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# RVR Institute of Engineering & Technology

Sheriguda, Ibrahimpatnam.

COURSE FILE

## ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY AND TRANSMISSION LINES

(54011)
II - B.Tech. II Semester ECE

Prepared By:

## Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

AY: 2012-13

1. Course Objective:
After completion of this course, the student shall be able to: Know about the concepts of electrostatics and magnetostatics for Electromagnetic Wave Theory and its characteristics. Analyze the Maxwells Equations and different forms of Maxwells Equations for EM Waves. Observe the characteristics of EM Waves based on above. Know about Transmission Lines and their cahracteristics, Measurement of different parameters in Transmission Line theory.

2. Results Target:
a. b. c. First Class with Distinction 40 % First Class 40 % Pass Class 20 %

3. Course Plan:
a. b. c. d. Class Lectures Tutorials Class Room Seminars Final Revision Total Classes 55 12 4 4 75

4. Method of Evaluation:
a. b. c. Mid exams Assignments External Exams As per university rules One from each Unit, Total 8. As per university rules Total Marks 20 M 05 M 75 M 100 M

## Introduction to the course:

At low frequencies, an electrical circuit is completely characterized by the electrical parameters like resistance, inductance etc. and the physical size of the electrical components plays no role in the circuit analysis. As the frequency increases however, the size of the components becomes important, that is to say that, the space starts playing a role in the performance of the circuit. The voltage and currents exist in the form of waves. Even a change in the length of a simple connecting wire may alter the behavior of the circuit. The circuit approach then has to be re-investigated with inclusion of the space into the analysis. This approach is then called the transmission line approach.To study the transmission line theory knowledge of Electromagnetic theory and its characteristics are essential. Thus, one can then conveniently divide the subject of Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines into two parts, the EM Wave Characteristics and Transmission Lines. EM Wave characteristics can be sub divided as static 3electromagnetic and the time varying 3electromagnetic. As will be clear subsequently, the time varying electric and magnetic fields always constitute a wave phenomenon called the electromagnetic wave. The phenomenon of electromagnetism in totality is governed by the four Maxwells equations, which can be derived from the physical laws like the Gauss Law, the Amperes law and the Faradays law of electromagnetic induction. The electromagnetic theory is the generalization of the circuit theory, or the circuit theory is rather a special case of the electromagnetic theory. Although every phenomenon of electricity and magnetism can be analyzed in the frame work of electromagnetic theory, at low frequencies the circuit approach is adequate. As the frequency increases the inadequacy of the circuit approach is felt and one is forced to follow the electromagnetic field approach. All the concepts of 3electromagnetic theory will be discussed from Unit1 to Unit6 of this course structure. Although the primary objective of a transmission line is to carry electromagnetic energy

efficiently from one location to other, they find wide applications in high frequency circuit design. As the frequency increases, any discontinuity in the circuit path leads to electromagnetic radiation. Also at high frequencies, the transit time of the signals can not be ignored. In the era of high speed computers, where data rates are approaching to few Gb/sec, the phenomena related to the electromagnetic waves, like the bit distortion, signal reflection, impedance matching play a vital role in high speed communication networks, these concepts can be discussed in Unit7 & Unit8.

SYLLABUS
(54011)ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY AND TRANSMISSION LINES
Review of Coordinate Systems, Vector Calculus UNIT I Electrostatics-I: Coulombs Law, Electric Field Intensity Fields due to Different Charge Distributions, Electric Flux Density, Gauss Law and Applications, Electric Potential, Relations Between E and V, Maxwells Two Equations for Electrostatic Fields, Energy Density, Illustrative Problems. UNIT II Electrostatics-II:Convection and Conduction Currents, Dielectric Constant, Isotropic and Homogeneous Dielectrics, Continuity Equation, Relaxation Time, Poissons and Laplaces Equations; Capacitance Parallel Plate, Coaxial, Spherical Capacitors, Illustrative Problems. UNIT III Magnetostatics : Biot-Savart Law, Amperes Circuital Law and Applications, Magnetic Flux Density, Maxwells Two Equations for Magnetostatic Fields, Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials, Forces due to Magnetic Fields, Amperes Force Law, Inductances and Magnetic Energy. Illustrative Problems. UNIT IV Maxwells Equations (Time Varying Fields): Faradays Law and Transformer emf, Inconsistency of Amperes Law and Displacement Current Density, Maxwells Equations in Different Final Forms and Word Statements. Conditions at a Boundary Surface : Dielectric-Dielectric and Dielectric-Conductor Interfaces. Illustrative Problems. UNIT V EM Wave Characteristics - I: Wave Equations for Conducting and Perfect Dielectric Media, Uniform Plane Waves Definition, All Relations Between E & H. Sinusoidal Variations. Wave Propagtion in Lossless and Conducting Media. Conductors & Dielectrics Characterization, Wave Propagation in Good Conductors and Good Dielectrics. Polarization. Illustrative Problems. UNIT VI EM Wave Characteristics II: Reflection and Refraction of Plane Waves Normal and Oblique Incidences, for both Perfect Conductor and Perfect Dielectrics, Brewster Angle, Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection, Surface Impedance. Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem Applications, Power Loss in a Plane Conductor. Illustrative Problems. UNIT VII Transmission Lines - I : Types, Parameters, Transmission Line Equations, Primary & Secondary Constants, Expressions for Characteristic Impedance, Propagation Constant, Phase and Group Velocities, Infinite Line Concepts, Losslessness/Low Loss Characterization, Distortion Condition for Distortionlessness and Minimum Attenuation, Loading - Types of Loading. Illustrative Problems. UNIT VIII Transmission Lines II : Input Impedance Relations, SC and OC Lines, Reflection Coefficient, VSWR. UHF Lines as Circuit Elements; /4, /2, /8 Lines Impedance Transformations. Significance of Zmin and Zmax, Smith Chart Configuration and Applications, Single and Double Stub Matching. Illustrative Problems.

TEXT BOOKS : 1. Elements of Electromagnetic Matthew N.O. Sadiku, Oxford Univ. Press, 4th ed., 2008. 2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2000. 3. Transmission Lines and Networks-Umesh Sinha,Stya Prakashan,2001(Tech India publications), New Delhi. REFERENCES : 1. Engineering Electromagnetics Nathan Ida, Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2nd ed., 2005. 2. Engineering Electromagnetics William H. Hayt Jr. and John A. Buck, TMH, 7th ed., 2006. 3. Networks, Lines and Fields John D. Ryder, PHI, 2nd ed.,1999. OTHER BOOKS: 1. Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics-Nannapaneni Narayana Rao, PHI, 5th Ed, 2003. JOURNALS: 1. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 2. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility WEBSITES: 1. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?subjectId=108106073 2. http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/video.php?subjectId=117101056 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5Y45wEO9F4 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmR4GkDZ7Zo 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGoi2DAnvSk GUIDELINES TO THE STUDENTS: 1. The Primary requirement is that every student should attend all the classes to learn from fundamentals to applications of the course. 2. Try to collect the International papers related to Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines and study them. 3. Browse the Internet to know the latest developments in the field of Communications and. 4. Go through different magazines to acquire the best of the subject. 5. Visit your nearest organization (like DRDO, ISRO, and Radio Transmitting Station etc.) for Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics observation and observe the functioning of the organization. 6. Clarify the doubts completely at the end of completion of each unit. 7. At the end of each unit habituate the answering objective type questions from different text books so that it will be helpful at national level competitions. 8. Learn the things in the practical approach besides theory. 9. Try to learn latest technology and apply the same in their theory. 10. Submit all the assignments that are given in Class room without copying from others. 11. Try to submit at least one paper at student level paper presentations.

## 12. Give Semonars on topics relevant to the subject using ppt.

No.Of hours Available in the Semester Distribution of Hours Unit Wise: Subject: Faculty:

75

## Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines (54011) Mr.P.S.S.Pavan Ganesh

Text Books (To be acquired by the Students) B1 B2 Elements of Electromagnetic Matthew N.O. Sadiku, Oxford Univ. Press, 4th ed., 2008. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2000.

## Unit -I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Title Introduction Electrostatics-I Electrostatics-II Magnetostatics Maxwells Equations (Time Varying Fields) EM Wave Characteristics - I EM Wave Characteristics II Transmission Lines - I Transmission Lines II

Date From 17-12-12 24-12-12 08-01-13 22-01-13 02-02-13 18-02-13 27-02-13 11-03-13 19-03-13 17.12.2012 11.02.2013 18.02.2013 15.04.2013 22.04.2013 06.05.2013 To 22-12-12 07-01-13 21-01-13 01-02-13 09-02-13 26-02-13 09-03-13 18-03-13 01-04-13

## Chapters B1 CH 1-3 CH 4 CH 5&6 CH 7&8 CH 9 CH 10 CH 10 CH 11 CH 11 B2 CH 1 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 5 CH 5&6 ---

No. Of Classes 5 10 8 9 6 7 8 6 8 67

I Spell of Instructions I mid examinations II Spell of Instructions II mid examinations Preparations & Practical examinations End semester examinations

Total No. of classes required 09.02.2013 (8w) 16.02.2013 (1w) 13.04.2013 (8w) 20.04.2013(1w) 04.05.2013(2w) 18.05.2013(2w)

Depending on the importance and increase in number of topics in each unit, the number of classes distribution is aligned.

## Topic wise Distribution of Classes:

Before main stream of this course the student should have clear idea about Vector algebra, Vector calculus and Coordinate systems. Introduction: S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 Topic Vector Algebra-scalars, vectors, operations Coordinate system-rectangular, cylindrical Spherical coordinates Vector calculus-Differential length, area, volume Line, surface, volume integrals, Del, Curl, Grad Operators No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 Reference B1 B2 3-11 2-7 29-32 -33-37 -55-60 7-15 62-77 7-15

Unit1: Electrostatics-I S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Topic Coulombs Law, Electric Field Intensity Fields due to Different Charge Distributions (Line, Surface, Volume) Electric Flux Density Gauss Law and Applications-Point charge, Line Charge Infinite Sheet, Uniform Sphere Tutorial Electric Potential Relations Between E and V, Maxwells Two Equations for Electrostatic Fields Energy Density Illustrative Problems. No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 T1 1 1 1 T2 Reference B1 B2 106-112 29-33 113-119 124-126 128-130 130-132 --135-140 141-147 148-152 ---38-45 38-45 33-38 33-45 --33-45 35-38 57-61 ---

Unit 2: Electrostatics-II S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic Convection and Conduction Currents Dielectric Constant, Isotropic and Homogeneous Dielectrics Continuity Equation, Relaxation Time Tutorial Poissons and Laplaces Equations Capacitance Parallel Plate No. Of Classes 1 1 1 T1 1 1 Reference B1 B2 170-177 --182-186 --188-190 100-101 ----209-212 45-50 233-236 51-57

7 8

## Coaxial, Spherical Capacitors Illustrative Problems.

1 T2

237-240 ---

51-57 ---

Unit 3: Magnetostatics S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Topic Biot-Savart Law Amperes Circuital Law and Applications Magnetic Flux Density, Maxwells Two Equations for Magneto static Fields Tutorial Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials Forces due to Magnetic Fields Amperes Force Law Inductances and Magnetic Energy Illustrative Problems No. Of Classes 1 1 1 T1 1 1 1 1 T2 Reference B1 B2 274-278 87-89 285-290 79-81 293-295 -296-302 319-322 319-322 350-355 -79-84 -90-94 90-98 88-90 78,85 --

Unit 4: Maxwells Equations (Time Varying Fields) S.N o 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic Faradays Law and Transformer emf Inconsistency of Amperes Law and Displacement Current Density Maxwells Equations in Different Final Forms and Word Statements Conditions at a Boundary Surface : Dielectric-Dielectric Dielectric-Conductor Interfaces. Illustrative Problems No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 T1 Reference B1 B2 386-395 78-80 397-399 400-402 190-193 193-195 -100-103 103-105 61-63; 105-110 61-63; 105-110 --

Unit 5: EM Wave Characteristics I S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic Wave Equations for Conducting and Perfect Dielectric Media Uniform Plane Waves Definition, All Relations Between E & H. Sinusoidal Variations Wave Propagation in Lossless and Conducting Media Conductors & Dielectrics Characterization, Wave Propagation in Good Conductors and Good Dielectrics Polarization-Types No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reference B1 B2 429-447 119-127 429-447 441-447 429-430 444-447 179-182 119-130 119-130 119-130 119-130 130-136

Illustrative Problems

T1

---

---

Unit 6: EM Wave Characteristics II S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Topic Reflection of Plane Waves Normal Incidences Reflection of Plane Waves Oblique Incidences, for both Perfect Conductor and Perfect Dielectrics Refraction of Plane Waves Normal Incidences Refraction of Plane Waves Oblique Incidences Brewster Angle, Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection, Surface Impedance Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem Applications Power Loss in a Plane Conductor Illustrative Problems No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T1 Reference B1 B2 459-468 136-139 469-480 459-468 459-468 469-480 454-458 454-458 -139-142 143-147 143-147 147-150 162-167 173-176 --

Unit 7: Transmission Lines I S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic Transmission Line Types, Parameters Transmission Line Equations, Primary & Secondary Constants Expressions for Characteristic Impedance, Propagation Constant, Phase and Group Velocities, Infinite Line Concepts Losslessness/Low Loss Characterization, Distortion Condition for Distortionlessness and Minimum Attenuation Loading - Types of Loading Illustrative Problems No. Of Classes 1 1 1 1 1 T1 Reference B1 B2 501-504 --505-508 508-512 508-512 508-512 ------------

Unit 8: Transmission Lines II S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Topic Input Impedance Relations, SC and OC Lines Reflection Coefficient, VSWR. UHF Lines as Circuit Elements /4, /2, /8 Lines Impedance Transformations. Tutorial Significance of Zmin and Zmax, Smith Chart Configuration and Applications, Single Matching Double Stub Matching No. Of Classes 1 1 1 T1 1 1 1 Reference B1 B2 512-518 --512-518 512-518 --520-526 534-535 534-535 -------------

Illustrative Problems

T2

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## Topic wise Coverage as per schedule:

S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Topic Vector Algebra-scalars, vectors, operations Coordinate system-rectangular, cylindrical Spherical coordinates Vector calculus-Differential length, area, volume Line, surface, volume integrals, Del, Curl, Grad Operators Coulombs Law, Electric Field Intensity Fields due to Different Charge Distributions (Line, Surface, Volume) Electric Flux Density Gauss Law and Applications-Point charge, Line Charge Infinite Sheet, Uniform Sphere Tutorial Electric Potential Relations Between E and V, Maxwells Two Equations for Electrostatic Fields Energy Density Illustrative Problems. Convection and Conduction Currents Dielectric Constant, Isotropic and Homogeneous Dielectrics Continuity Equation, Relaxation Time Tutorial Poissons and Laplaces Equations Capacitance Parallel Plate Coaxial, Spherical Capacitors Illustrative Problems. Biot-Savart Law Amperes Circuital Law and Applications Magnetic Flux Density, Maxwells Two Equations for Magneto static Fields Tutorial Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials Forces due to Magnetic Fields Amperes Force Law Inductances and Magnetic Energy Illustrative Problems Faradays Law and Transformer emf Inconsistency of Amperes Law and Displacement Current Density Unit No -----1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 Date Scheduled Date Conducted Remarks

35 36 37 38

Maxwells Equations in Different Final Forms and Word Statements Conditions at a Boundary Surface : DielectricDielectric Dielectric-Conductor Interfaces. Illustrative Problems

4 4 4 4

S. No 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Topic Wave Equations for Conducting and Perfect Dielectric Media Uniform Plane Waves Definition, All Relations Between E & H. Sinusoidal Variations Wave Propagation in Lossless and Conducting Media Conductors & Dielectrics Characterization, Wave Propagation in Good Conductors and Good Dielectrics Polarization-Types Illustrative Problems Reflection of Plane Waves Normal Incidences Reflection of Plane Waves Oblique Incidences, for both Perfect Conductor and Perfect Dielectrics Refraction of Plane Waves Normal Incidences Refraction of Plane Waves Oblique Incidences Brewster Angle, Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection, Surface Impedance Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem Applications Power Loss in a Plane Conductor Illustrative Problems Transmission Line Types, Parameters Transmission Line Equations, Primary & Secondary Constants Expressions for Characteristic Impedance, Propagation Constant, Phase and Group Velocities, Infinite Line Concepts Losslessness/Low Loss Characterization, Distortion Condition for Distortionlessness and Minimum Attenuation Loading - Types of Loading Illustrative Problems Input Impedance Relations, SC and OC Lines Reflection Coefficient, VSWR. UHF Lines as Circuit Elements /4, /2, /8 Lines Impedance Transformations. Tutorial Significance of Zmin and Zmax, Smith Chart Configuration and Applications,

Uni t No 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8

Date Scheduled

Date Conducted

Remarks

65 66 67 68 69 70

Single Matching Double Stub Matching Illustrative Problems Revision Revision Revision

8 8 8