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Cancer Management.pptx

Cancer Management.pptx

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Published by Arnzz Agbulos
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Published by: Arnzz Agbulos on Jun 26, 2013
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06/26/2013

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Agbulos, Cabanag, Castro, Fernandez, Lagos, Lavador, Quijano, Tugano

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Prostate Cancer .Note: Prostate Cancers require testosterone to grow or spread. Surgery * Prostatectomy – Surgically removing the prostate and is useful for cancer that is confined to the prostate. It greatly slows the growth of prostate cancer but produces the side effects of low testosterone. * Bilateral Orchiectomy – The oldest form of hormonal therapy by which both the testes are removed.

pituitary glands from stimulating the testes to make testosterone Nilutamide – drugs that block testosterone’s effects. Bicalutamide. Prostate Cancer .Medical * Leuprolide and Goserelin – drugs that prevent the * Anti-androgens: Flutamide.

Radiation Therapy * May cure cancers that are confined to the prostate. as well as cancers that have invaded tissues around the prostate ( but not cancer that has spread to distant organs) prostate cancer to the bone but cannot cure the cancer itself * It can relieve pain resulting from the spread of Prostate Cancer .

* Radical trachelectomy . such as carcinoma in situ. * Cryosurgery: A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue.Surgery * Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): A treatment that uses electrical current passed through a thin wire loop as a knife to remove abnormal tissue or cancer. But the uterus is left in place. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy. part of the vagina. Cervical Cancer . and the pelvic lymph nodes (lymph node dissection). This removes the cervix.

Radiation therapy * Uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. This is called external beam radiation therapy.* Hysterectomy with or without removal of the ovaries. Cervical Cancer . These xrays can be given externally in a procedure that is much like having a diagnostic x-ray. This removes the cervix and related organs where recurrence would be most likely. This treatment usually takes 6 to 7 weeks to complete.

or internal radiation therapy are used to treat cervical cancer in women who have had a hysterectomy.* Brachytherapy. interfering with DNA replication and transcription (Cisplatin. the radioactive material is placed in a cylinder in the vagina. Ifosfamide) Cervical Cancer . Mitomycin. Medical * Alkylating Agent: These drugs modify the bases of DNA.

* Antimetabolites: These drugs ultimately interfere with DNA replication and therefore cell division. (5-Fluorouracil) Cervical Cancer .

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Percussion / palpation of the suprapubic area.Intervention: * * * * * * Encourage the patient to urinate every 2-4 hours and when it suddenly felt. . Monitor vital signs closely Collaboration in the provision of drugs. Observation of the flow of urine. Encourage fluid intake to 3000 ml per day. note the size and strength.

Intervention: * Ensure adequate fluid hydration but limit fluids at mealtime. * Necessary to eliminate wastes yet too much fluid can lead to early * Enhances appetite. satiety. * Reduces unpleasant mouth sensation after drug therapy. * Encourage frequent oral hygiene. . * Advise family to serve patient’s favourite foods. * Provide pain relief measures as necessary. * Increases comfort.

* Pressuring patient may cause conflict and unnecessary * Administer appetite stimulants as prescribed. stress.* Encourage nutritional supplements and high-protein foods. . * Adds protein and calories to meet nutritional requirements. * Improves appetite. * Encourage family and friends not to nag or cajole patient about eating.

R: Protects patient from sources of infection. R: Limits potential sources of infection and/or secondary overgrowth I: Reposition frequently. Place in reverse isolation as indicated.I: Promote good handwashing procedures by staff and visitors. I: Emphasize personal hygiene. keep linens dry and wrinkle-free. Screen/limit visitors who may have infections. R: Reduces pressure and irritation to tissues and may prevent skin breakdown (potential site for bacterial growth) . such as visitors and staff who may have an upper respiratory infection (URI).

and thrombus formation.g. e. Early identification of infectious process enables appropriate therapy to be started promptly. R: Temperature elevation may occur because of various factors. pneumonia. .. disease process. I: Monitor temperature. or infection. chemotherapy side effects. yet encourages sufficient movement to prevent stasis complications. e. decubitus..g.I: Promote adequate rest/exercise periods R: Limits fatigue.

R: Bone marrow activity may be inhibited by effects of chemotherapy.I: Monitor CBC with differential WBC and granulocyte count. and platelets as indicated.g.. yet encourages sufficient movement to prevent stasis complications. R: May be used to treat identified infection or given prophylactically in immunocompromised patient. e. . I: Administer antibiotics as indicated. pneumonia. and thrombus formation. decubitus. the disease state. or radiation therapy. I: Promote adequate rest/exercise periods R: Limits fatigue.

* Helps restore energy levels.* Encourage rest periods during the day especially before and after physical exertion. * Encourage patient to ask for others’ assistance with necessary chores. * Decreases physical fatigue. . * Promote patient’s normal sleep habits. * Conserves energy. * Encourage use of relaxation techniques such as music therapy and mental imagery. * Conserves energy.

* Reduces energy loses and stressors. * To avoid joint stiffness and promote circulation. *Assist in rearranging schedule and organize activities to conserve energy expenditure. . * Decreases activity intolerance.*Encourage adequate protein and caloric intake. *Instruct on how to do ROM exercises as tolerated.

acknowledgment. . and so on. R: Promotes and encourages realistic dialogue about feelings and concerns. rejection. R: Acknowledge normality of these feelings. Patient may feel supported in expression of feelings by the understanding that deep and often conflicting emotions are normal and experienced by others in this difficult situation. nonjudgmental environment.I: Provide open. Use therapeutic communication skills of Active-Listening. anger. I: Encourage verbalization of thoughts/concerns and accept expressions of sadness.

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