 4
(164 kip-in.)(2.75 in.)
0.521991 ksi
864 in.
521.991 psi (T) (by inspection)
Summary of stresses at H:

0 psi
333.333 psi 521.991 psi 188.658 psi
98.741 psi
x
y
xy

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Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) (188.548) (0) (188.548)
( 98.741)
2 2 2 2
94.329 136.557
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 231 psi 42.2 psi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 136. ar s 6 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 94.3 psi ( shear str s T) es ) Ans.

2
98.741 98.741
tan2 1.046779
( ) / 2 [(0) (188.657)] / 2 94.329
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 23.16
xy
p
p p
x y
x Ans.

Internal forces at K:

6 kips 0
6 kips
16 kips 8 kips 0
24 kips
(6 kips)(18 in. 56 in.) (8 kips)(34 in.) 0
172 kip-in.
x K
K
y K
K
K
K
F V
V
F F
F
M M
M
Axial stress at K:

axial
2
24 kips
0.333333 ksi 333.333 psi (C) (by inspection)
72 in.

Shear stress at K:

3
4
(6 kips)(85.3125 in. )
0.098741 ksi 98.741 psi
(864 in. )(6 in.)
H

Bending stress at K:

bend
4
(172 kip-in.)(2.75 in.)
0.547453 ksi 547.453 psi (C) (by inspection)
864 in.

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Summary of stresses at K:

0 psi
333.333 psi 547.453 psi 880.786 psi
98.741 psi
x
y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) ( 880.786) (0) ( 880.786)
( 98.741)
2 2 2 2
440.393 451.327
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
an 10.93 psi 892 psi d
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shear 451 str ps s i es ) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane s 440 psi (C hear str s) ) es Ans.

1
98.741 98.741
tan2 0.22
6.3
4212
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 880.786)] / 2 440.393
(clockwise from the axis to the direction 2 of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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15.28 For horizontal flexural member AB, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress
acting at points H and K, as shown on Figs. P15.28a and P15.28b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch for each point.

Fig. P15.28a Fig. P15.28b
Solution
Centroid location in y direction: (reference axis at bottom of shape)
Shape Width b Height h Area A
i
y
i

(from bottom) y
i
A
i
(mm) (mm) (mm
2
) (mm) (mm
3
)
top flange 60 16 960 108 103,680
stem 16 100 1,600 50 80,000
2,560 183,680

3
2
183, 680 mm
71.75 mm
2,560 mm
i i
i
y A
y
A
(measured upward from bottom edge of stem)

Moment of inertia about the z axis: (i.e., horizontal axis)
Shape I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
top flange 20,480.00 36.25 1,261,500.00 1,281,980.00
stem 1,333,333.33 –21.75 756,900.00 2,090,233.33
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 3,372,213.33

Equilibrium:

cos(32.667 ) 0
sin(32.667 ) 6, 000 N
(30 N/mm)(800 mm) 0
(1, 700 mm)sin(32.667 )
(40 mm)cos(32.667 )
(6, 000 N)(1,700 mm)
(30 N/mm)(800 mm)(400 mm) 0
x x AC
y y AC
B AC
AC
F B F
F B F
M F
F

20,814.557 N 17,552.124 N 18, 765.226 N
AC x y
F B B

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Internal forces at H:

0 17,552.124 N
(30 N/mm)(800 mm) 0
5, 234.774 N
(1,100 mm)
(30 N/mm)(800 mm)(700 mm) 0
3,841, 749.089 N-mm
x x H H
y H y
H
H H y
H
F B F F
F V B
V
M M B
M

Axial stress at H:

axial
2
17,522.124 N
6.845 MPa (T)
2,560 mm

Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(16 mm)(50 mm)(71.75 mm 25 mm) 37, 400 mm
(5, 234.774 N)(37,400 mm )
3.629 MPa
(3,372,213.33 mm )(16 mm)
H
H
Q

Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(3,841, 749.089 N-mm)( 71.75 mm 50 mm)
24.778 MPa (T)
3,372,213.33 mm

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(31.623) (0) (31.623) (0)
( 3.629)
2 2 2 2
15.811 16.223
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 32.0 MPa 0.411 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 16.2 ar s 2 tr MPa ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 15.81 MPa shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
3.629 3.629
tan2 0.229489
( ) / 2 [(31.623) (0)] / 2 15.811
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 6.46 )
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.
Summary of stresses at H:

6.845 MPa 24.778 MPa 31.623 MPa
0 MPa
3.629 MPa
x
y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq.
(12.12):

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Internal forces at K:

0 17,552.124 N
(30 N/mm)(300 mm) 0 9, 765.226 N
(300 mm) (30 N/mm)(300 mm)(150 mm) 0
4, 279,567.933 N-mm
x x K K
y K y K
K K y
K
F B F F
F V B V
M M B
M

Axial stress at K:

axial
2
17,522.124 N
6.845 MPa (T)
2,560 mm

Shear stress at K:

3
3
4
37, 400 mm
(9, 765.226 N)(37,400 mm )
6.769 MPa
(3,372,213.33 mm )(16 mm)
K
K
Q

Bending stress at K:

bend
4
(4, 279,567.933 N-mm)( 71.75 mm 50 mm)
27.602 MPa (T)
3,372,213.33 mm

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(34.447) (0) (34.447) (0)
(6.769)
2 2 2 2
17.223 18.506
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 35.7 MPa 1.282 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 18.5 ar s 1 tr MPa ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 17.22 MPa shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
6.769 6.769
tan2 0.393007
( ) / 2 [(34.447) (0)] / 2 17.223
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 10 of ) .73
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.
Summary of stresses at K:

6.845 MPa 27.602 MPa 34.447 MPa
0 MPa
6.769 MPa
x
y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq.
(12.12):

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15.29 For vertical flexural member BD, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress
acting at point H, as shown on Figs. P15.29a and P15.29b. Show these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.29a Fig. P15.29b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
flange 10 0.75 0.3516 5.3750 216.6797 217.0313
web 0.5 10 41.6667 0.0000 0.0000 41.6667
flange 10 0.75 0.3516 –5.3750 216.6797 217.0313
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 475.7292

Equilibrium:
cos(55.008 ) (35 kips)cos(50 ) 0
sin(55.008 ) (35 kips)sin(50 ) 0
(100 in.)cos(55.008 )
(12 in.)sin(55.008 )
(35 kips)(74 in.)cos(50 )
(35 kips)(76 in.)sin(50 ) 0
x x DE
y y DE
B DE
DE
F B F
F B F
M F
F

55.116 kips
9.109 kips
71.964 kips
DE
x
y
F
B
B

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Internal forces at H:

0 9.109 kips
0 71.964 kips
(20 in.) 0 182.182 kip-in.
x x H H
y H y H
H H x H
F B V V
F F B F
M M B M

Axial stress at H:

2
axial
2
2(10 in.)(0.75 in.) (0.5 in.)(10 in.) 20 in.
71.964 kips
3.598 ksi (C)
20 in.
A

Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(10 in.)(0.75 in.)(5 in. 0.375 in.) (0.5 in.)(2.25 in.)(2.75 in. 1.125 in.) 44.6719 in.
(9.109 kips)(44.6719 in. )
1.711 ksi
(475.7292 in. )(0.5 in.)
H
H
Q

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) ( 4.651) (0) ( 4.651)
(1.711)
2 2 2 2
2.326 2.887
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
an 0.561 ksi 5.21 d ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 2.89 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 2.33 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

1
1.711 1.711
tan2 0.735588
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 4.651)] / 2 2.326
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 18.17
xy
x
p p
p
y
x Ans.

Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(182.182 kip-in.)(2.75 in.)
1.053 ksi (C) (by inspection)
475.7292 in.

Summary of stresses at H:

0 ksi
3.598 ksi 1.053 ksi 4.651 ksi
1.711 ksi
x
y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

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15.30 For horizontal flexural member AB, determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress
acting at points H and K, as shown on Figs. P15.30a and P15.30b. Show these stresses on an appropriate
sketch for each point.
Fig. P15.30a

Fig. P15.30b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape Width b Height h I
C

d = y
i
– y
d²A I
C
+ d²A
(in.) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.) (in.
4
) (in.
4
)
flange 6.75 0.455 0.0530 6.7725 140.8683 140.9213
web 0.285 13.090 53.2700 0.0000 0.0000 53.2700
flange 6.75 0.455 0.0530 –6.7725 140.8683 140.9213
Moment of inertia about the z axis (in.
4
) = 335.1125

Equilibrium:
cos(35.311 ) 0
sin(35.311 ) 25 kips 15 kips 0
(12 ft)(12 in./ft)sin(35.311 )
(10 in.)cos(35.311 )
(25 kips)(4 ft)(12 in./ft)
(15 kips)(8 ft)(12 in./ft) 0
x x BC
y y BC
A BC
BC
F A F
F A F
M F
F

28.886 kips
23.571 kips
23.304 kips
BC
x
y
F
A
A

Internal forces at H:

0 23.571 kips
0 23.304 kips
(2 ft)(12 in./ft) 0 559.286 kip-in.
x x H H
y y H H
H H y H
F A F F
F A V V
M M A M

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Axial stress at H:

2
axial
2
2(6.75 in.)(0.455 in.) (0.285 in.)(13.090 in.) 9.873 in.
23.571 kips
2.387 ksi (C)
9.873 in.
A

Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(6.75 in.)(0.455 in.)(7 in. 0.2275 in.) (0.285 in.)(3.545 in.)(3 in. 1.7725 in.) 25.622 in.
(23.304 kips)(25.622 in. )
6.252 ksi
(335.1125 in. )(0.285 in.)
H
H
Q

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(2.619) (0) (2.619) (0)
( 6.252)
2 2 2 2
1.310 6.387
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 7.70 ksi 5.08 ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 6.39 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 1.310 ksi shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
6.252 6.252
tan2 4.773333
( ) / 2 [(2.619) (0)] / 2 1.310
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 39.08 )
y
p
p p
x
x y
x Ans.

Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(559.286 kip-in.)( 3 in.)
5.007 ksi (T) (by inspection)
335.1125 in.

Summary of stresses at H:

2.387 ksi 5.007 ksi 2.619 ksi 0 ksi
6.252 ksi
x y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

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Internal forces at K:

0 23.571 kips
25 kips 15 kips 0
16.696 kips
(10 ft)(12 in./ft) (25 kips)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)
(15 kips)(2 ft)(12 in./ft) 0
636.428 kip-in.
x x K K
y y K
K
K K y
K
F A F F
F A V
V
M M A
M

Axial stress at K:

axial
2
23.571 kips
2.387 ksi (C)
9.873 in.

Shear stress at K:

3
3
4
(6.75 in.)(0.455 in.)(7 in. 0.2275 in.) (0.285 in.)(4.545 in.)(2 in. 2.2725 in.) 26.334 in.
(16.696 kips)(26.334 in. )
4.604 ksi
(335.1125 in. )(0.285 in.)
K
K
Q

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
2 2
1, 2
( 6.186) (0) ( 6.186) (0)
(4.604)
2 2 2 2
3.093 5.546
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 2.45 ksi 8.64 ksi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 5.55 r st k r ) s s i es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 3.09 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

2
4.604 4.604
tan2 1.488502
( ) / 2 [( 6.186) (0)] / 2 3.093
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 8 05 ) 2 .
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.
Bending stress at K:

bend
4
(636.428 kip-in.)(2 in.)
3.798 ksi (C) (by inspection)
335.1125 in.

Summary of stresses at K:

2.387 ksi 3.798 ksi 6.186 ksi 0 ksi
4.604 ksi
x y
xy

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15.31 A machine component is subjected to a load of
P = 3,800 N. Determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shear stress acting at point H, as shown on
Figs. P15.31a and P15.31b. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch.
Fig. P15.31a Fig. P15.31b
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
(12 mm)(18 mm) 216 mm
(12 mm)(18 mm)
5,832 mm
12
z
A
I

3
5 mm
(12 mm)(5 mm) 9 mm 390 mm
2
H
Q
Internal forces at H:

(3,800 N)cos40 0
2,910.969 N
(3,800 N)sin40 0
2, 442.593 N
(3,800 N)(50 mm)cos40
(3,800 N)(25 mm)sin40 0
84, 483.621 N-mm
x H
H
y H
H
H
H
F V
V
F F
F
M M
M
Axial stress at H:

axial
2
2, 442.593 N
11.308 MPa (T)
216 mm

Shear stress at H:

3
4
(2,910.969 N)(390 mm )
16.222 MPa
(5,832 mm )(12 mm)
H

Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(84, 483.621 N-mm)(4 mm)
57.945 MPa (C) (by inspection)
5,832 mm

Summary of stresses at H:

0 psi
11.308 MPa 57.945 MPa 46.637 MPa
16.222 MPa
x
y
xy

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Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) ( 46.637) (0) ( 46.637)
(16.222)
2 2 2 2
23.318 28.406
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 5.09 MPa 51.7 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 28.4 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 23.3 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

1
16.222 16.222
tan2 0.695676
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 46.637)] / 2 23.318
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direct 17.41 ion of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.32 A load of P = 1,800 N acts on the machine part shown in Fig. P15.32a. The machine part has a
uniform thickness of 6 mm (i.e., 6-mm thickness in the z direction). Determine the principal stresses and
the maximum shear stress acting at points H and K, which are shown in detail in Fig. P15.32b. Show
these stresses on an appropriate sketch for each point.

Fig. P15.32a Fig. P15.32b Detail at pin B
Note: 6-mm thickness in the z direction
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
(6 mm)(40 mm) 240 mm
(6 mm)(40 mm)
32, 000 mm
12
z
A
I

Equilibrium:

(1,800 N)cos30 0
(1,800 N)sin30 0
(1,800 N)(125 mm)cos30 (185 mm) 0
x x
y y y
B y
F B
F A B
M A

1, 053.274 N
1,558.846 N 1,953.274 N
y
x y
A
B B

Internal forces at H:

0
0 1, 053.274 N
(135 mm) 0
142,192.009 N-mm
x H
y y H H
H H y
H
F F
F A V V
M M A
M

Axial stress at H:

axial
0 MPa

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Shear stress at H:

3
3
4
(6 mm)(12 mm)(20 mm 6 mm) 1, 008 mm
(1, 053.274 N)(1, 008 mm )
5.530 MPa
(32, 000 mm )(6 mm)
H
H
Q

Bending stress at H:

bend
4
(142,192.009 N-mm)(8 mm)
35.548 MPa (T) (by inspection)
32, 000 mm

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(35.548) (0) (35.548) (0)
( 5.530)
2 2 2 2
17.774 18.614
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 36.4 MPa 0.840 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 18.6 ar s 1 tr MPa ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 17.77 MPa shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
5.530 5.530
tan2 0.311111
( ) / 2 [(35.548) (0)] / 2 17.774
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 8.64 )
p
xy
p
x y
p
x Ans.

Internal forces at K:

0 1,558.846 N
0 900 N
(185 mm) (50 mm) 0
116,913.390 N-mm
x x K K
y y y K K
K K y x
K
F B V V
F A B F F
M M A B
M
Axial stress at K:

axial
2
900 N
3.750 MPa (T)
240 mm

Summary of stresses at H:

0 MPa 35.548 MPa 35.548 MPa
0 MPa 5.530 MPa
x
y xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

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Shear stress at K:

3
3
4
(6 mm)(15 mm)(20 mm 7.5 mm) 1,125 mm
(1,558.846 N)(1,125 mm )
9.134 MPa
(32, 000 mm )(6 mm)
K
K
Q

Bending stress at K:

bend
4
(116,913.390 N-mm)(5 mm)
18.268 MPa (C) (by inspection)
32, 000 mm

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) ( 14.518) (0) ( 14.518)
( 9.134)
2 2 2 2
7.259 11.667
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 4.41 MPa 18.93 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 11.6 ar s 7 tr MPa ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 7.26 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

1
9.134 9.134
tan2 1.25830
25.76
5
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 14.518)] / 2 7.259
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
xy
p
x y
p p
x Ans.

Summary of stresses at K:

0 MPa 3.750 MPa 18.268 MPa 14.518 MPa
9.134 MPa
x y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12):

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15.33 The timber beam shown in Fig. P15.33a has the cross section shown in Fig. P15.33b. At point H,
the allowable compression principal stress is 400 psi and the maximum allowable in-plane shear stress is
110 psi. Determine the maximum allowable load P that may be applied to the beam.

Fig. P15.33a Fig. P15.33b
Solution
Section properties:

3
4
3
(10 in.)(12 in.)
1,184 in.
12
(10 in.)(2 in.)(5 in.) 2(2 in.)(1.25 in.)(4 in. 0.625 in.) 116.875 in.
z
H
I
Q

Shear-force and bending-moment diagrams

Beam reactions

(132 in.) (48 in.) 0
0.36364
0
0.63636
A y
y
y y y
y
M B P
B P
F A B P
A P

Shear stress at H:

3
3 2
4
(0.36364 )(116.875 in. )
8.973907 10 in.
(1,184 in. )(2)(2 in.)
H xy
P
P

Bending stress at H:

3 2
bend
4
(13.09104 in.) (2.75 in.)
30.40571 10 in.
1,184 in.
x
P
P

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Consider the allowable compression principal stress:
2
2
2
2
3 2 3 2
2
3 2
3 2 3 2
3 2
2 2
( 30.40571 10 in. ) (0) ( 30.40571 10 in. ) (0)
(8.973907 10 in. )
2 2
( 15.20285 10 in. ) (17.65383 10 in. )
( 32.85669 10 in. )
x y x y
p xy
P P
P
P P
P

Set this expression equal to the allowable compression principal stress:

3 2
( 32.85669 10 in. ) 400 psi
12,174 lb
P
P

Consider the maximum allowable in-plane shear stress:

3 2
(17.65383 10 in. ) 110 psi
6, 231 lb
P
P

6, 230 lb P Ans.

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15.34 A short rectangular post supports a compressive load of P = 90 kN as shown in Fig. P15.34a. A
top view of the post showing the location where load P is applied to the top of the post is shown in Fig.
P15.34b. Determine the vertical normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d of the post.

Fig. P15.34a Fig. P15.34b Top view of post
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
6 4
3
6 4
(100 mm)(150 mm) 15, 000 mm
(150 mm)(100 mm)
12.500 10 mm
12
(100 mm)(150 mm)
28.125 10 mm
12
x
z
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at base of post:

6
6
90 kN 90, 000 N
(90 kN)(30 mm) 2, 700 kN-mm 2.700 10 N-mm
(90 kN)(50 mm) 4,500 kN-mm 4.500 10 N-mm
x
z
F
M
M

Axial stress due to F:

axial 2
90, 000 N
6 MPa (C)
15, 000 mm

Bending stress due to M
x
:

6
bend 6 4
(2.700 10 N-mm)( 50 mm)
10.80 MPa
12.500 10 mm
x
x
x
M z
I

Bending stress due to M
z
:

6
bend 6 4
(4.500 10 N-mm)( 75 mm)
12.00 MPa
28.125 10 mm
z
z
z
M x
I

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Normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d: The normal stresses acting at each of the four corners of the
post can be determined by superimposing the results obtained above. In all instances, the normal stresses
act in the vertical direction; that is, the y direction. The sense of the stress, either tension or compression,
can be determined by inspection.

Corner a:

6 MPa (C) 10.80 MPa (T) 12.00 MPa (T) 6 MPa 10.80 MPa 12.00 MPa
16.80 M 1 P 6.80 MP T) a a (
a
Ans.
Corner b:

6 MPa (C) 10.80 MPa (T) 12.00 MPa (C) 6 MPa 10.80 MPa 12.00 MPa
7.20 MPa 7.20 MPa (C)
b
Ans.
Corner c:

6 MPa (C) 10.80 MPa (C) 12.00 MPa (C) 6 MPa 10.80 MPa 12.00 MPa
28.8 MPa 28.8 MPa (C)
c
Ans.
Corner d:

6 MPa (C) 10.80 MPa (C) 12.00 MPa (T) 6 MPa 10.80 MPa 12.00 MPa
4.80 MPa 4.80 MPa (C)
d
Ans.

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15.35 A short rectangular post supports a compressive load of P = 38,000 lb as shown in Fig. P15.35a. A
top view of the post showing the location where load P is applied to the top of the post is shown in Fig.
P15.35b. Determine the vertical normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d of the post.

Fig. P15.35a Fig. P15.35b Top view of post
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
3
4
(6 in.)(12 in.) 72 in.
(6 in.)(12 in.)
864 in.
12
(12 in.)(6 in.)
216 in.
12
x
z
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at base of post:

38, 000 lb
(38, 000 lb)(3 in.) 114, 000 lb-in.
(38, 000 lb)(2.25 in.) 85,500 lb-in.
x
z
F
M
M

Axial stress due to F:

axial 2
38, 000 lb
527.778 psi (C)
72 in.

Bending stress due to M
x
:

bend 4
(114, 000 lb-in.)( 6 in.)
791.667 psi
864 in.
x
x
x
M z
I

Bending stress due to M
z
:

bend 4
(85,500 lb-in.)( 3 in.)
1,187.500 psi
216 in.
z
z
z
M x
I

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Normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d: The normal stresses acting at each of the four corners of the
post can be determined by superimposing the results obtained above. In all instances, the normal stresses
act in the vertical direction; that is, the y direction. The sense of the stress, either tension or compression,
can be determined by inspection.

Corner a:

527.778 psi (C) 791.667 psi (T) 1,187.500 psi (T)
527.778 psi 791.667 psi 1,187.500 psi
1, 451.389 psi 1, 451 psi (T)
a
Ans.
Corner b:

527.778 psi (C) 791.667 psi (T) 1,187.500 psi (C)
527.778 psi 791.667 psi 1,187.500 psi
923.611 psi 924 psi (C)
b
Ans.
Corner c:

527.778 psi (C) 791.667 psi (C) 1,187.500 psi (C)
527.778 psi 791.667 psi 1,187.500 psi
2,506.945 ps 2,510 psi (C i )
c
Ans.
Corner d:

527.778 psi (C) 791.667 psi (C) 1,187.500 psi (T)
527.778 psi 791.667 psi 1,187.500 psi
131.944 ps 131.9 psi (C) i
d
Ans.

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15.36 A short rectangular post supports compressive loads of P = 175 kN and Q = 90 kN as shown in
Fig. P15.36a. A top view of the post showing the locations where loads P and Q are applied to the top of
the post is shown in Fig. P15.36b. Determine the vertical normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d of the
post.

Fig. P15.36a Fig. P15.36b Top view of post
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
6 4
3
6 4
(120 mm)(160 mm) 19, 200 mm
(120 mm)(160 mm)
40.960 10 mm
12
(160 mm)(120 mm)
23.040 10 mm
12
x
z
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at base of post:

6
6
175 kN 90 kN 265 kN 265, 000 N
(175 kN)(60 mm) (90 kN)(40 mm) 6,900 kN-mm 6.900 10 N-mm
(175 kN)(40 mm) 7, 000 kN-mm 7.000 10 N-mm
x
z
F
M
M

Axial stress due to F:

axial
2
265, 000 N
13.802 MPa (C)
19, 200 mm

Bending stress due to M
x
:

6
bend
6 4
(6.900 10 N-mm)( 80 mm)
13.477 MPa
40.960 10 mm
x
x
x
M z
I

Bending stress due to M
z
:

6
bend
6 4
(7.000 10 N-mm)( 60 mm)
18.229 MPa
23.040 10 mm
z
z
z
M x
I

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Normal stresses at corners a, b, c, and d: The normal stresses acting at each of the four corners of the
post can be determined by superimposing the results obtained above. In all instances, the normal stresses
act in the vertical direction; that is, the y direction. The sense of the stress, either tension or compression,
can be determined by inspection.

Corner a:

13.802 MPa (C) 13.477 MPa (T) 18.229 MPa (C)
13.802 MPa 13.477 MPa 18.229 MPa
18.555 MPa 18.56 MPa (C)
a
Ans.
Corner b:

13.802 MPa (C) 13.477 MPa (T) 18.229 MPa (T)
13.802 MPa 13.477 MPa 18.229 MPa
17.904 MPa 17.90 MPa (T)
b
Ans.
Corner c:

13.802 MPa (C) 13.477 MPa (C) 18.229 MPa (T)
13.802 MPa 13.477 MPa 18.229 MPa
9.049 MP 9.05 MPa (C a )
c
Ans.
Corner d:

13.802 MPa (C) 13.477 MPa (C) 18.229 MPa (C)
13.802 MPa 13.477 MPa 18.229 MPa
45.508 MPa 45.5 MPa (C)
d
Ans.

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15.37 Three loads are applied to the short rectangular post shown in Fig. P15.37a. The cross-sectional
dimensions of the post are shown in Fig. P15.37b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.
Fig. P15.37a

Fig. P15.37b Cross-sectional dimensions
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
6 4
3
6 4
(120 mm)(160 mm) 19, 200 mm
(120 mm)(160 mm)
40.960 10 mm
12
(160 mm)(120 mm)
23.040 10 mm
12
x
z
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at H:

6
6
210 kN 210, 000 N
65 kN 65, 000 N
95 kN 95, 000 N
(95 kN)(150 mm) (210 kN)(50 mm) 24, 750 kN-mm 24.750 10 N-mm
(65 kN)(150 mm) 9, 750 kN-mm 9.750 10 N-mm
x
z
x
z
F
V
V
M
M

Axial stress at H due to F:

axial
2
210, 000 N
10.938 MPa (C)
19, 200 mm

Shear stress at H due to V
x
:

3
3
6 4
(160 mm)(60 mm)(30 mm) 288, 000 mm
(65, 000 N)(288,000 mm )
5.078 MPa
(23.040 10 mm )(160 mm)
H
H
Q

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Shear stress at H due to V
z
:

3
0 mm 0 MPa
H H
Q

Bending stress at H due to M
x
:

6
bend
6 4
(24.750 10 N-mm)(80 mm)
48.340 MPa (T)
40.960 10 mm
x
x
x
M z
I

Bending stress at H due to M
z
:

6
bend
6 4
(9.750 10 N-mm)(0 mm)
0 MPa
23.040 10 mm
z
z
z
M x
I

Summary of stresses at H:

0 MPa
10.938 MPa 48.340 MPa 37.402 MPa
5.078 MPa
x
y
xy

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq.
(12.12):

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) (37.402) (0) (37.402)
(5.078)
2 2 2 2
18.701 19.378
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 38.1 MPa 0.677 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 19.3 ar s 8 tr MPa ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 18.70 MPa shear st (T) ress) Ans.

2
5.078 5.078
tan2 0.271540
( ) / 2 [(0) (37.402)] / 2 18.701
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of .60 ) 7
xy
x
p
p
y
p
x Ans.

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15.38 Three loads are applied to the short rectangular post shown in Fig. P15.38a. The cross-sectional
dimensions of the post are shown in Fig. P15.38b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.
Fig. P15.38a

Fig. P15.38b Cross-sectional dimensions
Solution
Section properties:

2
3 3
6 4 6 4
(120 mm)(160 mm) 19, 200 mm
(120 mm)(160 mm) (160 mm)(120 mm)
40.960 10 mm 23.040 10 mm
12 12
x z
A
I I

Equivalent forces at K:

6
6
210 kN 210, 000 N
65 kN 65, 000 N
95 kN 95, 000 N
(95 kN)(150 mm) (210 kN)(50 mm) 24, 750 kN-mm 24.750 10 N-mm
(65 kN)(150 mm) 9, 750 kN-mm 9.750 10 N-mm
x
z
x
z
F
V
V
M
M

Axial stress at K due to F:

axial
2
210, 000 N
10.938 MPa (C)
19, 200 mm

Shear stress at K due to V
x
:

3
0 mm 0 MPa
K K
Q

Shear stress at K due to V
z
:

3
3
6 4
(120 mm)(50 mm)(55 mm) 330, 000 mm
(95, 000 N)(330,000 mm )
6.378 MPa
(40.960 10 mm )(120 mm)
K
K
Q

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Bending stress at K due to M
x
:

6
bend
6 4
(24.750 10 N-mm)(30 mm)
18.127 MPa (C)
40.960 10 mm
x
x
x
M z
I

Bending stress at K due to M
z
:

6
bend
6 4
(9.750 10 N-mm)(60 mm)
25.391 MPa (T)
23.040 10 mm
z
z
z
M x
I

Summary of stresses at K:

0 MPa
10.938 MPa 18.127 MPa 25.391 MPa 3.674 MPa
6.378 MPa
z
y
yz

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).
For use in this equation, the negative z axis will be taken as the x axis,
which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
2 2
1, 2
(0) ( 3.674) (0) ( 3.674)
(6.378)
2 2 2 2
1.837 6.637
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
and 4.80 MPa 8.48 MPa
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 6.64 r st M r ) P s a es Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 1.837 MPa shear st (C) ress) Ans.

1
6.378 6.378
tan2 3.471761
( ) / 2 [(0) ( 3.674)] / 2 1.837
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of ) 36.97
xy
x
p p
p
y
z Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.39 Three loads are applied to the cantilever beam shown in Fig. P15.39a. The cross-sectional
dimensions of the beam are shown in Fig. P15.39b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.39a Fig. P15.39b Cross-sectional dimensions
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
3
4
(10 in.)(14 in.) 140 in.
(10 in.)(14 in.)
2, 286.667 in.
12
(14 in.)(10 in.)
1,166.667 in.
12
x
y
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at H:

31, 000 lb 0 lb 17, 000 lb
(31, 000 lb)(5 in.) (17, 000 lb)(10 in.) 325, 000 lb-in.
0 lb-in.
x y
x
y
F V V
M
M

Axial stress at H due to F:

axial
2
31, 000 lb
221.429 psi (T)
140 in.

Shear stress at H due to V
x
:
0 0 psi
x H
V

Shear stress at H due to V
y
:

3
0 in. 0 psi
H H
Q

Bending stress at H due to M
x
:

bend
4
(325, 000 lb-in.)(7 in.)
994.898 psi (T)
2, 286.667 in.
x
x
x
M y
I

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Bending stress at H due to M
y
:

bend
4
(0 lb-in.)(2 in.)
0 psi
1,166.667 in.
y
y
y
M x
I

(a) Summary of stresses at H:

0 psi
221.429 psi 994.898 psi 1, 216.326 psi
0 psi
x
z
xz

(b) Principal stress calculations:
For this element, the principal stresses are the normal
stresses in the x and z directions:

1 2
1, 216 psi 0 i and ps
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shear 608 str ps s i es ) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane s 608 psi (T hear str s) ) es Ans.
0
p
Ans.

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15.40 Three loads are applied to the cantilever beam shown in Fig. P15.40a. The cross-sectional
dimensions of the beam are shown in Fig. P15.40b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.40a Fig. P15.40b Cross-sectional dimensions
Solution
Section properties:

2
3
4
3
4
(10 in.)(14 in.) 140 in.
(10 in.)(14 in.)
2, 286.667 in.
12
(14 in.)(10 in.)
1,166.667 in.
12
x
y
A
I
I

Equivalent forces at K:

31, 000 lb 13, 000 lb 17, 000 lb
(31, 000 lb)(5 in.) (17, 000 lb)(30 in.) 665, 000 lb-in.
(13, 000 lb)(10 in.) 130, 000 lb-in.
x y
x
y
F V V
M
M

Axial stress at K due to F:

axial
2
31, 000 lb
221.429 psi (T)
140 in.

Shear stress at K due to V
x
:
0 0 psi
K K
Q
Shear stress at K due to V
y
:

3
3
4
(10 in.)(4 in.)(5 in.) 200 in.
(17, 000 psi)(200 in. )
148.688 psi
(2, 286.667 in. )(10 in.)
K
K
Q

Bending stress at K due to M
x
:

bend
4
(665, 000 lb-in.)(3 in.)
872.449 psi (C)
2, 286.667 in.
x
x
x
M y
I

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Bending stress at K due to M
y
:

bend
4
(130, 000 lb-in.)(5 in.)
557.143 psi (T)
1,166.667 in.
y
y
y
M x
I

(a) Summary of stresses at K:

0 psi
221.429 psi 872.449 psi 557.143 psi 93.877 psi
148.688 psi
y
z
yz

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq.
(12.12). For use in this equation, the negative z axis will be
taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to
change sign.

2
2
2 2
1, 2
( 93.877) (0) ( 93.877) (0)
(148.688)
2 2 2 2
46.939 155.921
x y x y
p p xy

1 2
an 109.0 psi 203 psi d
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 155. ar s 9 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 46.9 psi ( shear str s C) es ) Ans.

2
148.688 148.688
tan2 3.167
36.2
702
( ) / 2 [
4
( 93.878) (0)] / 2 46.939
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
xy
p
x y
p
z Ans.

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15.41 A 2.5-in.-diameter solid aluminum post is
subjected to a horizontal force of V = 3 kips, a vertical
force of P = 7 kips, and a concentrated torque of T = 11
kip-in., acting in the directions shown in Fig. P15.41.
Assume L = 3.5 in. Determine the normal and shear
stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K.

Fig. P15.41
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(2.5 in.) 4.908739 in. (2.5 in.) 3.834952 in.
4 32
(2.5 in.)
1.302083 in. (2.5 in.) 1.917476 in.
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I

Equivalent forces at H and K:

3 kips 7 kips 0 kips
0 kip-in. 11 kip-in. (3 kips)(3.5 in.) 10.5 kip-in.
x y z
x y z
F F F
M M M

Axial stress magnitude at H due to F
y
:

2
7, 000 lb
1, 426.028 psi
4.908739 in.
y

Shear stress magnitude at H due to F
x
:

3
4
(3,000 lb)(1.302083 in. )
814.873 psi
(1.917476 in. )(2.5 in.)
xy

Torsion shear stress magnitude at H due to M
y
:

4
(11, 000 lb-in.)(2.5 in./2)
3,585.448 psi
3.834952 in.
y
xy
M c
J

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(a) Summary of stresses at H:

1, 426.028 psi
814.873 psi 3,585.448
0 psi
1, 426
psi
2, 770.575 ps
psi
2, 770 psi i
x
y
xy
Ans.

Bending stress magnitude at K due to M
z
:

4
(10,500 lb-in.)(2.50 in./2)
6,844.934 psi
1.917476 in.
z
y
z
M x
I

Shear stress magnitude at K due to M
y
:

4
(11, 000 lb-in.)(2.5 in./2)
3,585.448 psi
3.834952 in.
y
yz
M c
J

(b) Summary of stresses at K:

1, 426.028 psi 6,844.934 psi
5, 418.9
0 psi
5, 420 psi 06 psi
3,585.448 3,590 p psi si
z
y
yz
Ans.

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15.42 A 75-mm-diameter solid aluminum post is
subjected to a horizontal force of V = 17 kN, a vertical
force of P = 50 kN, and a concentrated torque of T =
2.50 kN-m, acting in the directions shown in Fig.
P15.42. Assume L = 120 mm. Determine the normal and
shear stresses at (a) point H and (b) point K.

Fig. P15.42
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(75 mm) 4, 417.865 mm (75 mm) 3,106,311.095 mm
4 32
(75 mm)
35,156.250 mm (75 mm) 1,553,155.548 mm
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I

Equivalent forces at H and K:

17 kN 50 kN 0 kN
0 kN-m 2.50 kN-m (17 kN)(0.120 m) 2.04 kN-m
x y z
x y z
F F F
M M M

Axial stress magnitude at H due to F
y
:

2
50, 000 N
11.318 MPa
4, 417.865 mm
y

Shear stress magnitude at H due to F
x
:

3
4
(17, 000 N)(35,156.250 mm )
5.131 MPa
(1,553,155.548 mm )(75 mm)
xy

Shear stress magnitude at H due to M
y
:

6
4
(2.50 10 N-mm)(75 mm/2)
30.180 MPa
3,106,311.095 mm
y
xy
M c
J

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(a) Summary of stresses at H:

11.318 MPa
5.131 MPa 30
0
.
MPa
11.32 MPa
25.0 M
180 MPa
25.049 MPa Pa
x
y
xy
Ans.

Bending stress magnitude at K due to M
z
:

6
4
(2.04 10 N-mm)(75 mm/2)
49.255 MPa
1,553,155.548 mm
z
y
z
M x
I

Shear stress magnitude at K due to M
y
:

6
4
(2.5 10 N-mm)(75 mm/2)
30.180 MPa
3,106,311.095 mm
y
yz
M c
J

(b) Summary of stresses at K:

11.318 MPa 49.255 MPa
37.937
0 MPa
37.9 MPa MPa
30.180 30.2 MPa MPa
z
y
yz
Ans.

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15.43 A 1.25-in.-diameter solid shaft is subjected to
an axial force of P = 360 lb, a vertical force of V =
215 lb, and a concentrated torque of T = 430 lb-in.,
acting in the directions shown in Fig. P15.43. Assume
L = 4.5 in. Determine the normal and shear stresses at
(a) point H and (b) point K.

Fig. P15.43
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(1.25 in.) 1.227185 in. (1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
4 32
(1.25 in.)
0.162760 in. (1.25 in.) 0.119842 in.
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I

Equivalent forces at H and K:

360 lb
215 lb
0 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F

Equivalent moments at H and K:

430 lb-in.
0 lb-in.
(215 lb)(4.5 in.) 967.5 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
360 lb
293.354 psi
1.227185 in.
x

Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(430 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
1,121.267 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xz
M c
J

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Moment M
z
, which is simply a bending moment, creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this
stress is:

4
(967.5 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
5, 045.694 psi
0.119842 in.
z
x
z
M y
I

Summary of stresses at H:

5,340
293
psi
.354 p
(T
si 5, 045.
)
694 psi
5,
0 psi
1,121 psi
339.048 psi
1,121.267 psi
x
z
xz
Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
360 lb
293.354 psi
1.227185 in.
x

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(215 lb)(0.162760 in. )
233.597 psi
(0.119842 in. )(1.25 in.)
xy

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(430 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
1,121.267 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xy
M c
J

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending
Summary of stresses at K:

293.354 psi
233.597 psi 1,121.267 p
293 psi (T)
0 ps
si
1,354.864
i
1,35 psi 5 psi
x
y
xy
Ans.

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15.44 A 40-mm-diameter solid shaft is subjected to an
axial force of P = 2,600 N, a vertical force of V =
1,700 N, and a concentrated torque of T = 60 N-m,
acting in the directions shown in Fig. P15.44. Assume
L = 130 mm. Determine the normal and shear stresses
at (a) point H and (b) point K.

Fig. P15.44
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(40 mm) 1, 256.637 mm (40 mm) 251,327.412 mm
4 32
(40 mm)
5,333.333 mm (40 mm) 125, 663.706 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I

Equivalent forces at H and K:

2, 600 N
1, 700 N
0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F

Equivalent moments at H and K:

60, 000 N-mm
0 N-mm
(1, 700 N)(130 mm) 221, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
2, 600 N
2.069 MPa
1, 256.637 mm
x

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(60, 000 N-mm)(40 mm/2)
4.775 MPa
251,327.412 mm
x
xz
M c
J

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Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(221, 000 N-mm)(40 mm/2)
35.173 MPa
125, 663.706 mm
z
x
z
M y
I

Summary of stresses at H:

37.2 MPa
2.069
(T)
MPa 35.173 MPa
3
0
7.242 MP
MPa
4.78
a
4.775 MP M a Pa
x
z
xz
Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
2, 600 N
2.069 MPa
1, 256.637 mm
x

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(1, 700 N)(5,333.333 mm )
1.804 MPa
(125, 663.706 mm )(40 mm)
xy

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(60, 000 N-mm)(40 mm/2)
4.775 MPa
251,327.412 mm
x
xy
M c
J

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

2.069 MPa
1.804 M
2.07 MPa (T)
0 MPa
6.58 M
Pa 4.775
Pa
MPa
6.578 MPa
x
y
xy
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.45 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of 4.500
in. and an inside diameter of 4.026 in. supports the
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the top
of the pipe at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress magnitude at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.45
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 3.174048 in.
4
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 14.465200 in.
32
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 7.232600 in.
64
1
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 2.155739 in.
12
y z
A
J
I I
Q

Equivalent forces at H and K:

4, 200 lb
1, 700 lb
2, 300 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F

Equivalent moments at H and K:

3, 700 lb-ft 44, 400 lb-in.
(2,300 lb)(15 in.) 34,500 lb-in.
(1, 700 lb)(24 in.) 40,800 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
4, 200 lb
1,323.231 psi
3.174048 in.
x

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Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(2,300 lb)(2.155739 in. )
1, 446.250 psi
(7.232600 in. ) (4.500 in.) (4.026 in.)
xz

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(44, 400 lb-in.)(4.500 in./2)
6,906.230 psi
14.465200 in.
x
xz
M c
J

Moment M
y
, which is simply a bending moment, does not create bending stress at H because H is
located on the neutral axis for bending about the y axis.

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(40,800 lb-in.)(4.500 in./2)
12, 692.531 psi
7.232600 in.
z
x
z
M y
I

Summary of stresses at H:

14, 020 psi (T)
0 psi
1,323.231 p
5, 460 psi
si 12, 692.531 psi
14, 015.762 psi
1, 446.276 psi 6,906.230 psi
5, 459.954 psi
x
z
xz
Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the y axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(14, 015.762) (0) (14, 015.762) (0)
(5, 459.954)
2 2
7, 007.881 8,883.777
p p

1 2
an 15,890 psi 1,876 ps d i
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 8,88 ar s 0 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 7, 010 psi shear st (T) ress) Ans.

1
5, 459.954 5, 459.954
tan2 0.77
18.96
9116
[(14, 015.762) (0)] / 2 7, 007.881
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
p
p
x Ans.
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15.46 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of 4.500
in. and an inside diameter of 4.026 in. supports the
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
side of the pipe at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress magnitude at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.46
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 3.174048 in.
4
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 14.465200 in.
32
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 7.232600 in.
64
1
(4.500 in.) (4.026 in.) 2.155739 in.
12
y z
A
J
I I
Q

Equivalent forces at H and K:

4, 200 lb
1, 700 lb
2, 300 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F

Equivalent moments at H and K:

3, 700 lb-ft 44, 400 lb-in.
(2,300 lb)(15 in.) 34,500 lb-in.
(1, 700 lb)(24 in.) 40,800 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
4, 200 lb
1,323.231 psi
3.174048 in.
x

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(1, 700 lb)(2.155739 in. )
1, 068.987 psi
(7.232600 in. ) (4.500 in.) (4.026 in.)
xy

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(44, 400 lb-in.)(4.500 in./2)
6,906.230 psi
14.465200 in.
x
xy
M c
J

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(34,500 lb-in.)(4.500 in./2)
10, 732.655 psi
7.232600 in.
y
x
y
M z
I

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

9, 410 psi (C)
0 psi
1,323.231 psi 10, 732.655 psi
9, 409.424 psi
1, 068.987 psi 6,906.
5
230 psi
5,837.243 ,840 ps p i si
x
y
xy
Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12).

2
2
1, 2
( 9, 409.424) (0) ( 9, 409.424) (0)
(5,837.243)
2 2
4, 704.712 7, 497.181
p p

1 2
and 2, 790 psi 12, 200 psi
p p
Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 7,50 ar s 0 tr psi ess) Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 4, 700 psi shear st (C) ress) Ans.

2
5,837.243 5,837.243
tan2 1.240723
[( 9, 409.424) (0)] / 2 4, 704.712
(clockwise from the axis to the direction 25.5 of 7 )
p
p
p
x Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.47 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of 95 mm
and an inside diameter of 85 mm supports the
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
top surface of the pipe at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress magnitude at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.47
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(95 mm) (85 mm) 1, 413.717 mm
4
(95 mm) (85 mm) 2,871, 612.035 mm
32
(95 mm) (85 mm) 1, 435,806.017 mm
64
1
(95 mm) (85 mm) 20, 270.833 mm
12
x y
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

14 kN 14, 000 N
10 kN 10, 000 N
7 kN 7, 000 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
6
(10 kN)(450 mm) (7 kN)(240 mm)
2,820 kN-mm 2.820 10 N-mm
(14 kN)(450 mm)
6,300 kN-mm 6.300 10 N-mm
(14 kN)(240 mm)
3,360 kN-mm 3.36 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
= = ×
= ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ×
=
= = ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.
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(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(14, 000 N)(20,270.833 mm )
19.765 MPa
(1, 435,806.017 mm ) (95 mm) (85 mm)
xz
t = =
÷

Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
7, 000 N
4.951 MPa
1, 413.717 mm
z
o = =

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
4
(2.820 10 N-mm)(95 mm/2)
93.293 MPa
1, 435,806.017 mm
x
z
x
M y
I
o
×
= = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
4
(3.360 10 N-mm)(95 mm/2)
55.579 MPa
2,871, 612.035 mm
z
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =

Summary of stresses at H:

0 MPa
88.3 MPa (T)
4.951 MPa 93.293 MPa
88.341 MPa
19.765 MPa 55.579 MPa
75.344 MPa 75.3 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
= =
=
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
(88.341) (0) (88.341) (0)
( 75.344)
2 2
44.171 87.337
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
an 131.5 MPa 43.2 d MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 87.3 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 44.2 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
75.344 75.344
tan2 1.705750
[(88.341) (0)] / 2 44.171
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 29.81 )
p p
p
z
u
u o = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
°
= =
÷
Ans.
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15.48 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of 95 mm
and an inside diameter of 85 mm supports the
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
side of the pipe at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress magnitude at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.48
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(95 mm) (85 mm) 1, 413.717 mm
4
(95 mm) (85 mm) 2,871, 612.035 mm
32
(95 mm) (85 mm) 1, 435,806.017 mm
64
1
(95 mm) (85 mm) 20, 270.833 mm
12
x y
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

14 kN 14, 000 N
10 kN 10, 000 N
7 kN 7, 000 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
6
(10 kN)(450 mm) (7 kN)(240 mm)
2,820 kN-mm 2.820 10 N-mm
(14 kN)(450 mm)
6,300 kN-mm 6.300 10 N-mm
(14 kN)(240 mm)
3,360 kN-mm 3.36 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
= = ×
= ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ×
=
= = ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Consider point K.
Force F
x
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(10, 000 N)(20,270.833 mm )
14.118 MPa
(1, 435,806.017 mm ) (95 mm) (85 mm)
yz
t = =
÷

Force F
z
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
7, 000 N
4.951 MPa
1, 413.717 mm
z
o = =

Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
4
(6.300 10 N-mm)(95 mm/2)
208.420 MPa
1, 435,806.017 mm
y
z
y
M x
I
o
×
= = =

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
4
(3.360 10 N-mm)(95 mm/2)
55.579 MPa
2,871, 612.035 mm
z
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =

Summary of stresses at K:

0 MPa
203 MP
4.951 MPa 208.420 MPa
203.468 MPa
14.118 MPa 55.579 MPa
41.460
a (T)
41.5 M a MP P a
y
z
yz
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
= =
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(203.468) (0) (203.468) (0)
( 41.460)
2 2
101.734 109.858
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 212 MPa 8.12 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 109. ar s 9 tr MPa ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 101.7 MPa shear st (T) ress) o = Ans.
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1
41.460 41.460
tan2 0.4075
11.09
38
[(203.468) (0)] / 2 101.734
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
p p
z o u
u
=
÷ ÷
= ÷
°
=
÷
÷
=
Ans.

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15.49 A solid steel crank has an outside diameter of
determine :
(a) the normal and shear stresses on the top surface
of the crank at point H.
(b) the principal stresses and maximum in-plane
shear stress magnitude at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.49
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(30 mm) 706.858 mm (30 mm) 79,521.564 mm
4 32
(30 mm)
2, 250 mm (30 mm) 39, 760.782 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

0 N
1, 275 N
2, 350 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

(2,350 N)(90 mm) 211,500 N-mm
(2,350 N)(160 mm) 376, 000 N-mm
(1, 275 N)(160 mm) 204, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(2,350 N)(2,250 mm )
4.433 MPa
(39,760.782 mm )(30 mm)
xz
t = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(211,500 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
39.895 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(204, 000 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
76.960 MPa
39, 760.782 mm
z
x
z
M y
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at H:

76.960 MPa
4.433 MPa 39.8
77.0 MPa
95 MP
(T)
0 MP
a
35
a
35.5 MPa .462 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= =
=
= ÷
= ÷ ÷ = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the y axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(76.960) (0) (76.960) (0)
(35.462)
2 2
38.480 52.329
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 90.8 MPa 13.85 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 52.3 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 38.5 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
21.33
35.462 35.462
tan2 0.921569
[(76.960) (0)] / 2 38.480
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
p p
x
u
o u
= =
°
=
÷
= Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.50 A solid steel crank has an outside diameter of
determine:
(a) the normal and shear stresses on the side of the
crank at point K.
(b) the principal stresses and maximum in-plane
shear stress magnitude at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.50
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(30 mm) 706.858 mm (30 mm) 79,521.564 mm
4 32
(30 mm)
2, 250 mm (30 mm) 39, 760.782 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

0 N
1, 275 N
2, 350 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

(2,350 N)(90 mm) 211,500 N-mm
(2,350 N)(160 mm) 376, 000 N-mm
(1, 275 N)(160 mm) 204, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

(a) Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(1, 275 N)(2,250 mm )
2.405 MPa
(39,760.782 mm )(30 mm)
xy
t = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(211,500 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
39.895 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(376, 000 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
141.848 MPa
39, 760.782 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

141.8 MPa (C)
0 M
141.848 MPa
2.405 M
Pa
37.5 MPa
Pa 39.895 MPa
37.490 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷ =
=
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
( 141.848) (0) ( 141.848) (0)
(37.490)
2 2
70.924 80.223
p p
o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 9.30 MPa 151.1 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 80.2 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 70.9 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

2
37.490 37.490
tan2 0.528590
[( 141.848) (0)] / 2 70.924
(clockwise from the axis to the directio 13 n of .93 )
p
p
p
x u
u
o =
= = = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
° ÷ Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.51 A steel pipe with an outside diameter of
6.625 in. and an inside diameter of 6.065 in.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses
on the top surface of the pipe at point H.
(b) Determine the normal and shear stresses
on the side of the pipe at point K.

Fig. P15.51
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3 3 3
(6.625 in.) (6.065 in.) 5.581354 in.
4
(6.625 in.) (6.065 in.) 56.284357 in.
32
(6.625 in.) (6.065 in.) 28.142179 in.
64
1
(6.625 in.) (6.065 in.) 5.639922 in.
12
y z
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

0 lb
1, 600 lb 900 lb 2,500 lb
1, 000 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

(1, 600 lb)(30 in.) (900 lb)(18 in.)
31,800 lb-in.
(1, 000 lb)(72 in.) 72, 000 lb-in.
(1, 600 lb)(72 in.) (900 lb)(72 in.)
180, 000 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(1, 000 lb)(5.639922 in. )
357.872 psi
(28.142179 in. ) (6.625 in.) (6.065 in.)
xz
t = =
÷

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(31,800 lb-in.)(6.625 in./2)
1,871.524 psi
56.284357 in.
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(180, 000 lb-in.)(6.625 in./2)
21,187.060 psi
28.142179 in.
z
x
z
M y
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at H:

21,187.060 psi
357.872 psi 1,87
21, 200 psi
1.524 psi
(T)
0 psi
2, 230 psi 2, 229.395 psi
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= =
=
= +
= = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(2,500 lb)(5.639922 in. )
894.679 psi
(28.142179 in. ) (6.625 in.) (6.065 in.)
xy
t = =
÷

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(31,800 lb-in.)(6.625 in./2)
1,871.524 psi
56.284357 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(72, 000 lb-in.)(6.625 in./2)
8, 474.824 psi
28.142179 in.
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at K:

8, 474.824 psi
894.679 psi 1,871.52
8, 470 psi (C)
4 psi
2, 766.20
0 ps
3 psi
i
2, 770 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷
÷
=
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.52 A roadway sign weighs 6 kN and is
supported by a structural pipe that has an
outside diameter of 275 mm and a wall
thickness of 12.5 mm. The resultant force of
the wind pressure acting on the sign is 11 kN
as shown in Fig. P15.52.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses at
point H.
(b) Determine the normal and shear stresses at
point K.
Fig. P15.52
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
(275 mm) (250 mm) 10,308.351 mm
4
(275 mm) (250 mm) 177.980 10 mm
32
(275 mm) (250 mm) 88.990 10 mm
64
1
(275 mm) (250 mm) 430,989.583 mm
12
x y
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

0 kN 0 N
6 kN 6, 000 N
11 kN 11, 000 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= =
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
6
(11 kN)(8 m) 88 kN-m 88 10 N-mm
(11 kN)(5 m) 55 kN-m 55 10 N-mm
(6 kN)(5 m) 30 kN-m 30 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ×
= = = ×
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
6, 000 N
0.582 MPa
10,308.351 mm
y
o = =
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(88 10 N-mm)(275 mm/2)
135.970 MPa
88.990 10 mm
x
y
x
M z
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
6 4
(55 10 N-mm)(275 mm/2)
42.491 MPa
177.980 10 mm
y
xy
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at H:

0.582 MPa 135.970 MPa
135.388
0 MPa
135.4 MPa (T MPa
42.491 MPa
)
42.5 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
= =
= = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
6, 000 N
0.582 MPa
10,308.351 mm
y
o = =

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(11, 000 N)(430,989.583 mm )
2.131 MPa
(88.990 10 mm ) (275 mm) (250 mm)
yz
t = =
× ÷

Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(55 10 N-mm)(275 mm/2)
42.491 MPa
177.980 10 mm
y
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(30 10 N-mm)(275 mm/2)
46.353 MPa
88.990 10 mm
z
y
z
M x
I
o
×
= = =
×

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Summary of stresses at K:

46.9 MPa (C)
0 MPa
44.
0.582 MPa 46.353 MPa
46.936 MPa
2.131 MPa 42.491 MPa
44.622 M P a M a P 6
y
z
yz
o
o
t
÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ = Ans.

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15.53 A vertical pipe column with an outside diameter of
325 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm supports the loads
shown in Fig. P15.53. Determine the magnitudes of the
principal stresses and maximum shear stresses at point H.

Fig. P15.53
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
(325 mm) (305 mm) 9,896.017 mm
4
(325 mm) (305 mm) 245.730 10 mm
32
(325 mm) (305 mm) 122.865 10 mm
64
1
(325 mm) (305 mm) 496, 291.667 mm
12
x y
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

9 kN 9, 000 N
13 kN 17 kN 50 kN
80 kN 80, 000 N
0 kN 0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= =
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= =

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
6
(13 kN)(2.5 m) 32.5 kN-m 32.5 10 N-mm
(9 kN)(2.5 m) 22.5 kN-m 22.5 10 N-mm
(17 kN)(1.5 m) (9 kN)(4 m)
61.5 kN-m 61.5 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= = = ×
= = = ×
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.
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Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(9, 000 N)(496,291.667 mm )
1.818 MPa
(122.865 10 mm ) (325 mm) (305 mm)
xy
t = =
× ÷

Force F
y
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
80, 000 N
8.084 MPa
9,896.017 mm
y
o = =

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(32.5 10 N-mm)(325 mm/2)
42.984 MPa
122.865 10 mm
x
y
x
M z
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
6 4
(22.5 10 N-mm)(325 mm/2)
14.879 MPa
245.730 10 mm
y
xy
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at H:

0 MPa
51.1 MP
8.084 MPa 42.984 MPa
51.068 MPa
1.818 MPa 14.879 MPa
16.697 M
a (C)
16. P 70 M a Pa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
= +
= =

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
(0) ( 51.068) (0) ( 51.068)
(16.697)
2 2
25.534 30.509
p p
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 4.97 MPa 56.0 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 30.5 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 25.5 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

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15.54 A vertical pipe column with an outside diameter of
325 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm supports the loads
shown in Fig. P15.54. Determine the magnitudes of the
principal stresses and maximum shear stresses at point K.

Fig. P15.53
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
(325 mm) (305 mm) 9,896.017 mm
4
(325 mm) (305 mm) 245.730 10 mm
32
(325 mm) (305 mm) 122.865 10 mm
64
1
(325 mm) (305 mm) 496, 291.667 mm
12
x y
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

9 kN 9, 000 N
13 kN 17 kN 50 kN
80 kN 80, 000 N
0 kN 0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= =
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= =

Equivalent moments at H and K:

6
6
6
(13 kN)(2.5 m) 32.5 kN-m 32.5 10 N-mm
(9 kN)(2.5 m) 22.5 kN-m 22.5 10 N-mm
(17 kN)(1.5 m) (9 kN)(4 m)
61.5 kN-m 61.5 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= = = ×
= = = ×
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.
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Consider point K.
Force F
x
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Force F
y
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
80, 000 N
8.084 MPa
9,896.017 mm
y
o = =

Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(22.5 10 N-mm)(325 mm/2)
14.879 MPa
245.730 10 mm
y
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(61.5 10 N-mm)(325 mm/2)
81.339 MPa
122.865 10 mm
z
y
z
M x
I
o
×
= = =
×

Summary of stresses at K:

89.4 MPa (
8.084
C)
0 MPa
14.88 MP
MPa 81.339 MPa
89.423 MPa
14.879 M a a P
y
z
yz
o
o
t
= ÷ ÷
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ =
=

Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(0) ( 89.423) (0) ( 89.423)
(14.879)
2 2
44.712 47.122
p p
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 2.41 MPa 91.8 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 47.1 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 44.7 MPa ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.55 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of
1.25 in. is supported in flexible bearings at its
ends. Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft, and
the pulleys carry belt tensions as shown in Fig.
P15.55.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on
the top surface of the shaft at point H.
(b) Determine the normal and shear stresses on
the side of the shaft at point K.

Fig. P15.55
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(1.25 in.) 1.227185 in. (1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
4 32
(1.25 in.)
0.162760 in. (1.25 in.) 0.119842 in.
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equilibrium of entire shaft:

, axis
50 lb 300 lb 350 lb 200 lb 0
(50 lb)(3 in.) (300 lb)(3 in.) (350 lb)(9 in.) (200 lb)(9 in.) (12 in.) 0
z z z
A y z
F A D
M D
E = ÷ ÷ + + + + =
E = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =

therefore

500 lb and
400 lb
z
z
D
A
=
=

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Detail of equivalent forces at H and K: Detail of equivalent moments at H and K:

0 lb
0 lb
350 lb 200 lb 500 lb
50 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
=
= + ÷
=

(350 lb)(2.5 in.) (200 lb)(2.5 in.) 375 lb-in.
(500 lb)(6 in.) (350 lb)(3 in.)
(200 lb)(3 in.) 1,350 lb-in.
0 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷ =
= ÷
÷ =
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(50 lb)(0.162760 in. )
54.325 psi
(0.119842 in. )(1.25 in.)
xz
t = =

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(375 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
977.848 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

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Summary of stresses at H:

54.325 psi 977.848 psi
0 psi
0 psi
1, 032 ps 1, 032.173 ps i i
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
=
= +
= = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(375 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
977.848 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(1,350 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
7, 040.506 psi
0.119842 in.
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

7, 040 psi (T)
0 psi
978
7, 040.506 psi
977.848 psi psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t ÷
= =
=
= ÷ = Ans.

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15.56 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of 30
mm is supported in flexible bearings at its ends.
Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft, and the
pulleys carry belt tensions as shown in Fig.
P15.56.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
top surface of the shaft at point H.
(b) Determine the normal and shear stresses on
the side of the shaft at point K.

Fig. P15.56
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(30 mm) 706.858 mm (30 mm) 79,521.564 mm
4 32
(30 mm)
2, 250 mm (30 mm) 39, 760.782 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equilibrium of entire shaft:

, axis
, axis
1, 400 N 200 N 0
1,100 N 300 N 0
(1,100 N)(225 mm) (300 N)(225 mm) (300 mm) 0
(1, 400 N)(75 mm) (200 N)(75 mm) (300 mm) 0
y y y
z z z
A y z
A z y
F A D
F A D
M D
M D
E = + + + =
E = ÷ ÷ + + =
E = ÷ ÷ + =
E = + + =

therefore
400 N, 1, 200 N, 1, 050 N, and 350 N
y y z z
D A D A = ÷ = ÷ = =
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Detail of equivalent forces at H and K: Detail of equivalent moments at H and K:

0 N
400 N
1,100 N 300 N 1, 050 N
350 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
= + ÷
=

(1,100 N)(135 mm/2) (300 N)(135 mm/2)
54, 000 N-mm
(1, 050 N)(150 mm) (1,100 N)(75 mm)
(300 N)(75 mm) 52,500 N-mm
(400 N)(150 mm) 60, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷
÷ =
= ÷ = ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(350 N)(2,250 mm )
0.660 MPa
(39,760.782 mm )(30 mm)
xz
t = =

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(54, 000 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
10.186 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =
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Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(60, 000 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
22.635 MPa
39, 760.782 mm
z
x
z
M y
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at H:

22.635 MPa
0.660 MPa 10.
22.6 MPa
186 MPa
(T)
0 MPa
10.85 MP 10.84 a 6 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= =
=
= +
= = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(400 N)(2,250 mm )
0.755 MPa
(39,760.782 mm )(30 mm)
xy
t = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(54, 000 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
10.186 MPa
79,521.564 mm
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(52,500 N-mm)(30 mm/2)
19.806 MPa
39, 760.782 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

19.806 MPa
0.755 MPa 10.
19.81 MP
186 MPa
a (T)
0 MPa
10.940 M 10.94 MPa Pa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= =
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.57 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of 36 mm supports a 240-mm-diameter pulley (Fig.
P15.57a). Belt tensions of 2,400 N and 400 N act at the angles shown in Fig. P15.57b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the top surface of the shaft at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point H and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.57a Fig. P15.57b
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(36 mm) 1, 017.876 mm (36 mm) 164,895.915 mm
4 32
(36 mm)
3,888 mm (36 mm) 82, 447.958 mm
12 64
x y
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Vector expressions for the belt tensions:
Denote the 2,400-N belt tension as F
1
and express this force vector as:
(2, 400 N)cos15 (2, 400 N)sin15 = ÷ ° ÷ °
1
F i j
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F
1
is:
(120 mm)sin15 (120 mm)cos15 (160 mm) = ÷ ° + ° +
1
r i j k

Denote the 400-N belt tension as F
2
and express this force vector as:

2
(400 N)cos15 (400 N)sin15 = ÷ ° + ° F i j
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F
2
is:

2
(120 mm)sin15 (120 mm)cos15 (160 mm) = ÷ ° ÷ ° + r i j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are found from the sum of F
1
and F
2
.

(2, 400 N)cos15 (400 N)cos15
2,318.222 N 386.370 N 2, 704.592 N
(2, 400 N)sin15 (400 N)sin15
621.166 N 103.528 N 517.638 N
0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
= ÷ ° + °
= ÷ + = ÷
=

The equivalent moments are found from the sum of the cross-products r
1
× F
1
and r
2
× F
2
.
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1 1
31.058 115.911 160
2,318.222 621.166 0
99,386.513 N-mm 370,915.517 N-mm 288, 000 N-mm
× = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ +
i j k
r F
i j k

2 2
31.058 115.911 160
386.370 103.528 0
16,564.419 N-mm 61,819.253 N-mm 48, 000 N-mm
× = ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

Summing these results gives the equivalent moments:

99,386.513 N-mm 16,564.419 N-mm
82,822.094 N-mm
370,915.517 N-mm 61,819.253 N-mm
432, 734.770 N-mm
288, 000 N-mm 48, 000 N-mm
240, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
= ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(2,704.592 N)(3,888 mm )
3.543 MPa
(82, 447.958 mm )(36 mm)
xz
t = =

Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(82,822.094 N-mm)(36 mm/2)
18.082 MPa
82, 447.958 mm
x
z
x
M y
I
o = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

4
(240, 000 N-mm)(36 mm/2)
26.198 MPa
164,895.915 mm
z
xz
M c
J
t = = =
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at H:

18.082 MPa
3.543 MPa 26
0 MP
.198 MPa
29.741 MPa
a
18.08 MPa (T)
29.7 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
= =
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
= Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
(18.082) (0) (18.082) (0)
( 29.741)
2 2
9.041 31.085
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 40.1 MPa 22.0 MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 31.1 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 9.04 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
29.741 29.741
tan2 3.289643
[(18.082) (0)] / 2 9.041
(clockwise from th 3 e axis to the direction of 6.55 )
p
p p
z u
u
o = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
°
= =
÷
Ans.

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15.58 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of 36 mm supports a 240-mm-diameter pulley (Fig.
P15.58a). Belt tensions of 2,400 N and 400 N act at the angles shown in Fig. P15.58b.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the side of the shaft at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress at point K and show the
orientation of these stresses on an appropriate sketch.

Fig. P15.58a Fig. P15.58b
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(36 mm) 1, 017.876 mm (36 mm) 164,895.915 mm
4 32
(36 mm)
3,888 mm (36 mm) 82, 447.958 mm
12 64
x y
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Vector expressions for the belt tensions:
Denote the 2,400-N belt tension as F
1
and express this force vector as:
(2, 400 N)cos15 (2, 400 N)sin15 = ÷ ° ÷ °
1
F i j
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F
1
is:
(120 mm)sin15 (120 mm)cos15 (160 mm) = ÷ ° + ° +
1
r i j k

Denote the 400-N belt tension as F
2
and express this force vector as:

2
(400 N)cos15 (400 N)sin15 = ÷ ° + ° F i j
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F
2
is:

2
(120 mm)sin15 (120 mm)cos15 (160 mm) = ÷ ° ÷ ° + r i j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are found from the sum of F
1
and F
2
.

(2, 400 N)cos15 (400 N)cos15
2,318.222 N 386.370 N 2, 704.592 N
(2, 400 N)sin15 (400 N)sin15
621.166 N 103.528 N 517.638 N
0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷ ° ÷ °
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
= ÷ ° + °
= ÷ + = ÷
=

The equivalent moments are found from the sum of the cross-products r
1
× F
1
and r
2
× F
2
.
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1 1
31.058 115.911 160
2,318.222 621.166 0
99,386.513 N-mm 370,915.517 N-mm 288, 000 N-mm
× = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ +
i j k
r F
i j k

2 2
31.058 115.911 160
386.370 103.528 0
16,564.419 N-mm 61,819.253 N-mm 48, 000 N-mm
× = ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

Summing these results gives the equivalent moments:

99,386.513 N-mm 16,564.419 N-mm
82,822.094 N-mm
370,915.517 N-mm 61,819.253 N-mm
432, 734.770 N-mm
288, 000 N-mm 48, 000 N-mm
240, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷
= ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point K.
Force F
x
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(517.638 N)(3,888 mm )
0.678 MPa
(82, 447.958 mm )(36 mm)
yz
t = =

Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(432, 734.770 N-mm)(36 mm/2)
94.474 MPa
82, 447.958 mm
y
z
y
M x
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

4
(240, 000 N-mm)(36 mm/2)
26.198 MPa
164,895.915 mm
z
yz
M c
J
t = = =

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Summary of stresses at K:

94.474 MPa
0.678 MPa
0 MPa
26.198 MPa
25.520 MP
94.5 MPa (T)
25.5 a a MP
y
z
yz
o
o
t
=
= =
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(94.474) (0) (94.474) (0)
( 25.520)
2 2
47.237 53.690
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
an 100.9 MPa 6.45 d MPa
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 53.7 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 47.2 MPa ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
25.520 25.520
tan2 0.540258
[(94.474) (0)] / 2 47.237
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 14.19 )
p p
p
z
u
u o = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
°
= =
÷
Ans.

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15.59 A pressurized pipe with an outside diameter of
355 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm is subjected to
an axial force of P = 18 kN and a torque of T = 5.5 kN-
m as shown in Fig. P15.59. If the internal pressure in the
pipe is 1,200 kPa, determine the principal stresses, the
maximum in-plane shear stress, and the absolute
maximum shear stress on the outside surface of the pipe.

Fig. P15.59
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
355 mm 2(10 mm) 335 mm
(355 mm) (335 mm) 10,838.495 mm
4
(355 mm) (335 mm) 322.7839 10 mm
32
d
A
J
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸

Axial stress:

axial
2
18, 000 N
1.661 MPa (T)
10,838.495 mm
o = =

Shear stress due to torque:

6
6 4
(5.5 10 N-mm)(355 mm/2)
3.024 MPa
322.7839 10 mm
Tc
J
t
×
= = =
×
(Sign to be determined by inspection)

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 1,200-kPa internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 10-mm thick wall of the
pipe. The longitudinal stress in the pipe wall is:

long
(1, 200 kPa)(335 mm)
10, 050 kPa 10.05 MPa (T)
4 4(10 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(1, 200 kPa)(335 mm)
20,100 kPa 20.10 MPa (T)
2 2(10 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =

Summary of stresses:
Let the longitudinal axis of the pipe be denoted by x and
the circumferential direction be denoted by y. The normal
and shear stresses at a point on the outside of the pipe are
thus:

1.661 MPa 10.05 MPa 11.711 MPa
20.100 MPa
3.024 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= + =
=
= ÷

The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).
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2
2
1, 2
(11.711) (20.100) (11.711) (20.100)
( 3.024)
2 2
15.905 5.171
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 21.1 MPa 10.73 MPa
p p
o o = = Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 5.17 r st M r ) P s a es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 15.91 MPa shear st (T) ress) o = Ans.

2
3.024 3.024
tan2 0.721034
[(11.711) (20.100)] / 2 4.195
17.90 (counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
p p
x
u
u o
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷
= °

abs max
21.077 MPa
10.538 MPa
2
10.54 MPa t = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.60 A pressurized pipe with an outside diameter of
10.75 in. and a wall thickness of 0.25 in. is subjected to
an axial force of P = 33,000 lb and a torque of T =
12,000 lb-ft as shown in Fig. P15.60. If the internal
pressure in the pipe is 240 psi, determine the principal
stresses, the maximum in-plane shear stress, and the
absolute maximum shear stress on the outside surface of
the pipe.

Fig. P15.60
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
10.75 in. 2(0.25 in.) 10.25 in.
(10.75 in) (10.25 in.) 8.246681 in.
4
(10.75 in) (10.25 in.) 227.427992 in.
32
d
A
J
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Axial stress:

axial
2
33, 000 lb
4, 001.610 psi (T)
8.246681 in.
o = =

Shear stress due to torque:

4
(12, 000 lb-ft)(10.75 in./2)(12 in./ft)
3, 403.275 psi
227.427992 in.
Tc
J
t = = =
(Sign to be determined by inspection)

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 240-psi internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 0.25-in. thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress in the pipe wall is:

long
(240 psi)(10.25 in.)
2, 460 psi (T)
4 4(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(240 psi)(10.25 in.)
4,920 psi (T)
2 2(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = =

Summary of stresses:
Let the longitudinal axis of the pipe be denoted by x and the
circumferential direction be denoted by y. The normal and
shear stresses at a point on the outside of the pipe are thus:

4, 001.610 psi 2, 460 psi 6, 461.610 psi
4,920 psi
3, 403.275 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= + =
=
= ÷

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
(6, 451.610) (4,920) (6, 451.610) (4,920)
( 3, 403.275)
2 2
5, 690.805 3, 489.473
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 9,180 psi 2, 200 psi
p p
o o = = Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 3, 49 ar s 0 tr psi ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 5, 690 psi shear st (T) ress) o = Ans.

1
3, 403.275 3, 403.275
tan2 4.415221
[(6, 461.610) (4,920)] / 2 770.805
38.62 (clockwise from the axis to the direction of )
p
p p
x
u
u o
÷ ÷
= = = ÷
÷
= ÷ °

abs max
9,180.278 psi
4,590.139 psi
2
4,590 psi t = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.61 A pipe with an outside diameter of 140 mm and a
shown in Fig. P15.61. The internal pressure in the pipe
is 1,600 kPa. Determine the normal and shear stresses at
(a) point H and (b) point K.

Fig. P15.61
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
140 mm 2(5 mm) 130 mm
(140 mm) (130 mm) 2,120.575 mm
4
(140 mm) (130 mm) 9.67512 10 mm
32
(140 mm) (130 mm) 4.83756 10 mm
64
1
(140 mm) (130 mm) 45,583.333 mm
12
x y
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Equivalent forces at H and K:

3, 200 N
7, 500 N
0 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷
= ÷
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

(7,500 N)(250 mm) 1,875, 000 N-mm
(3, 200 N)(250 mm) 800, 000 N-mm
4, 000, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= =
= ÷ = ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(3, 200 N)(45,583.333 mm )
3.015 MPa
(4.83756 10 mm ) (140 mm) (130 mm)
xz
t = =
× ÷

Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(1.875 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
27.131 MPa
4.83756 10 mm
x
z
x
M y
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(4 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
28.940 MPa
9.67512 10 mm
z
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 1,600-kPa internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 5-mm thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the z direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(1, 600 kPa)(130 mm)
10, 400 kPa 10.40 MPa (T)
4 4(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(1, 600 kPa)(130 mm)
20,800 kPa 20.80 MPa (T)
2 2(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the x direction at H and in the y direction at K.

Summary of stresses at H:

20.8 MPa (T)
16.73 MPa (C
27.131 MPa 10.40 MPa
16.731 MPa
3.015 MPa 28.940 MPa
25.925 MPa
)
25.9 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
= ÷ =
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

(b) Consider point K.
Force F
x
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(7,500 N)(45,583.333 mm )
7.067 MPa
(4.83756 10 mm ) (140 mm) (130 mm)
yz
t = =
× ÷

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(0.8 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
11.576 MPa
4.83756 10 mm
y
z
y
M x
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(4 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
28.940 MPa
9.67512 10 mm
z
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Summary of stresses at K:

20.80 MPa
11.576 MPa 10.40 MPa
21.976 MPa
7.
20.8 MPa (T)
22.0 MPa (T)
067 MPa
21.
28.
9
940 MPa
21.873 M a Pa MP
y
z
yz
o
o
t
= =
= +
= =
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.62 A pipe with an outside diameter of 220 mm and a
wall thickness of 5 mm is subjected to the load shown
in Fig. P15.62. The internal pressure in the pipe is 2,000
kPa. Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
top surface of the pipe at point H.

Fig. P15.62
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
220 mm 2(5 mm) 210 mm
(220 mm) (210 mm) 3,377.212 mm
4
(220 mm) (210 mm) 39.0490 10 mm
32
(220 mm) (210 mm) 19.5245 10 mm
64
1
(220 mm) (210 mm) 115,583.333 mm
12
x y
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the 25-kN load:
The 25-kN load can be expressed in vector form as:
(25 kN)sin40 (25 kN)cos40 = ÷ ° + ° F j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are thus

0 N
16.0697 kN 16, 069.690 N
19.1511 kN 19,151.111 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷ = ÷
= =

The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(700 mm) (1,500 mm) = + r i k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

0.700 0 1.500
0 16, 069.690 19,151.111
24,104.535 N-m 13, 405.778 N-m 11, 248.783 N-m
× =
÷
= ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equivalent moments:

6
6
6
24.1045 10 N-mm
13.4058 10 N-mm
11.2488 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ×
= ÷ ×
= ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
19,151.111 N
5.671 MPa
3,377.212 mm
z
o = =
Moment M
x
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(24.1045 10 N-mm)(220 mm/2)
135.804 MPa
19.5245 10 mm
x
z
x
M y
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(11.2488 10 N-mm)(220 mm/2)
31.688 MPa
39.0490 10 mm
z
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 2,000-kPa internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 5-mm-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the z direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(2, 000 kPa)(210 mm)
21, 000 kPa 21 MPa (T)
4 4(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(2, 000 kPa)(210 mm)
42, 000 kPa 42 MPa (T)
2 2(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the x direction at H.
Summary of stresses at H:

5.671 MPa 135.804 MPa 21 MPa
16
42 MPa (T)
162.5 MPa (T)
31.7
2.474 MPa
31.688 MPa MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
= + +
= =
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.63 A pipe with an outside diameter of 220 mm and a
wall thickness of 5 mm is subjected to the load shown
in Fig. P15.63. The internal pressure in the pipe is 2,000
kPa. Determine the normal and shear stresses on the
side of the pipe at point K.

Fig. P15.63
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
220 mm 2(5 mm) 210 mm
(220 mm) (210 mm) 3,377.212 mm
4
(220 mm) (210 mm) 39.0490 10 mm
32
(220 mm) (210 mm) 19.5245 10 mm
64
1
(220 mm) (210 mm) 115,583.333 mm
12
x y
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the 25-kN load:
The 25-kN load can be expressed in vector form as:
(25 kN)sin40 (25 kN)cos40 = ÷ ° + ° F j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are thus

0 N
16.0697 kN 16, 069.690 N
19.1511 kN 19,151.111 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷ = ÷
= =

The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(700 mm) (1,500 mm) = + r i k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

0.700 0 1.500
0 16, 069.690 19,151.111
24,104.535 N-m 13, 405.778 N-m 11, 248.783 N-m
× =
÷
= ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equivalent moments:

6
6
6
24.1045 10 N-mm
13.4058 10 N-mm
11.2488 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ×
= ÷ ×
= ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.
Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(16, 069.690 N)(115,583.333 mm )
9.513 MPa
(19.5245 10 mm ) (220 mm) (210 mm)
yz
t = =
× ÷

Force F
z
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
19,151.111 N
5.671 MPa
3,377.212 mm
z
o = =
Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(13.4058 10 N-mm)(220 mm/2)
75.527 MPa
19.5245 10 mm
y
z
y
M x
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at K. The magnitude of this
shear stress is:

6
6 4
(11.2488 10 N-mm)(220 mm/2)
31.688 MPa
39.0490 10 mm
z
yz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 2,000-kPa internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 5-mm-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the z direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(2, 000 kPa)(210 mm)
21, 000 kPa 21 MPa (T)
4 4(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(2, 000 kPa)(210 mm)
42, 000 kPa 42 MPa (T)
2 2(5 mm)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the y direction at K.
Summary of stresses at K:

42 MPa (T)
102.2 MPa (T)
41.
5.671 MPa 75.527 MPa 21 MPa
102.198 MPa
9.513 MPa 31.688 MPa
41.201 2 Pa a M MP
y
z
yz
o
o
t
=
= + +
= =
= ÷
÷ ÷
÷
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.64 A pipe with an outside diameter of 8.50 in. and a
wall thickness of 0.25 in. is subjected to the 3-kip load
shown in Fig. P15.64. The internal pressure in the pipe
is 320 psi.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the top
surface of the pipe at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress at point H and show the orientation of
these stresses on an appropriate sketch.
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at H.

Fig. P15.64
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3
8.50 in. 2(0.25 in.) 8.00 in.
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 6.479535 in.
4
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 110.354578 in.
32
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 55.177289 in.
64
1
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in
12
y z
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
= ÷
3 3
.) 8.510417 in. ( =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the 3-kip load:
The 3-kip load can be expressed in vector form as:
(3 kips)sin55 (3 kips)cos55 = ÷ ° + ° F j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are thus

0 kips
2.45746 kips
1.72073 kips
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
=

The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(24 in.) (48 in.) = + r i k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

24 0 48
0 2.45746 1.72073
117.958 kip-in. 41.298 kip-in. 58.979 kip-in.
× =
÷
= ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equivalent moments:

117.958 kip-in.
41.298 kip-in.
58.979 kip-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
=
= ÷
= ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(1.72073 kips)(8.510417 in. )
0.531 ksi
(55.177289 in. ) (8.50 in.) (8.00 in.)
xz
t = =
÷

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(117.958 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
4.543 ksi
110.354578 in.
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(58.979 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
4.543 ksi
55.177289 in.
z
x
z
M y
I
o = = =

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 320-psi internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 0.25-in.-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the x direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
2,560 psi 2.56 ksi (T)
4 4(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
5,120 psi 5.12 ksi (T)
2 2(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the z direction at H.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at H:

7.10 ksi (T)
5.12 ksi (T)
5.074
4.543 ksi 2.56 ksi
7.103 ksi
0.531 ksi 4.543 k si si k
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= +
= =
=
= + = Ans.

(b) Principal stresses at H:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(7.103) (5.12) (7.103) (5.12)
( 5.074)
2 2
6.111 5.170
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 11.28 ksi 0.942 ksi
p p
o o = = Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 5.17 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 6.11 ksi ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

1
5.074 5.074
tan2 5.117581
[(7.103) (5.12)] / 2 0.991
(clockwise from the axis to the direction of 39.47 )
p p
p
x
u
u o = ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
°
= =
÷
Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress at H:

abs max
11.281
5.64 ksi
ksi
2
t = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.65 A pipe with an outside diameter of 8.50 in. and a
wall thickness of 0.25 in. is subjected to the 3-kip load
shown in Fig. P15.65. The internal pressure in the pipe
is 320 psi.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the side
of the pipe at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-
plane shear stress at point K and show the orientation of
these stresses on an appropriate sketch.
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear stress at K.

Fig. P15.65
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3
8.50 in. 2(0.25 in.) 8.00 in.
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 6.479535 in.
4
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 110.354578 in.
32
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 55.177289 in.
64
1
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in
12
y z
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
= ÷
3 3
.) 8.510417 in. ( =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the 3-kip load:
The 3-kip load can be expressed in vector form as:
(3 kips)sin55 (3 kips)cos55 = ÷ ° + ° F j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are thus

0 kips
2.45746 kips
1.72073 kips
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
=

The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(24 in.) (48 in.) = + r i k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

24 0 48
0 2.45746 1.72073
117.958 kip-in. 41.298 kip-in. 58.979 kip-in.
× =
÷
= ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equivalent moments:

117.958 kip-in.
41.298 kip-in.
58.979 kip-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
=
= ÷
= ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(2.45746 kips)(8.510417 in. )
0.758 ksi
(55.177289 in. ) (8.50 in.) (8.00 in.)
xy
t = =
÷

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(117.958 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
4.543 ksi
110.354578 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(41.298 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
3.181 ksi
55.177289 in.
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 320-psi internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 0.25-in.-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the x direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
2,560 psi 2.56 ksi (T)
4 4(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
5,120 psi 5.12 ksi (T)
2 2(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the y direction at K.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at K:

0.621 ksi (C)
5.12 k
3.181 ksi 2.56 ks
si (T)
i
0.621 ksi
0.758 ksi 4.543 ksi
5. 5.30 301 i k ks si
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷ +
= ÷ =
=
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ = Ans.

(b) Principal stresses at K:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
( 0.621) (5.12) ( 0.621) (5.12)
( 5.301)
2 2
2.250 6.028
p p
o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 8.28 ksi 3.78 ksi
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 6.03 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 2.25 ksi ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

2
30.7
5.301 5.301
tan2 1.846703
[( 0.621) (5.12)] / 2 2.870
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction 8 of )
p
p
p
x
u
o u = °
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress at K:

abs max
8.278 ksi 3.779 ksi
6.028 ksi 6.03 ksi
2
t
÷
= = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.66 A pipe with an outside diameter of
8.50 in. and a wall thickness of 0.25 in. is
subjected to the loads shown in Fig. P15.66.
The internal pressure in the pipe is 320 psi.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses
on the outer surface of the pipe at point H.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and
maximum in-plane shear stress at point H and
show the orientation of these stresses on an
appropriate sketch.
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear
stress at H.

Fig. P15.66
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3
8.50 in. 2(0.25 in.) 8.00 in.
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 6.479535 in.
4
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 110.354578 in.
32
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 55.177289 in.
64
1
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in
12
x z
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
= ÷
3 3
.) 8.510417 in. ( =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the applied loads:
The loads applied to the structure can be expressed in vector form as:
(2.75 kips) (1.9 kips) = ÷ F i k
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(36 in.) (72 in.) (60 in.) = ÷ + ÷ r i j k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

36 72 60
2.75 0 1.9
136.8 kip-in. 233.4 kip-in. 198.0 kip-in.
× = ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Equivalent forces at H and K:

2.75 kips
0 kips
1.90 kips
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
=
= ÷

Equivalent moments at H and K:

136.8 kip-in.
233.4 kip-in.
198.0 kip-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
x
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the yz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(1.90 kips)(8.510417 in. )
0.586 ksi
(55.177289 in. ) (8.50 in.) (8.00 in.)
yz
t = =
÷

Moment M
x
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the yz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(233.4 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
8.989 ksi
110.354578 in.
y
yz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(198.0 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
15.251 ksi
55.177289 in.
z
y
z
M x
I
o = = =

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 320-psi internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 0.25-in.-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the y direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
2,560 psi 2.56 ksi (T)
4 4(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
5,120 psi 5.12 ksi (T)
2 2(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the z direction at H.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Summary of stresses at H:

5.12 ksi (T)
12.69 ksi (
15.251
C)
8
ksi 2.56 ksi
12.691 ksi
0.586 ksi 8.989 ksi
8.403 ksi .40 ksi
z
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= ÷ +
= ÷ =
= ÷ +
= = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12). For use in this equation, the
negative z axis will be taken as the x axis, which causes the shear stress value to change sign.

2
2
1, 2
(5.12) ( 12.691) (5.12) ( 12.691)
( 8.403)
2 2
3.785 12.244
p p
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±

1 2
and 8.46 ksi 16.03 ksi
p p
o o = = ÷ Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane she 12.2 ar s 4 tr ksi ess) t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 3.79 ksi ( shear str s C) es ) o = Ans.

1
8.403 8.403
tan2 0.9435
21.6
43
[(5.12) ( 12.691)] / 2 8.905
(clockwise from the axis to the direction ) 7 of
p
p p
z o u
u
=
÷ ÷
= = =
°
÷ ÷
÷
÷
Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress at H:

abs max
8.458 ksi 16.029 ksi
2
12.24 ksi t
÷
= = Ans.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
15.67 A pipe with an outside diameter of 8.50
in. and a wall thickness of 0.25 in. is subjected
to the loads shown in Fig. P15.67. The internal
pressure in the pipe is 320 psi.
(a) Determine the normal and shear stresses on
the outer surface of the pipe at point K.
(b) Determine the principal stresses and
maximum in-plane shear stress at point K and
show the orientation of these stresses on an
appropriate sketch.
(c) Compute the absolute maximum shear
stress at K.
Fig. P15.67
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 4
4 4 4
3
8.50 in. 2(0.25 in.) 8.00 in.
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 6.479535 in.
4
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 110.354578 in.
32
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in.) 55.177289 in.
64
1
(8.50 in.) (8.00 in
12
x z
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ =
¸ ¸
= ÷
3 3
.) 8.510417 in. ( =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the applied loads:
The loads applied to the structure can be expressed in vector form as:
(2.75 kips) (1.9 kips) = ÷ F i k
The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(36 in.) (72 in.) (60 in.) = ÷ + ÷ r i j k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

36 72 60
2.75 0 1.9
136.8 kip-in. 233.4 kip-in. 198.0 kip-in.
× = ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Equivalent forces at H and K:

2.75 kips
0 kips
1.90 kips
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
=
= ÷

Equivalent moments at H and K:

136.8 kip-in.
233.4 kip-in.
198.0 kip-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
4
(2.75 kips)(8.510417 in. )
0.848 ksi
(55.177289 in. ) (8.50 in.) (8.00 in.)
xy
t = =
÷

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(136.8 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
10.537 ksi
55.177289 in.
x
y
x
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
y
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(233.4 kip-in.)(8.50 in./2)
8.989 ksi
110.354578 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 320-psi internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 0.25-in.-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the y direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
2,560 psi 2.56 ksi (T)
4 4(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(320 psi)(8.00 in.)
5,120 psi 5.12 ksi (T)
2 2(0.25 in.)
pd
t
o = = = =
The hoop stress acts in the x direction at K.

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Summary of stresses at K:

5.12 ksi (T)
13.10 ksi (T)
10.537 ks
8.1
i 2.56 ksi
13.097 ksi
0.848 ksi 8.989 ksi
8.140 4 ksi ksi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= +
= =
=
÷
÷
= ÷ = Ans.

(b) Principal stress calculations:
The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12.12).

2
2
1, 2
(5.12) (13.097) (5.12) (13.097)
( 8.140)
2 2
9.108 9.065
p p
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±

1 2
and 18.17 ksi 0.0434 ksi
p p
o o = = Ans.

max
(maximum in-plane shea 9.07 r st k r ) s s i es t = Ans.

avg
(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane 9.11 ksi ( shear str s T) es ) o = Ans.

2
31.9
8.140 8.140
tan2 2.040993
[(5.12) (13.097)] / 2 3.988
(counterclockwise from the axis to the direction of 5 )
p
p p
x u
u
o = °
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷
Ans.

(c) Absolute maximum shear stress at K:

abs max
18.174
9.09 ksi
ksi
2
t = = Ans.

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15.68 The stresses on the surface of a beam are shown in Fig. P15.68. The
beam is made of structural steel that has a yield strength of o
Y
= 36 ksi.
(a) What is the factor of safety predicted by the maximum-shear-stress theory
of failure for the stress state shown? Does the beam fail according to this
theory?
(b) What is the value of the Mises equivalent stress for the given state of plane
stress?
(c) What is the factor of safety predicted by the failure criterion of the
maximum-distortion-energy theory of failure? Does the beam fail according to
this theory?

Fig. P15.68
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1
2
(22 ksi) (0 ksi) (22 ksi) (0 ksi)
(15 ksi) 11 ksi 18.601 ksi
2 2
therefore,
29.601 ksi
7.601 ksi
p p
p
p
o
o
o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + = ±
|
\ .
=
= ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, failure will occur if
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > . For the principal stresses existing in the beam:

1 2
29.601 ksi ( 7.601 ksi) 37.202 ksi 36 ksi N.G.
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = >

Therefore, the beam fails according to the maximum-shear-stress theory. The factor of safety
associated with this state of stress can be calculated as:

36 ksi
FS
37.202 ksi
0.968 = = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stress: The Mises equivalent stress o
M
associated with the maximum-distortion-
energy theory can be calculated from Eq. (15.8) for the plane stress state considered here.

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(29.601 ksi) (29.601 ksi)( 7.601 ksi) ( 7.601 ksi)
34.0 34.0 ks 4 ksi i 4
M p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-distortion-energy theory factor of safety: The factor of safety for the maximum-
distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises equivalent stress:

36 ksi
FS
34.044 ksi
1.057 = = Ans.
According to the maximum-shear-stress theory, the beam does not fail.

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15.69 The stresses on the surface of a structural steel component are
shown in Fig. P15.69. The yield strength of the steel is o
Y
= 36 ksi.
(a) What is the factor of safety predicted by the maximum-shear-stress
theory of failure for the stress state shown? Does the component fail
according to this theory?
(b) What is the value of the Mises equivalent stress for the given state of
plane stress?
(c) What is the factor of safety predicted by the failure criterion of the
maximum-distortion-energy theory of failure? Does the component fail
according to this theory?

Fig. P15.69
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1
2
(10 ksi) ( 18 ksi) (10 ksi) ( 18 ksi)
( 12 ksi) 4 ksi 18.439 ksi
2 2
therefore,
14.439 ksi
22.439 ksi
p p
p
p
o
o
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷ = ÷ ±
|
\ .
=
= ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, failure will occur if
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > . For the principal stresses existing in the component:

1 2
14.439 ksi ( 22.439 ksi) 36.878 ksi 36 ksi N.G.
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = >

Therefore, the component fails according to the maximum-shear-stress theory. The factor of safety
associated with this state of stress can be calculated as:

36 ksi
FS
36.878 ksi
0.976 = = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stress: The Mises equivalent stress o
M
associated with the maximum-distortion-
energy theory can be calculated from Eq. (15.8) for the plane stress state considered here.

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(14.439 ksi) (14.439 ks
32.2 ks
i)( 22.439 ksi) ( 22.439 ksi)
i 32.187 ksi
M p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-distortion-energy theory factor of safety: The factor of safety for the maximum-
distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises equivalent stress:

36 ksi
FS
32.187 ksi
1.118 = = Ans.
According to the maximum-shear-stress theory, the component does not fail.

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15.70 The stresses on the surface of a hard bronze component are shown
in Fig. P15.70. The yield strength of the bronze is o
Y
= 345 MPa.
(a) What is the factor of safety predicted by the maximum-shear-stress
theory of failure for the stress state shown? Does the component fail
according to this theory?
(b) What is the value of the Mises equivalent stress for the given state of
plane stress?
(c) What is the factor of safety predicted by the failure criterion of the
maximum-distortion-energy theory of failure? Does the component fail
according to this theory?

Fig. P15.70
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1
2
(190 MPa) ( 80 MPa) (190 MPa) ( 80 MPa)
(125 MPa)
2 2
55 MPa 183.984 MPa
therefore,
239 MPa
129.0 MPa
p p
p
p
o
o
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±
=
= ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, failure will occur if
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > . For the principal stresses existing in the component:

1 2
238.984 MPa ( 128.984 MPa) 367.968 MPa 345 MPa N.G.
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = >

Therefore, the component fails according to the maximum-shear-stress theory. The factor of safety
associated with this state of stress can be calculated as:

345 MPa
FS
367.968 MPa
0.938 = = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stress: The Mises equivalent stress o
M
associated with the maximum-distortion-
energy theory can be calculated from Eq. (15.8) for the plane stress state considered here.

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(238.984 MPa) (238.984 MP
323 MP
a)( 128.984 MPa) ( 128.984 MPa)
32 a 3.381 MPa
M p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-distortion-energy theory factor of safety: The factor of safety for the maximum-
distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises equivalent stress:

345 MPa
FS
323.381 MPa
1.067 = = Ans.
According to the maximum-shear-stress theory, the component does not fail.

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15.71 The stresses on the surface of a hard bronze component are shown
in Fig. P15.71. The yield strength of the bronze is o
Y
= 345 MPa.
(a) What is the factor of safety predicted by the maximum-shear-stress
theory of failure for the stress state shown? Does the component fail
according to this theory?
(b) What is the value of the Mises equivalent stress for the given state of
plane stress?
(c) What is the factor of safety predicted by the failure criterion of the
maximum-distortion-energy theory of failure? Does the component fail
according to this theory?

Fig. P15.71
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1
2
(0 MPa) ( 100 MPa) (0 MPa) ( 100 MPa)
( 170 MPa)
2 2
50 MPa 177.2 MPa
therefore,
127.2 MPa
227.2 MPa
p p
p
p
o
o
o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
=
= ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, failure will occur if
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > . For the principal stresses existing in the component:

1 2
127.2 MPa ( 227.2 MPa) 354.4 MPa 345 MPa N.G.
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = >

Therefore, the component fails according to the maximum-shear-stress theory. The factor of safety
associated with this state of stress can be calculated as:

345 MPa
FS
354.4 MPa
0.973 = = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stress: The Mises equivalent stress o
M
associated with the maximum-distortion-
energy theory can be calculated from Eq. (15.8) for the plane stress state considered here.

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(127.2 MPa) (127.2MPa)( 227.2 MPa) ( 227.2 MPa)
310.966 MP 3 1 MPa a 1
M p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-distortion-energy theory factor of safety: The factor of safety for the maximum-
distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises equivalent stress:

345 MPa
FS
310.966 MPa
1.109 = = Ans.
According to the maximum-shear-stress theory, the component does not fail.

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15.72 If a shaft is made of an aluminum alloy for which o
Y
= 410 MPa, determine the minimum
torsional shear stress required to cause yielding using:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.
Solution
(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: For pure torsional shear stress, o
p1
will be positive and o
p2
will
be negative. Failure will occur when
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > , therefore:

1 2 max torsion
torsion
2 2 410 MPa
410
205 MP
MP
a
a
2
p p
o o t t
t
÷ = = =
= = Ans.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory: For pure torsion,

1 torsion 2 torsion
and
p p
o t o t = = ÷
For a state of plane stress, the Mises equivalent stress can be expressed as:

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
torsion torsion torsion torsion
1/ 2
2
torsion
( ) ( )( ) ( )
3
M p p p p
o o o o o
t t t t
t
( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸

Solve for the torsional shear stress:

2 2
torsion
(410 MPa)
236.714 MPa
3 3
237 MPa
M
o
t = = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.73 The solid circular shaft shown in Fig. P15.73 has an
outside diameter of 75 mm and is made of a bronze alloy
for which o
Y
= 340 MPa Determine the largest permissible
torque T that may be applied to the shaft based on:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.

Fig. P15.73
Solution
(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory: For pure torsional shear stress, o
p1
will be positive and o
p2
will
be negative. Failure will occur when
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > , therefore:

1 2 max torsion
torsion
2 2 340 MPa
340 MPa
170 MPa
2
p p
o o t t
t
÷ = = =
= =
The largest permissible torque is therefore:

2 4
2 3
(170 N/mm ) (75 mm)
32
(170 N/mm )(75 mm)
(75 mm/2) 16
14, 081,944 14.08 kN-m N-mm
Tc
J
J
T
c
t
t
t t
=
= = =
= = Ans.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory: For pure torsion,

1 torsion 2 torsion
and
p p
o t o t = = ÷
For a state of plane stress, the Mises equivalent stress can be expressed as:

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
torsion torsion torsion torsion
1/ 2
2
torsion
( ) ( )( ) ( )
3
M p p p p
o o o o o
t t t t
t
( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸

Solve for the torsional shear stress:

2 2
torsion
(340 MPa)
196.299 MPa
3 3
M
o
t = = =
The largest permissible torque is therefore:

2 4
2 3
(196.299 N/mm ) (75 mm)
32
(196.299 N/mm )(75 mm)
(75 mm/2) 16
16, 260, 428 16.26 kN-m N-mm
Tc
J
J
T
c
t
t
t t
=
= = =
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.74 A compound shaft consists of two steel pipe segments. Segment (1) has an outside diameter of 6.50
in. and a wall thickness of 0.375 in. Segment (2) has an outside diameter of 4.50 in. and a wall thickness of
0.50 in. The shaft is subjected to an axial compression load of P = 50 kips and torques T
B
= 30 kip-ft and T
C

= 10 kip-ft, which act in the directions shown in Fig. P15.74. The yield strength of the steel is o
Y
= 36 ksi,
and a minimum factor of safety of FS
min
= 1.67 is required by specification.
Consider points H and K, and determine
whether the compound shaft satisfies the
specifications according to:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.

Fig. P15.74
Solution
Equilibrium:

1 1
30 kip-ft 10 kip-ft 0 20 kip-ft
x
M T T E = ÷ + ÷ = =

2 2
10 kip-ft 0 10 kip-ft
x
M T T E = ÷ ÷ = = ÷

Section properties:

2 2 2
1
4 4 4
1
(6.50 in.) (5.75 in.) 7.215846 in.
4
(6.50 in.) (5.75 in.) 67.930422 in.
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

2 2 2
2
4 4 4
2
(4.50 in.) (3.50 in.) 6.283185 in.
4
(4.50 in.) (3.50 in.) 25.525440 in.
32
A
J
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Normal and shear stress magnitudes:
Element H:

1
1 2
1
1 1
1 4
1
50 kips
6.929 ksi (C)
7.215846 in.
(20 kip-ft)(6.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
11.482 ksi
67.930422 in.
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

Element K:

2
2 2
2
2 2
2 4
2
50 kips
7.958 ksi (C)
6.283185 in.
(10 kip-ft)(4.50 in. / 2)(12 in./ft)
10.578 ksi
25.525440 in.
F
A
T c
J
o
t
÷
= = =
= = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
( 6.929 ksi) (0 ksi) ( 6.929 ksi) (0 ksi)
( 11.482 ksi)
2 2
3.465 ksi 11.994 ksi
therefore, 8.529 ksi and 15.458 ksi
p p
p p
o
o o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:

2
2
1, 2
1 2
( 7.958 ksi) (0 ksi) ( 7.958) (0 ksi)
(10.578 ksi)
2 2
3.979 ksi 11.301 ksi
therefore, 7.322 ksi and 15.280 ksi
p p
p p
o
o o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
8.529 ksi ( 15.458 ksi) 23.987 ksi
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:
1.501
36 ksi
FS 1.67 not acceptable
23.987 ksi
H
= = < Ans.

Element K:

1 2
7.322 ksi ( 15.280 ksi) 22.602 ksi
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:
1.593
36 ksi
FS 1.67 not acceptable
22.602 ksi
K
= = < Ans.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(8.529 ksi) (8.529 ksi)( 15.458 ksi) ( 15.458 ksi) 21.061 ksi
M H p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
¸ ¸

The factor of safety for the maximum-distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises
equivalent stress:
1
36 ksi
F .709 S 1.67 acceptable
21.061 ksi
H
= = > Ans.

Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(7.322 ksi) (7.322 ksi)( 15.280 ksi) ( 15.280 ksi) 19.975 ksi
M K p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
¸ ¸

1
36 ksi
F .802 S 1.67 acceptable
19.975 ksi
K
= = > Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.75 A hollow structural steel flexural member (Fig. P15.75b) is
subjected to the load shown in Fig. P15.75a. The yield strength of
the steel is o
Y
= 320 MPa.
(a) Determine the factors of safety predicted at points H and K by
the maximum-shear-stress theory of failure.
(b) Determine the Mises equivalent stresses at points H and K.
(c) Determine the factors of safety at points H and K predicted by
the maximum-distortion-energy theory.

Fig. P15.75a
Fig. P15.75b
Solution
Moment of inertia about the z axis:
Shape I
C
d = y
i
– y d²A I
C
+ d²A
(mm
4
) (mm) (mm
4
) (mm
4
)
outer rectangle 195,312,500 0.000 0.000 195,312,500
inner rectangle −143,077,428 0.000 0.000 −143,077,428
Moment of inertia about the z axis (mm
4
) = 52,235,072

Bending stress at point H:

4
(225 kN-m)(75 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
52,235,072 mm
323.059 MPa (tension, by inspection)
y
o =
=

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point H:

3
(150 mm)(8 mm)(121 mm) 2(8 mm)(42 mm)(96 mm)
209, 712 mm
Q = +
=

3
4
(225 kN)(209, 712 mm )
56.458 MPa
(52, 235, 072 mm )(2)(8 mm)
(Sense to be determined by inspection)
VQ
I t
t = = =

Stress element at H

Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(0 MPa) (232.059 MPa) (0 MPa) (232.059 MPa)
(56.458 MPa)
2 2
151.529 MPa 171.112 MPa
therefore, 332.641 MPa and 9.582 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Bending stress at point K:
4
(225 kN-m)(50.0 mm)(1,000 N/kN)(1,000 mm/m)
52,235,072 mm
215.373 MPa (compression, by inspection)
y
o =
=

Transverse and horizontal shear stress at point K:

3
(150 mm)(8 mm)(121 mm) 2(8 mm)(67 mm)(83.5 mm)
234, 712 mm
Q = +
=

3
4
(225 kN)(234, 712 mm )
63.188 MPa
(52, 235, 072 mm )(2)(8 mm)
(Sense to be determined by inspection)
VQ
I t
t = = =

Stress element at K

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(0 MPa) ( 215.373 MPa) (0 MPa) ( 215.373 MPa)
(63.188 MPa)
2 2
107.686 MPa 124.856 MPa
therefore, 17.170 MPa and 232.542 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
332.641 MPa ( 9.582 MPa) 342.223 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

320 MPa
FS
342.223 MP
0 3
a
.9 5
H
= = Ans.

Element K:

1 2
17.170 MPa ( 232.542 MPa) 249.712 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

320 MPa
FS
249.712 MP
1 8
a
.2 1
K
= = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stresses at points H and K:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(332.641 MPa) (332.641 MPa)( 9.582 MPa) ( 9.582 MPa
338 MPa
)
337.534 MPa
M H p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.
Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(17.170 MPa) (17.170 MP
242 MP
a)( 232.542 MPa) ( 232.542 MPa)
241.586 MP a a
M K p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

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(c) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
The factor of safety for the maximum-distortion-energy theory can be calculated from the Mises
equivalent stress:

320 MPa
FS
337.534 MP
0 4
a
.9 8
H
= = Ans.

320 MPa
FS
241.586 MP
1 2
a
.3 5
K
= = Ans.

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15.76 A 2.5-in.-diameter solid aluminum post is
subjected to a horizontal force of V = 9 kips, a
vertical force of P = 20 kips, and a concentrated
torque of T = 4 kip-ft, acting in the directions shown
in Fig. P15.76. Assume L = 3.5 in. The yield
strength of the aluminum is o
Y
= 50 ksi, and a
minimum factor of safety of FS
min
= 1.67 is required
by specification. Consider points H and K, and
determine whether the aluminum post satisfies the
specifications according to:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.
Fig. P15.76
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(2.5 in.) 4.908739 in. (2.5 in.) 3.834952 in.
4 32
(2.5 in.)
1.302083 in. (2.5 in.) 1.917476 in.
12 64
x z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

9 kips 20 kips 0 kips
0 kip-in. 48 kip-in. (9 kips)(3.5 in.) 31.5 kip-in.
x y z
x y z
F F F
M M M
= ÷ = ÷ =
= = = =

Axial stress magnitude at H due to F
y
:

2
20, 000 lb
4, 074.367 psi
4.908739 in.
y
o = =

Shear stress magnitude at H due to F
x
:

3
4
(9, 000 lb)(1.302083 in. )
2, 444.620 psi
(1.917476 in. )(2.5 in.)
xy
t = =

Torsion shear stress magnitude at H due to M
y
:

4
(48, 000 lb-in.)(2.5 in./2)
15, 645.568 psi
3.834952 in.
y
xy
M c
J
t = = =
Summary of stresses at H:

0 psi
4, 074.367 psi
2, 444.620 psi 15, 645.568 psi
13, 200.948 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
= ÷
= ÷ +
=

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Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(0 psi) ( 4, 074.367 psi) (0 psi) ( 4, 074.367 psi)
(13, 200.948 psi)
2 2
2, 037.183 psi 13,357.213 psi
therefore, 11.320 ksi and 15.394 ksi
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

Bending stress magnitude at K due to M
z
:

4
(31,500 lb-in.)(2.50 in./2)
20,534.808 psi
1.917476 in.
z
y
z
M x
I
o = = =

Shear stress magnitude at K due to M
y
:

4
(48, 000 lb-in.)(2.5 in./2)
15, 645.568 psi
3.834952 in.
y
yz
M c
J
t = = =
Summary of stresses at K:

0 psi
4, 074.367 psi 20,534.808 psi 16, 460.442 psi
15, 645.568 psi
z
y
yz
o
o
t
=
= ÷ + =
= ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(0 psi) (16, 460.442 psi) (0 psi) (16, 460.442 psi)
(15, 645.568 psi)
2 2
8, 230.221 psi 17, 678.245 psi
therefore, 25.908 ksi and 9.448 ksi
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
11.320 ksi ( 15.394 ksi) 26.714 ksi
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

50 ksi
FS
26.714 ksi
1.872
H
= = Ans.

Element K:

1 2
25.908 ksi ( 9.448 ksi) 35.356 ksi
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

50 ksi
FS
35.356 ksi
1.414
K
= = Ans.

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Since the factor of safety at K is less than the minimum required factor of safety, the aluminum post
does not satisfy the specifications.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(11.320 ksi) (11.320 ksi)( 15.394
2.
ksi) ( 15.394 ksi)
23.225 ksi
50 ksi
FS
23.225 k i
15
s
M H p p p p
H
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
=
= = Ans.

Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(25.908 ksi) (25.908 ksi)( 9.448 ksi) ( 9.448 ksi)
31.706 ksi
50 ksi
FS
31.70
1.577
6 ksi
M K p p p p
K
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
=
= = Ans.

Since the factor of safety at K is less than the minimum required factor of safety, the aluminum post
does not satisfy the specifications.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.77 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of
20 mm is supported in flexible bearings at its
ends. Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft, and
the pulleys carry belt tensions as shown in Fig.
P15.77. The yield strength of the steel is o
Y
=
350 MPa.
(a) Determine the factors of safety predicted at
points H and K by the maximum-shear-stress
theory of failure.
(b) Determine the Mises equivalent stresses at
points H and K.
(c) Determine the factors of safety at points H
and K predicted by the maximum-distortion-
energy theory.

Fig. P15.77
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(20 mm) 314.159 mm (20 mm) 15, 707.963 mm
4 32
(20 mm)
666.667 mm (20 mm) 7,853.982 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equilibrium of entire shaft:

, axis
300 N 2,100 N 1,100 N 200 N 0
(300 N)(150 mm) (2,100 N)(150 mm)
(1,100 N)(450 mm) (200 N)(450 mm) (600 mm) 0
z z z
A y
z
F A D
M
D
E = ÷ ÷ + + + + =
E = ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ + =

therefore
1,575 N and 2,125 N
z z
D A = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Detail of equivalent forces at H and K: Detail of equivalent moments at H and K:

0 N
0 N
1,100 N 200 N 1,575 N
275 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
=
= + ÷
= ÷

(1,100 N)(120 mm) (200 N)(120 mm)
108, 000 N-mm
(1,575 N)(300 mm) (1,100 N)(150 mm)
(200 N)(150 mm) 277,500 N-mm
0 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷
÷ =
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

Consider point H.
Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(275 N)(666.667 mm )
1.167 MPa
(7,853.982 mm )(20 mm)
xz
t = =

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(108, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
68.755 MPa
15, 707.963 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at H:

0 MPa
0 MPa
1.167 MPa 68.755 MPa 67.588 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷ + =

Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(0 MPa) (0 MPa) (0 MPa) (0 MPa)
( 67.588 MPa)
2 2
0 MPa 67.588 MPa
therefore, 67.588 MPa and 67.588 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

Consider point K.
Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(108, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
68.755 MPa
15, 707.963 mm
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(277,500 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
353.324 MPa
7,853.982 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at K:

353.324 MPa
0 MPa
68.755 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(353.324 MPa) (0 MPa) (353.324 MPa) (0 MPa)
( 68.755 MPa)
2 2
176.662 MPa 189.570 MPa
therefore, 366.232 MPa and 12.908 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
67.588 MPa ( 67.588 MPa) 135.176 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

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350 MPa
FS
135.176 M
59
Pa
2.
H
= = Ans.

Element K:

1 2
366.232 MPa ( 12.908 MPa) 379.140 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

350 MPa
FS
379.140 MP
0 2
a
.9 3
K
= = Ans.
(b) Mises equivalent stresses at points H and K:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(67.588 MPa) (67.588 MPa)( 67.588 MPa) ( 67.588 MPa)
117.1 117.0 MPa 66 MPa
M H p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.
Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(366.232 MPa) (366.232 MPa)( 12.908 MPa) ( 12.908 MPa)
3 373 72.853 MP MPa a
M K p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Element H:

350 MPa
FS
117.066 M
99
Pa
2.
H
= = Ans.
Element K:

350 MPa
FS
372.853 MP
0 3
a
.9 9
K
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.78 A steel shaft with an outside diameter of 20
mm is supported in flexible bearings at its ends.
Two pulleys are keyed to the shaft, and the pulleys
carry belt tensions as shown in Fig. P15.78. The
yield strength of the steel is o
Y
= 350 MPa.
(a) Determine the factors of safety predicted at
points H and K by the maximum-shear-stress theory
of failure.
(b) Determine the Mises equivalent stresses at
points H and K.
(c) Determine the factors of safety at points H and K
predicted by the maximum-distortion-energy theory.

Fig. P15.78
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(20 mm) 314.159 mm (20 mm) 15, 707.963 mm
4 32
(20 mm)
666.667 mm (20 mm) 7,853.982 mm
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equilibrium of entire shaft:

, axis
, axis
1, 400 N 200 N 0
1,100 N 300 N 0
(1,100 N)(480 mm) (300 N)(480 mm) (640 mm) 0
(1, 400 N)(160 mm) (200 N)(160 mm) (640 mm) 0
y y y
z z z
A y z
A z y
F A D
F A D
M D
M D
E = + + + =
E = ÷ ÷ + + =
E = ÷ ÷ + =
E = + + =

therefore
400 N, 1, 200 N, 1, 050 N, and 350 N
y y z z
D A D A = ÷ = ÷ = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Detail of equivalent forces at H and K: Detail of equivalent moments at H and K:

0 N
400 N
1,100 N 300 N 1, 050 N
350 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
= + ÷
=

(1,100 N)(135 mm/2) (300 N)(135 mm/2)
54, 000 N-mm
(1, 050 N)(320 mm) (1,100 N)(160 mm)
(300 N)(160 mm) 112, 000 N-mm
(400 N)(320 mm) 128, 000 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ÷
=
= ÷
÷ =
= ÷ = ÷

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(350 N)(666.667 mm )
1.485 MPa
(7,853.982 mm )(20 mm)
xz
t = =

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(54, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
34.377 MPa
15, 707.963 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(128, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
162.975 MPa
7,853.982 mm
z
x
z
M y
I
o = = =

Summary of stresses at H:

162.975 MPa
0 MPa
1.485 MPa 34.377 MPa 35.863 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
=
=
= + =

Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(162.975 MPa) (0 MPa) (162.975 MPa) (0 MPa)
( 35.863 MPa)
2 2
81.487 MPa 89.030 MPa
therefore, 170.517 MPa and 7.543 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(400 N)(666.667 mm )
1.698 MPa
(7,853.982 mm )(20 mm)
xy
t = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(54, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
34.377 MPa
15, 707.963 mm
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(112, 000 N-mm)(20 mm/2)
142.603 MPa
7,853.982 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at K:

142.603 MPa
0 MPa
1.698 MPa 34.377 MPa 36.075 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
=
=
= ÷ ÷ = ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(142.603 MPa) (0 MPa) (142.603 MPa) (0 MPa)
( 36.075 MPa)
2 2
71.301 MPa 79.908 MPa
therefore, 151.210 MPa and 8.607 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
170.517 MPa ( 7.543 MPa) 178.060 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

350 MPa
FS
178.060 MP
1 6
a
.9 6
H
= = Ans.
Element K:

1 2
151.210 MPa ( 8.607 MPa) 159.816 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

350 MPa
FS
159.816 M
19
Pa
2.
K
= = Ans.

(b) Mises equivalent stresses at points H and K:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(170.517 MPa) (170.517 MPa)( 7.543 MPa) ( 7.543 MPa
174.4
)
174.411 M Pa Pa M
M H p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.
Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(151.210 MPa) (151.210 MPa)( 8.607 MPa) ( 8.607 MPa
155.7
)
155.691 M Pa Pa M
M K p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.

(c) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Element H:

350 MPa
FS
174.411 M
01
Pa
2.
H
= = Ans.
Element K:

350 MPa
FS
155.691 M
25
Pa
2.
K
= = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.79 A pipe with an outside diameter of 140 mm
and a wall thickness of 7 mm is subjected to the 16-
kN load shown in Fig. P15.79. The internal pressure
in the pipe is 2.50 MPa, and the yield strength of the
steel is o
Y
= 240 MPa.
(a) Determine the factors of safety predicted at
points H and K by the maximum-shear-stress theory
of failure.
(b) Determine the Mises equivalent stresses at
points H and K.
(c) Determine the factors of safety at points H and
K predicted by the maximum-distortion-energy
theory.

Fig. P15.79
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 2
4 4 6 4
4 4 6 4
3 3 3
140 mm 2(7 mm) 126 mm
(140 mm) (126 mm) 2,924.823 mm
4
(140 mm) (126 mm) 12.970 10 mm
32
(140 mm) (126 mm) 6.485 10 mm
64
1
(140 mm) (126 mm) 61,968.667 mm
12
y z
d
A
J
I I
Q
t
t
t
= ÷ =
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = = ÷ = ×
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸

Vector expression for the 16-kN load:
The 16-kN load can be expressed in vector form as:
(16 kN)sin55 (16 kN)cos55 = ÷ ° + ° F j k

The equivalent forces acting at H and K are thus

0 N
13,106.433 N
9,177.223 N
x
y
z
F
F
F
=
= ÷
=

The position vector from the section of interest to a point on the line of action of F is:
(0.7 m) (1.3 m) = + r i k
The equivalent moments are found from the cross-product r

× F.

0.7 0 1.3
0 13,106.433 9,177.223
17, 038.363 N-m 6, 424.056 N-m 9,174.503 N-m
× =
÷
= ÷ ÷
i j k
r F
i j k

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Equivalent moments:

6
6
6
17.0384 10 N-mm
6.4241 10 N-mm
9.1745 10 N-mm
x
y
z
M
M
M
= ×
= ÷ ×
= ÷ ×

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to determine whether stresses are created at
the point of interest.

(a) Consider point H.
Force F
y
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at H.

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(9,177.223 N)(61,968.667 mm )
6.264 MPa
(6.485 10 mm ) (140 mm) (126 mm)
xz
t = =
× ÷

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
6 4
(17.0384 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
91.956 MPa
12.970 10 mm
x
xz
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Moment M
z
creates bending stress at H. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(9.1745 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
99.031 MPa
6.485 10 mm
z
x
z
M y
I
o
×
= = =
×

Stresses due to internal pressure:
The 2.50-MPa internal fluid pressure creates tension normal stresses in the 7-mm-thick wall of the pipe.
The longitudinal stress (which acts in the x direction) in the pipe wall is:

long
(2.50 MPa)(126 mm)
11.25 MPa (T)
4 4(7 mm)
pd
t
o = = =
and the circumferential stress is:

hoop
(2.50 MPa)(126 mm)
22.50 MPa (T)
2 2(7 mm)
pd
t
o = = =
The hoop stress acts in the z direction at H and in the y direction at K.

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Summary of stresses at H:

99.030 MPa 11.25 MPa 110.280 MPa (T)
22.50 MPa (T)
6.264 MPa 91.956 MPa 98.220 MPa
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= + =
=
= + =

Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(110.280 MPa) (22.50 MPa) (110.280 MPa) (22.50 MPa)
( 98.220 MPa)
2 2
66.390 MPa 107.580 MPa
therefore, 173.970 MPa and 41.190 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

Consider point K.
Force F
y
creates a transverse shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

| |
3
6 4
(13,106.433 N)(61,968.667 mm )
8.946 MPa
(6.485 10 mm ) (140 mm) (126 mm)
xy
t = =
× ÷

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

6
6 4
(17.0384 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
91.956 MPa
12.970 10 mm
x
xy
M c
J
t
×
= = =
×

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

6
6 4
(6.4241 10 N-mm)(140 mm/2)
69.341 MPa
6.485 10 mm
y
x
y
M z
I
o
×
= = =
×

Moment M
z
does not create bending stress at K because K is located on the neutral axis for bending

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Summary of stresses at K:

69.341 MPa 11.25 MPa 58.091 MPa (C)
22.50 MPa (T)
8.946 MPa 91.956 MPa 100.902 MPa
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷ + =
=
= ÷ ÷ = ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
( 58.091 MPa) (22.50 MPa) ( 58.091 MPa) (22.50 MPa)
( 100.902 MPa)
2 2
17.796 MPa 108.651 MPa
therefore, 90.855 MPa and 126.446 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
Element H:

1 2
173.970 MPa ( 41.190 MPa) 215.160 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

240 MPa
FS
215.160 MP
1 1
a
.1 5
H
= = Ans.
Element K:

1 2
90.855 MPa ( 126.446 MPa) 217.301 MPa
p p
o o ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
The factor of safety associated with this state of stress is:

240 MPa
FS
217.301 MP
1 0
a
.1 4
K
= = Ans.
(b) Mises equivalent stresses at points H and K:
Element H:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(173.970 MPa) (173.970 MPa)( 41.190 MPa) ( 41.190 MPa
197.8
)
197.809 M Pa Pa M
M H p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.
Element K:

1/ 2
2 2
, 1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
(90.855 MPa) (90.855 MPa)( 126.446 MPa) ( 126.446 MPa)
189.02 18 8 MP .0 M a a 9 P
M K p p p p
o o o o o ( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
= = Ans.
(c) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory:
Element H:

240 MPa
FS
197.809 MP
1 1
a
.2 3
H
= = Ans.
Element K:

240 MPa
FS
189.028 MP
1 7
a
.2 0
K
= = Ans.

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15.80 An aluminum alloy is to be used for a driveshaft that transmits 160 hp at 1,200 rpm. The yield
strength of the aluminum alloy is o
Y
= 37 ksi. If a factor of safety of FS = 3.0 with respect to yielding is
required, determine the smallest-diameter shaft that can be selected based on:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.
Solution
The torque in the driveshaft is:

( )
550 lb-ft/s
160 hp
1 hp
700.282 lb-ft
1,200 rev 2 rad 1 min
min 1 rev 60 s
P
T
t e
| |
|
\ .
= = =
| || || |
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
For a shaft subjected to pure torsion only, the principal stresses will be equal in magnitude to the
torsional shear stress. The principal stress o
p1
will be positive and o
p2
will be negative. Failure will
occur when
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > , therefore:

1 2 torsion torsion torsion allow
( ) 2
p p
o o t t t o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = s
The allowable stress for the aluminum alloy is:

allow
37 ksi
12.33333 ksi
FS 3
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the torsion shear stress cannot exceed:

torsion
allow
2 12.33333 ksi
12.33333 ksi
6.16667 ksi
2
t
t
=
= =
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:

3 3
allow
(700.282 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
1.362710 in.
16 6,166.667 psi
1.907471 in. 1.907 in.
T
d
d
t
t
> = =
> = Ans.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory: For pure torsion,

1 torsion 2 torsion
and
p p
o t o t = = ÷
For a state of plane stress, the Mises equivalent stress can be expressed as:

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
torsion torsion torsion torsion
1/ 2
2
torsion
( ) ( )( ) ( )
3
M p p p p
o o o o o
t t t t
t
( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸

Set the Mises equivalent stress equal to the allowable stress for the aluminum alloy:

1/ 2
2
torsion
37 ksi
3 12.33333 ksi
3
t ( = =
¸ ¸

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and solve for the allowable torsional shear stress:

2
torsion
(12.33333 ksi)
7.12065 ksi
3
t = =

Thus, the minimum diameter required to satisfy the maximum-distortion-energy theory is:

3 3
allow
(700.282 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)
1.180142 in.
16 7,120.65 psi
1.818171 in. 1.818 in.
T
d
d
t
t
> = =
> = Ans.

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15.81 An aluminum alloy is to be used for a driveshaft that transmits 90 kW at 12 Hz. The yield strength
of the aluminum alloy is o
Y
= 255 MPa. If a factor of safety of FS = 3.0 with respect to yielding is
required, determine the smallest-diameter shaft that can be selected based on:
(a) the maximum-shear-stress theory.
(b) the maximum-distortion-energy theory.
Solution
The torque in the driveshaft is:

( )
1,000 N-m/s
90 kW
1 kW
1,193.662 N-m
s 1 rev
P
T
t e
| |
|
\ .
= = =
| || |
| |
\ .\ .

(a) Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
For a shaft subjected to pure torsion only, the principal stresses will be equal in magnitude to the
torsional shear stress. The principal stress o
p1
will be positive and o
p2
will be negative. Failure will
occur when
1 2 p p Y
o o o ÷ > , therefore:

1 2 torsion torsion torsion allow
( ) 2
p p
o o t t t o ÷ = ÷ ÷ = s
The allowable stress for the aluminum alloy is:

allow
255 MPa
85 MPa
FS 3
Y
o
o = = =
Therefore, the torsion shear stress cannot exceed:

torsion
allow
2 85 MPa
85 MPa
42.5 MPa
2
t
t
=
= =
The minimum diameter required for the shaft can be found from:

3 3
2
allow
(1,193.662 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
28, 086.166 mm
16 42.5 N/mm
52.2983 m 52.3 m m m
T
d
d
t
t
> = =
> = Ans.

(b) Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory: For pure torsion,

1 torsion 2 torsion
and
p p
o t o t = = ÷
For a state of plane stress, the Mises equivalent stress can be expressed as:

1/ 2
2 2
1 1 2 2
1/ 2
2 2
torsion torsion torsion torsion
1/ 2
2
torsion
( ) ( )( ) ( )
3
M p p p p
o o o o o
t t t t
t
( = ÷ +
¸ ¸
( = ÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
( =
¸ ¸

Set the Mises equivalent stress equal to the allowable stress for the aluminum alloy:

1/ 2
2
torsion
255 MPa
3 85 MPa
3
t ( = =
¸ ¸

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and solve for the allowable torsional shear stress:

2
torsion
(85 MPa)
49.07477 MPa
3
t = =

Thus, the minimum diameter required to satisfy the maximum-distortion-energy theory is:

3 3
2
allow
(1,193.662 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)
24,323.334 mm
16 49.07
49
477 N/mm
49.850 mm .9 mm
T
d
d
t
t
> = =
> = Ans.

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15.82 The stresses on the surface of a machine component are shown
in Fig. P15.82. The ultimate failure strengths for this material are
200 MPa in tension and 600 MPa in compression. Use the Mohr
failure criterion to determine whether this component is safe for the
documentation.

Fig. P15.82
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(150 MPa) (0 MPa) (150 MPa) (0 MPa)
(100 MPa)
2 2
75 MPa 125 MPa
therefore, 200 MPa and 50 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ | |
= ± +
|
\ .
= ±
= = ÷

Mohr failure criterion:
If o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, then failure will occur if the following interaction
equation is greater than or equal to 1:

1 2
1
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷ > .
For the principal stresses existing in the component:

1 2
200 MPa ( 50 MPa)
200 MPa 600 MPa
1.0 ( 0.0833)
1 1.0833
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷
÷ = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= > N.G. Ans.
Therefore, the component fails according to the Mohr failure criterion.

The factor of safety corresponding to the Mohr failure criterion is:

1
FS 0.923
1.0833
= =

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15.83 The stresses on the surface of a machine component are
shown in Fig. P15.83. The ultimate failure strengths for this
material are 200 MPa in tension and 600 MPa in compression. Use
the Mohr failure criterion to determine whether this component is
appropriate documentation.

Fig. P15.83
Solution
Principal stresses:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
(60 MPa) ( 240 MPa) (60 MPa) ( 240 MPa)
( 80 MPa)
2 2
90 MPa 170 MPa
therefore, 80 MPa and 260 MPa
p p
p p
o
o o
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

Mohr failure criterion:
If o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, then failure will occur if the following interaction
equation is greater than or equal to 1:

1 2
1
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷ > .
For the principal stresses existing in the component:

1 2
80 MPa ( 260 MPa)
200 MPa 600 MPa
0.4 ( 0.4
0.8
333)
33 1
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷
÷ = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= s O.K. Ans.
Therefore, the component is safe according to the Mohr failure criterion.

The factor of safety corresponding to the Mohr failure criterion is:

1
FS 1.200
0.8333
= =

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15.84 The solid circular shaft shown in Fig. P15.84 has an outside
diameter of 50 mm and is made of an alloy that has ultimate failure
strengths of 260 MPa in tension and 440 MPa in compression.
Determine the largest permissible torque T that may be applied to
the shaft based on the Mohr failure criterion.

Fig. P15.84
Solution
Section properties:

4 4
(50 mm) 613,592.315 mm
32
J
t
= =

Principal stresses:
For pure torsion,

1 torsion 2 torsion
and
p p
o t o t = = ÷ (a)

Mohr failure criterion:
Since o
p1
is positive and o
p2
is negative, the largest permissible torque T will correspond to:

1 2
1
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷ = .
Substitute the torsional shear stress relations from Eq. (a) into this interaction equation:

1 2
1 1
1
p p
UT UC UT UC UT UC
o o
t t
t
o o o o o o
( ÷
÷ = ÷ = + =
(
¸ ¸

Therefore, the torsional shear stress must not exceed:

allow
1 1
163.429 MPa
1 1
1 1
260 MPa 440 MPa
UT UC
t
o o
= = =
( (
+
+
( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

Allowable torque:

allow
allow
allow
allow
2 4
6
(163.429 N/mm )(613,592.315 mm )
50 mm/2
4.01114
4.01
10 N-mm
kN-m
T c
J
J
T
c
t
t
>
s
=
= ×
= Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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15.85 A 1.25-in.-diameter solid shaft is subjected to
an axial force of P = 7,000 lb, a horizontal force of
V = 1,400 lb, and a concentrated torque of T = 220
lb-ft, acting in the directions shown in Fig. P15.85.
Assume L = 6.0 in. The ultimate failure strengths
for this material are 36 ksi in tension and 50 ksi in
compression. Use the Mohr failure criterion to
evaluate the safety of this component at points H
documentation.

Fig. P15.85
Solution
Section properties:

2 2 4 4
3
3 4 4
(1.25 in.) 1.227185 in. (1.25 in.) 0.239684 in.
4 32
(1.25 in.)
0.162760 in. (1.25 in.) 0.119842 in.
12 64
y z
A J
Q I I
t t
t
= = = =
= = = = =

Equivalent forces at H and K:

7, 000 lb
0 lb
1, 400 lb
x
y
z
F
F
F
= ÷
=
=

Equivalent moments at H and K:

220 lb-ft 2, 640 lb-in.
(1, 400 lb)(6 in.) 8, 400 lb-in.
0 lb-in.
x
y
z
M
M
M
= =
= ÷ = ÷
=

Each of the non-zero forces and moments will be evaluated to
determine whether stresses are created at the point of interest.

Consider point H.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at H. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
7, 000 lb
5, 704.113 psi
1.227185 in.
x
o = =

Force F
z
creates a transverse shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of this shear stress is:

3
4
(1, 400 lb)(0.162760 in. )
1,521.097 psi
(0.119842 in. )(1.25 in.)
xz
t = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xz plane at H. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(2, 640 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
6,884.050 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xz
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
does not create bending stress at H because H is located on the neutral axis for bending

Summary of stresses at H:

5, 704.113 psi
0 psi
1,521.097 psi 6,884.050 psi 8, 405.147 psi
x
z
xz
o
o
t
= ÷
=
= + =

Principal stress calculations for point H:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
( 5, 704.113 psi) (0 psi) ( 5, 704.113 psi) (0 psi)
( 8, 405.147 psi)
2 2
2,852.057 psi 8,875.850 psi
therefore, 6, 023.794 psi and 11, 727.907 psi
p p
p p
o
o o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

Mohr failure criterion at point H:

1 2
6, 023.794 psi 11, 727.907 psi
36,000 psi 50, 000 psi
0.167 ( 0.235
0.402 acc
)
eptable
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷
÷ = ÷
= ÷ ÷
= Ans.

Consider point K.
Force F
x
creates an axial stress at K. The magnitude of this normal stress is:

2
7, 000 lb
5, 704.113 psi
1.227185 in.
x
o = =

Force F
z
does not cause either a normal stress or a shear stress at K.

Moment M
x
, which is a torque, creates a torsion shear stress in the xy plane at K. The magnitude of
this shear stress is:

4
(2, 640 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
6,884.050 psi
0.239684 in.
x
xy
M c
J
t = = =

Moment M
y
creates bending stress at K. The magnitude of this stress is:

4
(8, 400 lb-in.)(1.25 in./2)
43,807.591 psi
0.119842 in.
y
x
y
M z
I
o = = =

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Summary of stresses at K:

5, 704.113 psi 43,807.591 psi 49,511.704 psi
0 psi
6,884.050 psi
x
y
xy
o
o
t
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
=
= ÷

Principal stress calculations for point K:
2
2
1, 2
1 2
( 49,511.704 psi) (0 psi) ( 49,511.704) (0 psi)
( 6,884.050 psi)
2 2
24, 755.852 psi 25, 695.182 psi
therefore, 939.330 psi and 50, 451.034 psi
p p
p p
o
o o
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
= ± + ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ±
= = ÷

Mohr failure criterion at point K:

1 2
939.330 psi 50, 451.034 psi
36,000 psi 50, 000 psi
0.026 ( 1.00
1.035 not acceptable
9)
p p
UT UC
o o
o o
÷
÷ = ÷
= ÷

÷
= Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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16.1 Determine the slenderness ratio and the Euler buckling load for round wooden dowels that are 1 m
long and have a diameter of (a) 16 mm and (b) 25 mm. Assume E = 10 GPa.
Solution
(a) 16-mm dowels:

4 4
2 2
4
2
(16 mm) 3, 216.991 mm
64
(16 mm) 201.062 mm
4
3, 216.991 mm
4.000 mm
201.062 mm
I
A
r
t
t
= =
= =
= =

Slenderness ratio:

1, 000 mm
250
4.000 mm
L
r
= = Ans.

2 2 2 4
2 2
(10, 000 N/mm )(3, 216.991 mm )
317.504 N 318 N
(1, 000 mm)
cr
EI
P
L
t t
= = = = Ans.

(b) 25-mm dowels:

4 4
2 2
4
2
(25 mm) 19,174.760 mm
64
(25 mm) 490.874 mm
4
19,174.760 mm
6.250 mm
490.874 mm
I
A
r
t
t
= =
= =
= =

Slenderness ratio:

1, 000 mm
160
6.250 mm
L
r
= = Ans.

2 2 2 2
2 2
(10,000 N/mm )(19,174.760 mm )
1,892.473 N 1,892 N
(1,000 mm)
cr
EI
P
L
t t
= = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.2 An aluminum alloy tube with an outside diameter of 3.50 in. and a wall thickness of 0.30 in. is used
as a 14-ft-long column. Assume that E = 10,000 ksi and that pinned connections are used at each end of
the column. Determine the slenderness ratio and the Euler buckling load for the column.
Solution

4 4 4
2 2 2
4
2
(3.500 in.) (2.900 in.) 3.894318 in.
64
(3.500 in.) (2.900 in.) 3.015929 in.
4
3.894318 in.
1.136 in.
3.015929 in.
I
A
r
t
t
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
( = ÷ =
¸ ¸
= =

Slenderness ratio:

(14 ft)(12 in./ft)
147.8
1.136 in.
L
r
= = Ans.

| |
2 2 4
2 2
(10, 000 ksi)(3.894318 in. )
13.618 kips 13.62 kips
(14 ft)(12 in./ft)
cr
EI
P
L
t t
= = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.3 A WT8 × 25 structural steel section (see Appendix B for cross-sectional properties) is used for a
20-ft column. Assume pinned connections at each end of the column. Determine:
(a) the slenderness ratio.
(b) the Euler buckling load. Use E = 29,000 ksi for the steel.
(c) the axial stress in the column when the Euler load is applied.
Solution
The following section properties for a standard steel WT8 × 25 shape are given in Appendix B:
A = 7.37 in.
2
, I
x
= 42.3 in.
4
, r
x
= 2.40 in., I
y
= 18.6 in.
4
, r
y
= 1.59 in.

(a) Slenderness ratio:

(20 ft)(12 in./ft)
150.9
1.59 in.
L
r
= = Ans.

| |
2 2 4
2 2
(29, 000 ksi)(18.6 in. )
92.425 kips 92.4 kips
(20 ft)(12 in./ft)
cr
EI
P
L
t t
= = = = Ans.

(c) Axial stress at P
cr
:

2
92.425 kips
12.54 ksi
7.37 in.
o = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.4 A WT205 × 30 structural steel section (see Appendix B for cross-sectional properties) is used for a
6.5-m column. Assume pinned connections at each end of the column. Determine:
(a) the slenderness ratio.
(b) the Euler buckling load. Use E = 200 GPa for the steel.
(c) the axial stress in the column when the Euler load is applied.
Solution
The following section properties for a standard steel WT205 × 30 shape are given in Appendix B:
A = 3,800 mm
2
, I
x
= 13.8×10
6
mm
4
, r
x
= 87.7 mm, I
y
= 5.99×10
6
mm
4
, r
y
= 39.6 mm

(a) Slenderness ratio:

6,500 mm
164.1
39.6 mm
L
r
= = Ans.

2 2 2 6 4
2 2
(200, 000 N/mm )(5.99 10 mm )
279,853 N 280 kN
(6,500 mm)
cr
EI
P
L
t t ×
= = = = Ans.

(c) Axial stress at P
cr
:

2
279,853 N
73.6 MPa
3,800 mm
o = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.5 Determine the maximum compressive load that a HSS6 × 4 × 1/4 structural steel column (see
Appendix B for cross-sectional properties) can support if it is 24 ft long and a factor of safety of 1.92 is
specified. Use E = 29,000 ksi for the steel.
Solution
The following section properties for a standard steel HSS6 × 4 × 1/4 shape are given in Appendix B:
A = 4.30 in.
2
, I
x
= 20.9 in.
4
, r
x
= 2.20 in., I
y
= 11.1 in.
4
, r
y
= 1.61 in.

| |
2 2 4
2 2
(29, 000 ksi)(11.1 in. )
38.303 kips 38.3 kips
(24 ft)(12 in./ft)
cr
EI
P
L
t t
= = = =

allow
38.303 kips
19.95 kips
FS 1.92
cr
P
P = = = Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.6 Determine the maximum compressive load that a HSS254 × 152.4 × 12.7 structural steel column
(see Appendix B for cross-sectional properties) can support if it is 9 m long and a factor of safety of 1.92
is specified. Use E = 200 GPa for the steel.
Solution
The following section properties for a standard steel HSS254 × 152.4 × 12.7 shape are given in
Appendix B:
A = 8,710 mm
2
, I
x
= 71.2×10
6
mm
4
, r
x
= 90.7 mm, I
y
= 32.0×10
6
mm
4
, r
y
= 60.7 mm

2 2 2 6 4
2 2
(200, 000 N/mm )(32.0 10 mm )
779,821 N 780 kN
(9, 000 mm)
cr
EI
P
L
t t ×
= = = =

allow
779.821 kN
406 kN
FS 1.92
cr
P
P = = = Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
16.7 Two C12 × 25 structural steel channels (see
Appendix B for cross-sectional properties) are
used for a column that is 35-ft long. Assume
pinned connections at each end of the column
and use E = 29,000 ksi for the steel. Determine
the total compressive load required to buckle the
two members if:
(a) they act independently of each other.
(b) they are latticed back-to-back as shown in
Fig. P16.7.

Fig. P16.7
Solution
The following section properties for a standard steel C12 × 25 shape are given in Appendix B:
A = 7.34 in.
2
, I
x
= 144 in.
4
, I
y
= 4.45 in.
4
, x = 0.674 in.

(a) Independent channels:
Consider buckling about horizontal cross-sectional axis:

| |
4 4
2 2 4
2 2
2(144 in. ) 288 in.
(29, 000 ksi)(288 in. )
467.296 kips
(35 ft)(12 in./ft)
cr
I
EI
P
L
t t
= =
= = = (a)
Consider buckling about vertical cross-sectional axis:

| |
4 4
2 2 4
2 2
2(4.45 in. ) 8.90 in.
(29, 000 ksi)(8.90 in. )
14.44 kips
(35 ft)(12 in./ft)
cr
I
EI
P
L
t t
= =
= = =
Euler buckling load for independent channels:
14.44 kips
cr
P = Ans.

(b) Latticed