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2 4 the Smith Chart Package

2 4 the Smith Chart Package

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2 4 the Smith Chart Package
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2/7/2005

2_4 The Smith Chart

1/2

2.4 – The Smith Chart
Reading Assignment: pp. 64-73 The Smith Chart Æ

The Smith Chart provides: 1)

2) The most important fact about the Smith Chart is: Æ HO: The Complex Γ plane Q: But how is the complex Γ plane useful? A: HO: Transformations on the Complex Γ Plane Q: But transformations of Γ are relatively easy— transformations of line impedance Z is the difficult one.

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

2/7/2005

2_4 The Smith Chart

2/2

A:

HO: Mapping Z to Γ HO: The Smith Chart

HO: Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart Example: The Input Impedance of a Shorted Transmission Line Example: Determining the Load Impedance of a Transmission Line Example: Determining the Length of a Transmission Line

Expressing a load or line impedance in terms of its admittance is sometimes helpful. Additionally, we can easily map admittance onto the Smith Chart

HO: Impedance and Admittance Example: Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart
Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. of EECS

2/7/2005

The Complex Gamma Plane

1/6

The Complex Γ Plane
Resistance R is a real value, thus we can indicate specific resistor values as points on the real line:

R =0 R =5 Ω

R =20 Ω

R =50 Ω

R

Likewise, since impedance Z is a complex value, we can indicate specific impedance values as point on a two dimensional complex plane:

Im {Z }

Z =30 +j 40 Ω
Re {Z }

Z =60 -j 30 Ω

Note each dimension is defined by a single real line: the horizontal line (axis) indicating the real component of Z (i.e., Re {Z } ), and the vertical line (axis) indicating the imaginary component of impedance Z (i.e., Im {Z } ). The intersection of these two lines is the point denoting the impedance Z = 0. * Note then that a vertical line is formed by the locus of all points (impedances) whose resistive (i.e., real) component is equal to, say, 75. * Likewise, a horizontal line is formed by the locus of all points (impedances) whose reactive (i.e., imaginary) component is equal to -30.

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

2/7/2005 The Complex Gamma Plane 2/6 Im {Z } R =75 Re {Z } X =-30 If we assume that the real component of every impedance is positive. of EECS . of Kansas Dept. as their points appear an infinite distance from the origin. we find that common impedances such as Z = ∞ (an open circuit!) cannot be plotted. Im {Z } (short) Z =0 (matched) Z =Z0 Z = ∞ (open) Re {Z } Somewhere way the heck over there !! Jim Stiles The Univ. then we find that only the right side of the plane will be useful for plotting impedance Z—points on the left side indicate impedances with negative resistances! Im {Z } Invalid Region (R<0) Valid Region (R>0) Re {Z } Moreover.

We could plot points and lines on this plane exactly as before: Note that the horizontal axis indicates the real component of Γ ( Re {Γ } ). of Kansas Dept. We will find that there are many advantages to plotting on the complex Γ plane.6 -j 0.1 Re {Γ } Γ =0.3 while the vertical axis indicates the imaginary component of Γ ( Im {Γ } ). We can therefore define a complex Γ plane in the same manner that we defined a complex impedance plane. Im {Γ } Re {Γ}=0.4 Γ =-0. A: Yes! Recall that impedance Z and reflection coefficient Γ are equivalent complex values—if you know one.3 +j 0. you know the other.3 Jim Stiles The Univ. as opposed to the complex Z plane! Im {Γ } Γ =0.2/7/2005 The Complex Gamma Plane 3/6 Is there some graphical tool that is more useful? Q: Yikes! The complex Z plane does not appear to be a very helpful.5 +j 0. of EECS .5 Re {Γ } Im {Γ} =-0.

0. a radial line is formed by the locus of all points whose phase θ Γ is equal to 135D .2/7/2005 The Complex Gamma Plane 4/6 However. we express Γ using polar coordinates: Γ = 0.7. Likewise.7 Re {Γ } Jim Stiles The Univ. we will find that the utility of the complex Γ pane as a graphical tool becomes apparent only when we represent a complex reflection coefficient in terms of its magnitude ( Γ ) and phase (θ Γ ): Γ = Γ e jθΓ In other words. say. of Kansas Dept.7 e j 300 D Note then that a circle is formed by the locus of all points whose magnitude Γ equal to. of EECS . Im {Γ } θ Γ = 135D Γ = 0.6 e j 3π 4 Im {Γ } Γ Γ θΓ Re {Γ } Γ = 0.

e..e.g. the validity region for the complex Γ plane consists of all points inside the circle Γ = 1 --a finite and bounded area! Im {Γ } Invalid Region ( Γ > 1) Valid Region ( Γ < 1) Re {Γ } Γ =1 Jim Stiles The Univ. Recall for the complex Z plane that this validity region was the right-half plane.2/7/2005 The Complex Gamma Plane 5/6 Perhaps the most important aspect of the complex Γ plane is its validity region. of EECS . such that many important impedances (e. positive resistance). Q: What is the validity region for the complex Γ plane? A: Recall that we found that for Re {Z } > 0 (i. where Re {Z } > 0 (i.. The problem was that this validity region was unbounded and infinite in extent. positive resistance). the magnitude of the reflection coefficient was limited: 0 < Γ <1 Therefore.. open-circuits) could not be plotted. of Kansas Dept.

R >0) within this finite region! Im {Γ } (short) Γ = e j π = −1.. of EECS . of Kansas Dept.0 Γ =1 (Z = jX → purely reactive) Jim Stiles The Univ.e.0 (matched) Re {Γ } Γ=0 (open) Γ = e j 0 = 1.2/7/2005 The Complex Gamma Plane 6/6 Note that we can plot all valid impedances (i.

while the magnitude Γ remains unchanged.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 1/7 Transformations on the Complex Γ Plane The usefulness of the complex Γ plane is apparent when we consider again the terminated. as we would expect: Γ(z = 0) = ΓL and Γ(z = −A) = Γ Le . β Γ L A Recall that the reflection coefficient function for any location z along the transmission line can be expressed as (since z L = 0 ): Γ ( z ) = ΓL e j 2 β z = ΓL e j (θ Γ +2 β z ) And thus. lossless transmission line: z = −A Z0. Jim Stiles The Univ.j 2 β A = Γin Recall this result “says” that adding a transmission line of length A to a load results in a phase shift in θ Γ by −2 β A radians. of Kansas Dept. of EECS . β z =0 Γ in Z0.

Let’s parametrically plot Γ ( z ) from z = z L (i.. z = −A ): Im {Γ } θL Γ (z ) Γ (z = 0 ) = ΓL ΓL Re {Γ } Γ ( z = −A ) = Γ θin = θL − 2β A in Γ =1 Since adding a length of transmission line to a load ΓL modifies the phase θ Γ but not the magnitude ΓL .e. of EECS ..e. Jim Stiles The Univ.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 2/7 Q: Magnitude Γ and phase θ Γ --aren’t those the values used when plotting on the complex Γ plane? A: Precisely! In fact. z = 0 ) to z = z L − A (i. of Kansas Dept. plotting the transformation of ΓL to Γin along a transmission line length A has an interesting graphical interpretation. we trace a circular arc as we parametrically plot Γ ( z ) ! This arc has a radius ΓL and an arc angle 2β A radians.

say we wish to determine Γin for a transmission line length A = λ 8 and terminated with a short circuit.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 3/7 With this knowledge. of EECS . we can easily solve many interesting transmission line problems graphically—using the complex Γ plane! For example. z = −A z =0 Z0. rotate clockwise 90D ). β ΓL = −1 A=λ 8 The reflection coefficient of a short circuit is ΓL = −1 = 1 e j π . β Γ in Z0 .. of Kansas Dept. Γ (z ) Im {Γ } Γin = 1 e +jπ2 Re {Γ } ΓL = 1 e + jπ Γ =1 Jim Stiles The Univ.e. and therefore we begin at that point on the complex Γ plane. We then move along a circular arc −2 β A = −2 (π 4 ) = − π 2 radians (i.

. of EECS . magnitude is one. Now we rotate clockwise 2β A = π radians (180D ).2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 4/7 When we stop. Now. let’s repeat this same problem. of Kansas Dept. the input reflection coefficient is Γin = 1 e j 0 = 1 : the reflection coefficient of an open circuit! Our short-circuit load has been transformed into an open circuit with a quarter-wavelength transmission line! But.e. you knew this would happen—right? Jim Stiles The Univ. in this case Γin = 1 e j π 2 (i. only with a new transmission line length of A = λ 4 . we find we are at the point for Γin . phase is 90 o ). Im {Γ } Γ (z ) Γin = 1 e +j π2 Re {Γ } ΓL = 1 e + jπ Γ =1 For this case.

Conversely. of Kansas Dept. β Γin = 1 (open) Z0. of EECS . a quarter-wave transmission can also transform an open into a short: Im {Γ } Γ =1 ΓL = 1 e +jπ2 Re {Γ } Γin = 1 e + jπ Γ (z ) Jim Stiles The Univ. Thus. Recall we found that the input impedance was proportional to the inverse of the load impedance.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 5/7 z = −A z =0 Z0. a quarter-wave transmission line transforms a short into an open. β Γ L = −1 (short) A=λ 4 Recall that a quarter-wave transmission line was one of the special cases we considered earlier.

of EECS . let’s again consider the problem where ΓL = −1 (i.e. Jim Stiles The Univ.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 6/7 short).. only this time with a transmission line length A = λ 2 ( a Finally. where we found that Zin = Z L . we find that Γin = ΓL if A = λ 2 --but you knew this too! Recall that the half-wavelength transmission line is likewise a special case. of course. of Kansas Dept. Hey look! We came clear around to where we started! Γ (z ) Im {Γ } ΓL = 1 e + jπ Re {Γ } Γin = 1 e + jπ Γ =1 Thus. likewise means that Γin = ΓL . half wavelength!). This result. We rotate clockwise 2β A = 2π radians (360D ).

of Kansas D Dept.e.5 Γ in ΓL = 0. Say we know that the input impedance at the beginning of a transmission line with length A = λ 8 is: Γin = 0.2/7/2005 Transformations on the Complex 7/7 Now..5 e j 150 Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS .5) 2β A = π 2 radians (i.5 e j 60 D Re {Γ } = 0. let’s consider the opposite problem. 60D ).5 e j 60 D Q: What is the reflection coefficient of the load? A: In this case.5 e j 150 D Γ =1 The reflection coefficient of the load is therefore: ΓL = 0. we begin at Γin and rotate COUNTERCLOCKWISE along a circular arc (radius 0. Essentially. we are removing the phase shift associated with the transmission line! Im {Γ } Γ (z ) θ in θL = θin + 2β A 0.

2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 1/8 Mapping Z to Γ Recall that line impedance and reflection coefficient are equivalent—either one can be expressed in terms of the other: Γ (z ) = Z (z ) − Z 0 Z (z ) + Z 0 and Z (z ) = Z 0 ⎜ ⎛ 1 + Γ (z ) ⎞ ⎟ − Γ 1 z ( ) ⎝ ⎠ Note this relationship also depends on the characteristic impedance Z0 of the transmission line. we find: Γ (z ) = = = Z (z ) − Z 0 Z (z ) + Z 0 Z (z ) Z 0 − 1 Z (z ) Z 0 + 1 z ′ (z ) − 1 z ′ (z ) + 1 Jim Stiles The Univ. we first define a normalized impedance value z ′ (an impedance coefficient!): z ′ (z ) = Z (z ) R (z ) X (z ) = +j = r (z ) + j x (z ) Z0 Z0 Z0 Using this definition. of Kansas Dept. of EECS . To make this relationship more direct.

2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 2/8 Thus. Some values we already know specifically: case 1 2 3 4 5 Jim Stiles Z ∞ z′ ∞ Γ 1 -1 0 0 0 1 Z0 j Z0 −j Z0 The Univ. of EECS . say we wish to mark or somehow indicate the values of normalized impedance z’ that correspond to the various points on the complex Γ plane. of Kansas j j j −j Dept. we can express Γ ( z ) explicitly in terms of normalized impedance z ′ --and vice versa! z ′ (z ) − 1 Γ (z ) = z ′ (z ) + 1 z ′ (z ) = 1 + Γ (z ) 1 − Γ (z ) The equations above describe a mapping between coefficients z ′ and Γ . This means that each and every normalized impedance value likewise corresponds to one specific point on the complex Γ plane! For example.

of EECS .2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 3/8 Therefore. we find that these five normalized impedances map onto five specific points on the complex Γ plane: Γi Γ =1 z ′ = −j z′ = 1 ( Γ=− j ) z′ = ∞ ( Γ=0 ) z′ = 0 ( Γ=1) Γr ( Γ=−1) z ′ = −j ( Γ=− j ) Or. of Kansas Dept. the five complex Γ map onto five points on the normalized impedance plane: x z ′ = −j z′ = ∞ z′ = 0 ( Γ=− j ) r z′ = 1 ( Γ=1) ( Γ=−1) z ′ = −j ( Γ=− j ) ( Γ=0 ) Jim Stiles The Univ.

e. with no reactive component (i.: Γr  Re {Γ} = r −1 r +1 The Univ. the case where impedance is purely real.. We shall first look at two familiar cases.. the preceding provided examples of the mapping of points between the complex (normalized) impedance plane. this real-valued impedance results in a real-valued reflection coefficient: r −1 Γ= r +1 I..e. x = 0) where we recall that r = R Z 0 .. We can likewise map whole contours (i. X = 0 ). of EECS .e.2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 4/8 Now. Meaning that normalized impedance is: z′ =r + j0 (i .E. and the complex Γ plane. Remember. sets of points) between these two complex planes. Z =R In other words. of Kansas Γi  Im {Γ} = 0 Jim Stiles Dept.

of Kansas Dept. we can determine a mapping between two contours—one contour ( x = 0 ) on the normalized impedance plane. the other ( Γi = 0 ) on the complex Γ plane: x =0 ⇔ Γi Γi = 0 Γ =1 x =0 ( Γi =0 ) Γr x r x =0 ( Γi =0 ) Jim Stiles The Univ.2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 5/8 Thus. of EECS .

of Kansas Dept. this imaginary impedance results in a reflection coefficient with unity magnitude: Γ =1 Thus. of EECS . Meaning that normalized impedance is: z ′ = 0 + jx (i . the other ( Γ = 1 ) on the complex Γ plane: r =0 ⇔ Γ =1 Jim Stiles The Univ. R = 0 ). r = 0) where we recall that x = X Z 0 . Remember. we can determine a mapping between two contours—one contour ( r = 0 ) on the normalized impedance plane.e..2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 6/8 Z = jX In other words.e. with no resistive component (i.. the case where impedance is purely imaginary.

2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 7/8 Γi Γ =1 r =0 ( Γ =1) Γr x r =0 ( Γ =1) r Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. of EECS .

5 or x = −1. Sure.2/7/2005 Mapping Z to Gamma 8/8 very well be fascinating in an academic sense.5 ) onto the complex Γ would be useful—but it seems clear that those mappings are impossible to achieve!?! Q: These two “mappings” may A: Actually.g. of EECS . since actual values of impedance generally have both a real and imaginary component. of Kansas Dept. Smith and his famous chart! Jim Stiles The Univ. mappings of more general impedance contours (e..5 and x = −1. not only are mappings of more general impedance contours (such as r = 0. these mappings have already been achieved— thanks to Dr.5 ) onto the complex Γ plane possible. but they seem not particularly relevant. r = 0.

2/7/2005

The Smith Chart

1/11

The Smith Chart
Say we wish to map a line on the normalized complex impedance plane onto the complex Γ plane. For example, we could map the vertical line r =2 ( Re{z ′} = 2 ) or the horizontal line x =-1 ( Im{z ′} = −1 ).
Im {z ′}

r =2
Re {z ′}

x =-1

Recall we know how to map the vertical line r =0; it simply maps to the circle Γ = 1 on the complex Γ plane.

Likewise, we know how to map the horizontal line x = 0; it simply maps to the line Γi = 0 on the complex Γ plane. But for the examples given above, the mapping is not so straight forward. The contours will in general be functions of both 2 Γr and Γi (e.g., Γ2 r + Γi = 0.5 ), and thus the mapping cannot be

stated with simple functions such as Γ = 1 or Γi = 0 .

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. Of EECS

2/7/2005

The Smith Chart

2/11

As a matter of fact, a vertical line on the normalized impedance plane of the form: r = cr , where cr is some constant (e.g. r = 2 or r = 0.5 ), is mapped onto the complex Γ plane as:
⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ cr ⎞ 2 Γ − + Γ = ⎜ r ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ i 1 + cr ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 1 + cr ⎠
2 2

Note this equation is of the same form as that of a circle:
2 2 ( x − x c ) + ( y − yc ) = a 2

where:

a = the radius of the circle
Pc ( x = xc , y = yc )
⇒ point located at the center of the circle

Thus, the vertical line r = cr maps into a circle on the complex Γ plane! By inspection, it is apparent that the center of this circle is located at this point on the complex Γ plane:

Pc ⎜ Γr =

⎞ cr , Γi = 0 ⎟ 1 + cr ⎠
Dept. Of EECS

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

2/7/2005

The Smith Chart

3/11

In other words, the center of this circle always lies somewhere along the Γi = 0 line. Likewise, by inspection, we find the radius of this circle is:

a=

1 1 + cr

We perform a few of these mappings and see where these circles lie on the complex Γ plane:
Γi
r = −0.3

Γ =1

r = 0. 0
r = 1.0

Γr
r = 3. 0

r = 0.3

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. Of EECS

and its center moves to the right. the entire vertical line r = ∞ on the normalized impedance plane is mapped onto just a single point on the complex Γ plane! But of course. If cr > 0 then the circle lies entirely within the circle Γ = 1. lines of the form: x = ci Jim Stiles The Univ. Γi = 0 (i.e. 3. If cr < 0 then the circle lies entirely outside the circle Γ = 1. the circle lies on circle Γ = 1 . i. If cr = ∞ . In Now. If cr = 0 (i.2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 4/11 We see that as the constant cr increases. the impedance is infinite (an open circuit). a reactive impedance). regardless of what the value of the reactive component x is. the radius of the circle decreases. Note: 1.. Γ = 1 e j 0 ). Of EECS . of Kansas Dept.. then the radius of the circle is zero. let’s turn our attention to the mapping of horizontal lines in the normalized impedance plane.e. 2.e. center is at the point Γr = 1.. and its other words. 4. this makes sense! If r = ∞ .

Γi = ⎝ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎟ ci ⎠ in other words. the radius of this circle is: a= ci 1 Jim Stiles The Univ. Of EECS .2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 5/11 where ci is some constant (e.g.5 ). of Kansas Dept. We can show that this horizontal line in the normalized impedance plane is mapped onto the complex Γ plane as: ( Γr − 1) 2 ⎛ 1⎞ 1 + ⎜ Γi − ⎟ = 2 ci ⎠ ci ⎝ 2 Note this equation is also that of a circle! Thus. the center of this circle always lies somewhere along the vertical Γr = 1 line. the horizontal line x = ci maps into a circle on the complex Γ plane! By inspection. by inspection. Likewise. x = −2 or x = 0. we find that the center of this circle lies at the point: Pc ⎜ Γr = 1.

0 x = 2 . of Kansas Dept.e.0 x = −2. 0 x = −0 . 5 x = −1. reactance is inductive) then the circle lies entirely in the upper half of the complex Γ plane (i. Note: 1.5 Γr = 1 x = 1 .. the radius of the circle decreases. Jim Stiles The Univ.0 x = 3. If ci > 0 (i. Γi = 0 ) . Of EECS .2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 6/11 We perform a few of these mappings and see where these circles lie on the complex Γ plane: Γi x = 0 .0 Γ =1 Γr x = −3 .e. where Γi > 0 )—the upper half-plane is known as the inductive region. and its center moves toward the point ( Γr = 1.0 We see that as the magnitude of constant ci increases..

4. we typically can completely ignore the portions of the circles that lie outside the Γ = 1 circle ! Jim Stiles The Univ.. Of EECS . In other But of course. of Kansas Dept. This makes sense! The portions of the circles laying outside Γ = 1 circle correspond to impedances where the real (resistive) part is negative (i. regardless of what the value of the resistive component r is. the entire vertical line x = ∞ or x = −∞ on the normalized impedance plane is mapped onto just a single point on the complex Γ plane! center is at the point Γr = 1.e..2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 7/11 2.. then the radius of the circle is zero. Note also that much of the circle formed by mapping x = ci onto the complex Γ plane lies outside the circle Γ = 1.e. 3. where Γi < 0 )—the lower half-plane is known as the capacitive region. If ci = 0 (i. and its words.e. a purely resistive impedance). Thus. this makes sense! If x = ∞ . such that it lies entirely on the line Γi = 0 . the impedance is infinite (an open circuit).. r < 0). reactance is capacitive) then the circle lies entirely in the lower half of the complex Γ plane (i. 5. Γ = 1 e j 0 ). If ci = ±∞ . Γi = 0 (i.e..e. the circle has an infinite radius. If ci < 0 (i.

Of EECS . Im{ Γ } Mapping many lines of the form r = cr and x = ci onto circles on Re{ Γ } Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept.2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 8/11 the complex Γ plane results in tool called the Smith Chart.

We say these lines form a rectilinear grid. a similar thing is true for the Smith Chart! When a mapped circle r = cr intersects a mapped circle x = ci ..e. from −180D < θ Γ < 180D . a vertical line r = cr Note the Smith Chart is simply the vertical lines r = cr and and a horizontal line x = ci are always perpendicular to each other when they intersect. the Smith Chart is formed by distorting the rectilinear grid of the normalized impedance plane into the curvilinear grid of the Smith Chart! Jim Stiles The Univ. Note for the normalized impedance plane.2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 9/11 Note that around the outside of the Smith Chart there is a scale indicating the phase angle θ Γ . We say these circles form a curvilinear grid. The two scales are related by the equation: ∆z = ∆θ Γ ⎛ ∆θ Γ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟λ 2β ⎝ 4π ⎠ horizontal lines x = ci of the normalized impedance plane. there is another scale that also directly indicates the equivalent transmission line distance ∆z associated with phase shift ∆θ Γ = 2β ∆z . Of EECS . of Kansas Dept. the two circles are perpendicular at that intersection point. the electrical distance). in terms of λ (i. However. However. In fact. mapped onto the two types of circles on the complex Γ plane.

Of EECS .E.2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 10/11 I.. of Kansas Dept.: r =0 x x =1 r x =0 x = −1 x = −1 Distorting this rectilinear grid: x r Jim Stiles The Univ.

2/7/2005 The Smith Chart 11/11 And then distorting some more—we have the curvilinear grid of the Smith Chart! x r Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. Of EECS .

of Kansas Dept.doc 1/7 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart ′ zin ′ =1 z0 A z L′ z = −A z = 0 ′ of a transmission line length The normalized input impedance zin A . can be determined as: ′ = zin = = Zin Z0 Z0 1 Z0 ⎜ Z L Z 0 + j tan β A 1 + j Z L Z 0 tan β A z ′ + j tan β A = L 1 + j z L′ tan β A ⎛ Z L + j Z 0 tan β A ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ Z 0 + j Z L tan β A ⎠ looks not the least bit pleasant. Isn’t there a ′? less disagreeable method to determine zin Q: Evaluating this unattractive expression Jim Stiles The Univ. when terminated in normalized load z L′ .2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart. of EECS .

we could determine this normalized input impedance by following these three steps: 1. Convert z L′ to ΓL . using the equation: Γin = Γ L e − j 2 β A ′ . using the equation: 3. Convert Γin to zin z L′ = Z L 1 + ΓL = Z 0 1 − ΓL calculations would be even more difficult than the single step you described earlier.doc 2/7 A: Yes there is! Instead. What short of dimwit would ever use (or recommend) this approach? Q: But performing these three Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS . using the equation: Γin = Zin − Z 0 Zin + Z 0 Z Z −1 = in 0 Zin Z 0 + 1 z ′ −1 = in ′ +1 zin 2.2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart. Convert ΓL to Γin . of Kansas Dept.

of Kansas Dept.4. Place you pencil at that point—you have now located the correct ΓL on your complex Γ plane! For example. and is located at angle of –65 degrees.6 and the circle for x =-1.685 e − j 65 D 2.2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart. Thus the value of ΓL is: ΓL = 0. we are located at the point on the complex Γ plane where Γ = Γin ! Jim Stiles The Univ. The intersection of these two circles is the point on the complex Γ plane corresponding to normalized impedance z L′ = 0.6 − j 1. Convert z L′ to ΓL Find the point z L′ from the impedance mappings on your Smith Chart.doc 3/7 A: The benefit in this last approach is that each of the three steps can be executed using a Smith Chart—no complex calculations are required! 1.4 .685 units from the origin. We find on the Smith Chart the circle for r =0. When we stop. we merely need to rotate that point clockwise around a circle ( Γ = 0.4 . Convert ΓL to Γin Since we have correctly located the point ΓL on the complex Γ plane.6 − j 1. say z L′ = 0. of EECS . This point is a distance of 0.685 ) by an angle 2β A .

doc 4/7 For example.5 and x =1.2 zin Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept.6 − j 1. or 221D .307 λ . and your pencil is located at the point Γ = Γin . simply lift your pencil and determine the values r and x to which the point corresponds! For example. if the length of the transmission line terminated in z L′ = 0.685 e + j 74 is located at the intersection of circles r =0.4 is A = 0.685 e + j 74 This is the value of Γin ! ′ 3. we should rotate around the Smith Chart a total of 2β A = 1. we can determine directly from the Smith D Chart that the point Γin = 0.5 + j 1.2. In other words: ′ = 0.2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart. Convert Γin to zin When you get finished rotating.228π radians. of EECS . We are now at the point on the complex Γ plane: D Γ = 0.

2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart.685 ΓL = 0. of Kansas Dept.doc 5/7 Step 1 Γ = 0.685 e − j 65 D θ Γ = −65D Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS .

307 λ 2β A = 221D Jim Stiles The Univ.147 λ Γin = 0.doc 6/7 Step 2 A 2 = 0.685 e − j 74 D Γ = 0.2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart. of EECS .160λ + 0.685 ΓL = 0. of Kansas Dept.685 e − j 65 D A 1 = 0.147 λ = 0.16λ A = A 1 + A 2 = 0.

5 + j 1. of Kansas Dept.2/8/2005 Zin Calculations using the Smith Chart.doc 7/7 Step 3 ′ = 0.2 zin Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS .

125λ b) A = 3λ 8 = 0. and whose length is: a) A = λ 8 = 0.2/8/2005 Example Shorted Transmission Line. of EECS .doc 1/3 Example: The Input Impedance of a Shorted Transmission Line Let’s determine the input impedance of a transmission line that is terminated in a short circuit. of Kansas Dept.375λ ⇒ 2β A = 90D ⇒ 2β A = 270D ′ zin ′ =1 z0 A z L′ = 0 z = −A z = 0 Jim Stiles The Univ.

of EECS .2/8/2005 Example Shorted Transmission Line.doc 2/3 a) A = λ 8 = 0.125λ ⇒ 2β A = 90D D ′ =j. of Kansas Dept.0 = e j 180 and find zin zin = j ΓL = −1 = e j 180 D Jim Stiles The Univ. Rotate clockwise 90D from Γ = −1.

2/8/2005 Example Shorted Transmission Line.0 = e j 180 and find zin ΓL = −1 = e j 180 D zin = j Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. Rotate clockwise 270D from Γ = −1.doc 3/3 b) A = 3λ 8 = 0. of EECS .375λ ⇒ 2β A = 270D D ′ = −j .

134λ is: ′ = 1.2/8/2005 Example The Load Impedance. lift your pencil and find z L′ ! Jim Stiles The Univ.134λ z L′ = ?? z = 0 ′ on the Smith Chart. 4 z = −A ′ =1 z0 A = 0. ′ = zin 1 + j 1.0 + j 1.doc 1/2 Example: Determining the Load Impedance of a Transmission Line Say that we know that the input impedance of a transmission line length A = 0. and then rotate counterLocate zin clockwise (yes. of EECS . you are removing the phase shift associated with the transmission line.4 zin Let’s determine the impedance of the load that is terminating this line. Essentially. I said counter-clockwise) 2β A = 96. When you stop. of Kansas Dept.5D .

24 Jim Stiles The Univ.5D ′ = 1 + j 1.29 + j 0.doc 2/2 A = 0. of Kansas Dept. of EECS .4 zin z L′ = 0.2/8/2005 Example The Load Impedance.134λ 2β A = 96.

0 on your Smith Chart.e.doc 1/7 Example: Determining Transmission Line Length A load terminating at transmission line has a normalized impedance z L′ = 2.0 + j 2.0 to an impedance on the x = 0 contour—this angle is equal to 2β A ! You can now solve for A . and then rotate clockwise until you “bump into” the contour x = 0 (recall this is contour lies on the Γr axis!).0 )? Solution: a) Find z L′ = 2. of Kansas Dept.. xin = 0 )? b) have a real (resistive) part equal to one (i. x = 0 !). Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS . or alternatively use the electrical length scale surrounding the Smith Chart.e. When you reach the x = 0 contour—stop! Lift your pencil and note that the impedance value of this location is purely real (after all.2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length.0 .0 + j 2. measure the rotation angle that was required to move clockwise from z L′ = 2. rin = 1. What should the length A of transmission line be in order for its input impedance to be: a) purely real (i. Now.0 + j 2..

042λ z L′ = 2 + j 2 Γ (z ) ′ = 4. of Kansas Dept. of EECS .2 + j 0 zin x =0 Jim Stiles The Univ.doc 2/7 One more important point—there are two possible solutions! Solution 1: 2β A = 30D A = 0.2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length.

doc 3/7 Solution 2: z L′ = 2 + j 2 ′ = 0. of EECS .2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length. of Kansas Dept.292λ Jim Stiles The Univ.24 + j 0 zin x =0 Γ (z ) 2β A = 210D A = 0.

measure the rotation angle that was required to move clockwise from z L′ = 2.0 + j 2.2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length. of Kansas Dept. Again. Now.0 to an impedance on the r = 1 circle—this angle is equal to 2β A ! You can now solve for A . of EECS . When you reach the r = 1 circle—stop! Lift your pencil and note that the impedance value of this location has a real value equal to one (after all. or alternatively use the electrical length scale surrounding the Smith Chart.0 + j 2.doc 4/7 b) Find z L′ = 2.0 on your Smith Chart. we find that there are two solutions! Jim Stiles The Univ. and then rotate clockwise until you “bump into” the circle r = 1 (recall this circle intersects the center point or the Smith Chart!). r = 1 !).

of Kansas Dept.0 − j 1. of EECS .114λ Jim Stiles The Univ.doc 5/7 Solution 1: z L′ = 2 + j 2 Γ (z ) r =1 ′ = 1.2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length.6 zin 2β A = 82D A = 0.

2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length.6 zin Γ (z ) z L′ = 2 + j 2 r =1 2β A = 339D A = 0. of Kansas Dept.doc 6/7 Solution 2: ′ = 1 .471λ Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS .0 + j 1 .

of Kansas Dept. the solutions resulted in zin ′ = 1 + j 1. the two impedance solutions must result in the same magnitude for Γ --for this example we find Γ ( z ) = 0.2/8/2005 Example Determining the tl length. z ′ = 1 + j x ): Γ= and therefore: Γ = 2 jx z ′ − 1 (1 + jx ) − 1 = = z ′ + 1 (1 + jx ) + 1 2 + j x jx 2 2 2+ j x x2 = 4 +x2 Meaning: x = 2 4 Γ 1− Γ 2 2 of which there are two equal by opposite solutions! x = ± 2 Γ 1− Γ 2 Which for this example gives us our solutions x = ±1. Jim Stiles The Univ.e.6 .doc 7/7 ′ = 1 − j 1.625 . for impedances where r =1 (i.6 --the imaginary parts are equal but opposite! Is zin this just a coincidence? A: Hardly! Remember.6 and Q: Hey! For part b).. of EECS . Thus.

admittance and impedance are not independent parameters.2/10/2005 Admittance. and are in fact simply geometric inverses of each other: 1 1 Y = Z = Z Y Thus. of Kansas Dept. Clearly. we can define a complex parameter called admittance Y: Y = I V where V and I are complex voltage and current.g. respectively. e. all the impedance parameters that we have studied can be likewise expressed in terms of admittance. of EECS .: Y (z ) = Z (z ) 1 YL = ZL 1 Yin = Zin 1 Moreover. we can define the characteristic admittance Y0 of a transmission line as: I + (z ) Y0 = + V (z ) And thus it is similarly evident that characteristic impedance and characteristic admittance are geometric inverses: Jim Stiles The Univ.doc 1/4 Admittance As an alternative to impedance Z.

doc 2/4 Y0 = Z0 1 Z0 = Y0 1 As a result. we can define a normalized admittance value y ′ : y′ = Y Y0 An therefore (not surprisingly) we find: y′ = Y Z0 1 = = Y0 Z z′ Note that we can express normalized impedance and admittance more compactly as: y ′ = Y Z0 and z ′ = Z Y0 Now since admittance is a complex value. of EECS .2/10/2005 Admittance. of Kansas Dept. it has both a real and imaginary component: Y = G + jB where: Re {Y }  G = Conductance Im {Z }  B = Susceptance Jim Stiles The Univ.

we can state that: G + jB = 1 R + jX Q: Yes yes. I see. Do not make this mistake! In fact.doc 3/4 Now. Please speed this up and quit wasting my valuable time making such obvious statements! A: NOOOO! We find that G ≠ 1 R and B ≠ 1 X (generally). of Kansas Dept. and from this we can conclude: G = R 1 and B= X −1 and so forth. since Z = R + jX . of EECS . we find that G + jB = = R − jX 1 R + jX R − jX R − jX R2 + X 2 R X = 2 − j R +X2 R2 + X 2 Jim Stiles The Univ.2/10/2005 Admittance.

. Z = R ).doc 4/4 Thus. I do! Jim Stiles The Univ.e. we get. as expected: G =0 and B= X −1 I wish I had a nickel for every time my software has crashed—oh wait. as expected: G = R 1 and B =0 And that IF R = 0 (i. of Kansas Dept. Z = R ).e.2/10/2005 Admittance.. of EECS . we get. equating the real and imaginary parts we find: G = R2 + X 2 R and B= −X R2 + X 2 Note then that IF X = 0 (i.

we need to determine the normalized input admittance of the transmission line: ′ yin ′ =1 z0 A = 0.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart.doc 1/9 Example: Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart Say we wish to determine the normalized admittance y1′ of the network below: y1′ z 2′ = 1 . of EECS .37 λ z L′ = 1.6 z = −A z = 0 First.37 λ z L′ = 1. of Kansas Dept.7 − j 1 .6 + j 2.6 z = −A z = 0 Jim Stiles The Univ. 7 ′ =1 z0 A = 0.6 + j 2.

6 + j 2.28 Jim Stiles The Univ.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart.6 + j 2. of EECS .17 − j 0. we express the load z L = 1.6 in terms of its admittance y L′ = 1 z L . of Kansas Dept. We can calculate this complex value—or we can use a Smith Chart! z L = 1.6 y L = 0.doc 2/9 There are two ways to determine this value! Method 1 First.

6 Jim Stiles The Univ. of Kansas Dept. we can locate the impedance z L = 1. From the chart above. Thus. and then determine the value of that same ΓL point using the admittance (blue) mapping.6 + j 2. we find this admittance value is approximately y L = 0.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart.6 on the impedance mapping : z L = 1. of EECS . Now. the two mappings are precisely identical—they’re just rotated 180D with respect to each other.28 . Thus.6 + j 2. we can alternatively determine y L by again first locating z L = 1. with both impedance and admittance mappings.6 on the impedance (red) mapping.doc 3/9 The Smith Chart above shows both the impedance mapping (red) and admittance mapping (blue). this Smith Chart can be very confusing to use! But remember. Unless the two mappings are printed in different colors.6 + j 2. is very busy and complicated.17 − j 0. you may have noticed that the Smith Chart above.

of Kansas Dept. while keeping the point ΓL fixed on the complex Γ plane.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart. and the typical method for determining admittance. y L = 0.28 Thus. we can rotate the entire Smith Chart 180D --while keeping the point ΓL location on the complex Γ plane fixed. of EECS . Jim Stiles The Univ. realize that rotating the entire Smith Chart 180D with respect to point ΓL is equivalent to rotating 180D the point ΓL with respect to the entire Smith Chart! This maneuver (rotating the point ΓL ) is much simpler. But.doc 4/9 Then. Note that rotating the entire Smith Chart. use the admittance mapping at that point to determine the admittance value of ΓL .17 − j 0. is a difficult maneuver to successfully—as well as accurately—execute.

of Kansas Dept.6 + j 2.28 ′ by simply rotating Now.6 y L = 0.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart. of EECS . where A = 0.doc 5/9 z L = 1.17 − j 0. we can determine the value of yin clockwise 2β A from y L′ .37 λ : Jim Stiles The Univ.

7 − j 1.2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart.doc 6/9 2β A y L = 0.7 Transforming the load admittance to the beginning of the ′ = 0. we have determined that yin Method 2 Alternatively. ′ from the admittance mapping (i.7 . we could have first transformed impedance z L′ to ′ ). rotate 180D around the of yin Jim Stiles The Univ.17 − j 0.7 − j 1.e.28 yin = 0. of Kansas Dept.. transmission line. and then determined the value the end of the line (finding zin Smith Chart). of EECS .

6 2β A The input impedance is determined after rotating clockwise ′ = 0.doc 7/9 ′ = 0 . of EECS . 2 + j 0 .2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart. of Kansas Dept.2 + j 0. and is zin Now. 2β A .5 zin z L = 1.5 .6 + j 2. we can rotate this point 180D to determine the input ′: admittance value yin Jim Stiles The Univ.

doc 8/9 2β A ′ = 0 . In method 1 we first rotate 180D . In the second method we first rotate 2β A .2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart. yin Hopefully it is evident that the two methods are equivalent. the remaining equivalent circuit is: Jim Stiles The Univ. of EECS . and then rotate 180D --the result is thus the same! Now. and then rotate 2β A . of Kansas Dept.7 The result is the same as with the earlier method-′ = 0.7 − j 1.7 .7 − j 1. 2 + j 0 .5 zin yin = 0.

but could likewise ′ and then rotate 180D ) to use a Smith Chart (locate z 2 accomplish this calculation! Either way.7 − j 1 .3 + j 0. 4 Jim Stiles The Univ. 7 ′ = yin 0.3 + j 0. of Kansas Dept.7 Determining y1′ is just basic circuit theory.7 − j 1.3 Thus. Note that we could do this using a calculator.0 − j 1 .doc 9/9 y1′ z 2′ = 1 . y1′ is simply: ′ y1′ = y2′ + yin = ( 0.3 + j 0. we find that y2′ = 0.7 ) = 1 .2/17/2005 Example Admittance Calculations with the Smith Chart.7 − j 1.7 y1′ y2′ = 0.3) + ( 0. of EECS .3 . We first express z 2′ in terms of its admittance y2′ = 1 z 2′ . ′ = yin 0.7 − j 1.

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