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Q1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research? Answer Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Features 1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. 2. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. 3. It adopts scientific method. 4. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. 5. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. 6. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. 7. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. 8. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Types of Research - Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: A. Pure Research - It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. B. Applied Research - It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the postpurchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. C. Exploratory Research - It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and
SUB BY:- ANSHUL SHARMA
Diagnostic Study . and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. G. and post experimental evaluation. clear-cut definition of the given population. sharing of diagnostic information. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. implementation of participation and communication process.” Descriptive Study . It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations.The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas. It includes six major steps: diagnosis. or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study.It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. Q2.1 MB0050 much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It is concerned also with change over time. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Answer:. its thorough formulation. F. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. Evaluation Studies . statistical analysis and test of significance. which may be grouped into: SUB BY:. the discovery of relationships between variables. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. precise measurement of variables. why it is happening and what can be done about. adequate methods for collecting accurate information. initiation of organizational change.It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. at the second. It is directed towards discovering what is happening. Action Research .ANSHUL SHARMA . E. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. It is more specific than an exploratory research.It is a type of evaluation study.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . It is the simplest type of research. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. developing change programme. planning.It is a type of applied research. D. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation.
e. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. In social sciences in some cases. Researcher’s own resource: . 3. Without interest and curiosity. 3. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. 2. Importance and urgency:-Problems requiring investigation are unlimited.The problem must have novelty. outlook and sensitivity. There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. their relative importance and significance should be considered. If it is beyond his means.The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. Novelty of the problem:. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter.. This does not mean that replication is always needless.Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. Feasibility:-A problem may be a new one and also important. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. B. Usefulness and social relevance:-Above all. but available research efforts are very much limited. in selecting problems for research.A mere interest in a problem will not do. Research personnel:. i. Facilities:. 4. but if research on it is not feasible. External Source – 1. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration 5. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher’s educational background. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. he will not be able to complete the work. Researcher’s interest: . the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Researcher’s competence: . It should be socially relevant. Time resource is more important than finance. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: SUB BY:.Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility.In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won. research has not yet become a prospective profession. Research is a time-consuming process. it cannot be selected. 2.ANSHUL SHARMA .The problem should be researchable. Internal Source 1. But in India and other developing countries. unless he gets some external financial support. he may not develop sustained perseverance. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. Research-ability of the problem:. 7. 6. etc. experience. Therefore. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. suitable and competent guidance. hence it should be properly utilized.1 MB0050 A.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . data analysis facility.
he comes to occupy one position within in. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. and participation can interfere with observation. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. In terms of mode of observation. SUB BY:. and (f) uncontrolled observation Participant Observation .ANSHUL SHARMA . Direct observation -This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. A limitation of this method is that the observer’s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. Naturally. 1. For example. and get a deeper insight of their experiences. 2. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Answer Observations may be classified in different ways. For example. The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. With reference to investigator’s role. 2. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. The concealment of research objective and researcher’s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group’s culture which are not revealed to outsiders. The participant observer narrows his range of observation. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone.In this observation. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Advantages: -The advantages of participant observation are: 1. Recording can interfere with participation.1 MB0050 Review of literature Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition Q3. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. 3. the objectivity is lost. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording Non-participant observations -In this method. He is also free to shift places. The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. change the focus of the observation. Then only their behaviour will be ‘natural’. it may be classified into (c) direct observation.
crowd behaviour. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting. This method is less flexible than direct observations. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. measurement and analysis of data. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe. managerial style. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. leadership styles. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.g. The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. Controlled observation . but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. Therefore. and manner. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. analyzing and interpreting observations. It is the plan.ANSHUL SHARMA . “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Q4. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what.This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations.1 MB0050 Indirect observation -This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related.” SUB BY:. residences etc. It constitutes the blue print for the collection. and the recording is done by mechanical. interpersonal relations. factories. how and when to observe. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It is primary used for descriptive research.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . :-life style. group dynamics. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. other behaviours and actions. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. animals etc. e. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. photographic or electronic devices. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? Answer The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. It specifies the objectives of the study. customs. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model.
then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz.ANSHUL SHARMA . These different categorizations exist. In fact. Exploratory. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) 5. where the research objective requires statistical inference. Experimental. experiments in field settings. Exploratory. and expost fact (Kerlinger) 4. various writers advance different classification schemes. quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). the sample should be drawn by SUB BY:. Probability samples only allow such computation. and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6. 10. e. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. b. f. Experimental. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey. there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. Exploratory. 3. Hence.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. Historical method. True experimental. d. Sample surveys. historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). Experimental. descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). g. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. 2. Jahoda. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. some of which are: 1. 2. laboratory experiment) The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) The mode of data collection (observational or survey) The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) Q5. „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9. c. pre-experimental. Answer Decision process of sampling is complicated one. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. because „research design‟ is a complex concept. They are: a. Experimental.1 MB0050 The different types of Research Designs are:There are a number of crucial research choices. Deutsch and Cook). field studies.
if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. 6. 3. If the population is heterogeneous. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. Of course. Then.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . 8. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. as a compromise. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. probability sampling should be used. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied.g. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. That is. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources.ANSHUL SHARMA . is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. But if the area and the size of the population are small. 5.. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. it represents a compromise between idealism and SUB BY:. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. marketing surveys. However. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. 4. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. stratified random sampling is appropriate. Where the finance is not a constraint.1 MB0050 applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. 9. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. 7. readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements.
Stratified random sampling may be classified into: SUB BY:. B. Stratification process involves three major decisions.1 MB0050 feasibility. and so on. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. E. giving them numbers in serial order 1. a. and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. They are stratification base or bases. Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. In this method. random sample is drawn. number of strata and strata sample sizes. because it is less precise than other methods. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected.. (ii) a table of random numbers or (iii) a computer. and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors.ANSHUL SHARMA . 2. The following are the types of probability sampling: I. and b. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population.g. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money. It is used when generalization is the objective of study. Drawing sample numbers by using (i) lottery method. Disadvantages: It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population. all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected. providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata. simple to understand. and from each stratum.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . It is also known as random sampling. university students may be divided on the basis of discipline. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods. Suitability: This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population. II. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample’s statistical efficiency. Preparation of a List of all elements.
Advantages: The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important. if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: Specialization stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development 100 No.0 The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30.4 0. when certain groups are quite heterogeneous.3 9 30 x 0. (a) the sizes of strata.4 12 30 x 0. SUB BY:. Suitability: This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups. E. it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors. is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful. of students 40 20 30 10 Proportion of each stream 0.2 0. requires prior knowledge of composition of the population. Disadvantages: The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation.3 0.ANSHUL SHARMA . viz. It necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata and under-representation to others. Disadvantages: A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population. while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher. This method is therefore very popular. and (c) sampling costs.g. The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors..2 6 30 x 0.1 MB0050 a) Proportionate stratified sampling: This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population.1 1. gives higher statistical efficiency. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Production Finance Marketing Rural development 30 Sample size 30 x 0. (b) internal variances among strata.1 3 Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . and gives a self-weighing sample. easy to carry out. b) Disproportionate stratified random sampling: This method does not give proportionate representation to strata.
attitude surveys and so on. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. public opinion polls. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements. Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method. and large scale surveys of political and social behavior. a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. Disadvantages: The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. and it is statistically more efficient. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. at each stage. each element does not have equal chance of being selected. First. Where the element is not readily available. 11th. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. talluks. examine the nature of clusters.MBA 3rd Assignment Set .. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters. 1st. and this method sometimes gives a biased sample. sample is spread evenly over the population. requires less time. Suitability: The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. Then from each selected sampling unit. but forms part of cluster sampling. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. cost of this is much less. easy to instruct. The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart. and determine the number of stages. promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places. That is. E. units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. their sampling is called area sampling. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits. It is also known as fixed interval method. Advantages: The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient. houses in a street.ANSHUL SHARMA . socioeconomic surveys. easier to check. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. It is not a separate method of sampling.g. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. easy to use. ecological studies. Disadvantages: The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. rural credit surveys. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases. it does not require more time. Suitability: Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class. telephone directory etc. 21st ……… Strictly speaking. the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. it’s cheaper.1 MB0050 iii) Systematic Random Sampling: This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. Advantages: The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling. It is appropriate where the SUB BY:. Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. this method of sampling is not a probability sampling. Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. demographic studies.
The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling. Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage. when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population. The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified. Disadvantages: PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known.MBA 3rd Assignment Set .e. The selection probability is unknown. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit.ANSHUL SHARMA . the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population.1 MB0050 population survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. it is give twice the chance of being selected. convenience and low cost. when probability SUB BY:. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Instead. In a multi-stage sampling.. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another. equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. It is practical. This is also known as sequential sampling. cost and sampling errors. called multi-phase sampling. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. Advantages: The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. the overall probability of any person will be the same. Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected clusters. it is then. Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to nonavailability of a list of population.
takes less time. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. social class. and readership surveys which do not aim at precision. Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies.g. age. but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. SUB BY:. but to get quickly some crude results. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study.MBA 3rd Assignment Set . e.g. and subject to a higher degree of classification. it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest. Advantage: It is less costly.. It may be classified into: Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E. It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert. etc. Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest. strict control if field work is difficult. Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. Snow-ball sampling This is the colorful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. informal groups in a formal organization. Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population. Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error. non-need for a list of population. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. opinion polls. does not ensure the representativeness. interviewing people whom we happen to meet.1 MB0050 sampling required more time. Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys. a teacher may select students in his class. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness.ANSHUL SHARMA . Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity. it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. and field work can easily be organized. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available.. This is also known as judgment sampling.
What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report? Answer Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. It is difficult to apply when the population is large. It narrates the problem studied.ANSHUL SHARMA . Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below: I.1 MB0050 Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. Body of the Report Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work SUB BY:. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. Q6. methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. Prefatory Items Title page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts Abstract or synopsis II.MBA 3rd Assignment Set .
conclusions and recommendations Reference Material Bibliography Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables Glossary of new terms used.ANSHUL SHARMA . Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary.MBA 3rd Assignment Set .1 MB0050 III. SUB BY:.