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Substation Equipments

Substation Equipments

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Published by Bilal Javed
substation engineering
substation engineering

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Bilal Javed on Jun 26, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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A protective device for limiting surge voltages bydischarging or bypassing surge current, and it also prevents the flow of follow current while remainingcapable of repeating these functions”.

Both coupling capacitors and coupling capacitor voltage transformers are single-phase devices that utilize one or more capacitor units, usually mounted on a base, to couple a communication signal to a highvoltage power line. Coupling capacitors (CCs) are used in conjunction with line traps and line tuners for power line carrier (PLC) communication over high-voltage power lines. A CC with an electromagnetic unit is called a Coupling Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CCVT). CCVTs can be used to supply voltage for metering and protection applications similar to a voltage transformer.

LINE TRAP : Line trap also is known as Wave trap. What it does is trapping the high frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/teleprotection panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and LMU ) The Line trap offers high impedance to the high frequency communication signals thus obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substation busbars. If there were not to be there, then signal loss is more and communication will be ineffective/probably impossible

current transformers designed for relay service should not be used for high accuracy metering applications. Opening 3. Closing 2. Isolators are operated under no load. It is used to interrupt the short circuit currents. Isolators are interlocked with circuit breakers Types of Isolators are 1. As a rule. Auto – reclosing Circuit Breaker is located near every switching point and also located at the both ends of every protection zone.Disconnecting Switch : Isolators are provided for isolation from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. Centre-Break 3. horizontal swing 2. It is used to interrupt short circuit currents. Isolators are located at either side of the circuit breaker. Measuring CT Current transformers can be included in two general categories: metering service and relay service. current transformers designed for metering service should not be used for relay applications or system protection. Vertical swing 4. Likewise. Isolator does not have any rating for current breaking or current making. Current Transformer: Current transformers are used for Stepping down current for measurement. . Current transformers are of two types 1. 1. Pantograph type Circuit Breaker: Circuit Breaker is used for Switching during normal and abnormal operating conditions. protection and control. Central rotating. Protective CT 2. Circuit Breaker operations include.

Voltage Transformer: Voltage transformers are used to step down the voltage for measurement. In Substation where transfer ratio is less the 2 it is preferable to use autotransformer because it is less expensive then the two winding transformer. protection and control. Auto Transformer : Auto transformer is kind of electrical transformer where primary and secondary shares same common single winding. voltages and to transfer electrical power from one voltage level to another. Power Transformers: Power Transformers are used to step up or step – down a. Busbars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits. 1. . Bus Bar : Various incoming and outgoing circuits are connected to busbars. Capacitive VT located on the feeder side of the Circuit Breaker. Voltage transformers are of two types. Electro magnetic type 2. Tap changers are used for voltage control.c.

Advantages: 1. Hence One and Half breaker name was coined for this type of arrangement.One and Half breaker Busbar scheme: two circuits are connected between the three circuit breakers. Flexibility in connecting the feeder circuit to either of the busbars Disadvantages: 1. Double main busbar and double breaker scheme provides high reliability in the case of fault or outage of one of the breaker. Any circuit can be taken out of circuit for maintenance 2. High reliability 3. Under normal operating conditions all the breakers are closed and both the busbars are energized. High cost 2. Advantages: 1. Relaying is somewhat complicated since the middle breaker must responsible for both the circuits on either direction and should operate Double bus & single breaker Scehme : Normally in double main busbar scheme each circuit is connected to both the buses. In double main busbar arrangement one or two breakers can be provided for each circuit. Loose circuits connected to busbar when fault occurs on the busbar . Most flexible operation possible 2. Most expensive 2. Bus failure will not remove any circuit from service Disadvantages: 1.

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