Artesian System

Groundwater conditions formed by water-bearing rocks (aquifers) in which the water is confined above and below by impermeable beds. Because the water table in the intake area of an artesian system is higher than the top of the aquifer in its artesian portion, the water is under sufficient head to cause it to rise in a well above the top of the aquifer. Many of the systems have sufficient head to cause the water to overflow at the surface, at least where the land surface is relatively low. Flowing artesian wells were extremely important during the early days of the development of groundwater from drilled wells, because there was no need for pumping. Their importance has diminished with the decline of head that has occurred in many artesian systems and with the development of efficient pumps and cheap power with which to operate the pumps.

A spring is also known as a rising or resurgence is a component of the hydrosphere. Specifically, it is any natural situation where water flows to the surface of the earth from underground. Thus, a spring is a site where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface.

Water well
Water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by an electric submersible pump, a trash pump, a vertical turbine pump, a hand pump or a mechanical pump (e.g. from a water-pumping windmill). It can also be drawn up using containers, such as buckets, which are raised mechanically or by hand.