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**Power System Analysis Toolbox
**

1

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha

An Open Source

Power System Analysis Toolbox

Prof. Dr. Federico Milano

E-mail: Federico.Milano@uclm.es

Tel.: +34 926 295 219

Departamento de Ingenier´!a El ´ ectrica, Electr ´ onica, Autom´ atica y

Comunicaciones

Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Espa¯ na

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Who I am

! Federico Milano received from the University of Genoa, Italy, the Electrical

Engineering degree and the Ph.D. degree in 1999 and 2003, respectively.

! From 2001 to 2002 he worked at the University of Waterloo, Canada, as a

Visiting Scholar.

! He is currently an assistant Professor at the University of Castilla-La

Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.

! His research interests include voltage stability, electricity markets and

computer-based power system analysis and control.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction - 2

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Contents

! Open Source vs. Commercial Power System Softwares

! Introduction to PSAT

! Examples

! Conclusions

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction - 3

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Open Source vs. Commercial

Power System Softwares

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 1

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Power System Software Outlines

! Software packages for power system analysis can be basically divided

into two classes of tools:

" Commercial softwares.

" Educational/research-aimed softwares.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 2

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Commercial Softwares

! Commercial softwares (the list is not complete!):

" PSS/E

" EuroStag

" Simpow

" CYME

" PowerWorld

" Neplan

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 3

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Commercial Softwares

! Commercial software packages follows an "all-in-one" philosophy and are

typically well-tested and computationally ef"cient.

! Despite their completeness, these softwares can result cumbersome for

educational and research purposes.

! Commercial softwares are "closed", i.e. do not allow changing the source

code or adding new algorithms.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 4

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Open-Source Softwares

! For research purposes, the #exibility and the ability of easy prototyping

are often more crucial aspects than computational ef"ciency.

! At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are

typically aimed to a speci"c aspect of power system analysis.

! An example is UWPFLOW which provides an extremely robust algorithm

for continuation power #ow analysis.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 5

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Compiled vs. Script Languages

! C anf FORTRAN are very fast but requires keen programming skills and

are not suitable for fast prototyping.

! Several high level scienti"c languages, such as Matlab, Mathematica and

Modelica, have become more and more popular for both research and

educational purposes.

! At this aim, there is a variety of open source research tools, which are

typically aimed to a speci"c aspect of power system analysis.

! Matlab proved to be the best user choice.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 6

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Matlab-based Power System Toolboxes

! Matlab-based power system analysis tools (the list is not complete!):

" Power System Toolbox (PST)

" MatPower

" Voltage Stability Toolbox (VST)

" Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT)

" Educational Simulation Tool (EST)

" Power system Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 7

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Matlab-based Power System Toolboxes

! Comparison of Matlab-based power system analysis softwares:

Package PF CPF OPF SSA TD EMT GUI GNE

EST

MatEMTP

MatPower

PAT

PSAT

PST

SPS

VST

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 8

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Matlab-based Power System Toolboxes

! The features illustrated in the table are:

" power #ow (PF)

" continuation power #ow and/or voltage stability analysis (CPF-VS)

" optimal power #ow (OPF)

" small signal stability analysis (SSA)

" time domain simulation (TD)

" graphical user interface (GUI)

" graphical network editor (GNE).

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 9

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Tools Currently not Available in Matlab

! The following tools are still not available as Matlab packages or toolboxes:

" Fault analysis.

" Grounding systems.

" Harmonic analysis.

" Protection analysis and coordination.

" Etc.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 10

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Matlab vs. GNU/Octave

! An important but often missed issue is that the Matlab environment is a

commercial and "closed" product, thus Matlab kernel and libraries cannot

be modi"ed nor freely distributed.

! To allow exchanging ideas and effectively improving scienti"c research,

both the toolbox and the platform on which the toolbox runs should be

free (Richard Stallman).

! An alternative to Matlab is the free GNU/Octave project.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Power System Softwares - 11

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Introduction to PSAT

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 1

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PSAT Features

! PSAT has been thought to be portable and open source.

! PSAT runs on the commonest operating systems

! PSAT can perform several power system analysis:

1. Continuation Power Flow (CPF);

2. Optimal Power Flow (OPF);

3. Small signal stability analysis;

4. Time domain simulations.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 2

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PSAT Features

! PSAT deeply exploits Matlab vectorized computations and sparse matrix

functions in order to optimize performances.

! The latest beta version of PSAT also exploits Matlab classes to be more

versatile and to ease maintenance and extensions.

! PSAT also contains interfaces to UWPFLOW and GAMS which highly

extends PSAT ability to solve CPF and OPF problems, respectively.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 3

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Synoptic Scheme

Analysis

Static

Simulink Other Data

Format

Data

Files

Saved

Results

Output

Text Results

Save

Graphic

Output

Library

Simulink

Settings

Simulink

Model

Conversion

Power Flow &

Initialization

State Variable

Conversion

Utilities

Time Domain

Simulation

Small Signal

Stability

Dynamic

Analysis

Optimal PF

Continuation PF

PMU Placement

Command

History

Plotting

Utilities

GAMS

UWpflow

Interfaces

Output

PSAT

Input

Models

User Defined

Models

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 4

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PSAT Features

! In order to perform accurate and complete power system analyses, PSAT

supports a variety of static and dynamic models.

! Dynamic models include non conventional loads, synchronous machines

and controls, regulating transformers, FACTS, wind turbines, and fuel

cells.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 5

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PSAT Features

! Besides mathematical algorithms and models, PSAT includes a variety of

additional tools, as follows:

1. User-friendly graphical user interfaces;

2. Simulink library for one-line network diagrams;

3. Data "le conversion to and from other formats;

4. User de"ned model editor and installer;

5. Command line usage.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 6

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Getting Started

! PSAT is launched by typing at the Matlab prompt:

>> psat

which will create all structures required by the toolbox and open the main

GUI.

! All procedures implemented in PSAT can be launched from this window

by means of menus, buttons and/or short cuts.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 7

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Getting Started

! Main PSAT GUI:

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 8

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Simulink Library

! PSAT allows drawing electrical schemes by means of pictorial blocks.

! The PSAT computational engine is purely Matlab-based and the Simulink

environment is used only as graphical tool.

! A byproduct of this approach is that PSAT can run on GNU/Octave, which

is currently not providing a Simulink clone.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 9

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Simulink Library

! PSAT-Simulink Library:

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 10

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Other Features

! To ensure portability and promote contributions, PSAT is provided with a

variety of tools, such as a set of Data Format Conversion (DFC) functions

and the capability of de"ning User De"ned Models (UDMs).

! The set of DFC functions allows converting data "les to and from formats

commonly in use in power system analysis. These include: IEEE, EPRI,

PTI, PSAP, PSS/E, CYME, MatPower, PST, etc. formats. On Matlab

platforms, an easy-to-use GUI handles the DFC.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 11

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Data Format Conversion

! GUI for data format conversion:

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 12

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User Deﬁned Models

! The UDM tools allow extending the capabilities of PSAT and help

end-users to quickly set up their own models.

! Once the user has introduced the variables and de"ned the DAE of the

new model in the UDM GUI, PSAT automatically compiles equations,

computes symbolic expression of Jacobians matrices and writes a Matlab

function of the new component.

! Then the user can save the model de"nition and/or install the model in

PSAT.

! If the component is not needed any longer it can be uninstalled using the

UDM installer as well.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 13

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User Deﬁned Models

! GUI for user de"ned models:

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 14

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Command Line Usage

! PSAT is provided with a command line version. This feature allows using

PSAT in the following conditions:

1) If it is not possible or very slow to visualize the graphical environment

(e.g. Matlab is running on a remote server).

2) If one wants to write scripting of computations or include calls to PSAT

functions within user de"ned programs.

3) If PSAT runs on the GNU/Octave platform, which currently neither

provides GUI tools nor a Simulink-like environment.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 15

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Power System Model

! The standard power system model is basically a set of nonlinear

differential algebraic equations, as follows:

˙ x = f(x, y, p)

0 = g(x, y, p)

where x are the state variables x ∈ R

n

; y are the algebraic variables

y ∈ R

m

; p are the independent variables p ∈ R

**; f are the differential
**

equations f : R

n

×R

m

×R

→R

n

; and g are the algebraic

equations g : R

m

×R

m

×R

→R

m

.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 16

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Power System Model

! PSAT uses these equations in all algorithms, namely power #ow, CPF,

OPF, small signal stability analysis and time domain simulation.

! The algebraic equations g are obtained as the sum of all active and

reactive power injections at buses:

g(x, y, p) =

g

p

g

q

=

g

pm

g

qm

−

c∈C

m

g

pc

g

qc

∀m ∈ M

where g

pm

and g

qm

are the power #ows in transmission lines, M is the

set of network buses, C

m

and [g

T

pc

, g

T

qc

]

T

are the set and the power

injections of components connected at bus m, respectively.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 17

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Component Models

! PSAT is component-oriented, i.e. any component is de"ned

independently of the rest of the program as a set of nonlinear

differential-algebraic equations, as follows:

˙ x

c

= f

c

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

P

c

= g

pc

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

Q

c

= g

qc

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

where x

c

are the component state variables, y

c

the algebraic variables

(i.e. V and θ at the buses to which the component is connected) and p

c

are independent variables. Then differential equations f are built

concatenating f

c

of all components.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 18

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Component Models

! These equations along with Jacobians matrices are de"ned in a function

which is used for both static and dynamic analyses.

! In addition to this function, a component is de"ned by means of a

structure, which contains data, parameters and the interconnection to the

grid.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 19

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Component Models: Example

! Let`s consider the exponential recovery load (ERL).

! The set of differential-algebraic equations are as follows:

˙ x

c

1

= −x

c

1

/T

P

+ P

0

(V/V

0

)

α

s

−P

0

(V/V

0

)

α

t

˙ x

c

2

= −x

c

2

/T

Q

+ Q

0

(V/V

0

)

β

s

−Q

0

(V/V

0

)

β

t

P

c

= x

c

1

/T

P

+ P

0

(V/V

0

)

α

t

Q

c

= x

c

2

/T

Q

+ Q

0

(V/V

0

)

β

t

where and P

0

, Q

0

and V

0

are initial powers and voltages, respectively,

as given by the power #ow solution.

! Observe that a constant PQ load must be connected at the same bus as

the ERL to determine the values of P

0

, Q

0

and V

0

.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 20

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Component Models: Example

! Component Data:

Column Variable Description Unit

1 - Bus number int

2 S

n

Power rating MVA

3 V

n

Active power voltage coef"cient kV

4 f

n

Active power frequency coef"cient Hz

5 T

P

Real power time constant s

6 T

Q

Reactive power time constant s

7 α

s

Static real power exponent -

8 α

t

Dynamic real power exponent -

9 β

s

Static reactive power exponent -

10 β

t

Dynamic reactive power exponent -

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 21

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Component Models: Example

! Exponential recovery loads are de"ned in the structure Erload, whose

"elds are as follows:

1. con: exponential recovery load data.

2. bus: Indexes of buses to which the ERLs are connected.

3. dat: Initial powers and voltages (P

0

, Q

0

and V

0

).

4. n: Total number of ERLs.

5. xp: Indexes of the state variable x

c

1

.

6. xq: Indexes of the state variable x

c

2

.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 22

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PSAT Forum

! The Forum is a mailing list open to all PSAT users.

! The Forum is available at:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/psatforum/

! Currently the Forum counts more than 750 members.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 23

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PSAT Forum

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 24

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PSAT in the World

PSAT users

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 25

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Links

! Where to get PSAT:

http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca/∼fmilano/

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/psatforum/

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Introduction to PSAT - 26

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PSAT Examples

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 1

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! IEEE 14-bus test system:

Bus 14

|V| = 1.0207 p.u.

<V = !0.2801 rad

Bus 13

|V| = 1.047 p.u.

<V = !0.2671 rad

Bus 12

|V| = 1.0534 p.u.

<V = !0.2664 rad

Bus 11

|V| = 1.0471 p.u.

<V = !0.2589 rad

Bus 10

|V| = 1.0318 p.u.

<V = !0.2622 rad

Bus 09

|V| = 1.0328 p.u.

<V = !0.2585 rad

Bus 08

|V| = 1.09 p.u.

<V = !0.2309 rad

Bus 07

|V| = 1.0493 p.u.

<V = !0.2309 rad

Bus 06

|V| = 1.07 p.u.

<V = !0.2516 rad

Bus 05

|V| = 1.016 p.u.

<V = !0.1527 rad

Bus 04

|V| = 1.012 p.u.

<V = !0.1785 rad

Bus 03

|V| = 1.01 p.u.

<V = !0.2226 rad

Bus 02

|V| = 1.045 p.u.

<V = !0.0871 rad

Bus 01

|V| = 1.06 p.u.

<V = 0 rad

Breaker

Breaker

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 2

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Power #ow report:

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 3

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Continuation power #ow analysis (GUI):

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 4

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Continuation power #ow analysis (plots):

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 5

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Nose curves at bus 14 for different contingencies for the IEEE 14-bus test

system:

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

λ

c

V

o

l

t

a

g

e

[

p

.

u

.

]

Base Case

Line 2-4 Outage

Line 2-3 Outage

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 6

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Optimal power #ow analysis (GUI):

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 7

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Comparison between OPF and CPF analysis:

Contingency BCP λ

∗

MLC ALC

[MW] [p.u.] [MW] [MW]

None 259 0.7211 445.8 186.8

Line 2-4 Outage 259 0.5427 399.5 148.6

Line 2-3 Outage 259 0.2852 332.8 73.85

! Because of the de"nitions of generator and load powers P

G

and P

L

, one

has λ

c

= λ

∗

+ 1.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 8

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Time domain simulation:

" It has been used a 40% load increase with respect to the base case

loading, and no PSS at bus 1. A Hopf bifurcation occurs for the line

2-4 outage resulting in undamped oscillations of generator angles.

" A similar analysis can be carried on the same system with a 40% load

increase but considering the PSS of the generator connected at bus 1.

In this case the system is stable.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 9

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Time domain simulation (without PSS):

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0.998

0.9985

0.999

0.9995

1

1.0005

1.001

1.0015

1.002

ω

1

- Bus 1

ω

2

- Bus 2

ω

3

- Bus 3

ω

4

- Bus 6

ω

5

- Bus 8

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

o

r

S

p

e

e

d

s

[

p

.

u

.

]

Time [s]

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 10

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IEEE 14-bus Test System

! Eigenvalue analysis (with PSS):

!1 !0.8 !0.6 !0.4 !0.2 0 0.2

!10

!8

!6

!4

!2

0

2

4

6

8

10

Real

I

m

a

g

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Examples - 11

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Conclusions

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Conclusions - 1

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What is PSAT for?

! PSAT is ideal for teaching and for explaining basic power system analysis

and control concepts.

! PSAT is useful for research purposes because allows easy and fast

prototyping of new models and algorithms.

! PSAT is also useful for creating bridges between Matlab and other

specialized software packages (e.g. GAMS).

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Conclusions - 2

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Some Current Advanced Usages of PSAT

! Prototyping of OPF-based market clearing algorithms for the 15000-bus

WECC network. Collaboration with NCPA (Northern California Power

Agency) and University of Waterloo, Canada.

! Study of the impact of increasing wind generation in the Castilla-La

Mancha subtransmission network. Contract with the local government of

Castilla-La Mancha.

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Conclusions - 3

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Thanks for your attention!

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Conclusions - 4

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Questions?

Montreal, June 20, 2006 Conclusions - 5

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