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Limits

Definitions

Precise Definition : We say lim f ( x ) = L if Limit at Infinity : We say lim f ( x ) = L if we

x ®a x ®¥

for every e > 0 there is a d > 0 such that can make f ( x ) as close to L as we want by

whenever 0 < x - a < d then f ( x ) - L < e . taking x large enough and positive.

x ®a x ®-¥

by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side

of a) without letting x = a . Infinite Limit : We say lim f ( x ) = ¥ if we

x ®a

Right hand limit : lim+ f ( x ) = L . This has by taking x sufficiently close to a (on either side

x ®a

the same definition as the limit except it of a) without letting x = a .

requires x > a .

There is a similar definition for lim f ( x ) = -¥

x ®a

Left hand limit : lim- f ( x ) = L . This has the

x ®a except we make f ( x ) arbitrarily large and

same definition as the limit except it requires negative.

x<a.

Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits

lim f ( x ) = L Þ lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L lim+ f ( x ) = lim- f ( x ) = L Þ lim f ( x ) = L

x ®a x ®a x ®a x ®a x ®a x ®a

x ®a + x ®a x ®a

Properties

Assume lim f ( x ) and lim g ( x ) both exist and c is any number then,

x ®a x ®a

x ®a x ®a 4. lim ê ú = x ®a provided lim g ( x ) ¹ 0

x ®a g ( x ) g ( x)

û lim

x ®a

ë x ®a

2. lim éë f ( x ) ± g ( x ) ùû = lim f ( x ) ± lim g ( x ) n

5. lim éë f ( x ) ùû = élim f ( x ) ù

n

x ®a x®a x ®a

x ®a ë x ®a û

3. lim éë f ( x ) g ( x ) ùû = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x ) 6. lim é n f ( x ) ù = n lim f ( x )

x ®a x ®a x ®a x ®a ë û x®a

Note : sgn ( a ) = 1 if a > 0 and sgn ( a ) = -1 if a < 0 .

1. lim e x = ¥ & lim e x = 0 5. n even : lim x n = ¥

x®¥ x®- ¥ x ®± ¥

x ®¥ x ®0 - x ®¥ x ®- ¥

b

=0 7. n even : lim a x + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥

n

x ®± ¥

xr

x ®¥

8. n odd : lim a x n + L + b x + c = sgn ( a ) ¥

4. If r > 0 and x r is real for negative x x ®¥

b

then lim r = 0 9. n odd : lim a x n + L + c x + d = - sgn ( a ) ¥

x ®-¥

x ®-¥ x

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Evaluation Techniques

Continuous Functions L’Hospital’s Rule

If f ( x ) is continuous at a then lim f ( x ) = f ( a ) f ( x) 0 f ( x) ± ¥

x ®a If lim = or lim = then,

x ®a g ( x ) 0 x ®a g ( x ) ±¥

Continuous Functions and Composition f ( x) f ¢( x)

f ( x ) is continuous at b and lim g ( x ) = b then lim = lim a is a number, ¥ or -¥

x ®a g ( x ) x ®a g ¢ ( x )

x ®a

x ®a

( x ®a

)

lim f ( g ( x ) ) = f lim g ( x ) = f ( b ) Polynomials at Infinity

p ( x ) and q ( x ) are polynomials. To compute

Factor and Cancel

p ( x)

lim

x 2 + 4 x - 12

= lim

( x - 2 )( x + 6 ) lim

x ®± ¥ q ( x )

factor largest power of x out of both

x®2 x - 2x

2 x®2 x ( x - 2)

p ( x ) and q ( x ) and then compute limit.

x+6 8

= lim

x®2 x

= =4

Rationalize Numerator/Denominator

2

lim

3x 2 - 4

= lim 2 5

( )

x 2 3 - 42

x

3 - 42

= lim 5 x = -

3

3- x 3- x 3+ x

x ®-¥ 5 x - 2 x 2 x ®-¥ x

( )

x -2

x ®- ¥

x -2 2

lim 2 = lim 2 Piecewise Function

x ®9 x - 81 x ®9 x - 81 3 + x

ì x 2 + 5 if x < -2

= lim

9- x

= lim

-1 lim g ( x ) where g ( x ) = í

( )

( x - 81) 3 + x x®9 ( x + 9 ) 3 + x ( ) î1 - 3x if x ³ -2

x ®-2

x ®9 2

-1 1 lim- g ( x ) = lim- x 2 + 5 = 9

= =-

(18)( 6 ) 108 x ®-2 x ®-2

lim g ( x ) = lim+ 1 - 3 x = 7

Combine Rational Expressions x ®-2+ x ®-2

lim ç - ÷ = lim çç ÷ x ®-2

h ®0 h x + h

è x ø h®0 h è x ( x + h ) ÷ø doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits had

been equal then lim g ( x ) would have existed

1 æ -h ö -1 1 x ®-2

= lim çç ÷ = lim = -

h ®0 h x ( x + h ) ÷ h®0 x ( x + h ) x2 and had the same value.

è ø

Partial list of continuous functions and the values of x for which they are continuous.

1. Polynomials for all x. 7. cos ( x ) and sin ( x ) for all x.

2. Rational function, except for x’s that give

division by zero. 8. tan ( x ) and sec ( x ) provided

3. n x (n odd) for all x. 3p p p 3p

x ¹ L , - , - , , ,L

4. n x (n even) for all x ³ 0 . 2 2 2 2

9. cot ( x ) and csc ( x ) provided

5. e x for all x.

6. ln x for x > 0 . x ¹ L , -2p , -p , 0, p , 2p ,L

Suppose that f ( x ) is continuous on [a, b] and let M be any number between f ( a ) and f ( b ) .

Then there exists a number c such that a < c < b and f ( c ) = M .

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Derivatives

Definition and Notation

f ( x + h) - f ( x)

If y = f ( x ) then the derivative is defined to be f ¢ ( x ) = lim .

h ®0 h

If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent

equivalent notations for the derivative. notations for derivative evaluated at x = a .

df dy d df dy

f ¢ ( x ) = y¢ = = = ( f ( x ) ) = Df ( x ) f ¢ ( a ) = y ¢ x =a = = = Df ( a )

dx dx dx dx x =a dx x =a

If y = f ( x ) then, 2. f ¢ ( a ) is the instantaneous rate of

1. m = f ¢ ( a ) is the slope of the tangent change of f ( x ) at x = a .

line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the 3. If f ( x ) is the position of an object at

equation of the tangent line at x = a is time x then f ¢ ( a ) is the velocity of

given by y = f ( a ) + f ¢ ( a )( x - a ) . the object at x = a .

If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers,

d

1. ( c f )¢ = c f ¢ ( x ) 5. (c) = 0

dx

2. ( f ± g )¢ = f ¢ ( x ) ± g ¢ ( x ) 6.

d n

( x ) = n x n-1 – Power Rule

dx

3. ( f g )¢ = f ¢ g + f g ¢ – Product Rule d

7. ( )

f ( g ( x )) = f ¢ ( g ( x )) g¢ ( x )

æ f ö¢ f ¢ g - f g ¢ dx

4. ç ÷ = – Quotient Rule This is the Chain Rule

èg ø g2

Common Derivatives

d d d x

dx

( x) = 1

dx

( csc x ) = - csc x cot x

dx

( a ) = a x ln ( a )

d d d x

dx

( sin x ) = cos x

dx

( cot x ) = - csc2 x

dx

( e ) = ex

d d 1 d 1

dx

( cos x ) = - sin x

dx

( sin -1 x ) =

dx

( ln ( x ) ) = , x > 0

x

1 - x2

d d 1

dx

( tan x ) = sec2 x d

( cos -1 x ) = -

1

dx

( ln x ) = x , x ¹ 0

dx 1 - x2

d d 1

dx

( sec x ) = sec x tan x d

( tan -1 x ) =

1

dx

( log a ( x ) ) =

x ln a

, x>0

dx 1 + x2

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

Calculus Cheat Sheet

The chain rule applied to some specific functions.

1.

d

dx

( ) n -1

éë f ( x ) ùû = n éë f ( x ) ùû f ¢ ( x )

n

5.

d

dx

( )

cos éë f ( x ) ùû = - f ¢ ( x ) sin éë f ( x ) ùû

2.

dx

e (

d f ( x)

)

= f ¢( x)e ( )

f x

6.

d

dx

( )

tan éë f ( x ) ùû = f ¢ ( x ) sec 2 éë f ( x ) ùû

f ( x)

¢ d

3.

d

(

ln éë f ( x ) ùû = ) 7. ( sec [ f ( x)]) = f ¢( x) sec [ f ( x)] tan [ f ( x)]

dx f ( x) dx

d f ¢( x)

4.

d

( )

sin éë f ( x ) ùû = f ¢ ( x ) cos éë f ( x ) ùû 8. (

tan -1 éë f ( x ) ùû = )

1 + éë f ( x ) ùû

2

dx dx

The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as

d2 f dn f

f ¢¢ ( x ) = f ( 2) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( n ) ( x ) = n and is defined as

dx dx

f ¢¢ ( x ) = ( f ¢ ( x ) )¢ , i.e. the derivative of the ¢

( )

f ( n ) ( x ) = f ( n -1) ( x ) , i.e. the derivative of

first derivative, f ¢ ( x ) . the (n-1)st derivative, f ( n-1) x . ( )

Implicit Differentiation

¢

Find y if e 2 x -9 y

+ x y = sin ( y ) + 11x . Remember y = y ( x ) here, so products/quotients of x and y

3 2

will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The “trick” is to

differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y¢ (from the chain rule).

After differentiating solve for y¢ .

e 2 x -9 y ( 2 - 9 y¢ ) + 3 x 2 y 2 + 2 x3 y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11

11 - 2e 2 x -9 y - 3x 2 y 2

2e 2 x -9 y

- 9 y¢e 2 x -9 y

+ 3x y + 2 x y y¢ = cos ( y ) y¢ + 11

2 2 3

Þ y¢ = 3

2 x y - 9e2 x -9 y - cos ( y )

( 2 x y - 9e x

3 2 -9 y

- cos ( y ) ) y¢ = 11 - 2e2 x -9 y - 3x 2 y 2

Critical Points

x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) provided either Concave Up/Concave Down

1. If f ¢¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then

1. f ¢ ( c ) = 0 or 2. f ¢ ( c ) doesn’t exist.

f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I.

Increasing/Decreasing 2. If f ¢¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then

1. If f ¢ ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then

f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I.

f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I.

2. If f ¢ ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then Inflection Points

x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the

f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I.

concavity changes at x = c .

3. If f ¢ ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then

f ( x ) is constant on the interval I.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Extrema

Absolute Extrema Relative (local) Extrema

1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of

if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x in the domain. f ( x ) if f ( c ) ³ f ( x ) for all x near c.

2. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of

2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x )

f ( x ) if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x near c.

if f ( c ) £ f ( x ) for all x in the domain.

1st Derivative Test

Fermat’s Theorem If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) then x = c is

If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at

1. a rel. max. of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the left

x = c , then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) .

of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the right of x = c .

Extreme Value Theorem 2. a rel. min. of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) < 0 to the left

If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval of x = c and f ¢ ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c .

[ a, b] then there exist numbers c and d so that, 3. not a relative extrema of f ( x ) if f ¢ ( x ) is

1. a £ c, d £ b , 2. f ( c ) is the abs. max. in the same sign on both sides of x = c .

[ a, b] , 3. f ( d ) is the abs. min. in [ a, b] . 2nd Derivative Test

If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that

Finding Absolute Extrema

To find the absolute extrema of the continuous f ¢ ( c ) = 0 then x = c

function f ( x ) on the interval [ a, b ] use the 1. is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) < 0 .

following process. 2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ¢¢ ( c ) > 0 .

1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a, b] . 3. may be a relative maximum, relative

2. Evaluate f ( x ) at all points found in Step 1. minimum, or neither if f ¢¢ ( c ) = 0 .

3. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) .

4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function Finding Relative Extrema and/or

value) and the abs. min.(smallest function Classify Critical Points

value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) .

2. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd

derivative test on each critical point.

If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b ] and differentiable on the open interval ( a, b )

f (b) - f ( a )

then there is a number a < c < b such that f ¢ ( c ) = .

b-a

Newton’s Method

f ( xn )

If xn is the nth guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn +1 = xn -

f ¢ ( xn )

provided f ¢ ( xn ) exists.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Related Rates

Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities

and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time

you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.

Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one

The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north. The angle q changes at

pushed towards the wall at 14 ft/sec. How fast 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance

is the top moving after 12 sec? between them changing when q = 0.5 rad?

x¢ is negative because x is decreasing. Using

x¢ . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,

Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating,

x x¢

x 2 + y 2 = 152 Þ 2 x x¢ + 2 y y¢ = 0 sec q = Þ sec q tan q q ¢ =

50 50

After 12 sec we have x = 10 - 12 ( 14 ) = 7 and We know q = 0.05 so plug in q ¢ and solve.

x¢

so y = 152 - 7 2 = 176 . Plug in and solve sec ( 0.5 ) tan ( 0.5 )( 0.01) =

for y¢ . 50

7 x¢ = 0.3112 ft/sec

7 ( - 14 ) + 176 y¢ = 0 Þ y¢ = ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!

4 176

Optimization

Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for

one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of

variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.

Ex. We’re enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are

500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0,2).

field is a building. Determine dimensions that

will maximize the enclosed area.

2 2

x + 2 y = 500 . Solve constraint for x and plug

x 2 and plug into the function.

into area.

x2 = y - 1 Þ f = x2 + ( y - 2)

2

A = y ( 500 - 2 y )

x = 500 - 2 y Þ

= y -1 + ( y - 2) = y 2 - 3 y + 3

2

= 500 y - 2 y 2

Differentiate and find critical point(s). Differentiate and find critical point(s).

A¢ = 500 - 4 y Þ y = 125 f ¢ = 2y -3 Þ y = 32

nd

By 2 deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is By the 2nd derivative test this is a rel. min. and

the answer we’re after. Finally, find x. so all we need to do is find x value(s).

x = 500 - 2 (125 ) = 250 x 2 = 32 - 1 = 12 Þ x = ± 12

The dimensions are then 250 x 125. The 2 points are then ( 1

2 )

, 32 and - ( 1

2 )

, 32 .

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Integrals

Definitions

Definite Integral: Suppose f ( x ) is continuous Anti-Derivative : An anti-derivative of f ( x )

on [ a, b] . Divide [ a, b ] into n subintervals of is a function, F ( x ) , such that F ¢ ( x ) = f ( x ) .

width D x and choose x from each interval. Indefinite Integral : ò f ( x ) dx = F ( x ) + c

*

i

¥

b

f (x )D x . where F ( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ) .

ò a f ( x ) dx = nlim å

*

Then i

®¥

i =1

Part I : If f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b ] then Variants of Part I :

d u( x)

f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f éëu ( x ) ùû

dx ò a

x

g ( x ) = ò f ( t ) dt is also continuous on [ a, b ]

a

d x d b

and g ¢ ( x ) = () ( ) ò f ( t ) dt = -v¢ ( x ) f éëv ( x ) ùû

dx ò a

f t dt = f x .

dx v( x )

Part II : f ( x ) is continuous on [ a, b ] , F ( x ) is d u( x)

f ( t ) dt = u ¢ ( x ) f [ u ( x ) ] - v¢ ( x ) f [ v ( x ) ]

dx ò v( x )

an anti-derivative of f ( x ) (i.e. F ( x ) = ò f ( x ) dx )

b

then ò f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) - F ( a ) .

a

Properties

ò f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx ± ò g ( x ) dx ò cf ( x ) dx = c ò f ( x ) dx , c is a constant

b b b b b

òa f ( x ) ± g ( x ) dx = òa f ( x ) dx ± ò a g ( x ) dx òa cf ( x ) dx = c ò a f ( x ) dx , c is a constant

a b b

òa f ( x ) dx = 0 òa f ( x ) dx = ò f ( t ) dt

a

b a

ò a f ( x ) dx = -òb f ( x ) dx

b b

ò f ( x ) dx £ ò

a a

f ( x ) dx

b a

If f ( x ) ³ g ( x ) on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x ) dx ³ ò g ( x ) dx

a b

b

If f ( x ) ³ 0 on a £ x £ b then ò f ( x ) dx ³ 0

a

b

If m £ f ( x ) £ M on a £ x £ b then m ( b - a ) £ ò f ( x ) dx £ M ( b - a )

a

Common Integrals

ò k dx = k x + c ò cos u du = sin u + c ò tan u du = ln sec u + c

ò x dx = n+1 x + c, n ¹ -1 ò sin u du = - cos u + c ò sec u du = ln sec u + tan u + c

n 1 n +1

-1 1 2 1 u

1 -1

2 2

ò a x + b dx = a ln ax + b + c

1 1

ò sec u tan u du = sec u + c ò a - u du = sin ( a ) + c

1

2 2

u -1

ò e du = e + c ò csc u du = - cot u + c

u u 2

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Note that at many schools all but the Substitution Rule tend to be taught in a Calculus II class.

( )

ò a f ( g ( x ) ) g ¢ ( x ) dx = ò g (a ) f ( u ) du

b g b

u Substitution : The substitution u = g ( x ) will convert using

cos ( x3 ) dx cos ( x3 ) dx = ò

2 2 8

Ex. ò 1 5x

2

ò 1 5x

2 5

1 3

cos ( u ) du

u = x 3 Þ du = 3x 2 dx Þ x 2 dx = 13 du ( sin (8) - sin (1) )

8

= 53 sin ( u ) 1 = 5

3

x = 1 Þ u = 1 = 1 :: x = 2 Þ u = 2 = 8

3 3

b b b

Integration by Parts : ò u dv = uv - ò v du and ò a u dv = uv a

- ò v du . Choose u and dv from

a

ò xe

-x 5

Ex. dx Ex. ò3 ln x dx

u=x dv = e- x Þ du = dx v = -e - x u = ln x dv = dx Þ du = 1x dx v = x

ò xe dx = - xe + ò e dx = - xe - e

-x -x -x -x -x

+c

ln x dx = x ln x 3 - ò dx = ( x ln ( x ) - x )

5 5 5 5

ò3 3 3

= 5ln ( 5) - 3ln ( 3) - 2

For ò sin n x cos m x dx we have the following : For ò tan n x sec m x dx we have the following :

1. n odd. Strip 1 sine out and convert rest to 1. n odd. Strip 1 tangent and 1 secant out and

cosines using sin x = 1 - cos x , then use

2 2 convert the rest to secants using

the substitution u = cos x . tan 2 x = sec 2 x - 1 , then use the substitution

2. m odd. Strip 1 cosine out and convert rest u = sec x .

to sines using cos 2 x = 1 - sin 2 x , then use 2. m even. Strip 2 secants out and convert rest

the substitution u = sin x . to tangents using sec2 x = 1 + tan 2 x , then

3. n and m both odd. Use either 1. or 2. use the substitution u = tan x .

4. n and m both even. Use double angle 3. n odd and m even. Use either 1. or 2.

and/or half angle formulas to reduce the 4. n even and m odd. Each integral will be

integral into a form that can be integrated. dealt with differently.

Trig Formulas : sin ( 2 x ) = 2sin ( x ) cos ( x ) , cos 2 ( x ) = 2 (1 + cos ( 2 x ) ) , sin ( x ) = 2 (1 - cos ( 2 x ) )

1 2 1

ò cos x dx 3

3 5 4 2 2

(sin x ) sin x

ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx = ò cos x dx

sin x sin x sin x

3 3 3

=ò

cos x

dx 3( u = cos x )

= ò ( u 2 - 1) u 4 du ( u = sec x ) 2 2

= - ò (1-u ) du = - ò 1-2u +u du

2 4

u 3 u 3

= 17 sec7 x - 15 sec5 x + c

= 12 sec2 x + 2 ln cos x - 12 cos 2 x + c

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Trig Substitutions : If the integral contains the following root use the given substitution and

formula to convert into an integral involving trig functions.

a 2 - b 2 x 2 Þ x = ab sin q b 2 x 2 - a 2 Þ x = ba sec q a 2 + b 2 x 2 Þ x = ab tan q

cos 2 q = 1 - sin 2 q tan 2 q = sec 2 q - 1 sec2 q = 1 + tan 2 q

òx ó ( 23 cos q ) dq = ò sin122 q dq

16

Ex. dx 16

2

4 -9 x 2 õ 4 sin 2 q ( 2cosq )

9

x = 23 sin q Þ dx = 23 cos q dq

= ò 12 csc 2 dq = -12 cot q + c

4 - 9x 2 = 4 - 4sin q = 4 cos q = 2 cos q

2 2

Use Right Triangle Trig to go back to x’s. From

Recall x 2 = x . Because we have an indefinite substitution we have sin q = 32x so,

integral we’ll assume positive and drop absolute

value bars. If we had a definite integral we’d

need to compute q ’s and remove absolute value

bars based on that and,

ì x if x ³ 0 4 -9 x 2

x =í From this we see that cot q = 3x

. So,

î- x if x < 0

4 -9 x 2

òx dx = - 4 +c

16

In this case we have 4 - 9x = 2 cos q .

2 2

4 -9 x 2 x

P( x )

Partial Fractions : If integrating ò Q( x) dx where the degree of P ( x ) is smaller than the degree of

Q ( x ) . Factor denominator as completely as possible and find the partial fraction decomposition of

the rational expression. Integrate the partial fraction decomposition (P.F.D.). For each factor in the

denominator we get term(s) in the decomposition according to the following table.

A A1 A2 Ak

ax + b ( ax + b )

k

+ +L +

ax + b ax + b ( ax + b ) 2

( ax + b )

k

Ax + B A1 x + B1 Ak x + Bk

+L +

( ax + bx + c )

2 k

ax 2 + bx + c ax + bx + c ( ax 2 + bx + c )

2 k

ax + bx + c

2

7 x2 +13 x +C A( x2 + 4) + ( Bx + C ) ( x -1)

Ex. ò ( x -1)( x 2

+4)

dx 7 x2 +13 x

2

( x -1)( x + 4 )

= A

x -1 + Bx

x2 + 4

= ( x -1)( x 2 + 4 )

ò ( x -1)( x2 + 4 )

dx = ò x4-1 + 3xx2++164 dx

7 x 2 + 13x = ( A + B ) x 2 + ( C - B ) x + 4 A - C

= ò x4-1 + 3x

x2 + 4

+ 16

x2 + 4

dx Set coefficients equal to get a system and solve

= 4 ln x - 1 + 23 ln ( x 2 + 4 ) + 8 tan -1 ( x2 ) to get constants.

A+ B = 7 C - B = 13 4A - C = 0

Here is partial fraction form and recombined.

A=4 B=3 C = 16

An alternate method that sometimes works to find constants. Start with setting numerators equal in

previous example : 7 x 2 + 13x = A ( x 2 + 4 ) + ( Bx + C ) ( x - 1) . Chose nice values of x and plug in.

For example if x = 1 we get 20 = 5A which gives A = 4 . This won’t always work easily.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Applications of Integrals

b

Net Area : ò a f ( x ) dx represents the net area between f ( x ) and the

x-axis with area above x-axis positive and area below x-axis negative.

Area Between Curves : The general formulas for the two main cases for each are,

b d

y = f ( x) Þ A = ò éupper function ù

ë û - éëlower function ùû dx & x = f ( y) Þ A = ò é right function ù

ë û - éëleft function ùû dy

a c

If the curves intersect then the area of each portion must be found individually. Here are some

sketches of a couple possible situations and formulas for a couple of possible cases.

d

A = ò f ( y ) - g ( y ) dy

b c b

A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx c A = ò f ( x ) - g ( x ) dx + ò g ( x ) - f ( x ) dx

a a c

some general information about each method of computing and some examples.

Rings Cylinders

(

A = p ( outer radius ) - ( inner radius)

2 2

) A = 2p ( radius ) ( width / height )

Limits: x/y of right/bot ring to x/y of left/top ring Limits : x/y of inner cyl. to x/y of outer cyl.

Horz. Axis use f ( x ) , Vert. Axis use f ( y ) , Horz. Axis use f ( y ) , Vert. Axis use f ( x ) ,

g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( y ) , A ( y ) and dy. g ( x ) , A ( x ) and dx.

Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0 Ex. Axis : y = a > 0 Ex. Axis : y = a £ 0

inner radius : a - g ( x ) inner radius: a + f ( x ) width : f ( y ) - g ( y ) width : f ( y ) - g ( y )

These are only a few cases for horizontal axis of rotation. If axis of rotation is the x-axis use the

y = a £ 0 case with a = 0 . For vertical axis of rotation ( x = a > 0 and x = a £ 0 ) interchange x and

y to get appropriate formulas.

Calculus Cheat Sheet

Work : If a force of F ( x ) moves an object Average Function Value : The average value

b

b of f ( x ) on a £ x £ b is f avg = 1

ò f ( x ) dx

in a £ x £ b , the work done is W = ò F ( x ) dx b-a a

a

Arc Length Surface Area : Note that this is often a Calc II topic. The three basic formulas are,

b b b

L = ò ds SA = ò 2p y ds (rotate about x-axis) SA = ò 2p x ds (rotate about y-axis)

a a a

where ds is dependent upon the form of the function being worked with as follows.

( ) ( dxdt ) ( )

2 2

dx if y = f ( x ) , a £ x £ b dt if x = f ( t ) , y = g ( t ) , a £ t £ b

dy 2 dy

ds = 1 + dx

ds = + dt

1+ ( ) ds = r 2 + ( ddrq ) dq if r = f (q ) , a £ q £ b

2 2

ds = dx

dy

dy if x = f ( y ) , a £ y £ b

With surface area you may have to substitute in for the x or y depending on your choice of ds to

match the differential in the ds. With parametric and polar you will always need to substitute.

Improper Integral

An improper integral is an integral with one or more infinite limits and/or discontinuous integrands.

Integral is called convergent if the limit exists and has a finite value and divergent if the limit

doesn’t exist or has infinite value. This is typically a Calc II topic.

Infinite Limit

¥ t b b

1. ò f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx 2. ò¥ f ( x ) dx = lim ò f ( x ) dx

a t ®¥ a - t ®-¥ t

¥ c ¥

3. ò ¥ f ( x ) dx = ò ¥ f ( x ) dx + ò

- - c

f ( x ) dx provided BOTH integrals are convergent.

Discontinuous Integrand

b b b t

1. Discont. at a: ò f ( x ) dx = lim+ ò f ( x ) dx 2. Discont. at b : ò f ( x ) dx = lim- ò f ( x ) dx

a t ®a t a t ®b a

b c b

3. Discontinuity at a < c < b : ò f ( x ) dx = ò f ( x ) dx + ò f ( x ) dx provided both are convergent.

a a c

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

1. If ò f ( x ) dx conv. then ò g ( x ) dx conv. 2. If ò g ( x ) dx divg. then ò f ( x ) dx divg.

a a a a

¥

Useful fact : If a > 0 then òa dx converges if p > 1 and diverges for p £ 1 .

1

xp

b

For given integral ò a f ( x ) dx and a n (must be even for Simpson’s Rule) define Dx = b-na and

ò f ( x ) dx » Dx éë f ( x ) + f ( x ) + L + f ( x )ùû , xi is midpoint [ xi -1 , xi ]

b

* * * *

Midpoint Rule : 1 2 n

a

b Dx

Trapezoid Rule : ò f ( x ) dx » 2 éë f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + +2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + f ( x )ùû

a 0 1 2 n -1 n

b Dx

Simpson’s Rule : ò f ( x ) dx » 3 éë f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + L + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + f ( x )ùû

a

0 1 2 n-2 n -1 n

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

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