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# Fluid Mechanic & Fluid Machine

Contents

Chapter

Chapter-1

Topic

Properties of Fluids

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answers Previous 20-Years IES Answers Previous 20-Years IAS Answers Problems

Page No 7

8 15 15 20 22 22 24 25

Chapter-2

**Pressure and Its Measurements
**

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answers Previous 20-Years IES Answers Previous 20-Years IAS Answers

27

27 32 33 40 43 43 46

Chapter-3

**Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces
**

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answers Previous 20-Years IES Answers Previous 20-Years IAS Answers

47

47 49 49 54 56 56 58

India’s No 1

Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machine

IES Academy

Chapter

Chapter-4

Contents

Page No

Topic

Buoyancy and Flotation

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer

59

59 62 62 67 70 70 72

Chapter-5

Fluid Kinematics

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73

74 80 83 90 94 95 100

Chapter-6

Fluid Dynamics

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102

103 117 119 126 129 131 135

Chapter-7

**Dimensional & Model Analysis
**

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer

137

138 147 148 155 157 157 160

Chapter-8

**Boundary Layer Theory
**

Theory at a glance( for IES, GATE, PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer

161

162 168 170 178 183 184 188

www.iesacademy.com

**Email: iesacademy@yahoo.com
**

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Page-2

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25, 1st Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Delhi, New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570, 9810958290

PSU) Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 245 245 247 247 248 248 Chapter-14 Flow Around Submerged BodiesDrag and Lift Theory at a glance( for IES. GATE.India’s No 1 Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machine IES Academy Chapter Chapter-9 Contents Page No Topic Laminar Flow Theory at a glance( for IES. PSU) Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 249 250 255 260 261 262 www. GATE. GATE. 9810958290 .iesacademy. 1st Floor. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. GATE. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 191 191 194 195 197 199 199 201 Chapter-10 Turbulent Flow in Pipes Theory at a glance( for IES.com ___________ Page-3 _____________________________________________________________ 25. GATE. GATE. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 203 203 207 207 209 210 210 211 Chapter-11 Flow Through Pipes Theory at a glance( for IES. Jia Sarai. PSU) Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 239 239 242 243 244 244 Chapter-13 Flow Over Notches and Weirs Theory at a glance( for IES.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 213 214 220 221 228 232 233 237 Chapter-12 Flow Through Orifices and Mouthpieces Theory at a glance( for IES. Near IIT Delhi.

iesacademy. GATE. 1st Floor. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 355 356 360 362 370 374 374 377 www. PSU) Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 313 313 315 316 317 317 Chapter-18 Hydraulic Turbine Theory at a glance( for IES. GATE. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 318 319 328 329 341 347 347 351 Chapter-19 Centrifugal Pump Theory at a glance( for IES. GATE.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer Contents Page No Chapter-15 Compressible Flow 263 264 272 273 290 296 296 302 Chapter-16 Flow Through Open Channel Theory at a glance( for IES.India’s No 1 Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machine IES Academy Chapter Topic Theory at a glance( for IES.com ___________ Page-4 _____________________________________________________________ 25. GATE. 9810958290 . PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 303 303 307 307 310 311 311 312 Chapter-17 Force Exerted on Surfaces Theory at a glance( for IES. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. Near IIT Delhi. GATE. Jia Sarai.

com ___________ Page-5 _____________________________________________________________ 25. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer Contents Page No Chapter-20 Reciprocating Pumps 379 379 381 381 382 383 383 383 Chapter-21 Miscellaneous Hydraulic Machines Theory at a glance( for IES. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570.iesacademy. 9810958290 . GATE.India’s No 1 Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Machine IES Academy Chapter Topic Theory at a glance( for IES.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. GATE. Jia Sarai. 1st Floor. Near IIT Delhi. PSU) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Previous 20-Years IES Questions Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Previous 20-Years GATE Answer Previous 20-Years IES Answer Previous 20-Years IAS Answer 384 384 386 386 389 391 391 391 www.

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Near IIT Delhi. Units of Viscosity 6. Properties of Fluids Contents of this chapter 1. Surface Tension 12. 1st Floor. Jia Sarai. Classification of Fluids 9. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 1. Viscosity 5. Capillarity 14. Characteristics of Fluid 3. Effect of Temperature on Viscosity 10. Kinematic Viscosity 7. Ideal and Real Fluids 4. Pressure Inside a Curved Surface 13.iesacademy.India’s No. Effect of Pressure on Viscosity 11.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-7 25. Units of Kinematic Viscosity 8. 9810958290 .com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Definition of Fluid 2. Derive the Expression for Capillary Rise www. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570.

iesacademy. It has no definite shape of its own. 1st Floor. Near IIT Delhi.e. The constant of proportionality is called the co-efficient of viscosity. It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. Ideal and Real Fluids 1. it flows under similar circumstances. www. Real Fluid An Real fluid is one which has viscosity surface tension and compressible Naturally available all fluids are real fluid. Characteristics of Fluid 1.India’s No. Jia Sarai. Ideal Fluid An ideal fluid is one which has no viscosity no surface tension and incompressible 2. 2. Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. PSU) Definition of Fluid A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external shearing forces. but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. 3. 9810958290 . 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 Theory at a Glance (for IES. GATE. Cause of Viscosity: It is due to cohesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers. Viscosity Definition: Viscosity is the property of a fluid which determines its resistance to shearing stresses. Newton’s Law of Viscosity: It states that the shear stress (τ) on a fluid element layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-8 25.

the ability of the fluid to transport momentum.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo.G. say u and u+du.1 Pa. Units: Pa.S units: stoke = cm2/sec One stoke = 10-4 m2/s Thermal diffusivity and molecular diffusivity have same dimension.iesacademy. Jia Sarai. Near IIT Delhi. i. Velocity gradient = Chapter 1 du dy According to Newton’s law τ ∞ du dy Velocity Variation near a solid boundary or du τ=μ dy τ ⎡ du ⎤ ⎢ dy ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Where μ = constant of proportionality and is known as co-efficient of Dynamic viscosity or only Viscosity As μ = Thus viscosity may also be defined as the shear stress required producing unit rate of shear strain. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570.G.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-9 25. at a distance ‘dy’ apart.India’s No.s or N. move one over the other at different velocities. 1st Floor. 9810958290 . Dynamic viscosity of water at 20oC is approx= 1 cP Kinematic Viscosity It is the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and density of fluid and denoted by Mathematically ν = dynamic viscosity μ = ρ density Units of Kinematic Viscosity S. by analogy. the kinematic viscosity is also referred to as the momentum diffusivity of the fluid. www.e.I. Units of Viscosity S.s 1/100 Poise is called centipoises.S Unit of viscosity is Poise= dyne-sec/cm2 One Poise= 0.I units: m2/s C. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy When two layers of fluid. therefore.s/m2 C.

com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. mud.iesacademy. For such fluids viscosity does not change with rate of deformation.India’s No. Such fluids are relatively uncommon e. Non.Dependent 1. Pseudo plastic Fluids Time . Printer ink. Newtonian Fluids These fluids follow Newton’s viscosity equation. Jia Sarai. Bingham ⎛ du ⎞ n ⎛ du ⎞ n Plastic Fluid ⎛ du ⎞ τ = τ o + μ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ n Example: Water suspensions suspension of clay and flash www. polymer solutions.Independent 1. slurries.g. milk 2. Dilatant Fluids n ⎛ du ⎞ τ = μ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ + f (t ) ⎝ ⎠ f(t)is decreasing Example: Printer ink.n > 1 ⎝ ⎠ Example: Butter 3. 1st Floor. blood. 9810958290 . Chapter 1 2.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-10 25. Near IIT Delhi.n < 1 ⎝ ⎠ Example: Blood. Rheopectic Fluids or Ideal τ = μ ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ + f (t ) ⎝ ⎠ f(t)is increasing Example: Rare liquid solid n τ =μ du + αE dy Liquidcombinations Example: solid in pipe flow. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. crude oil 2. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Classification of Fluids 1.Newtonian Fluids These fluids does not follow Newton’s viscosity equation. τ = μ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ . Non-Newtonian Fluid Purely Viscous Fluids Time .Thixotropic Fluids (τ ≠ μ du ) dy Visco-elastic Fluids Visco-elastic Fluids ⎛ du ⎞ τ = μ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ .

New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. Temperature responses are neglected in case of Mercury.iesacademy. Shear stress and deformation rate relationship of different fluids Effect of Temperature on Viscosity With increase in temperature Viscosity of liquids decrease Viscosity of gasses increase Note: 1. Effect of Pressure on Viscosity Pressure has very little effect on viscosity.India’s No. The lowest viscosity is reached at the critical temperature. But if pressure increases intermolecular gap decreases then cohesion increases so viscosity would be increase. Near IIT Delhi. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 Fig.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-11 25. Surface tension The tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension. Capillarity action is due to both cohesion and adhesion. Jia Sarai. 9810958290 .com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. 2. 1st Floor. Surface tension Surface tension is due to cohesion between particles at the surface. www.

iesacademy. Jia Sarai. 1st Floor. h = ρ gd 4σ 2. Near IIT Delhi. 9810958290 . say water. h = ρ gd 4σ cos 42o 3. For water and glass θ = 0o. Δp = Chapter 1 For a general curved surface with radii of curvature r1 and r2 at a point of interest 2σ d 8σ d 4σ d Capillarity A general term for phenomena observed in liquids due to inter-molecular attraction at the liquid boundary. Pressure inside a soap bubble. h = − ρ gd (h is negative indicates capillary depression) Note: If adhesion is more than cohesion. The liquid will rise in the tube above the level of the liquid. Capillary rise (As in water) Adhesion > cohesion (Meniscus concave) www. Liquid jet. Δp = c. Pressure inside a water droplet. the wetting tendency is more and the angle of contact is smaller. d = diameter of the capillary tube. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Pressure inside a Curved Surface ⎛1 1⎞ Δp = σ ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ r1 r2 ⎠ a. Δp = b.India’s No.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-12 25. Let. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. 4σ cos θ 1. the rise or depression of liquids in narrow tubes. Capillary rise and depression phenomenon depends upon the surface tension of the liquid as well as the material of the tube. General formula. h = height of capillary rise. θ = angle of contact of the water surface. We use this term for capillary action. Derive the Expression for Capillary Rise Let us consider a glass tube of small diameter ‘d’ opened at both ends and is inserted vertically in a liquid. e. Under a state of equilibrium. ρ = density of liquid.g. g = acceleration due to gravity. For mercury and glass θ = 138o . σ = surface tension force for unity length. σ θ σ π θ< 2 h d Fig.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo.

R = d/2 Consider an elementary circular ring of radius ‘r’ and thickness ‘dr’as shown. 1st Floor.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. ω . Question: A circular disc of diameter ‘d’ is slowly rotated in a liquid of large viscosity ‘ μ ’ at a small distance ‘t’ from the fixed surface. Determine the expression for Required Torque. σ cos θ = ×h× ρ ×g 4 or h= 4 σ cos θ ρ gd If θ > π . Radius. 9810958290 . du V rω τ =μ =μ =μ dy t t Shear force on the elements ring dF = τ × area of thering = τ × 2 π r dr Torque on the ring= dF×r Answer: ∴ dT = μ rω × 2 π r dr ×r t ∴ Total torque.India’s No. T = ∫ dT = ∫ R μr ω × 2 π r dr.r t 0 = T= πμ ω 4 2 πμ ω 3 πμ ω d R = × r dr = ∫ 2 t 0 2t 2t R ( ) 4 πμ ω d 4 Question: 32t A solid cone of radius R and vortex angle 2 θ is to rotate at an angular velocity. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. as in the case of mercury θ = 138° capillary depression 2 occurred. h will be negative. Near IIT Delhi. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 Upward surface tension force (lifting force) = weight of the water column in the tube (gravity force) π d2 or π d.iesacademy. Area of the elements ring = 2 π r dr The shear stress at ring. AMIE (summer) 2002] www.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-13 25. An oil of dynamic viscosity μ and thickness ‘t’ fills the gap between the cone and the housing. Derive the expression for torque required to maintain the speed ‘ ω ’. Jia Sarai. [IES-2000.

1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Answer: Chapter 1 Consider an elementary ring of bearing surface of radius r. 1st Floor.India’s No. 9810958290 .com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-14 25. and let r + dr is the radius at h + dh distance ∴ Bearing area = 2π r dl dr = 2π r . Near IIT Delhi. at a distance h from the apex.r 2π μ ω 3 dT = ×r dr t sin θ ∴ Total torque R 2πμ ω 3 T = ∫ dT = ∫ ×r dr t sin θ 0 = 2 πμ ω R 4 πμ ω R 4 × = t sin θ 4 2t sin θ www.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Jia Sarai. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. sin θ Shear stress τ = μ ∴ du V rω =μ =μ dy t t Tangential resistance on the ring dF = shear stress × area of the ring ω dr = μ r × 2π r t sin θ Torque due to the force dF ∴ dT =dF.iesacademy.

Assertion (A): In a fluid. the rate of deformation is far more important than the total deformation itself.India’s No. Its kinematic viscosity at 70°C will be vary approximately [GATE-1999] (a) 2. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (GATE.6 × 10-5m2/s (c) 1.2 × 10-5m2/s (d) 3. [IES-1996] (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Assertion (A): In a fluid. [IES-2009] IES-2. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. The dimensions of surface tension is: (a) N/m2 (b) J/m (c) ML-1T1 (c) J/m2 [GATE-1996] (d) MT-2 [GATE-1995] (d) W/m Previous 20-Years IES Questions Fluid IES-1. IES. Near IIT Delhi. 9810958290 . Kinematic viscosity of air at 20°C is given to be 1.2 × 10-5m2/s Newtonian Fluid GATE-3. Reason (R): A fluid continues to deform so long as the external forces are applied. www.6 × 10-5m2/s. IAS) Previous 20-Years GATE Questions Viscosity GATE-1. For a Newtonian fluid [GATE-2006.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-15 25.2 × 10-5m2/s (b) 1.iesacademy. 1995] (a) Shear stress is proportional to shear strain (b) Rate of shear stress is proportional to shear strain (c) Shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain (d) Rate of shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain Surface Tension GATE-4. The SI unit of kinematic viscosity ( υ ) is: (a) m2/s (b) kg/m-s (c) m/s2 [GATE-2001] (d) m3/s2 GATE-2. Jia Sarai.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. The dimension of surface tension is: (a) ML-1 (b) L2T-1 GATE-5. the rate of deformation is far more important than the total deformation itself. 1st Floor.

9810958290 . 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 Reason (R): A fluid continues to deform so long as the external forces are applied.0252 (d) 0.62 N/m2 (d) 40 N/m2 What are the dimensions of kinematic viscosity of a fluid? (b) L2T-1 (c) ML-1T-1 (a) LT-2 [IES-2007] (d)ML-2T-2 IES-4. [IES-2002] Reason (R): Viscosity is caused by intermolecular forces of cohesion and due to transfer of molecular momentum between fluid layers.9 has viscosity of 0.2520 (b) 0. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. An oil of specific gravity 0.2 N/m2 (c) 29.India’s No. 1st Floor. results in [IES-1993] (a) An increase in viscosities of both gases and liquids (b) A decrease in the viscosities of both liquids and gases (c) An increase in the viscosity of liquids and a decrease in that of gases (d) A decrease in the viscosity of liquids and an increase in that of gases Assertion (A): In general.0206 Decrease in temperature.iesacademy. Jia Sarai. IES-6. Near IIT Delhi. Viscosity IES-3. www. of which in liquids the former and in gases the later contribute the major part towards viscosity. in general. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. IES-9.28 Strokes at 380C. IES-5.81 poise. Newton’s law of viscosity depends upon the [IES-1998] (a) Stress and strain in a fluid (b) Shear stress. IES-7. (d) A is false but R is true. filled between two parallel plates 1 cm apart and moving with relative velocity of 2 m/s is: [IES-2001] (a) 20 N/m2 (b) 196. What [IES-2005] will be its viscosity in Ns/m2? (a) 0. (c) A is true but R is false. of viscosity 9. pressure and velocity (c) Shear stress and rate of strain (d) Viscosity and shear stress What is the unit of dynamic viscosity of a fluid termed 'poise' equivalent to? [IES-2008] (a) dyne/cm2 (b) gm s/cm (c) dyne s/cm2 (d) gm-cm/s The shear stress developed in lubricating oil. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-8. viscosity in liquids increases and in gases it decreases with rise in temperature.0311 (c) 0.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-16 25. (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

time rate of shear strain values are obtained for a fluid: [IES-2008] Time rate of shear strain (1/s): 0 2 3 4 Shear stress (kPa): 0 1. [IES-2007] Reason (R): The rate of strain varies non-linearly with shear stress for blood. [IES-2007] Match List-I (Type of fluid) with List-II (Variation of shear stress) and select the correct answer: [IES-2001] List-I List-II 1. n=1 B. Shear stress is zero Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 2 4 (b) 4 2 1 3 (c) 3 2 1 4 (d) 4 1 2 3 In an experiment. n>1 n IES-12.India’s No. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Non-Newtonian Fluid IES-10. Newtonian fluid 4. Bingham plastic 4. IES-13. Dilatant fluid 3. 9810958290 . Near IIT Delhi. B 2 4 n=1 Assertion (A): Blood is a Newtonian fluid. n Chapter 1 If the Relationship between the shear stress τ and the rate of shear ⎛ du ⎞ du strain is expressed as τ = μ ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ then the fluid with exponent n>1 dy ⎝ ⎠ is known as which one of the following? (a) Bingham Plastic (b) Dilatant Fluid (c) Newtonian Fluid (d) Pseudo plastic Fluid IES-11.com ___________ www. Bingham plastic A. Shear stress varies linearly with the rate of A. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. τ = μ ( du / dy ) . Newtonian fluid 2. τ = μ ( du / dy ) n . Ideal fluid strain B. 1st Floor.4 2.com _____________________________________________________________ Page-17 25. τ = τ 0 + μ Codes: (a) (c) IES-14. n<1 C. the following shear stress . Jia Sarai.iesacademy.6 4 (a) Newtonian fluid (b) Bingham plastic (c) Pseudo plastic (d) Dilatant Match List-I (Rheological Equation) with List-II (Types of Fluids) and select the correct the answer: [IES-2003] List-I List-II 1. 2. Fluid behaves like a solid until a minimum yield stress beyond which it exhibits a linear relationship between shear stress and the rate of strain D. Non-Newtonian fluid 3. Pseudo-plastic fluid D 1 1 (b) (d) A 4 4 B 1 2 C 2 1 D 3 3 C 4 2 D. A 3 3 (du/dy)n. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A Email: iesacademy@yahoo. τ = μ ( du / dy ) n . Shear stress does not vary linearly with the rate of strain C.

Dynamic viscosity D.iesacademy.0 N/m2 (d) 400.146N/m (b) 73N/m (c) 146N/m (d) 292 N/m2 What is the pressure inside a soap bubble. Capillary rise Code: A B C D A B C (a) 1 2 4 6 (b) 1 2 3 (c) 2 1 3 6 (d) 2 1 5 [IES-1995] with rate of D 4 4 Surface Tension IES-16. Kinematic viscosity 6. Ideal fluid deformation B.073 N/m. μ / ρ 3.India’s No. (b) Inversely proportional to the surface tension (c) Inversely proportional to the diameter www.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-18 25. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true IES-15. Capillary depression 5. Near IIT Delhi. over the atmospheric pressure if its diameter is 2 cm and the surface tension is 0·1 N/m? [IES-2008] (a) 0·4 N/m2 (b) 4·0 N/m2 (c) 40. List-I (Properties of fluids) List-II (Definition/ Results) 1. 9810958290 . Mercury in glass 4. Fluid of zero viscosity C. the gauge pressure inside a rain drop of 1 mm diameter will be: [IES-1999] 2 2 2 (a) 0.0 N/m2 IES-19. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. What is the pressure difference between inside and outside of a droplet of water? [IES-2008] (a) 2 σ / d (b) 4 σ / d (c) 8 σ / d (d) 12 σ / d Where ' σ ' is the surface tension and ’d’ is the diameter of the droplet.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Chapter 1 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer. Jia Sarai. Surface tension is due to (a) Viscous forces (c) Adhesion [IES-1998] (b) Cohesion (d) The difference between adhesive and cohesive forces IES-17. Capillarity IES-20. If the surface tension of water-air interface is 0. Newtonian fluid 2. The capillary rise at 200C in clean glass tube of 1 mm diameter containing water is approximately [IES-2001] (a) 15 mm (b) 50 mm (c) 20 mm (d) 30 mm Which one of the following is correct? The capillary rise on depression in a small diameter tube is (a) Directly proportional to the specific weight of the fluid [IES-2008] IES-21. Viscosity does not change A. IES-18. 1st Floor.

0 MPa to 3.5 MPa. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy (d) Directly proportional to the surface area IES-22. Chapter 1 A capillary tube is inserted in mercury kept in an open container. Which Property of mercury is the main reason for use in barometers? Email: iesacademy@yahoo. and when immersed into water causes capillary rise. (d) A is false but R is true. Consider the following statements related to the fluid properties: 1. dp dρ (b) dp ρdρ (c) ρdρ dp (d) dρ ρdp When the pressure on a given mass of liquid is increased from 3. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus IES-26. [IES-2001] Reason (R): The cohesive force between the molecules of mercury is greater than the adhesive force between mercury and glass. Assertion (A): The mercury level inside the tube shall rise above the level of mercury outside. 1st Floor. IES-24.com _____________________________________________________________ Page-19 25. the density of the liquid increases from 500 kg/m3 to 501 kg/m3. (c) A is true but R is false. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570.India’s No. Vapour pressure of water at 373 K is 101·5 × 103 N/m2. Which one of the following is the bulk modulus K of a fluid? (Symbols have the usual meaning) [IES-1997] (a) ρ IES-27.iesacademy.com ___________ www. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true What is the capillary rise in a narrow two-dimensional slit of width 'w'? (a) Half of that in a capillary tube of diameter ‘w’ [IES-2009] (b) Two-third of that in a capillary tube of diameter 'w' (c) One-third of that in a capillary tube of diameter 'w' (d) One-fourth of that in a capillary tube of diameter 'w' Assertion (A): A narrow glass tube when immersed into mercury causes capillary depression. IES-25. Near IIT Delhi. Capillary height in cm for water in contact with glass tube and air is (tube dia)/0·268. 9810958290 . Blood is a Newtonian fluid Which of the statements given above is/are correct? [IES-2008] (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3 (c) 1 and 2 (d) 2 only IES-23.What is the average value of bulk modulus of the liquid over the given pressure range? [IES-2006] (a) 700 MPa (b) 600MPa (c) 500MPa (d) 250MPa Vapour Pressure IES-28. 3. [IES-2009] Reason (R): Mercury is denser than water. (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A. 2. Jia Sarai. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A.

com _____________________________________________________________ Page-20 25. 9810958290 . When a flat plate of 0. Viscosity 2. Jia Sarai. Previous 20-Years IAS Questions Fluid IAS-1. In a Newtonian fluid. Power 3. M L-1 T-1 D. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy (a) High Density (c) Very Low vapour Pressure IES-29. Moment of momentum C. Capillarity 4. M L2 T-2 5. laminar flow between two parallel plates.3 N (b) 3 N (c) 10 N (d) 16 N Newtonian Fluid IAS-3.com ___________ [IAS-2000] www.iesacademy. the ratio ( τ ) between the shear stress and rate of shear strain is given by [IAS-1995] d 2μ (a) μ dy 2 IAS-4.India’s No. M L2 T-1 Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 1 4 2 3 (b) 3 5 1 2 (c) 1 5 2 3 (d) 3 4 1 2 IES-30. Which one of the following sets of conditions clearly apply to an ideal fluid? [IAS-1994] (a) Viscous and compressible (b) Non-viscous and incompressible (c) Non-viscous and compressible (d) Viscous and incompressible Viscosity IAS-2.1 m2 area is pulled at a constant velocity of 30 cm/sec parallel to another stationary plate located at a distance 0.01 cm from it and the space in between is filled with a fluid of dynamic [IAS-2004] viscosity = 0. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. M L2 T-3 A. M L-1 T-2 B. Dynamic Viscosity 2. Surface tension 3. Volume modulus of elasticity 4. Near IIT Delhi. Chapter 1 (b) Negligible Capillary effect (d) Low compressibility [IES-2007] Consider the following properties of a fluid: [IES-2005] 1. 1st Floor.001 Ns/m2. the force required to be applied is: (a) 0. Vapour pressure Which of the above properties can be attributed to the flow of jet of oil in an unbroken stream? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: [IES-2008] List-I (Variable) List-II (Dimensional Expression) 1. du (b) μ dy ⎛ du ⎞ (c) μ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛ du ⎞ (d) μ ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 2 Consider the following statements: Email: iesacademy@yahoo.

1st Floor. ( ) . Absolute viscosity B. Newton per metre C. τ =0 dy dy IAS-6. Poise D. Near IIT Delhi. Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian fluids are given below.India’s No. τ = μ . At the interface of a liquid and gas at rest. A Newtonian fluid is incompressible and non-viscous 3. ( du 2 du ) . ( ) . ( )3 dy dy du du (b) τ =0. Kinematic viscosity 2. ( ) 2 . 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 1. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. Stokes Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 5 3 1 2 (b) 3 5 2 4 (c) 5 3 4 2 (d) 3 5 1 2 www. Select the correct combination. τ = μ .2 2. du/dy is constant A. ( )3 dy dy dy du du (d) τ = μ . τ = μ . Jia Sarai. τ = μ . Stress/Strain is constant 5. The relations between shear stress ( τ ) and velocity gradient for ideal fluids. 9810958290 . [IAS-2002] (a) τ =0. ( ) . Gases are considered incompressible when Mach number is less than 0. Vapour Pressure IAS-8.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo.iesacademy. ( ) 2 dy dy du du du (c) τ = μ . the pressure is: [IAS-1999] (a) Higher on the concave side compared to that on the convex side (b) Higher on the convex side compared to that on the concave side (c) Equal to both sides (d) Equal to surface tension divided by radius of curvature on both sides. τ = μ .com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-21 25. τ = μ . Fluids that require a gradually increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate are known as [IAS-1997] (a) Rhedopectic fluids (b) Thixotropic fluids (c) Pseudoplastic fluids (d) Newtonian fluids Surface Tension IAS-7. Surface tension 4. Match List-I (Physical properties of fluid) with List-II (Dimensions/Definitions) and select the correct answer: [IAS-2000] List-I List-II 1. An ideal fluid has negligible surface tension Which of these statements is /are correct? (a) 2 and 3 (b) 2 alone (c) 1 alone (d) 1 and 3 Non-Newtonian Fluid IAS-5. ( ) 2 . Newtonian fluid 3. τ = μ .

9810958290 . New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570.981 × = 196. Ans. it flows under similar circumstances. Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied. (c) The viscosity of water with increase in temperature decreases and that of air increases. Ans. Ans. (a) Both A and R correct and R is correct explanation for A IES-2.01 IES-6. Ans. (c) The property of the liquid surface film to exert a tension is called the surface tension. Ans. It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i. ⎝ m2 ⎠ Previous 20-Years IES Answers IES-1. (d) GATE-5. IES-3. (a) GATE-2.9 × 1000 =900 kg/m3 One Stoke = 10-4 m2/s Viscosity ( μ ) = ρν = 900 × 0. It is the force required to maintain unit length of the film in equilibrium. Ans. (d) www. dy= 1cm = 0. 3. (b) IES-7.2 N/m2 dy 0. Ans. In metric gravitational system of units it is expressed in kg(f)/cm or kg(f)/m. Ans. In Sl units surface tension is expressed in N / m ⎜ ⎛ J ⎞ ⎟ . (c) IES-5. (b) IES-11. IES-9. 1st Floor. τ → Shear stress du → Rate of strain dy IES-4. (d) IES-10.India’s No. Ans. (a) This question is copied from Characteristics of fluid 1. Jia Sarai.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Ans.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-22 25.81 poise = 0. (c) GATE-4. (c) Newton's law of viscosity τ =µ du dy where.28 × 10-4 = 0. Ans. Near IIT Delhi. μ = 9. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Chapter 1 Answers with Explanation (Objective) Previous 20-Years GATE Answers GATE-1. (a) Viscosity of gas increases with increasing temperature. Ans. Ans. GATE-3. Ans. Ans.0252 Ns/m2 IES-8.s Therefore ( τ ) = μ 2 du = 0. It has no definite shape of its own. (c) Specific Gravity = 0.9 therefore Density = 0.981 Pa.01 m. (b) du=2 m/s.e. Ans.iesacademy. 2. but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel.

Ans.81 × 0. Ans. IES-15.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-23 25. Ans. Ans.01325 bar = 101. the wetting tendency is less and the angle of contact is high. (d) Chapter 1 IES-13. IES-23. where as capillarity is due to both cohesion and adhesion. h = IES-22.001 4σ cos θ ρgd IES-21. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy IES-12. Near IIT Delhi.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Ans.325 × 103 N/m2. Jia Sarai.India’s No. Ans. (b) Surface tension is due to cohesion between liquid particles at the surface. (c) IES-20. (a) Vapour pressure of water at 373 K means 100oC is one atmosphere = 1. Ans. Δp = d IES-18. (d) P = IES-19. (a) IES-24. The property of cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress.001 4σ 4 × 0. Ans. IES-25. (d) A is false but R is true. (d) IES-16. Ans. (d) h = 4σ 4 × 0. Ans. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. 1st Floor. while adhesion enables it to stick to another body. 0. (c) The capillary rise on depression is given by.iesacademy. (d) Mercury shows capillary depression.3 Capillary height in cm for water in contact with glass tube = d www. Ans. (b) Pressure inside a water droplet.073 = ≈ 30 mm ρgd 1000 × 9. (b) Causes of capillary depression: Adhesion is less than cohesion. (c) IES-14. 9810958290 . Ans.073 = = 292 N / m 2 d 0. Ans. Ans. 4σ IES-17.

(d) ⎛ du ⎞ n www.3 m/s and distance (dy) = 0. And we must use Weber number for similarity. Ans.1 = 0.5 − 3. Flows in which capillary waves appear 2. (b) 2σ .001 Ns/m2 and du = (V – 0) = 30 cm/sec = 0. (b) Surface tension forces are important in certain classes of practical problems such as.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. d Previous 20-Years IAS Answers IAS-1. (a) τ = μ ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ + f (t ) where f(t) is increasing ⎝ ⎠ IAS-7. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. (b) IAS-6.iesacademy. h = Blood is a pseudoplastic fluid. 1st Floor. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy For water and glass θ = 0°. And you also know that Pressure inside a Liquid jet. Therefore the answer will be surface tension. Δp = IES-30. Here the significant parameter for dynamic similarity is the magnitude ratio of the surface tension force to the inertia force.0) = 250 MPa (501 − 500) IES-28. Ans. Ans. Jia Sarai. (b) IAS-4. Ans.01 cm = 0. Ans.(d) 500 × (3. Ans.001 2 ⎟ × dy ⎝ m ⎠ ( 0. Near IIT Delhi. n <1 ⎝ dy ⎠ IES-26.3 N IAS-3. (b) IAS-2. Ans. Shear stress ( τ ) = μ du ⎛ Ns ⎞ ( 0.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-24 25. Ans. µ = 0. Ans. Ans.India’s No. n Chapter 1 4σ ρgd ⎛ du ⎞ Where τ = μ ⎜ ⎟ . (d) IAS-5. Flows of small jets and thin sheets of liquid injected by a nozzle in air 3. Flow of a thin sheet of liquid over a solid surface.3m/s ) =3N/m 2 = ⎜ 0.0001m ) Force required (F) = τ × A = 3 × 0. 9810958290 . Ans. (c) IES-29. 1. Ans. (a) Given.0001 m Therefore. Ans. (a) Bulk modulus K =− dp dv v and dp −d ρ 1 v= 1 ρ dρ ∴ K =− ∴ dv = − ρ2 ρ2 ρ ρdρ K = dρ IES-27. (a) IAS-8.

India’s No. Bubble of air but surface tension of water). 9810958290 . The Gap is filled with an oil of specific gravity 0. then a balance of forces would result in capillary rise h= 4. Ans. A U-tube is made up of two capillaries of diameters 1.com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-25 25. Jia Sarai. 5. 2. (i) 58.0075kg/m and zero contact angles.97 Nm (ii) 1. 1st Floor. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Problem 1.iesacademy.08N A 400 mm diameter shaft is rotating at 200 rpm in a bearing of length 120 mm.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Pabs= 100. 10 mm 6.5 mm and the dynamic viscosity of the oil is 0. (ii) Power utilization in overcoming viscous resistance. πμωD 4 32h A metal plate 1.25 m × 1. Calculate the difference in the level of the menisci caused by the capillarity. Ans. Ans. 4σcocθ ( ρ − ρb ) gd www.s/m2. New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. If a liquid surface (density ρ ) supports another fluid of density.398 kN/m2 (Hint. If the thickness of oil film is 1. If the process requires 3. 3. The U tube is kept vertically and partially filled with water of surface tension 0.5 mm respectively.25 m × 6 mm thick and weighting 90 N is placed midway in the 24 mm gap between the two vertical plane surfaces.235 kW 3. by how much the air pressure at the nozzle must exceed that of the surrounding water? What would be the absolute pressure inside the bubble if the surrounding water is at 100.0735 N/m) 4.0 mm and 1. Chapter 1 A circular disc of diameter D is slowly in a liquid of a large viscosity (µ) at a small distance (h) from a fixed surface. Ans. Derive an expression of torque (T) necessary to maintain an angular velocity ( ω ) 1.3 kN/m2? ( σ = 0. 168.0N. T = 2.7 Ns/m2 determine: (i) Torque required overcoming friction in bearing.15 m/s. In order to form a stream of bubbles. Ans. 5.85 and dynamic viscosity 3. Near IIT Delhi. Determine the force required to lift the plate with a constant velocity of 0. ρb above the meniscus.0 mm diameter bubbles to be formed. air is introduced through a nozzle into a tank of water at 20°C.

New Delhi-16 Ph: 011-26537570. 9810958290 .com ___________ _____________________________________________________________ Page-26 25. 1st Floor. 1 Properties of Fluids IES Academy Student’s Note Chapter 1 www. Near IIT Delhi.com Email: iesacademy@yahoo. Jia Sarai.India’s No.iesacademy.