Submarine Distribution and Transmission


Submarine Cables and Systems

Submarine cables are used in three basic types of installation: (a) river or short route crossings which are generally relatively shallow water installations; (b) major submarine cable installations, coast to coast and island to mainland often laid in deep water and crossing shipping routes and fishing zones; these cables are generally required for bulk power transfer in a high voltage either a.c. or d.c. transmission scheme; (c) between platforms, platforms and sea-bed modules or between shore and a platform in an offshore oil or gas field; these cables are currently laid in depths up to about 200 m but it is anticipated that much deeper installations will be required in the future. Submarine cables are usually subject to much more onerous installation and service conditions than equivalent land cables and it is necessary to design each cable to withstand the environmental conditions prevailing on the specific route. Subject to certain restrictions, mass impregnated solid type paper insulated cables, fluid-filled cables, gas-filled cables and polymeric cables are all suitable for submarine power cable installations. Polymeric and thermoplastic insulated cables are used for control and instrumentation applications. There is an increasing tendency to include optical fibre cores, where possible, in power cable constructions, for purposes of control, communication and measurement of cable strain and temperature.

Cables for river crossings
Cable routes for river crossings are generally only a few kilometres long and cross relatively shallow water. The length of cable required can often be delivered to site as a continuous length on a despatch drum. Normal methods of installation include laying the cable from a barge into a pre-cut trench and mounting the drum on jacks on one shore and floating the cable across the river on inflatable bags. Installation o f the cable is therefore a relatively simple operation which does not involve excessive bending or tension. The cable design is the most similar to land cable practice of all the different 621

(1) All paper insulated and some polymeric insulated cables are required to be watertight along their complete lengths. and where appropriate the terminal equipment. Requirements for long cable lengths laid in deep water Any cable to be laid on the sea bed should have the characteristics given below. as submarine cable routes are generally long and the operating power losses are therefore significant in the overall economics of the system. (j) The cable must be adequately protected from all corrosion hazards.622 Electric Cables Handbook types of submarine cable. without significant deformation. it is considered prudent to improve the mechanical security of the cable by applying slightly thicker lead and anticorrosion sheaths and to use armour. (b) The cable should be designed to reduce transmission losses to a minimum. Proven designs of flexible joints are available to permit drum lengths of cable to be joined together. either during manufacture or prior to loading the continuous cable length onto the laying vessel. the relevant importance of each particular characteristic being dependent on the depth of water and length of cable route. the cable must be reasonably torque balanced to avoid uncontrolled twisting as it is lowered to the sea bed. the external water pressure at the deepest part of the route. (a) The cable must have a high electrical factor of safety as repair operations are generally expensive and the loss of service before repairs can be completed is often a serious embarrassment to the utility concerned. without deterioration. (h) For deep water installations. (c) The cable should preferably be supplied in the continuous length necessary to permit a continuous laying operation without the need to insert joints while at sea. must be designed to ensure that only a limited length of cable is affected by water ingress if the metal sheath is damaged when in service. (k) All cable components must have adequate flexural fatigue life. twisting and coiling which may occur during the manufacture and installation programmes. Should the cable be considered liable to damage due to shipping activities. (e) The cable must also withstand. A cheaper but less effective alternative is to protect a surface-laid cable by laying bags of concrete around it. Movement would cause abrasion and fatigue damage to the cable. it is recommended that the cable be buried to a depth of at least I m. The bending characteristics of the cable as it passes through the burial . The requirements for cable laid on the sea bed also largely apply to cables which are to be buried. the severe bending under tension. an alternative solution to direct burial of the cable is to entrench a suitable pipe into the river bed and then pull in the selected type of cable. If the cable is to be laid across the river at the entrance to a port. (d) The cable must withstand. However. (g) The armour must be sufficiently robust to resist impact damage and severance of the cable if fouled by a ship's anchor or fishing gear. Water ingress impairs the electric strength of these cables. (f) The cable. (i) The weight of the cable in water must be sufficient to inhibit movement on the sea bed under the influence of tidal currents.

One additional advantage of a d. for major links incorporating single-core cables. thereby preventing risk of instability. is again chosen as it is possible to keep the two systems independent .c. as their length is not limited by the necessity of supplying the charging current inherent in the a. would be expected to provide reasonable assurance of continuity of supply. schemes. submarine cable schemes are the first choice.c. A d.c. F o r major a.c. route. H S L cables) are sometimes preferred. widely spaced single-core magnetically armoured cables give rise to high sheath losses. e. because of the high capital cost of the converter stations required at both ends of the d.c.e. between different countries. by a ship's anchor or trawling gear. These losses can be reduced substantially by the use o f an outer concentric conductor underneath the armour. The longest submarine transmission schemes are invariably d. the a.e. cable schemes For major cable installations requiring bulk transfer of large quantities of power. power schemes it will probably be necessary to use single-core cables as 3-core cables will be unable to meet the rating. and the friction of the serving against rollers and skid plates has to be taken into account. d. e.g. the use of 3-core cables up to and including 150 kV is preferred to singlecore cables provided that they can meet the required rating. In this case the cables are spaced far apart so that the risk of more than one cable being damaged in a single incident is minimised.g. A.C.c. or a d.c. a. The installation of four single-core cables for one circuit.c. system also allows for a greater degree of control o f power flowing through the cables. . preferably separated by 250m or more to obtain reasonable security of supply. or one spare cable for two or three circuits. system on conveniently placed islands. It would therefore be necessary to install two 3-core cables from the outset. all three cores are liable to be affected. the choice has to be made between an a. only two cables are necessary whereas a minimum o f three cables is invariably required for a. In a small number of routes it may be possible to position some reactive compensation for the a. before a provisional cable design can be prepared for the proposed installation. transmission scheme. In 3-core solid type cable installations (i. D. However.c. tidal currents.c. Where it is intended to connect two separate power systems. cable schemes Where practical.Submarine Cables and Systems 623 device may need further consideration.c. As in the case of land cable circuits. temperatures etc. Where the link is relatively short. Sufficient information can often be obtained from Admiralty charts to enable a tentative cable design to be prepared to complete a feasibility study but in most cases it is necessary to carry out a hydrographic survey before the cable design can be finalised. for circuits up to 33kV rating) single lead type cables (i. although this solution may affect the economics of the scheme. 3-core cables also offer savings in both cable and installation costs as only two cables compared with four for a 3-phase scheme need be installed when security o f supply is required if one cable is damaged. It is essential that information be provided on the length of the proposed route.C. scheme is that. particularly for deep water installations.c. the nature and contour of the sea bed. If a 3-core submarine cable is damaged externally. system will be more attractive than the d.c. system.c.

to employ slightly lower maximum design stresses for submarine cables than would be adopted for land cables. In a bipole transmission scheme. The installation of three single-core cables from the outset provides reasonable assurance of full transmission capability even if one cable is damaged. 2 . there will be no difference in the design o f conductor used in a. submarine cables are expected to meet the electrical test requirements specified in the latest C I G R E 'Recommendation for tests for power transmission d. The resultant increase in the electric strength of the cable is considered to justify the small increase in cost. cables for a rated voltage up to 600 kV' (see chapter 38). the remaining cable will continue to carry half circuit power with sea return.c. Large a.c. It is considered prudent. thereby reducing the overall diameter of the cable. Copper is generally preferred to aluminium for the conductors of all submarine cables as its use permits a higher current density. or preferably two cables of positive and negative polarity (bipole) each carrying half circuit power.624 Electric Cables Handbook D. schemes. Insulation thickness The insulation thickness is designed on the same basis as for land cables and for the higher voltages is usually determined by the lightning impulse test requirement.c. which allow for the use of concentrically stranded conductors. ~ The monopole scheme suffers the further disadvantage that if the submarine cable is damaged there would be no transmission capability until the cable was repaired. As most land cables operate on a. Details of the design of conductors are given in a later section dealing with specific types of cable. In the event of the cable being damaged and sea-water entering it. Therefore both types o f cable can be considered for the highest voltage schemes. however. operation.c. E L E C T R I C A L D E S I G N F E A T U R E S O F CABLES Conductors The conductor design will be influenced by the choice o f transmission scheme in which it is required to operate. a copper conductor is much more resistant to corrosion than an aluminium conductor. if only one pole cable is damaged. submarine cables. For d. conductors will be o f the Milliken type.C. The magnetic field created by a monopole cable causes compass errors near the cable route which may be unacceptable to the relevant Admiralty authorities as it would create a potential hazard to shipping. Long submarine routes are generally d. following mechanical tests carried out in accordance with the C I G R E 'Recommendations for mechanical tests on submarine cables'.c. transmission schemes may consist of a one polarity cable (monopole) carrying full circuit power with sea return.c. to compensate for the more severe bending and tension which a submarine cable may need to withstand during the laying operation. All d.c. design stresses up to 32 MV/m have been used for solid type cables and 3 5 M V / m for F F cables (paper and PPL insulated).

the cables are normally widely spaced on the sea bed and the sheath circuits are bonded at both ends.0 m. 10-4/m) Fig. the mechanical properties and corrosion susceptibilities of the aluminium alloy are often inadequate to protect the cables from external hazards.0 are usually used for cables buried no deeper than 2.c. This reduces the external magnetic field and permits the use of steel wire armour. Figure 42. armour wires and any reinforcing tapes in parallel). If the cables are laid on the surface o f tlae sea bed. hysteresis and circulating currents in the magnetic material. the steel wire is replaced with hard drawn copper strips. The currently favoured method of reducing the losses and increasing the current rating is to reduce the effective resistance o f the sheath circuit. The wide cable spacing increases the sheath circulating current and reduces the current rating of the cables. and in the case of single-core a. If the cable is to be buried in the sea bed.c. . submarine cable schemes.c.3 K m / W have sometimes been assumed. In single-core a. 42. however. Whereas the use of aluminium alloy armour permits the highest current density in the phase conductors at minimum cost. the thermal resistivity of the dielectric and the environment in which the cable is laid. cables is dependent.c. cable laid at wide spacing.Submarine Cables and Systems 350 3OO v 250 625 150 IO0 0 I ! I I 0 5 10 15 20 Effective sheath resistance (ohm.c. The thermal resistivity of the environment in which the cables operate is dependent on site conditions and the metlaod of laying. The current rating of single-core a. thermal values of 0. values of up to 1.e. cables gives rise to eddy currents. cable schemes the axial spacing of the cables on the sea bed and the choice o f armouring material. This may be achieved by using an outer concentric conductor which usually consists of a layer or layers of copper wires. the metallic sheath.1 shows the relationship between the effective sheath circuit resistance and the sheath losses in a typical single-core submarine a. In certain cases to achieve a low conductance. on the effective resistance of the sheath circuit (i. inter alia. Galvanised steel wire armour has excellent mechanical characteristics but when applied to single-core a.1 Relationship between effective sheath resistance and sheath losses in 630 mm 2 singlecore fluid-filled submarine cable Current ratings The current rating of submarine cables is mainly dependent on the maximum recommended conductor temperature.

42. M E C H A N I C A L D E S I G N F E A T U R E S O F CABLES Effect of method of installation Two alternative techniques are available: laying from large coils formed in the hold o f a suitable vessel (fig. coiling a cable o f 125 mm overall diameter to a minimum eye o f 7. does not approach the electrical breakdown level of the sheathing material. F o r long cable routes the cable coil may be several metres high when coiled into the holds o f the laying vessel.2 Coiled lengths of cable awaiting transfer to the laying vessel . 42.2). Provided that turntables are used in all stages of cable manufacture the angle of lay and tension o f application o f all helically applied cable components need differ little from those used for land cables. Winding of the cable into a coil imparts a 360 ° twist in each complete turn of cable in the coil. It is standard practice. the twist per metre decreasing slightly with each turn coiled outwards. to bond the lead sheath and any associated reinforcing tapes electrically to the armour wires at regular intervals along the cable length.626 Electric Cables Handbook Protection of anticorrosion sheath against voltage transients On long submarine cable routes it is necessary to take steps to ensure that the voltage appearing across the anticorrosion sheath.5m (60 times the overall diameter) causes a twist of 15 ° per metre. apart from tension considerations. due to voltage transients in the transmission circuit. In a typical case. Fig. or laying from a large turntable or drum. The turntable or drum technique is the technically preferred option as the cable has to withstand only bending with no twisting action. therefore.

A single wire armoured cable will tolerate coiling provided that the armour wires are applied so that they loosen as the cable is coiled down.Submarine Cables and Systems 627 Cable is generally coiled clockwise when viewed from above. Distortion of a conventionally designed circular non-pressurised cable does not usually occur at depths less than about 150 m. causing it to become distorted. This causes all components which have been applied with right-hand lay. Double wire armoured cable with both layers applied in the same direction can be coiled and handled in a similar manner to single-wire armoured cable. On cooling the external pressure did not contract the sheath uniformly. 5 m m thickness.e.5 mm thick was lapped over the lead sheath.or gas-filled cables). clockwise. It is virtually impossible to coil a cable with a double-wire reverse lay armour as there is no combination of lays in the two layers of armour which will avoid either crushing the cable or creating such interfacial pressure between the two layers of a r m o u r that it is physically impossible to cause the cable to lay flat in a coil. Resistance of cable to water pressure The ability of a submarine cable to withstand the external water pressure is determined by the internal pressure of pressure-assisted cables (i. fluid. The efficacy of any metal tapes applied external to the lead sheath to reinforce the cable against the external water pressure is proportional to t3n/d 3 where t is the thickness of one tape. Figure 42. i. Because of the high coefficient of expansion of X L P E insulation. A single tape of I mm thickness will therefore provide as much resistance to the external water pressure as eight tapes each 0 . Lifting of the cable from the coil immediately prior to laying removes the twist from the cable so that it is in the twist-free condition as it passes outboard from the laying vessel. the hardness and coefficient of expansion of non-pressure-assisted cables and the thickness and composition of any metal sheath and metal tapes external to the sheath. so as to avoid excessive distension o f the lead sheath. In a well designed cable every component should be free of creases when uncoiled. An adjacent sample of cable withstood an external pressure o f 65 bar and repeated heating and cooling when a steel tape 1. It follows that at the interface between a right-hand component applied over a left-hand component the former is under abnormal tension while the latter is slack. d is the pitch circle diameter of the tapes when applied to the cable and n is the number of tapes applied. the only laying technique available for long continuous cable lengths is from a turntable or pipe laying drum barge which obviates the need for coiling.3 shows the cross-section of a solid type cable which withstood an external pressure of 27. Thermal expansion of the impregnant had distended the lead alloy sheath.e.5 bar at ambient temperature but which became misshapen when cooling to ambient temperature following a heating cycle to 60°C. When site conditions necessitate the use of a double wire reverse lay armoured cable. to tighten and all components applied with left-hand lay to loosen when the cable is coiled down. These conditions are conducive to the formation of creases in the slack components unless the effect is controlled by careful selection of the angle of lay and the application tension o f every helically applied component of the cable. it may be necessary to restrict the temperature rise and hence the current loading when lead-sheathed X L P E cables are laid in deep water.1 bar per metre depth. The external pressure in sea-water increases by approximately 0. . At greater depths the metal sheath is liable to suffer distortion following the first heating cycle unless the cable is specially reinforced against the external water pressure.

3 Deformation of solid type PILS cable resulting from a heating cycle to 60°C with hydrostatic pressure of 27. In the case of FF cables.1% Sn) have adequate fatigue life for this duty) Submarine cables have also given satisfactory service.45% Sb) and ½C (0. when sheathed with other alloys.4% Sn and 0. the internal pressure of the impregnant will increase as the laying depth increases.g. 0.15% As.628 Electric Cables Handbook Fig.2% Sn. 42. e.2% Sb) and F3 (0. The reinforcement provides some resistance to deformation but cables to be installed in deep water must be designed to withstand this external pressure. however. the exact value depending on the actual densities of the impregnant and the sea-water.2 Gas pressure cables are usually laid without pressurisation and therefore experience the full external pressure of the water during laying. when in service if the cable is not buried and due to the motion of the ship if the cable has to be recovered for repair.5 bar Development tests have shown that optimum results are achieved if a polyethylene sheath is applied over the lead sheath followed by one or more layers of reinforcing tape. 0.1% Bi.16 bar per metre. However because the density of the impregnant is lower than that of the sea-water a differential pressure will exist which increases with depth by approximately 0.1% Cd). 0. This aspect is covered in the CIGRE test recommendations. ½B (0. It will probably be subjected to strains and vibrations when the cable is laid. . Choice of lead alloy sheath The lead alloy sheath of a submarine cable has a very onerous duty imposed upon it compared with that of land cables. Tests have shown that lead alloys E (0.

submarine cables laid between Denmark and Sweden. in order to produce a cable with acceptable handling and bending performance it is necessary to 'let in' individual armours by welding them to adjacent wires over a distance o f a few metres in the transition between single and double wire armour.g. 42. 4 Aluminium alloy armour wires were applied to the 420 kV a. it is necessary to apply both layers with the same direction of lay. Figure 42. a proportion of the tensile load is carried by the helically applied armour wires.c. 6 Torque balance in cable construction When a single wire armoured cable is suspended from the bow sheave of the laying vessel. the use of magnetic armour on single-core cables may cause an unacceptable reduction in the current rating of the cable. e. The twisting action cannot pass backwards through the brakes of the cable laying gear to the cable yet to be laid. The twisting action can be greatly reduced by applying a second reverse layer of armour wires which under tensile loading conditions produces an approximately equal and opposite torque to that of the inner layer of wires. The problems become more severe with increasing immersed weight per unit length and increasing depth o f laying. 5 However. as shown in fig. hard drawn copper wires or strips can be used.5.Submarine Cables and Systems Choice of armouring 629 Submarine cables need to be armoured to withstand the highest tensile loading likely to be encountered when laying and the residual tension left in the cable after laying (typically 1-3 tonnes) and to provide reasonable resistance to impact and abrasion damage from trailing ships' anchors or fishing gear. . This construction is now generally used for cables to be installed in water depths greater than about 500 m. tends to cause the cable to twist so that the lay of the armour wires straightens towards the axis of the cable and thereby transfers strain to the core(s). this may not be acceptable for cables to be laid in deep water. The twisting action therefore tends to concentrate in the suspended cable between the bow sheave and the sea bed. unless appropriate precautions are taken in the design of the cable. The twisting action can be reduced to acceptable levels for cables to be installed at lower depths by the application of metal anti-twist tapes below a single layer of armour wires to produce a counter torque.c. Resistance to impact and abrasion damage is improved by applying double wire armour. Additionally. As explained in the following section. If the cables are to be coiled when transported. Galvanised steel wires meet the mechanical and anticorrosion requirements at lowest material cost but. This raises manufacturing difficulties. When the economics of steel wire armoured a. This loading produces a torque in the a r m o u r wires which. the added protection may only be considered necessary over part of the cable route such as the shore ends. as described earlier. The armour must be resistant to corrosion as failure of individual wires in service may cause kinks to form followed by electrical failure of the cable. nor forward to the cable already laid on the sea bed. single-core cable schemes is unfavourable. there are published reports o f chemical and electrolytic corrosion failure of the aluminium alloy armour wires on the cables laid between Connecticut and Long Island.4 shows a submarine cable which has developed a kink due to lack of torque balance. The requirements may be expressed mathematically.

630 Electric Cables Handbook Fig.4 Recovered sample of submarine cable containing kink due to lack of torque balance The torque produced by the armour is Tra sin 0 (kg m) and the torque produced by the anti-twist tapes is Trat sin q~ where T= 0= ~b = ra = rat = (kg m) tension in cable (kg) angle of armour wires to cable axis angle of anti-twist tapes pitch circle radius of armour wires (m) pitch circle radius o f anti-twist tapes (m) The torque is balanced when Tra sin 0 = Trat sin ~b . 42.

c. even under storm conditions.5 Torque balance in single-core cable by using single wire armour and anti-twist tapes i. the solution is economically attractive for installation in depths up to about 200m as the anti-twist tapes make a significant contribution to reinforcing the cable against internal and hydrostatic pressures.Submarine Cables and Systems 631 j~ ~ e '~ Wire armour nti-twist tape Fig. Should this velocity be less than the maximum expected tidal current at the sea bed. The resistance to movement is proportional to the square root of the coefficient of friction of the cable with respect to the sea bed multiplied by the W/D ratio of the cable. when ra sin ~b = rat sin 4 Although it is difficult to achieve complete torque balance with a single layer o f armour and anti-twist tapes. it would be necessary to increase the weight o f the cable. For lead sheathed cables an increase in the weight of the cable is achieved at minimum cost by increasing the thickness of the sheath. so inhibiting cable movement. It is therefore important that the submerged weight of the cable is adequate to resist the maximum tidal sea-bed currents expected. Avoidance of cable movement on sea bed Any cable which is subject to movement across the sea bed due to tidal currents is liable to premature failure due to abrasion damage.e. F o r non-metallic sheathed cables it may be necessary to apply lead tapes or to insert lead fillers in the cable to attain an adequate weight-to-diameter ratio.c. 42.5 is typical of a cable laid on sand or shingle. including the shore approaches where tidal currents may be the highest. submarine cables are required to comply with the requirements of the C I G R E 'Recommendations for mechanical tests on submarine cables'. Although in many cases the cable may ultimately be silted over. 2 This . standard practice when designing a submarine cable is to calculate the water velocity likely to cause movement. Therefore. The coefficient of friction may be as low as 0.2 if the cable is laid across smooth rock but a value of 0. it would be unwise to rely on this occurring uniformly along the complete length of the cable. Mechanical performance of submarine cables All a. and d. where W is the submerged weight of the cable and D is the overall diameter.

If the cable is to be coiled. the armour wires are uniformly in contact with the sea-water along the complete cable route and the resultant distributed electrolytic action on the armour wires is very small. particularly if laying over rocks.632 Electric Cables Handbook specification requires that the cable. any defect or damage to the anticorrosion sheath would be liable to cause rapid corrosion failure o f the metal sheath. Extruded polyethylene provides the most impermeable barrier to moisture ingress and is used practically universally for the anticorrosion sheath. bending under tension. water would enter the cable and a voltage failure would ultimately occur. The cable should be free o f damage or untoward features when subjected to visual examination following the mechanical and electrical tests. including flexible joints. P R O T E C T I O N AGAINST C O R R O S I O N The service life of a submarine cable will be dependent. If an aluminium sheath is used. causing electrolytic corrosion o f the armour wires. submarine cable is generally unnecessary and technically undesirable. it would still be subject to damage while in service from marine borers. external pressure withstand tests and. Lead alloy sheaths are preferred to aluminium sheaths for submarine cables because of the vastly superior resistance of lead to corrosion when immersed in sea-water. cables because the corrosion by-products formed following corrosion of one damaged wire caused corrosion damage to adjacent but previously undamaged wires. should be subjected to tension tests. The cable is required to withstand a voltage test following the mechanical tests. Should the oversheath survive the laying operation without damage. In the case o f internal pressure-assisted cable. i.c. Some manufacturers recommend that each individual armour wire should be sheathed with a thermoplastic anticorrosion covering. The use of individually . as sea-water is an aggressive environment in which to operate. gas. an internal pressure withstand test. Severe problems have sometimes been experienced when this solution was adopted on single-core a. one or two layers of brass or copper tapes are applied over the polyethylene sheath. If the oversheath were damaged. on the efficacy o f the anticorrosion protection.e. in the case of pressure-assisted cables. some of the current in the cable sheath/armour circuit would flow to the sea at the point of damage to the oversheath. In all but the simplest cable installations it would be impossible to guarantee that any extruded thermoplastic or elastomeric oversheath would be undamaged during the cable laying operation. Should the metal sheath o f a non-pressure-assisted cable suffer corrosion damage. a leak in the pressureretaining sheath would cause the pressure alarms to operate. inter alia. If protection against teredo attack is considered necessary. Small leaks can be tolerated for a short time by maintaining the gas or fluid feed until it is convenient to undertake cable repairs. Corrosion or failure of the sheath reinforcing tapes would cause the sheath to burst.c. sometimes by fish and invariably by shipping activity. It is applied directly above the lead alloy sheath or above the reinforcing tapes in the case o f pressureassisted cables. The provision of an anticorrosion sheath external to the armour wires o f an a.and fluid-filled cables. If the cable is served overall with textile tapes instead of an extruded oversheath. either during manufacture or for transporting to site. This would necessitate taking the cable out o f service and undertaking emergency action to avoid water entering the cable. all the tests listed above are preceded by a coiling test.

bird-caging of the armour wires would be expected at that position when coiling the cable. plastic materials have a low coefficient o f friction which necessitates undesirably high pressure on the cable to attain the required braking effort. The conductors of 3-core H S L and H type cables are normally circular.c. either during manufacture or for transport to site. cable.89 to 5. Slight corrosion pitting has been observed in such areas. The individual impregnated cores for H S L cable. A string serving also has the advantage o f being sufficiently elastic to permit an increase in the pitch circle diameter o f the armour wires resultant on coiling the cable without adverse effect on the serving. or 450kV d. The 3-core HSL type o f cable is generally preferred to the 3-core H type cable.c. S O L I D T Y P E MASS I M P R E G N A T E D CABLES Solid type mass impregnated cables have been used for submarine installations up to 34. particularly for deep water installations. it may be necessary to modify the paper lapping tensions to attain satisfactory coiling characteristics. renders the cable subject to damage between adjacent wires and reduces the ultimate tensile strength of the cable. conductor and core screens are applied in a similar manner to that of comparable land cables except that if the cable is to be coiled down. The cables are usually impregnated with a viscous fluid compound as this results in more complete filling of the cable than a non-draining compound. but in a typical 138 kV a.Submarine Cables and Systems 633 sheathed armour wires reduces the number o f armour wires which can be applied to the cable.C.86 mm after 24 years' service. Experience has shown that the zinc coating of galvanised steel armour wires may deteriorate after a few years' immersion. o f compacted construction.c. both of which have a high friction coefficient with respect to the braking gear. thus displaying small areas of non-protected steel. The three served cores for H S L cables are laid up . Apart from the disadvantages of a plastic oversheath on an a.c. This helps to restrict the passage of water along the cable in the case of damage in service. The amount of compression applied to the cable for braking purposes is dependent on the coefficient of friction between the finish o f the cable and the braking gear. Overall finishes When laying a submarine cable it is necessary to brake the cable as it is paid out over the bow or stern skid in order to maintain control of the disposition of the cable on the sea bed (chapter 43). or laid-up cores for H type cable. particularly for deep water installations as the construction is inherently more resistant to external water pressure. single-core cable installation the diameter o f individual armour wires merely decreased from 5. are sheathed with a lead alloy and served with an anticorrosion sheath. The paper insulation. If a plastic oversheath were applied and the bursting force of the armour wires or other mechanical incident caused rupture of the plastic oversheath. F o r these reasons a bitumen coated jute or polypropylene string serving is preferred. to which reference has been made. A.5kV a. cables These are virtually all of the 3-core construction.

9 High occupancy in the conductor has the advantage of presenting excellent resistance to water penetration in the event of cable damage especially when used in conjunction with a viscous impregnating compound. This type of joint may be used without any reduction in cable electrical or mechanical strength which makes the maximum length attainable limited only by the size of the storage space or the capacity of the laying vessel. stresses has led to the possibility of high power long length d.c. Water penetration through damaged sheath If the lead sheath of a single-core or 3-core HSL paper insulated solid type submarine cable is damaged. Further cable beyond the blockage.c. cable over the pressure assisted types is that as there is no requirement to maintain pressure in the cable.c. To minimise the number of flexible joints required.C.c. however. D. connections. The cables are insulated on high precision lapping machines similar to those used for F F cables. the cable is coiled down or wound onto a turntable to await pre-despatch tests and transfer to the laying vessel. The Baltic connection between Sweden and Germany consists of a solid type cable operating at a voltage of 450 kV with a length of 250 km. there is no limit on the length of cable that can be used. the sea-water causes the paper insulation to swell rapidly. However. D. Flexible joints may be inserted between lengths of core usually at the lead or anticorrosion sheath stage in order to create even longer lengths. Some cable manufacturers have special drying and impregnating vessels capable of processing 40 or 50km lengths of cable. An occupancy of 96% is claimed for the ±270 kV d. cables The development of the mass-impregnated solid type cable for operation at high d. often lasting several days. cross channel interconnection. the lead sheathing and plastic sheathing of very long cable lengths necessitate continuous processes. Although the construction of the single-core solid cable is intrinsically very resistant to external pressure it is necessary to control the sheath movement due to load cycles. armouring and serving processes differ little from standard production techniques for land cable. s There are now numerous submarine interconnections between the power systems of Europe.C. This process requires the core to be wound onto a turntable within the drying vessel as it leaves the insulating machine. A high occupancy may be achieved by stranding layers of segments around a central circular rod. may be affected by moisture owing to the vacuous . so forming a partial blockage to further water ingress. cables are circular and of high occupancy. After armouring and serving. or the cable is severed. and require the highest standards of extruder performance to achieve satisfactory product quality. This is done by limiting the maximum conductor temperature to 50°C. The conductors of d. the cables are insulated and impregnated in the longest lengths possible. The important advantage of the solid type d. cables are all single-core construction. v Proposals have been made for an Iceland-UK connection which would have a route length of over 1000km. anticorrosion sheathing. The lead sheathing. The practical maximum length for a FF cable is about 60 km. Multiple lengths of non-armoured cable are jointed together prior to armouring into a continuous length.c.634 Electric Cables Handbook and padded circular with bitumen impregnated jute or polypropylene string fillers.

operation. ~l PPL offers the possibility o f reduced insulation thickness. This reservoir would be required to feed fluid at a sufficient rate to compensate for the thermal contraction of the fluid within the complete cable length and also to maintain a positive pressure with respect to the external water pressure where the cable was severed.Submarine Cables and Systems 635 conditions in the cooling cable and by wick action in the insulating papers. if the cable is severed near one terminal the seaward length of cable would be dependent on the fluid reservoir at the remote end of the route. F F cables are suitable for d.c. so that water does not enter the cable. The calculation of the hydraulic parameters of the cable system is similar to that detailed in chapter 30 for fluid-filled cables installed on land. A recent development is the application o f fluid-filled PPL cable for a 500 kV d. It is therefore necessary to incorporate fluid channels within the cable having sufficiently low hydraulic impedance that a positive pressure can be maintained under fluid leak conditions.F I L L E D CABLES Fluid-filled paper insulated cables are suitable for use up to the highest voltages and they were the type of cable chosen for the 525 kV a. submarine connections.7 km circuit in Japan.c.c. Because o f its high occupancy. Whereas under normal operating conditions the fluid reservoirs at each end of the route effectively feed fluid to the mid-point of the route.1° Fluid-filled cables have the advantage of requiring the smallest insulation thickness for a given voltage so that it is possible in some cases to use a 3-core cable where three single-core cables would otherwise have been necessary. and o f permitting longer circuits to be considered before hydraulic limitations become important. This is too short for many applications and therefore this type o f cable is not widely used for d.c. as the rate o f cooling would then be at a maximum. but for submarine cable installations it may be necessary to calculate many alternative solutions to obtain the optimum size of the fluid duct(s) and the feed pressure of the fluid pumps. 50. without the need to operate the cable at an excessive internal pressure. The interstitial fillers in 3-core H type cable form a low resistance path for water to enter the cable following damage to the sheath. The fluid feed length would therefore be nearly twice the normal length and the pressure drop nearly four times that which would occur if the cable was severed at the mid-point. if the pressure-retaining sheath is damaged. link between British Columbia mainland and Vancouver Island installed in 1984. F L U I D . schemes. There are . It may be necessary to replace a substantial amount of cable to eliminate moisture should this type of cable be damaged after laying. However hydraulic considerations limit the maximum circuit length to about 50km for paper cables. The worst possible condition would be for the cable to be severed near one terminal during a period when the cable was carrying full load current. the conductor has excellent resistance to water penetration. lower charging current for a. the internal fluid pressure under leak conditions should exceed the external water pressure at that position. Hydraulic design It is an essential feature of any fluid-filled submarine cable installation that.c. This presents advantages from a manufacturing and installation point of view as well as making the installation less prone to damage when in service.

. 35 ¸ 5 I Cable severed ". . t2 This document also explains how to allow for pressure transients encountered during the laying operation. The graph shows the variation in m a x i m u m fluid pressure along the cable route when the cable is heating. 5 . the pressure d r o p along the complete route from the remote fluid p u m p being approximately 10 bar. .6 shows the internal fluid pressures in a typical 1000 m m 2 275 kV single-core cable operating to a m a x i m u m conductor temperature o f 80°C on a cable route having a m a x i m u m depth of 90 m. 4~.. it is necessary to operate the fluid p u m p s at 11 bar. . the minimum pressure when cooling and the transient pressures if the cable is severed near one end of the route following a period o f full current loading.5 ~5 ~en~h (~m) ~7.~ Variation in fluid pressure in 1000mm ~ 275kV fluid-filled single-core cable under operational and fault conditions . It will be noted that. . On long cable routes and in deep water installations fluid-filled cables are required to operate at higher internal pressure than a conventional land cable and it is therefore necessary to apply additional reinforcing tapes to enable the lead alloy sheath to withstand the internal fluid pressure. . 7. . . ib ~00 I . . 2. . Figure 42. . Further details regarding calculation o f fluid pressure transients m a y be obtained by reference to the C I G R E report 'Transient pressure variations in submarine cables o f the oil-filled type'. . The graph also shows that the cable would need to be reinforced to withstand an internal fluid pressure of 30 bar. .5 .~h e n cooling o' . . ..5 20 Fig. . in order to maintain an internal fluid pressure of I bar at the severed end of the cable.5 ~0 ~2.636 Electric Cables Handbook practical limits to the size of the fluid channels which can be incorporated in a cable and this limits the m a x i m u m length of route over which a fluid-filled cable can be operated to a b o u t 50 km. The cable concerned has a fluid duct of 23 m m bore.

Some cable manufacturers are equipped with very large vessels capable of drying and impregnating 40-50 km lengths of core. Single-core cables are required to have a central fluid duct in the conductor and the maximum length which can be installed is limited by the impedance to fluid flow which this duct presents. The maximum bore of the ducts which can be accommodated within the spaces available may impose a restriction on the length of route over which a 3-core cable can be laid.c. Comprehensive laboratory testing by several cable manufacturers has shown that the electrical characteristics of a well designed flexible joint can be as good as the machine-made cable and the mechanical performance completely adequate. The fluid tanks remain connected to the cable throughout all subsequent manufacturing and laying operations. the total thickness of reinforcement is correspondingly increased. This necessitates the use of larger conductors than would otherwise be justified by the current loading requirement. Tin-bronze and nonmagnetic steel tapes have been used for reinforcement. Flexible joints are technically acceptable in fluid-filled cables. subject to certain restrictions on the maximum cross-sectional area of the conductors. because the maximum lengths attainable are only dependent on the size of the impregnating and drying vessels available.Submarine Cables and Systems 637 It is sometimes necessary to restrict the temperature rise of fluid-filled submarine cables to reduce the fluid pressure transients to acceptable levels. Significant improvements can be made by increasing the bore of the duct as its impedance varies with the fourth power of the radius. Alternatively.c. The laid-up cable is generally sheathed with a lead alloy and reinforced against the internal fluid pressure by two or more layers of metal tape. 3-core cables 3-core fluid-filled submarine cables can be manufactured for voltages up to 150 kV a. Fluid feed tanks are connected to the cable ends immediately after sheathing and a positive fluid flow is maintained from the cable ends on every occasion that the cable is cut. Single-core cables Single-core fluid-filled cables are not subject to the same restrictions on maximum unjointed manufacturing lengths as 3-core cables are. so that no air or moisture can enter the cable. The finished cable is either coiled down or wound onto a drum or turntable for pre-despatch testing prior to loading onto the cable laying vessel. fluid-filled cables for many years. As the transient fluid pressure in submarine cables is often much greater than is normally permitted in land cables. When laying-up the cores. This improvement has . As with all types of 3-core cable the capacity of the laying-up machine limits the maximum length which can be manufactured without the need to insert flexible joints in at least the conductors and insulation. Flexible joints have additionally given satisfactory service in 150 kV a. drum lengths of completed cable may have flexible joints inserted between drum lengths before they are installed. insulation and screens is similar to that for land cables except that the angle of lay and application tension of the paper tapes may need to be modified if the cable is to be coiled down either during manufacture or on the laying vessel. fluid ducts are usually included in the interstitial spaces between the cores. The design and construction of the conductors.

c.c. if the length of cable required exceeds the capacity of the largest drums which can be handled. The sheath reinforcing tapes are non-ferrous for a. On longer cable routes it is often necessary to provide pumping plant and fluid storage tanks at both ends o f the route because of the much larger fluid flow and high pressure. The pumps are normally duplicated and alarm circuits are provided to signal any malfunction o f the pumping equipment. As these pumps are usually energised from the public electricity supply it may be necessary to install auxiliary power generators to ensure the security o f the fluid-filled cables in the event of a failure o f the electricity supply.638 Electric Cables Handbook to be balanced against the impact of having to increase the diameter o f the cable. The single-core conductor may be stranded around a helically wound steel duct or alternatively be formed of interlocking segments which form a self-supporting fluid channel with shaped wires stranded over it. armour and servings generally comply with the details previously quoted. If the cable is to be coiled at any stage during manufacture or installation. As manufacture of this type o f cable . Experience has shown that after removing the lengths of cable damaged during the lifting operation the remaining cable is generally free of moisture and suitable for jointing to the new piece o f cable required to link the cut ends. cables but steel tapes offer the cheapest reinforcement for d. these are normally inserted after lead sheathing or after any subsequent process. The fluid tanks or pumps at the cable terminals replace the fluid lost and operate alarms to indicate an abnormal rate of fluid flow. End caps would be fitted and the capped ends lowered to the sea bed with marker buoys attached. Fluid pressure tanks are connected to the cable after lead sheathing and at all subsequent stages of manufacture. as convenient. the fluid leak should be located at an early stage. Ideally. apart from the use of turntables or coiling down processes. If flexible joints are to be made prior to despatch. Additionally it may be possible to employ a low viscosity impregnant. the internal pressure causes fluid to flow out so that water does not enter the cable. Fluid pressure supply systems For short length fluid-filled submarine cable installations.F I L L E D CABLE Cable o f the pre-impregnated paper gas-filled type has many advantages from a manufacturing and system design point of view. conventional fluid pressure tanks and appropriate alarm equipment. cables. special attention needs to be given to the length and direction o f wire lays to achieve satisfactory coiling characteristics. as used for land cables. G A S . Prevention of water penetration through a damaged sheath If the lead sheath of a fluid-filled cable is perforated when in service. In the event of a major fluid leak the standard procedure is then for the cable to be taken out o f service and a restrictor actuated in the hydraulic circuit to limit the fluid feed to the minimum necessary to ensure a positive fluid leak to the sea at all states of the tide. the cable cut and lifted and the ends checked for moisture and cut back if necessary. All manufacturing processes are carried out on conventional plant. are often adequate for maintaining the fluid pressure within the cable. The anticorrosion sheath.

This type of cable is suitable for use up to 33 kV providing selection is made of a special formulation o f E P R and of a low insulation design stress.c. polymeric cables have not generally been used for submarine connections above 66kV. although. The immersed weight-to-diameter ratio of non-sheathed polymeric submarine cables is generally low and the cable is therefore liable to movement over the sea bed when subjected to even modest tidal currents. the amount o f storage space available. This is because they are generally larger than the equivalent pressureassisted cables and the concern about the ability to water block the cable adequately in the event of sheath damage. To date. screens and insulation follows solid cable practice except that for the longest lengths of single-core cable a gas duct is required in the centre of the conductor. The minimum design operating pressure is 14bar but in one installation the pressure had to be raised to 28 bar to fulfil this condition. The metal sheath is of lead alloy which is heavily reinforced with steel tapes followed by a conventional anticorrosion sheath. Submarine cables insulated with E P R require no metal sheath and are installed as a 'wet' construction. The static pressure in the gas-filled cable system is maintained higher than the external water pressure to prevent ingress of moisture should the cable be damaged. The application o f a lead sheath o f appropriate thickness inhibits cable movement. ~3 This places an onerous duty on the cable reinforcement and the accessories. a r m o u r and serving. Considerable experience in land cable installations in many parts o f the world has indicated that the service life o f XLPE cables may be limited unless steps are taken to prevent moisture ingress into the insulation. for single-core cables. beddings. P O L Y M E R I C INSULATED C A B L E S Design limitations Polymeric insulated submarine cables are in increasing demand for use in offshore oil fields and inter-island links up to a voltage of about 33 kV. Polymeric insulation is not chosen for d. The electric strength is reduced by the generation and concentration of trapped space charge near to the conductor and insulation screens. the possible length of jointfree cable is entirely dependent on the capacity of the laying-up machine or. Once the cable is charged with gas there is no longitudinal gas flow within the cable which means that there is not the same pressure restriction on cable length inherent in fluid-filled systems. Some 3-core designs incorporate optical fibres or other communication cables in the interstices. The general construction o f the conductor. It is therefore necessary to provide an impermeable moisture barrier over the insulation. Cable design and manufacture The thickness of the screens and insulation applied to polymeric cables up to 30 kV rating should not be less than the appropriate value quoted in IEC 502. use. but gas feed and alarm equipment is still required at the cable ends. Factory flexible joints have been installed into gas-filled cables and have given satisfactory service for many years.Submarine Cables and Systems 639 requires no large tank in which to impregnate the core. and for submarine installations this is best achieved by the application o f a lead alloy sheath. as . apart from ensuring that the core insulation is maintained in a dry condition.

speech circuits or TV cores together sometimes with optical fibres. then water penetration can be inhibited by filling the conductor with a blocking compound. In each case the cable needs to be designed for the specific project. the number and type o f cores varying considerably. Flexible hydraulic hoses normally comprise a polyester elastomer inner core which is reinforced with aramid fibre and sheathed with a polyester elastomer jacket. HV routine testing of polymeric cables and factory joints is more problematic. thus introducing factory joints o f a more complex moulded type.640 Electric Cables Handbook with all submarine cables. power cores and hydraulic hoses within the same cable envelope.or 3-core cable the external protection normally comprises a polyethylene anticorrosion sheath. water would enter the annulus between the core(s) and the inside o f the lead sheath. a slight increase in the insulation thickness may be justified to enhance the factor of safety. as the failure of a control cable may necessitate closing down an oil well with the consequent loss of production until the cable is repaired or replaced. PE or sometimes XLPE is favoured for the insulation o f speech circuits. there being as yet no internationally agreed standard for the insulation thicknesses for the higher transmission voltages. While these techniques have been developed for land cables. Generally there are requirements for some pilot cores. . C O N T R O L AND C O M P O S I T E CABLES There is an increasing demand in offshore oil and gas fields for submarine pilot. Effects of damage to lead sheath Polymeric materials have a relatively high coefficient o f expansion which may cause a permanent distension of the lead sheath after an X L P E or P E insulated cable has been on load. When a lead sheath is applied over a single. the need to regularly clean the insulation extruders limits the length that can be continuously extruded. Should the lead sheath be damaged after it has been distended. PE for TV cores and either PE. However. The economics of the insulating procedure for polymeric cores favour the production o f the longest continuous core lengths which can be accommodated on a turntable or core drum. testing is regarded as less effective for polymeric insulation and introduces the risk o f stress increase by space charge generation. in the case of submarine cables the external water pressures are much higher.c. one or two layers of armour wires and a bituminised textile serving overall. The thickness of insulation for cables above 30 kV is subject to agreement between the customer and the cable manufacturer. as d. P I L O T . armour bedding. As with all types of 3-core cable the capacity of the laying-up machine limits the maximum length o f cable which can be manufactured without inserting flexible joints. control and composite cables which are laid between platforms or between a platform and a seabed unit for the remote control and monitoring of equipment. The penetration can be minimised by the use of water-swellable tapes over the cable insulation. X L P E or EPR for pilot and power cores. The cable needs to be designed and manufactured to have a high factor of safety. If the damage is sufficiently severe to reach the conductor.

. FLEXIBLE J O I N T S F O R C A B L E S Techniques have been developed for constructing flexible joints in all types of cable commonly used in submarine cable installations. cores and hoses are laid up with a relatively short lay to reduce the risk that these components are subjected to a significant strain when the cable is under tension. J. Alternatively. -. .. I. 42. . . Individual cable manufacturers have developed different techniques for constructing flexible joints but all are expected to meet the mechanical test requirements . the finish being generally similar to that applied to lead sheathed submarine power cables. In these circumstances it is sometimes advantageous to lay up the cable around a central tensile member and to dispense with the external armour wires. . If the cable is required to hang in a catenary from a platform to the sea bed. . it is essential that the cable be torque balanced. B.. In most cases a polyethylene sheath is applied over the laid-up cores followed by the appropriate armour and serving. Conductor joint Hand applied screen Re-applied screen over conductor joint Lead sleeve Soldered joint Lead burn joint F.Submarine Cables and Systems 641 The individual cable pairs. Hand applied paper tapes Fig.. C. H. . lead burn L. it may be possible to bury the cable using a 'remote operated vehicle'. . Such vehicles are usually equipped with sonar or TV systems and bury the cable using a plough technique. " .. in order to avoid the need for a lead sheath.7 Construction of flexible joint in single-core solid type submarine cable up to the lead sheath stage . . Lead sheath Dielectric screen Stepped pencil Conductor screen G. The optical fibre is generally laid up near the centre of the assembly to give maximum protection against damage. eeee A.-i .. . If the cable is to be laid on the sea bed it may be necessary to apply a lead sheath to attain an adequate weight to diameter ratio to inhibit movement on the sea bed under the influence of tidal currents. E. Fillers are normally laid up with the cable components to achieve a compact circular shaped cable. . . Most existing major submarine cable circuits contain one or more flexible joints. Paper & terylene built up to a diameter of K. These joints have generally given troublefree service. D. . Providing there is no severe restriction on the mutual capacitance of the speech pairs it is considered advantageous to inject a thixotropic compound into the remaining interstices o f the laid-up cable to restrict water penetration in the event of sheath damage after installation. .

Two alternative methods are used for the jointing of conductors. Paper insulation and semiconductive paper screens In all types of paper insulated cable the conductor screen and insulation are profiled on both sides of the joint in the conductor. The individual wires of the conductor may be butt-brazed in a staggered configuration so that the conductor retains its original diameter and flexibility. The outside diameter of the joint is determined by service performance and electrical test requirements applicable to the system. 2 Figure 42. The insulation is then reconstituted over the jointed conductor. The use of a flush brazed conductor connection and graded paper tape insulation enables the diameter of the dielectric to be kept to a minimum. however. This extra speed in completing a joint is very useful where a cable is being repaired at sea. This diameter. Alternatively. The re-application by hand can be a fairly lengthy process and it is possible to design a joint with shorter profiles which are quicker to re-insulate but it is then necessary to restrict the number of bends to which the joints will be subjected.642 Electric Cables Handbook recommended by C I G R E Committee 21-06. Each paper tape is accurately terminated on the steps o f the profiles of the two cables being jointed. The length o f the stepped profile is designed to ensure a controlled electrical stress when the cable is energised. When making flexible joints in fluid-filled cables two alternative techniques are available for preventing air or moisture from entering the cable during the jointing operation. In both cases the joint is required to be impregnated with fluid after the re-insulation process. The tensile strength of the conductor connection is therefore of paramount importance.7 shows a typical design of flexible joint in a solid type paper insulated submarine cable. Sometimes it is possible to insulate the joint to the same diameter as the adjacent core but usually the joint is insulated to a greater diameter. This enhances the mechanical strength of the joint and is convenient for the process o f sealing the sleeve to the sheath. the multiwire conductor may be butt-brazed to form a solid joint which complies with the original diameter but restricts the flexibility o f the conductor over a short distance. This is achieved either via special fluid fittings in the lead sleeve which will need to be sealed afterwards or by impregnating using a temporary sleeve and then swaging down a lead sleeve over the insulation with continuous fluid flow. pre-impregnated paper tapes being applied by hand or machine under very carefully controlled conditions often in a humiditycontrolled atmosphere. is rarely greater than the lead sheath o f the cable and allows the lead sleeve to fit closely over the insulation and cable sheath. . Conductor connection Submarine cables are generally laid with a certain amount o f tension in the system. For solid type cables it is usual to baste the reconstituted insulation with impregnating compound at regular intervals during the insulating process. This is either unavoidable because o f the length o f cable suspended underneath the laying ship or is deliberate in order to prevent kinking. The joint may be made under a continuous flow of fluid fed from pressure tanks located at the remote ends of the cables being jointed. or the cable may be frozen on each side of the joint and the papers applied without a fluid feed.

T e m p o r a r y binder tapes are applied to the reconstituted joint to compress the hand applied tapes while the joint is pressurised and heated under carefully controlled conditions to bond the PE tapes and to vulcanise the insulation in the case of X L P E or E P R cores. 350 d. the lead sheath is positioned over the core joint and progressively swaged down until it is a close fit over the insulated core. X L P E and E P R cores is pencilled down to a smooth controlled profile using special tools. 250 d. Table 42. 250 d. 400 a. 90 a. the lead sleeve is swaged down and cut to length to permit butt joints to be made to the cut ends of the lead sheath of the cables being jointed. However.c. the lead sleeve is swaged down to be a close fit over the original lead sheath. 450 d.c. 200 d.c. 285 d. 400 d.c. a lead sleeve is passed over the lead sheath of one of the cable lengths being jointed. 400 d. if excess insulation has been applied over the joint. 132 a.c. Application by machine ensures even tension and correct geometric shape.c. After completing the application of the core insulation and screens. Cable type Maximum depth (m) 160 183 500 245 80 200 37 570 300 400 25 55 117 540 30 21 610 Length (km) 100 25 119 40 64 27 7 125 42 30 27 50 200 125 265 45 27 Gotland Vancouver Sardinia-Corsica Cook Strait Sweden-Denmark Vancouver Sweden-Denmark Skagerrak Hokkaido-Honshu Vancouver Jersey-France England-France Finland-Sweden Skagerrak Baltic Denmark-Germany Spain-Morocco MI GF MI GF MI MI FF MI FF FF FF MI MI MI MI FFF FF MI Mass impregnated solid type FF Fluid-filled GF Gas-filled FFF Flat fluid-filled . An alternative procedure is to use an injection moulding machine for all types of core.c.c.c. 400 a. I f the diameter of the reconstituted core insulation is equal to that of the original core. 525 a.c.c.c. 300 d. Lead sheaths Prior to the start of jointing lead sheathed cables.c.Submarine Cables and Systems Polymeric insulation 643 The insulation of PE. The cable core is then reconstituted with special insulating and screening tapes which can also be applied with specially designed machines.c.c. 260 d. 266 d.c.c.1 Major submarine transmission interconnections Installation date 1954 1956 1965 1965 1965 1969 1973 1976 1980 1984 1985 1986 1989 1993 1994 1995 In progress Site Voltage (kV) 100 d.

.1 gives details of some of the more important installations. and d. (1988) 'The fatigue life of alloy E as a sheathing material for submarine power cables'. Margolin. and Maschio.c. H. Paris: CIGRE Paper No.644 Electric Cables Handbook A fusion technique known as lead burning is the conventional method of sealing the lead sleeve to the cable sheath and lead burns have given excellent service over many years. F. single-core sea cables'. (9) Arkell. (2) CIGRE Study Committee 21. and Lawson. (8) Guonason. A. D. pp. M. Hacke..c. N. C. power cables'. Table 42. P. 63.. 21-205. (3) Anelli. C. and Gallango Faraco. Polymeric anticorrosion sheaths are reconstituted using polyolefin heatshrinkable sleeves passed over one of the cable cores prior to jointing. The technique requires highly skilled operators and is very time consuming. including reliability aspects'. and Shelley. on Power Cables and Accessories 10 k V-500 k V. Benchekroun. E. Working Group 06 (1980) 'Recommendations for mechanical tests on submarine cables'. (1994) 'Technical requirements for the submarine electrical interconnection Spain-Morocco'. 7th IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conf. REFERENCES (1) Buseman. Donazzi.. Ruiz Urbieta. (4) Dominguez Miguel. and Nyman. E. submarine h. IEEE Trans.v. M. This solution is adopted where continuous lengths of cable are specifically required. (1963) 'The magnetic compass errors caused by d. M A J O R TRANSMISSION INTERCONNECTIONS There is a growing number of major high power submarine interconnections. P. For factory-made joints it is possible to pass the joint through the armouring machine and armour the cable and joint as one continuous process. Electra (68). (1973) 'Continuous long length a. (1979) 'The Long Island Sound submarine cable interconnection'. A. l E E Conf. M. PAS-92 (5). IEEE Trans. Other components Metal tapes such as reinforcing tapes or anti-teredo tapes are jointed by brazing or welding. 1744-1749. K. A. (1993) 'Baltic HVDC interconnection'. G. H. F.c. cable connection between England and France. J. J. O. More modern methods based on a TIG welding technique are under development. EloKindi.. (6) Chamberland. J.c. (5) Gazzana Prioroggia. New Zealand: CIGRE SC 14 Colloquium Paper No. 220-224. B.. B. E. 21-02. W. Waterhouse. and Yates. Paris: CIGRE Paper No. PD-3 (1). (1986) 'Design and installation of the U. H. and Henje. ERA Report No. Ball. Both these methods give more than adequate mechanical strength. B/T 116. (1993) 'A 550MW HVDC submarine cable link: Iceland-UK-Continental Europe'.. .K. Armour wires in joints between drum lengths of completed cable or in repair joints may be jointed by welding or by the use of threaded turnbuckles. part of the 270kV d. M. 31-36. S.. (7) Ekenstierna.

IEEE/PES Summer Meeting. (1986) 'Performance of the Cook Strait +250kV d.. 1995. T. 21-04. Electra (89). and O'Brian. (1984) 'Design. R. . T. Yoshida. G. T. G. July 23-27.. (11) Fujimori. (13) Crabtree. submarine cables. 23-29.Submarine Cables and Systems 645 (10) Foxhall. H.. 21-01. T. M. T. manufacture and installation of a 525 kV alternating current submarine cable link from mainland Canada to Vancouver Island'. K. Imajo. and Bazzi. M. A. Takashima. Hata. Bjorlow Larsen. (1995) 'Development of 500 kV d.c. S. and Kakihana.. Working Group 02 (1983) 'Transient pressure variations in submarine cables of the oil-filled type'. (12) CIGRE Study Committee 21. I..c. PPLP-insulated oil-filled submarine cable'. Janaka. 1964-1985'. Paris: CIGRE Paper No. Tanabe.. R. Paris: CIGRE Paper No..

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