Microturbines

2005-04-21 Rolf Gabrielsson, Volvo Aero Corporation Section 3

Ref. section 3. Epstein. section 3 MEMS Gas Turbine Engines • Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) or Ultra-microturbines. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. 2005-04-21.Microturbines.: Alan H. 1 . ASME GT-2003-38866 • Microturbines • Small microturbines Example: IHI remote application • MEMS 25 – 500 kW 1 – 10 kW 10 .100 W Microturbine lecture.

section 3 MEMS Characteristics • MEMS based on manufacturing technologies developed by the semiconductor industry • Diameters of millimetres rather than meters with airfoil dimensions in microns rather than millimetres • Shirt-button-sized gas turbine Microturbine lecture. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. section 3. 1 .Microturbines. 2005-04-21.

computers. 2005-04-21. section 3 User Pull . etc require compact energy supplies • Mobile systems such as robots.air vehicles require increasingly compact power and propulsion • Hydrocarbon fuels burned in air have 20-30 times the energy density of the best current lithium chemistry-bases batteries Modest system efficiency to compete with batteries • Development started mid 1990´s • Main player: MIT. 1 .Market interest • Small portable electronics . Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Microturbines. GPS receivers. section 3.USA Microturbine lecture.

Increase • Manufacturing constraints means: . Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Increase . 1 . TIT and increases losses means reduced specific power • Fluid viscous forces Surface area-to volume However.But better thrust – to weight ratio. ”The cube-square law” Microturbine lecture. section 3 Thermodynamic scaling • Air intake diameter: 100 MW Æ 1 meter 100 W Æ 1 mm However reduced pressure ratio (2:1 . 2005-04-21.Increase .4:1). section 3.Microturbines. usable strength of material .Reduced cycle efficiency Æ Increased specific fuel consumption .

GT2004-53877. 2005-04-21. Vienna Microturbine lecture. Epstein. Sirakov.: Gong. ASME Turbo Expo 2004. 1 . Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Microturbines. Tan “Aerothermodynamics of Micro-turbomachinery”. section 3 Thermodynamic scaling Ref. section 3.

section 3 Mechanical scaling • Viscous forces larger Æ film heat transfer coefficient increases Æ Temperature gradients in the structure reduced Æ Helpful reducing stress but makes thermal insulation challenging • Possibility to use ceramic materials due to size dependent fault-possibility • Single-crystal semiconductor materials.Microturbines. section 3. Usable strength increase with reduced size • Thermal shock resistance improved Ref: Epstein. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. 2005-04-21. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. 1 .

1 .Microturbines. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. 2005-04-21. section 3 MEMS Gas turbine design for demo-MEMS • • • • • Microturbine technology applies to Silicon.2 Mrpm Ref: Epstein. section 3. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. Si Si loses strength above 950K Fuel: H2 Shaft power: 17 W Design characteristics: Π = 2:1 TIT = 950K Dcompressor = 8 mm Dturbine = 6 mm Rotor speed = 1.

motors and sensors . 2005-04-21.Alternating insulation and conducting layers .Vapour deposition or sputtering approaches Microturbine lecture.Microturbines. section 3. 1 . Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Bonding of multiple wafers • Electronics. section 3 MEMS Manufacturing • Old-school designer ”Don´t let the manufacturing people tell you what you can´t do” Æ MEMS design philosophy: ”Design for manufacturing” • Primary fabrication processes: .Etching of photolithographically planar geometries .Embedded sensors .

Microturbines. section 3. section 3 Manufacturing / complete stack Ref: Epstein. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. 2005-04-21. 1 . ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture.

section 3.Efficiency.Π = 4:1 . 2005-04-21. section 3 Turbine design • Si prototype turbine TIT < 950 K . total-to static = 50-60% (compare Microturbine turbine efficiency approx = 85%) Microturbine lecture.Microturbines.Tip speed = 500 m/s . Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. 1 .(MIT has designed for 1600 K) • Possible turbine performance .

Compare large Gt: 99. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. section 3 MEMS combustor • Fuel : H2 (methane.Methane = 60% .H2 = 90% .9% Ref: Epstein. 2005-04-21. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg. propane) • Reaction rate .Microturbines. 1 . section 3.

High load . Also in gyroscopic instruments Microturbine lecture.Microturbines. section 3 Bearings and rotor dynamics • Electromagnetic and air bearings have been considered • Electromagnetic bearings up to now not promising • Gas bearings have advantages such as .Relatively simple manufacturing • Gas bearings used in ”microturbines”in the range 30 – 70 kW and turbochargers.No temperature limits . 1 . 2005-04-21. section 3. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.

Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Microturbines. section 3 Examples of hydrodynamic and hydrostatic air bearings Ref: Epstein. 2005-04-21. 1 . ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. section 3.

section 3. 2005-04-21.Microturbines. 1 . section 3 MEMS materials Si Max temperature Cost 950 K 1 Æ SiC 1500 K 100 Microturbine lecture. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.

section 3. 1 . 2005-04-21. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Microturbines. section 3 MEMS Generator Permanent magnetic high speed generator Ref: Epstein. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture.

section 3. 1 . 2005-04-21. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. section 3 Ongoing technical development • No reported MEMS operations up to date • Demonstration of component technology at MIT • Possible improvements as recuperated cycles with heat exchangers • MEMS performance: Ref: Epstein.Microturbines. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.

Microturbines. 1 . 5 – 10% overall system efficiency is sufficient Ref: Epstein. section 3 Economics and the future • What is required to make millimetre-scale turbines real? Answer: . section 3.Must fulfil societal needs • Power production in short term is aimed at portable applications due to: . 2005-04-21.Very much larger energy density of hydrocarbon fuel compared to lithium batteries • In short term. ASME GT-2003-38866 Microturbine lecture. Rolf Gabrielsson 10111 Utg.Technical feasibility .