Profane Illuminations, Secular Illusions: Manuscripts in Late Medieval Courtly Society Author(s): Brigitte Buettner Source: The Art

Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 75-90 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 25/06/2013 17:01
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Portraitof an Obsession. 6. 1975. Spatrenaissance. 1858. S. confined to some formulaic phrases repeated during religious services or private read- For having read earlier drafts of this essay. xxxvi. As manuscript patrons. "Representations of Charles V of France as a Wise Ruler." Bulletin du bibliophile. cat.N. Richter Sherman. At the end of the Middle Ages. for helping me turn drafts into an article.3 The Valois publicized themselves as "wise rulers.5 From roughly 1350 onwards.Questzonzng ed. Sir ThomasPhillipps. Jean. 3 On French humanism. Paris. reveal that princely libraries were not pale imitations of existing ecclesiastical ones. and historical works.Painting and Politics 102-110. vii. be it in a courtly or mercantile incarnation. the ones of Jean de Berry and Philippe le Hardi included a larger number of romances and poetry. and Philippe le Hardi.' A few common features can nonetheless be singled out. Bibliothbque Nationale.und Wunderkammern des Sammelwesens.s. 1973. 1250-c. the Valois family indulged in "vello-mania" unmatched until the nineteenth century. New York." La Productiondu livre universitaireau MoyenAge. Lord. 4 For this notion. and his grandsons Charles VI. 1967." Journal of MedzevalHistory. 1982." Feminismand Art Hzstory. and "Taking a Second Look: Observations on the Iconography of a French Queen. 6 The classic study remains P.J.Christzne at the Court of Charles VI. R. 1986. ser. London. 27-44. Hofkunstler. Pomian. duc de Berry(1401-1416). In patronage. 1987.G. Toronto. 1988. Paris. and illuminators. 1983. 41-123. Paris. legal.Profane Illuminations. J. 71-98. N. royal secretaries and chancellors. all my gratitude goes to Mimi Hellman. Brent Maddox. L. de Winter. 255-298. forcefully invading a territory previously guarded by ecclesiastical figures and religious orders. though unevenly owing to differentiated literary tastes. This content downloaded from 190. and Myra Orth. For broader perspectives on the history of art patronage including der our period. 1977. Ouy." Medievaliaet humanistica. See also P. "The Library of Philip the Bold and Margaret of Flanders. 174. Guiffrey. Paris. For Margaret of Flanders. 7 La Librairiede CharlesV. Paris. architecture. For Isabeau de Baviere. Munby. 1891. of wives and the whole question of women's patronage The role their 2 have received far less attention for this period. Latin had become a foreign language to the noble audience. cII.Secular Late Illusions: in Manuscripts Brigitte Buettner Medieval Courtly Society During the loosely delimited period of the late Middle Ages. "The Iconography of Queen Isabeau de Baviere (1410- 1415): An Essay in Method. "La Bibliotheque d'Isabeau de Bavieire. Louis I d'Anjou. Recherches sur la librairiede CharlesV. "Paris. Broude and M. remains the best bibliographical tool. 1908. Delisle. A. see de Winter. 1967-68.Boston. viii. Exemplaretpecia. see in particular G. duc de Berry. de Pzzan's'Epistre Othea'. In the secular sphere all genres were represented." Signs. painting. which formed the bulk of university libraries." Gazette des beaux-arts. 1985. his sons Charles V. Among sacred books. see C. 1978. Warnke. Hughes. I wish to thank Carl Klausberg. such as the presence of a comparable number of religious and secular works. 1350. Jeanne de the Litany. including literature. Ein Beitrag zur Geschzchte des modernenKiinstler.amateurs et curteux: Paris. clerics of the parliament. Paris. de Winter. Kathryn Horste. Inventairesdejean. 145-188. Louis d'Orlkans.Paris. Vallet de Viriville. c. Laying the foundations for a veritable state humanism. Collectionneurs. such as Charlemagne or Louis IX. Paris. Jan.L.136. the upper stratum of the aristocracy was certainly not the only class of book owners: humanists. Delalain. Hindman. Bourbon (1338-1378)." Bulletin de la Socrite de l'Histoire de Parts et de l'lle-de-France. an impressive number of richly decorated manuscripts."4 an ideal image that would enhance the claims of the omnipresent courtly patrons of the Renaissance. "Medieval Woman Book Owners: Arbiters of Lay Piety and Ambassadors of Culture. 1982. First Valois Duke and Duchess of Burgundy.' Unlike earlier noble collectors. Where the library of Charles V was particularly well supplied with scientific. 6diteurs et enlumineurs de la fin du XIVeme siicle: La Production a Paris de manuscrits a miniatures. esp.D. 1894-96. Die Kunst. Bibles and devotional texts largely outnumbered patristic and theological corpora. and Jean sans Peur. the king and his brothers appointed clerics steeped in classical studies to key positions in major chancelleries. Richter Sherman on Jeanne de Bourbon: "The Queen in Charles V's 'Coronation Book': Jeanne de Bourbon and the 'Ordo ad Reginam Benedicendam.. and M. 5 After the characterization of Sir Thomas Phillipps in A. the notion of "cultural policy" can pertinently be used to characterize the actions of King Jean le Bon. 133-138.216 on Tue. 'We still lack a comprehensive study on artistic policies of the first Valois. the upper ranks of lay society became the most influential art clients.Leipzig. 2. VeniseXVIe-XVIIIe szicle. exh. However. the entire Valois family2 fervently devoted large amounts of money and their subjects' time and labor to the arts. the outcome of which would ultimately define the art market of modern times as a primarily lay and urban phenomenon. A more general insight is provided by S. Iv." L'Humanisme frangazs au dibut de la Renaissance. 663-687. idem. kings and their relatives were intensively encouraging the creation and diffusion of new textual and visual artifacts. K. sculpture. translators.Zur Vorgeschichte Cologne." Actes du 100me CongresNational des Sociztis Savantes. By the end of the fourteenth century in France.L. see J. 1985. l'un des principaux foyers de l'humanisme en Europe au debut du XVeme siecle. Royal French Patronage in the Fourteenth Century:An Annotated Bibliography. illumination. 101-117. Published inventories. however. or purchased on the nascent book market. Etude sur le libraireparnsiendu XIlle au XVe siecle. "L'Humanisme et les mutations politiques et sociales en France au XIVWmeet XVeime siecles. and a large body of texts written or recently translated into French. 742-768. received as gifts.' " Viator. von Schlosser. and the socalled minor arts. 15-59. C. Rouse. and idem. 1971. French royal and princely families assembled impressive private libraries. Bell. Garrard. collections that were continuously enlarged by lavish manuscripts ordered directly from authors.M. Perhaps for the first time. 1968. duke of Burgundy. M. and university and ecclesiastical institutions also collected and accumulated books.6 While the ownership of books was still limited to a privileged few. 1907.119. 173-198. and James Marrow. artistic production underwent several important shifts. 83-96. see C. and M. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "The Book Trade at the University of Paris. "Copistes.n.

17 Sir John Froissart'sChronzcles of England.Brussels. From outside the family enclave. "Jacques Raponde. Parler vulgairement. T. Johnes. called Sir Richard Credon. the Rapondi also sold them expensive textiles." Journal des savants. '"Dine (Dino). K. Klapisch-Zuber." Journal des savants. This content downloaded from 190.'" Such figures. whereas his brother Jacques seems to have specialized in the commercialization of illuminated manuscripts. Kunstlerund Werkstatt Darmstadt. 1986. exhibiting. XLV. Les Fznancesdu duc de Bourgogne. Louvain. idem. 141-173. ed. ed. The reification of books was certainly favored by a rapidly expanding market economy. 16 In another place. Geremek.Les Intellectuels aux Xlllme et XIVtmeszdicles. Oeuvresde Froissart. Paris. "Mediaeval French Translations of the Latin Classics to 1500.' But translations. the appropriation of alien idioms and cultures. with two large clasps of silver-gilt. since an identifiable patron's portrait functioned as a sort of self-celebratory mark of visual ownership. '2A. escript et histori6]. to carry to his oratory [chambre de retraite] and made me many acknowledgments for it. 8 For were also objects with added value. the mimetic equivalent of a heraldic device. One of these was the Rapondi family.. 1956-70. and bound in crimson velvet. with ten silver gilt studs. see B. Inventories and other written accounts suggest that the nobles attempted to surpass each other during the New Year's exchange of presents. and since many of the new texts in circulation were secular. this medium could be put into circulation in much the same way as small luxury items. 28-43. 1988." The increasing diversification of social actors and factors participating in the diffusion and consumption of cultural products also spurred competition. richly worked with roses in the center. served equally as a financial and political adviser to Philippe le Hardi. Ornato. manuscripts. jewelry. Jan. London. indeed.'o What remains to be understood is the role played by images in this process of defining national and class identities. and wealthy merchants for control of the market. the Valois had to contend with ecclesiastical dignitaries. Posner and C. In. 1930. ed. all such objects could be purchased from the same source-the powerful Italian merchants operating in the French capital. de Winter.. et la '0As emphasized by S. 225-253. scholars ordinarily adduce economic and aesthetic causes. "Of love!" He was pleased with this answer. A. Bozzolo and E. R. 385-404.Paris. 1982. offering. and dipped into several places. originally from Lucca but naturalized French.-Mar. 1980. 1985. Habits of the Later Middle Ages. der Spatgotzk. IX.136. they a fine account of the interplay between vernacular and Latin with silent and oral reading. in addition to lending the Valois large sums of money. 1871. also had broader cultural implications concerning the rise of a national identity. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . vessels of precious metal. and H. then logically the number of secular illuminated manuscripts rose. Etudeslucquozses. Significantly. languefran(wase critiquede la philologze. Contemporary intellectuals engaged by courtly patrons were certainly aware of the particular response inspired by luxurious manuscripts. who speaks of the "euphoric appropriation of the literature by mother tongue. xrv. 239-269. 1806. indispensable signs of distinction that secured their owners a superior place within the social hierarchy. more than even the most expensive type of horse (evaluated at three hundred francs). Miniatures augmented the beauty of a manuscript and hence its price. 11. Age.'2 and considerably more than the average of ten francs paid by a cleric for a common book. and roses of the same in the middle. "Les Traducteurs et leur public en France au Moyen Age. Spazn and Adjoznzng Countries. Solente. for it was handsomely written and illuminated [enlumin6. The cost of such books generally ranged from one hundred to six hundred francs. in The Cultureof Prnt.1 Then. Elogede la variante.2nd rev. provide only a comparative measure of the most literal sort. 104. For the noble patron. French trans. Paris. Buettner. from inside. Chartier. Le Salariat dans lartzsanatparzsienaux XlllmeXIVIme szicles. 1967. The question still remains open if there was a manuscript workshop in their own house. art works were status symbols.8 Despite Christine de Pizan's claim. this was also the time when easel painting appeared: unlike wall painting. since artifacts produced in a highly articulated process can hardly be compared to natural products. as today. In 1395. and then gave it to one of his knights. In France. were virtually mass-produced. the poet Jean Froissart described the presentation of one of his manuscripts to King Richard II in very revealing terms: He opened and looked into it with much pleasure. tapestries. or.216 on Tue. 1970. see P. rivalry escalated among the Valois brothers themselves. The King asked me what the book treated of: I replied. 1967. Even the development of portraiture can be viewed within this context. I will come back to the itrennes as a courtly ritual that was instrumental in the periodic and public reaffirmation of family and social alliances. "Book of Hours and the Reading e civiltd. 1964. de Lagarde.119. for he read and spoke French perfectly well. 167. like Books of Hours. orig. 1989. " "Secular" is here opposed to "ecclesiastic" rather than "religious" in the sense defined by G. 1963. the many translations commissioned by Charles V leave some doubts about his fluency in Latin." Specu2. see J. C.trans. Montreal. worthy of collecting. esp. xI. Lusignan. 9 Livre 1936-40. Lucas. S. TroisEssaisde codicologie of For the medieval late production structures and the art complexion '4 market." For the history of specific translations. Etude sur le marche de la mazn-d'oeuvreau Moyen Age (Warsaw. Saenger. other aristocrats. Phzlippele Hardi (1384-1404). Powerand the Usesof Print in EarlyModern France. Economieetpolitzque.Histozre 42. Naissancede l'espritlazqueau dichn du moyenage. JulySept. van Nieuwenhuysen. When trying to explain the prodigious proliferation of secular illuminated manuscripts" among the dominant social strata during the late Middle Ages. 1989.76 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 ings of devotional texts.. H. Princeton." Scrzttura rev. ed. Monfrin. or the re-appropriation of a mother tongue. each of whom tried to secure the services of the most renowned writers and artists. and some categories of books. and illuminated manuscripts. Kervyn de Lettenhove." or emulated one another by ordering similar manuscripts. however. See also B. 161-190. He ought to have been pleased. 1962). Cerquilini. Meiss. 1984. See L. quantitatzve. manuscripts afforded not only access to knowledge. 45-47. 10-23. Pour une Histoiredu livre manuscritau Moyen "3 Paris. the most prominent member of the family. xv. Huth. 153. reading parts aloud.Brussels. Surviving princely inventories and accounts amply demonstrate that illuminated manuscripts were indeed pricey items. Paris. Mirot. France. ed. marchand de manuscrits enlumines?" Mdze'vales. "Humanisme et traductions au Moyen Age. lum. 5-20. B. and at the same time the significance of enshrining thousands of miniatures in privately owned manuscripts whose restricted access could not satisfy the same political and institutional needs as monumental art. and exchanging. while responding to precise linguistic needs. desfaits et bonnesmeursdu sage roi CharlesV.

Ir (photo: Morgan Library) This content downloaded from 190. . ca. fol. ::r upac Isae rto ad tawtot( pospr 1 FroissartOfferingHis Manuscriptto King RichardII. t v te)l te n o C&440 ew Is c W '1 it il m 4?44ffe e ! erd scn -e J .MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 77 'd3d IY4 lot Xnsa t to"fic ?c 4 cm f?cti e tac nuto h Aacueote te ix cfco41 *wCe tie week eS p K+ Aon tte tta t #m (sonetfr fer mnt~ci*t nMotc aot t ca itr.-ii- t:req to tIf 1gde aw~ %C 11 tro14trQ At rw vtoutes ctole *tft et sw*m o n ftri ct recm 111 e niftu ta AtI oa g nt n ...136. New York. 1400.216 on Tue. Froissart. Pierpont Morgan Library Ms M.119. Chroniques.. 804. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .w f r (ucw w c (wser d I api: tiri ..

TheArt ofMemory. Bibl. dazzling illuminations were indeed the surplus that transmuted an instrumental object into a luxurious. LI). 1990. 1967. 8). as Daniel Arasse defines it. is circulating:it is a disproportionately large object. see the two classic studies by E. I. methodologically developed in Devant de l'art." The CultureofPrint (as in n. Zohn. Medievalmanuscriptswere not coffee-table books. it is put into practice. 76. 541-615. Carruthers. fol. Judgment gamut open books. aesthetic responses were intimately associated with metaphysicsin the Middle Ages.himself the author of the text. 68-94. Embedded in the Neoplatonic tradition. 2. Paris.xxxv. the labor and drives that produced such simulacra. they constituted significant mnemonic tools for the acquisition and transmission of knowledge. Camille. but never before did so many miniatures with miniaturizedbooks decorate the object to be read. This ostentatious display of devotion demonstrates that images gave form to what would have remained otherwise invisible and intangible (the object of devotion and the devotional act itself).23Consistent with a long medieval tradition. that sacred radiance that. trans. and '8 Meiss.22This anecdote attests that costly bindings.P. Middle Ages. The mediating function of medieval images was not limited to the bonding of mundane and sacred realms. 9-49." in Illuminations. not in a coffer or a purse or a table. The Idea of the Bookzn theMiddleAges. like two punctuation marks. 1977. Antoine. 371. see Carruthers. de saznt 1946."The very beautiful opening miniature of the Morgan copy of the immortalizes a generic Froissart in the typical Chroniques'8 of an author presenting his work to the patron.78 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 Thus Froissart. specifically in its "wrapping. by hermetically Annunciation Last and the of books. or in a coffer to be brought along during the incessant travelsof the aristocrats. Mslat. Didi-Huberman. a posture previously reserved for ecclesiastic patrons and holy kings. those written by the Evangelists and eaten by Saint John. 164-170. Chicago. Inherited from antiquity. 2). the object in this miniature is changing hands.216 on Tue. 2. 217-251. the medieval tradition of formal memory codified during the Renaissance training (the ars memorativa that as artesmemoriae) images played a key role in suggests the present and the past. In regard to the Middle Ages. is disappointing in this regard. "La Couleur de la chair ou le paradoxe de Tertullien. For the artistic realm.The whole system created. a heavy vacuum sumptuously enshrouded in real velour. outside the margins of the representation. ~9M. acknowledged (or affected to do so) that the value of his gift resided first in its material appearance. 1967. 25 Paris. Nat. artful script. If the lay elite adopted and adapted this metaphysical discourse. 23W. and the pulchritudo of the created world was conceived as a reflection of divine beauty in living matter. au douzzemesiecle. alongside other similarbooks in the chambre library. nameless manuscript offered to the duc de Berryby the Limbourgbrothers as described in an inventory of 1411: it was a painted piece of wood. evokes. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. 1974. it supersedes the classic work by F. Javelet. M. frame a text that is unfolding elsewhere. and at the same time sublimated what was too visible and tangible. 1988. their aura. Arasse. 133-148. de l'image religieuse 27 D. the Franciscan preacher Jean de la Rochelle (d. to be dipped into. 20Quoted in A. and R.119. Theory. which is to say.'"27 24 For the most extensive treatment of medieval aesthetics. or at least. J. from G. those that were read and digested. "Ad Perpetuam Memoriam. Yates. locked with two silver clasps enameled with the arms of the duke. Les Nouvelles Fonctions de l'image peinte en Italie (1250-1400). collectible item." Faire Croire(Collectzon 1981. Gellrich. New York. 1985. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for donors and not for owners. this book was indeed destined to end up in the de retrazte. Complete catalogue ofJean de Berry's portraits in Meiss. paired with figurable and legible. 1-54. and visually sacralized the relationship between them and the Heurescommisviewer. Boureau. on the book as a The emphasis in the Morgan Chroniques a vast pictorial box sealed contrast." Nouvelle Revue de psychanalyse. Whether Richard is pleased or not. for her discussion of the "stomach of memory" metaphor." This contrast could be read as a significant trace of a metaphorical disjunction. however. Question posse auxfins d'une hzstoire 22 Meiss.26 between connections establishing as such. This content downloaded from 190. 1966. 26 For a masterly treatment of this topic. "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art" (1947). Bruges. Art. grasping scenes certainly existed before the late Presentation 1). l'Image. Imagineswere one of the two means by which the orator remembered the content and the arguments of his discourse.136. something that pleased the eye of the beholder as well as the Creator. "Franciscan Piety and Voracity: Uses and Stratagems in the Hagiographic Pamphlet. 1974. de Bruyne. This aesthetic dimension. J. Paris. Walter Benjamin has argued. In a sermon praising Saint Anthony of Padua. 21'I borrow the ingenious conceptual opposition between visual and visible. an utterly visual spot that momentarily arrests the eye and interrupts the deciphering of the narrative made visible. 18014."20 The hefty object suspended between Froissart and Richard II differs on all points from the thin ideal of the text as spiritual enrichment. de l'EcoleFrangazse au XVeme siecle. There could be no more ironic comment on the book-asobject than the simulated. the other being the loci or topoi. "The Book of Signs: Writing and Visual Difference in Gothic Manuscript Illumination. position it with a gesture mirroring that of Richard II (Fig.25 the duke is represented in an intimate prayer before a benevolent Virgin and Child (elsewhere before the Crucified or the Trinity). Its disproportion is properly symptomatic.M. 17. Language and Fzction. Image et ressemblance Anselmea'Alain de Lzlle. Benjamin. 1245) insisted that the saint "kept a booklet open in his hands" and explained: "The booklet is open because it is understood. Ithaca. Mythology. 1985. Etudes d'esthitiquemdzievale. it is in the hand. a "mnemonic space of representation. 1969. In a portrayalfrom the famous Petites sioned byJean de Berry (Fig." Melanges de l'Ecole Frangazsede Rome (Moyen Age/Temps Modernes). Schapiro. firmly closed by two clasps that face the recipient and. Romanesque New York. contemporary sources praised the opulence of the materialsor the technical appropriateness of the finished product in terms of "good" images." Word& Image. "Entre Devotion et culture: Fonctions de Rome. c.21 As a source of other kinds of enrichments. 198. 1987.24 Miniatures celebrated the art object in similar terms. also. 131-146. was more than a mere decorative value meant to enhance the pleasures of the most fortunate members of medieval society. H. disappeared only with the rise of mechanical means of reproduction. it was because such idealism minimized the mercantile value of art objects while promoting their uniqueness.

as well as the development of exempla inserted into sermons and of vernacular allegorical prose. Et de ce fait les anciens quant ilz vouloient aucune chose recorder et impectorer. Boespflug and N. for." but he concluded with an original personal observation. Paris. ilz mectoient en leurs livres diverses couleurs et diverses figures a celle fin que la diversite et la difference leur donnast meilleur souvenance". et pour tant est ce que l'en estudie mieulx es livres enluminez pour ce que la difference des couleurs donne la souvenance de la difference des lignes. 41. Nat. 29 Against the unilateral insistence on Gregory's conception of images as aedificatio. Miniatures were rarely mentioned in scholastic discussions.ed. 271-301.216 on Tue. Actually. consists of putting into the The quite elaborate theories justifying religious images were not lost in secular contexts. as he stated. Schmitt. interestingly. an Augustinian friar and prominent humanist. F. Century Oxford. 1986. first. Lossky.C. panel paintings. And it was precisely during the thirteenth century that the volume of visual narratives increased dramatically: the proliferation of illuminated manuscripts. Douze siecles d'images religieuses. "Was Art Really the 'Book of the Illiterate'?" Word& Image. Beltran. from his own experience: The first rule for remembering something. 1388.) More than a mere rhetorical instrument.119. et consequamment de ycelle chose que l'on veult impectorer. Jacques Legrand. completed in 1400." Nicde II (787-1987). when the ancients wanted to remember and to get something by heart. The capacity of images to function as mnemonic triggers had been noted since Early Christian times in the canonical pleas for the usefulness of religious imagery. 198r (photo: Bibl. Wherefore one best learns from illuminated books. Painting and Experiencein 28 Fifteenth Italy:A Primerin the SocialHistoryof PictorialStyle. one chapter of which dealt with memory and mnemonic tools. Baxandall. His advice derived directly from the ars memorativa. instruct the "simple people. and especially for incorporating it by heart." secondly. Yet there is evidence that the training of visual memory could rely not only on purely mental constructs or abstract diagrams. and therefore of the thing itself. 9. by generating a kaleidoscopic varietas within manuscripts. sight and hearing. prouffitable est de mectre en son cuer et en son ymaginacion la figure et la fourme d'ycelle chose que l'en veut impectorer. finally. Nic&e II et les images du VIIIeme au XIIIeme siecle. The claim was usually framed by two other rationales: images as surrogates of the written Word for those who could not read (Gregory the Great's famous "Bible for the illiterate") and as motors of one's devotion (Gregory's compunctio). the Archiloge Sophie. presented to Jean de Berry in 1410. Genevieve MS2521).136. but also on miniatures. see J. the "opinion of the ancients. who quotes from an "anonymous manuscript" (Paris. Partially translated by Carruthers.30 iMir !Jr Il w 2 Jean de BerryPraying to the Virginand Child. the mnemonic capacity was also linked to other than didactic concerns. stimulate devotional feelings more effectively than texts. is best known for his moral treatise Le livre des bonnes moeurs. ArchilogeSophie. 1972. and wall paintings. Thus. v. unless otherwise noted. Duggan. Mslat.G. This content downloaded from 190. they enhanced their books with different colors and figures so as to strengthen the memory through diversity and difference.Livre des bonnesmoeurs.29 Such was the case for John of Genoa." it is safe to assume (even if only from personal experience) that. Nat. 227-251. ca. were roughly coeval and possibly related phenomena. visual memory was conceived as an essential tool for the acquisition of knowledge. 1989. miniatures played a prominent part in the recollection of the stories absorbed by the leader. An exhaustive account of the fortune of Gregory's dictumis by L.PetitesHeures de Jean de Berry. a connection that posed. Moreover. which was a translation of the second and third parts of his summa. for the difference between the colors bestows remembrance of the different lines. Paris. chap. ed. E. et singulierement pour impectorer par cuer. fol. Ste. "L'Occident.28 Although it is difficult to decide exactly what Legrand meant by "figures" and "colors. drawn. Paris. in the renowned prologue to the Bestiaire d'amour written around the middle of the thirteenth century by Richard de Fournival. man became literate with the help of mental images (phantasmata) stored while reading. according to scholastic theologians like Thomas Aquinas. whose influential Catholicon (one of the few theological works commonly found in aristocratic libraries) stated that images could. Legrand also made an adaptation of the first part.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 79 heart and the imagination the figure and the form of the thing to be remembered. 3." and illustrated this point with a vivid example derived from "La premiere regle si est que pour avoir aucune souvenance d'aucune chose. Bibl. reactivate by their everyday presence the mystery of the Incarnation and the examples of the saints. Translations are mine. a direct confrontation with scriptural authority. Bibl. Richard was perhaps the first author to underscore the need for a concurrent action between miniatures and text. and. one of the first treatises on rhetoric written in French. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1987. 30 Quoted and discussed by M. He conceived image and text as parallel "ways which lead to the two doors of memory. 18014. 24. the Sophilogium.

291-328. 153-177. the link made by Richard between memory and ancient history with the specific example of Troy was a particularlyrelevant one. The anonymous author of the Livre des secrez d'Aristote.D. they also served for instruction. Buchthal."And it is quite conceivable that late medieval rulers. were better trained in visual than in written literacy. Et la tu pourras moult de beaulx exemples prendre car les fais passez aprendront a adviser pour quelle maniere l'en doit gouverner ou temps advenir". Paris. is discussed by C. if they functioned as "visualconfirmation"of texts. whose very life was a sort of unremitting ritual procession. Avril. LIX. 36F. 1-15. London. then. like the Chroniques. 64-68. tu dois avoir la congnoissance de toutes choses [. whatever their specific political. Chicago. Nat. Of course the hermeneutical capacity of images is equally apt to subvert texts.H. Studieszn the Hzstoryof Art."32 Here. A substantial number of manuscripts produced for the Valois librarieswere. Beaune.a fictional correspon- frontispiece miniature of the Grandes Chroniques de France. in his translationofBartholomaeus Anglicus'sProprietatis rerum.]."Word & Image. These origins were perceived to be so intimate as to be linguistic:Jean Corbechon. 131.80 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 classical history: "For when one sees an illustrated story. either local chronicles or the official annals of the French monarchy. Paris." PictorialNarrative in Antzquzty and the Mzddle Ages. In particular. Msfr. "Some Medieval Definitions in the Illustration of in the French Translation of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethicsand Polztzcs Nicolas Oresme. whose direct heirs they were Quoted from T.derived the French monarchy etymologically from Francion.136. 320-330. Translator of Aristotle's Art Bulletzn.xxxII. xvI. The Royal Image. 223-229. Bibl."3" interchangeable procedures for the acquisition of memory." 39 "The intention of the pictures is the same as that of the texts.. 1989. For two commentaries. Richter Sherman. Original text edited by C. "Letter Writing and Picture Reading: Medieval Textuality and the Bestiazred'Amour. ceremonial. Recollecting past events for directing future behavior under the aegis of Prudence was a central aim of mnemonic training. proprietisdes choses. seeing is cast in an active tense. for the mythicalTrojan ascendancy played an important role in France in establishing feelings of national identity. The capacity of pictures to convey information was intensified by the fact that many texts were illustrated for the first time in this era.35 By pairing events scattered throughout the text. 1957. dence between Aristotle and his pupil Alexander in the "mirrorof princes" tradition. Hzstorza Trozana. de mazstre Bestzazre 32 "Noble empereur." Art Bulletin. zdem. Ohlgren. Belting. Politicsand Economics. ." VzsualResources. Berkeley. Christine de Pizan 33 Charles V's librarian Gilles Mallet was praised by for his impeccable delivery in Le Lzvredesfazs et bonnesmeurs(as in n. fol. This content downloaded from 190.37Taken as a general category. 1977. Illustratzonsof the Grandes ChroM5 niques de France (1274-1422)." Bzbliothequede l'Ecole des Chartes. 562. 1971.Studzes mn of the Warburg Illustratzon(Studzes Instztute). For more comprehensive inquiries. stated: "Noble emperor. or dynastic intent.this equivalencebetweenpeinture not to be assumed as readily a century later. the Hzstoryof MedzevalSecular 37 H. one sees the action of brave men which were in the past as if they were present. Kelly and T. and impressed a trope of concatenated historical events on the beholder's mind. Hector's son Francion became the French monarchy'sfounding hero. as in the where Francion's foundation of Sicambria is eloquently superposed on CharlesVI receiving the very text establishing the legitimacy of his rulership (Fig. and Carruthers. Bloch. And you need to gather many good examples. 1981.216 on Tue.Milan. and the stimulating study by R.. to construct their memoria rerum gestarum according to compelling new visual evidence. 23r. 468-469. See Carruthers. This phenomenon was especially significant at that time.. works translated from Latin (especially Livy and Orosius) and by contemporary authors (Boccaccio's Des nobles hommes et femmes and Des cldresfemmes). v. Li Richartde Fornzvale li reponsedu Bestiaire.III.34The link could be visualized as well. 38 A related problem. "Trois Manuscrits napolitains des collections de Charles V et Jean de Berry. Etymologies 3 A Lzterary and Genealogzes. Indeed. Charles V of France and the Lzvre des 34 D. 1983. you need to remember the good things done to you and to your ancestors. 97-113.1979. that of the visualization of neologisms.36 the Romande Troie. Aussi tu dois regarder et faire lire devant toy les croniques et histoires anciennes. In a culture where silent deciphering was still the exception and collective reading the rule.21. Byrne. H.39it could be argued that the understanding of historical facts was largely molded by the way miniatures portrayed past events. 1969. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see C.E.119. 1991. 1985.. 1985. created objects of cognition rather than mere recognition. compilations or historical novels such as (the lengthy Histoireancienne). andparoleseemed curiously. "Rex imago Dei: Journal of Medieval Hzstory.3.The representation of historic personages. Word does the same thing. Ages. because rulers were constantly made aware of their ties with Greek and Roman heroes. 1. set at the legendary origins of an uninterrupted chain of Frankish kings. you need to have the knowledge of everything. Therefore you need to look and have the chronicles and ancient histories read to you. "The New Role of Narrative in Public Painting of the Trecento: Hzstorzaand Allegoria.38Unlike the ubiquitous presence of religious images in the medieval West. for past events will advise you on how to govern in the future. For when we hear a romance read we grasp the adventures as clearly as if they were unfolding Richard presented sight and hearing as before our eyes. Si saches que tu dois avoir ramembrance des biens a toy fais et advenus de tes anchiens et de tes ancestres. 9). Solterer. of the FrenchMzddle Anthropology 1983. while reading remains in a passive one. In any event. secular representations of historicalnarrativesgave a concrete material existence to figures previously experienced within the evanescent context of oral transmission. 151." viii. 2. surrounded as they were by images and visual spectacles.H. A. In addition. III. they proved the reality of the text by giving it as a visual confirmation". see H. 3). and forced beholders to recompose their intermittent view of the past. historical manuscripts were instrumental in creating entirely new iconographic types to be "incorporated" by the nobles perusing them. 1. Segre. such a miniature rendered equally present the recent and the immemorial past. "Paths to Memory: Iconographic Indices to Romande la Rose and ProseLancelotManuscripts in the Bodleian Library. encountering the visual might have been a more active undertaking than confronting a text. whether about Troy or something else. Hedeman. cxxvilI."A Second Instruction to the Reader from Nicolas Oresme. historical in nature. usuallyread to the nobles by a secretary. if images infused referents with a sense of reality. Nazssance de la natzon France.LXI.

or in a lavish depiction of a Roman banquet from another This content downloaded from 190.119. functioning as a sort of personalized mediator between them and the ancestral figures to which the texts referred. GrandesChroniques de France. as this process is frequently termed. or. Cott OS M01ftA is m cr 14 0 sm c t w 3 Frontispiece. 2r (photo: Morgan Library) supposed to be. And while texts varied minimally or not at all in their different editions. images thus granted their owners the fundamental privilege of possessing an individual historical memory through icons inserted in a genealogically linked chain. or more exotic cultures belongs to another phase of the reception of antiquity. or Constantine. Roman. indeed. Jason. Pierpont Morgan Library Ms M. but also of Ulysses. Solomon. Francion. Because they were specific to each manuscript. In addition to displaying one's features and actions. New York. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." as in the Grandes Chroniques frontispiece (Fig. or. The historicist re-creation of Greek. ancient places and figures were intentionally displaced by medieval representations. The Valois considered themselves to be offspring not only of David. miniatures became the exclusive preserve of their owners. new pictorial worlds were created every time a manuscript was produced. Yet anyone who has merely glanced at medieval historical miniatures realizes that archaeological verisimilitude is not their prime concern. they were "actualized. 3). 1410. fol. ca.136.216 on Tue. As a rule. 536.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 81 -ii-~: i--8aiiilu litt oll--- cAn4A no4? Ila fttuuLw tm vie*.

"Three ManuArtBulletin. coupled with the mnemonic function. is taken up by Italian as well as French humanists. or. Francois Rath. Fora comprehen1965.and History. tapestries. 17. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . See scriptsof the OvideMoralist. Giotto and the Orators. clerics and moralists were prone to denounce the success of vernacular prose among the nobility. 2. Most frequently it was the concept of louenge. coins. a secular as opposed to a biblical ancestry. and social ceremonies such as royal entries and banquets contributed to the development of a secular typology that familiarized the aristocracy with its putative past. 1981. cat. the Romans used to create images from different metals. Paris. of a more systematic discourse on art emanating from ecclesiastical circles compelled to deal with such provocative images.136. Deeds performed by Charles V and his brothers. that epitomized the relationship between present and past as mediated by art. E. see B. Tite-Live. Petrarch's De remediisutriusque fortunae as quoted in M. for praise and memory. wall paintings. Oxford. Bibl. Droz. of another identity that had surreptitiously slipped out of the hands of the clerical power. dans l'Occident midieval."45 Visual panegyric was indeed the realm where civic and ceremonial considerations overlapped with ethical and commemorative concerns. Guen&e. Publique et Universitaire MSfr. as in this passage drawn from Alain Chartier's Quadrilogue invectif" "It is not without reason that. secular images helped to create what would become. of praise.LvII. stripped of their veils. fol. 1987. Keen..Renaissance and Renascences Art. Some interesting suggestions are in C. 57. along with humanist mythography. Humanist Observersof Painting in Italy and the Discoveryof Pictorial Composition(1350-1450). This visual apperception of the past belonged to a very small fraction of the population. It was a specific prerogative of courtly during the Renaissance. Philippe de Mezieres. chap. historique Spiegel. the monumentalization of the latter through the former. 86r (photo: BPU) for historical writing. simultaneously. in theMiddle TheWriting Heralds. exh. 43 This classical topos. pour louenge et memoire. theatrical representations. 44 "Si n'estoit pas sans cause que. ofHistory "Chivalry." in Western also E. Yet for the period and the social group here under examination. Then. would invade territories from which they had been excluded for centuries. 1950. 100. no figurative rituals alluded explicitly to a cult of the past. a deceptive fiction compared to the truth revealed by the Text. Lord. 4).M. Aeneas.Geneva. "SocialChange and LiteraryLanguage:The Textualisationof the Past in Thirteenth-Century Old FrenchHistoriography. by Francion. And even if these excerpts focus on ler. R. xvII. 1400. as a reminder to all of the lessons of good conduct.40 Such images cannot be dismissed as anachronistic or picturesque: they attest to a specific historiographic conception whereby the scenery of past events was equated with contemporary ones and. ars et curres triumphans a ceulx qui vertueusement se partoient pour accroistre la seigneurie rommaine et augmenter le bien publique de leur cit'".C. Ideal du prince et pouvoir royalen Francea la fin du MoyenAge (1380-1440). it could justify the institution of secular imagery. Le Quadrilogue ed. For Charles VI's tutor.H.London. Paris. 2-4). Chivalry. 45 Quoted from M.2. Paris. Oxford. and with the blazons of the kingdom's nobles. 161-175. L'Enluminure a deCharlemagne 42 Quoted in J. By establishing a mnemonic experience distinct from the lessons instilled by religious narratives. and M. commentedupon by Camille. the halls and chambers of noblemen were painted or decked with tapestries depicting the battles and conquests of past heroes.216 on Tue. a "cult of the past.43Louenge could function as a catalyst 4 Frontispiece to Book I." Journalof Medieval and Renaissance Studies.42 In spite (or because?) of this opposition. 77. 1974. 129-148. Presented to Richard William Southern. a cult of the pagan past. Panofsky. or Lucretia could thus legitimately be included in the same visual thesaurus filling the libraries and the minds of the Valois. 40 Meiss. by extension. Not surprisingly." that is. 1981.101-102. xxxv. Keen. ed.4' This isomorphic relationship between different orders of reality allowed the authentication of the past by means of the present and. for instance. this moment coincided with the rise. les Rommains faisoient ymages de divers metaulx. Davis and J. romances were full of fibs. specifically elaborated by Pliny in his Natural History (Bk. classical heroes and heroines." Ages. 5. Pierre Bersuire's translation of Livy's History of Rome (Fig. arches and triumphal chariots to honor those who set forth virtuously to expand the Roman domains and improve the public affairs of their city. Charlemagne. Essays Wallace-Hadrill.critically Histoire etculture siveaccountof medievalhistoriography.119. with visions of a different memory. 133. Baxandall. illuminated manuscripts. with the world of the onlooker. Uppsala. also relevant are G. 80-83. 393-414. Mus&e This complex topic has not been addressed yet in a convincing 41 fashion."44 The poet Antoine de la Sale used analogous arguments to support historical imagery decorating noble castles: "In the good old days. invectif. Krynen. 1984. This content downloaded from 190. 1980. Not surprisingly. 1971. 399. Geneva. 1976. most notably the residences of the churchmen. since ecclesiastic circles certainly possessed similar texts but no such elaborate visual records.82 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 of Jean de Berry's manuscripts. See. 1975.

Des cleresfemmes. Nat. 1989. Msfr. However. 74r (photo: Bibl. Summa.:::i:i:-li i ::: or :I 1.H. in the Hook 7 Venus. "L'Histoire comme fol. as the most beautiful or ugly. Nat. Nat.) 5 Humilityand Pride. Paris.D.136. Nat.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 83 Ali: :i S i Aw --::::-:-::: ::`: i . is the efficacy of images to affect the viewer. MSfr. 11. Lyons. Nat. In fact. according to the commonly accepted medieval etymology of monumentum as monere and mentem. Exemplum. Stierle's brilliant analysis." Poetique.47 What is at issue. Paris.) monumental art. 15r (photo: Bibl.Faits et dits meimorables. correct visual antecedents. x. According to the art of memory tradition. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .119. art. Bibl. fol. 189-201. because such things are impressed in memory more deeply and are better retained. visual and written portrayals could single out contemporary citizens or past rulers. worthy of respect or This content downloaded from 190. 345r (photo: Bibl. 6 Luxure and Cruaute. the very act of carving and painting past heroes. or. Princeton. to influence social behavior by proposing. Discussed by R." Europaische the HistoryofArt. 69-74. if imagines were to remain effectively impressed on memory.216 on Tue. Paris. 1986. : : : :: AllI : : : :to bl I ~ c? . Bibl.Boccaccio. exemplary aims pervaded all forms of historical representations. 1402. 282. "Le Portrait et le principe de realite dans la sculpture: Philippe le Bel et Kunstum 1300. La Sommele roi. 938. of turning men into monuments was tantamount to remembering them. 46 words of the fourteenth-century theologian and mathematician Thomas Bradwardine: Their quality truly should be wondrous and intense. 176-198. Bibl. 25th InternationalCongressof l'image royale. then.46 Whatever their format. see K. Msfr. Nat. Quest. they had to be agentes. such things are for the most part not average but l:: ::: :- Fill"::i. 1972. Recht. ca. and raise them from contextualized mortal beings to eternal paragons. 1294. joyous or sad. Frbre Laurent. Example as a rhetorical category in Renaissance texts is studied by J. if not imposing.) On links between exemplum and history writing. 12420. Vienna. 1402. 47 Saint Thomas.The Rhetoricof Examplein EarlyModernFranceand Italy. fol. I'Exemple comme Histoire.:i:i: ..

or in another way made extremely ugly. contrasted with the portrayal of wicked monarchs.136. Given the persistence of the "two-tiered" model even in today's historical writing postulating a high (written) and low (visual) culture. Bonne. we can recite the good and evil with our doctrines. 64-70. 205-215. gestures. Verb.). as is explicitly evinced in the scenes of Lechery and Cruelty in Valerius Maximus's very successful Faits et dits memorables(Fig. For this manuscript.216 on Tue. compartments. edification. both confirming the reality of the narrative and structuring the imagination. each personage was assimilated to a proper locus defined completely or partially by discrete pictorial elements (frames. except when artists wanted to signify multitudes or states of chaos.. Text translated at the end of the 14th century by Simon de Hesdin and Nicholas Gonesse."53 The "colors of rhetoric" was a familiar tradition. see J. but it is interesting that Legrand reverted the chromatic metaphor to its original and literal locus. Thus the function of the exemplumwas to bridge the gap between historical reality and the eschatological unknown". Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Jacques Legrand. and their objects of desire graphically inscribed on a parchment leaf? Like recollection and ethical propositions. they shared with coeval historical writing an ambivalent (but not ambiguous) status in which the succession of events was suspended for the purposes of presentation. and affects. the didactic function nurtured by a memory trained in things past and sustained by pictures based on formal contrasts was.. "A Study of the Style and Iconography Century 'Somme le roi' (British Museum Ms. images could act upon the viewer. Kosmer. Yale UniverArt sity. material images by a fourteenth-century intellectual seems particularly meaningful. their ancestors. The firm conventions regulating the rendering of figures in courtly manuscripts constantly reinforced what was morally and socially appropriate or inappropriate. 9). who considered colors one of the visual components cuing memory. which belonged to Jean de Berry.52 It is particularly fascinating that color schemes also could contribute to such a semantic opposition. plaisir is associated with images as often as memory and praise."4 Thirteenth-century manuscripts favored clear oppositional layouts by enclosing the dialogic elements into medallions.V. pleasure is a gendered visual function. Profane images were concerned with the here and now. fraudulent artisans. 1974. however. Late medieval miniatures were. efficient production (Fig. either of exceptional beauty (Fig. roundels. 53 "Et comme nous voions que le paintre met a une ymage pluseurs couleurs belles et laides a celle fin qu'elles se puissent mieulx monstrer l'une encontre l'autre. As such. miniatures articulated a powerful iconic discourse54 intended for the beholder's identification. as. images. 5' For this change." 1. "The Time of the Exemplum. for instance. or murders or sexual intimacy. 53-56. 12). 54180) with a Consideration of Other Illustrated 'Somme' Manuscripts of the Thirteenth.5 By the fourteenth century. pleasure was an essential component in the nexus of experiences offered by secular imagery. of a Thirteenth50 E. of course. and lascivious behavior (Fig. fiery red. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .55 and John of Genoa was not alone in believing that images stimulated devotional feelings more effectively than texts. further stated: "And as we see the painter applying to an image several beautiful and ugly colors so that each shows up better by contrast with the other. figures had to be as vivid as possible. see Meiss. In contemporary texts. costumes.. such as equitable rulers. 1971. usurpers and treacherous subjects. If images were capable of proposing and imposing political and moral agendas. 4"Quoted from Carruthers. or captivating eccentricity (Fig. and sanctioned relationships between men and women. 1973. 7) taken from a manuscript of the Cldres femmes. Bulletzn. 176. with the establishment and the perpetuation of mundane power structures. since painted characters usually remained encapsulated in magnifying isolation. The embodiment of courtly virtues. or wounded with greatly opened wounds with a remarkably lively flowing of blood.Paris. 1988. images underwent a narrative transformation that endowed them with a more transitive quality. 212-215. medieval audiences held them equally apt to arouse emotions. ainsi a noz doctrines nous pouvons le bien et le mal reciter. 1975." Problems zn GeneralLznguzstzcs. architectural components. Jacques Le Goff. 5). 6). Consequently. Benveniste. 1-8.D.LVII.119. See also her "The noyous humoureof lecherze."The Medzeval Imagznation. and delight. positions in space. their occupations. was an instrument of conversion. 55Carruthers. 6). diss." Ph. 1984. etc. 10).84 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 something ridiculous for mocking. even more so than these. not limited to secular images."5 Even then. in sum." see E. L'Art roman de face et de profil. strange of clothing and all bizarre of equipment. What distinguished them from religious imagery was the reduced relevance of the eschatological perspective so central to religious imagines agentes." quoted from Lusignan (as in n. 6). Overlaps between figures were kept to a minimum. a thing of great dignity or vileness. such as intense. strong oppositional compositions helped to turn many manuscripts into powerful epideictic means to inform the viewer. or friezes. saturated with persuasively didactic intents.C. 7). and "historical 54 For the important distinction between "discourse" narration. in the monumental Bibles moralisees or in manuscripts illustrating Frere Laurent's Somme le roi (Fig. such as battles. Add. sanguinary battles. "The Correlation of Tense in the French Miami. This is evident in such contemporary sources as a representation of Venus (Fig. 410. But what kinds of feelings did secular images elicit? What did the Valois experience when viewing their features. 52 This content downloaded from 190. II. In the late Middle Ages.. and the whole color strongly altering the appearance. elegant social rituals (Fig. 80.Chicago. Le Tympande Conques.48 Thus. despite the development of a continuous space. Analogous in this respect to exempla. inducing the acceptance or repudiation of a positive or a negative model. Thomas Aquinas drew intimate connections between memory. the prestige ascribed to concrete. 284. Furthermore. As prescribed by the ars memorativa. and conversion had 49 "The exemplum to occur immediately. the color also very brilliant and intense. particular repulsiveness (Fig. edifying intentions did not disappear. along with the evolution of vernacular prose. 4).

"59Sublime here. 61 Bozzolo. has calculated that eighty-three percent of French Boccaccio manuscripts were made for the aristocracy. Bibl. Dulac. History & Theory. 1403. 1978. one holds a censer and literally incenses her. 64 The same issue is addressed by Camille. 53-77. English trans. Jeanroy. Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West. Nat.56 For Boccaccio. Boccaccio.57 Venus in particular. 1903.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 85 :. 1982 (Vols. 8) assimilated to a contemporary woman as any other heroine of the cycle. Boston.xxxv. Nat. and the cycle significantly opens with a depiction of Eve (Fig. in Women. Ms fr. repr. 273-279. 6v (photo: Bibl.119. A Survey of MedievalModel Books. Guarino. She occupies both a central and a higher position on the picture plane. MSfr.) the French translation of Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris. 1974. Bozzolo and H. L. 39. 62 Meiss. the Virgin. Des cldresfemmes. See Meiss. Milan. G. C. such as the revival of ephemeral chivalric orders created for "the protection of women" and the fashionable.62 this unprecedented collection of historical and legendary women offered a secular counterpart to hagiographic compendia. by V. see also Freedberg. the paragon of illicit love. 1922. Zaccaria. portraits et statues. 63 Workshop practices suggest that the same cartoncould be used for very different types of figures. Tuttele operedi Giovanni Boccaccio.R.H. 1987. Carnal Knowing. 598. the casuistry of love was endless and it permeated a considerable number of social rituals. von Schlosser. G. "Christine de Pizan and the Atelier of the Master of the Coronation. Regnier-Bohler. 57 On the prescriptive urge exerted by Early Christian authors on women to suppress sexuality and to "become male. all-male gathering known as the Cour d'amour dite de Charles VI. Bibl. Miles. Paris. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .64 The Valois could legitimately delight in pagan am thinking in particular of Joan Kelly's analysis in "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" (1977). Scheller. Bibl.61 Before being recast in more positive terms in Christine de Pizan's sparely illustrated Cit" des dames." MdlangesCharlesCamproux.x." see M. trivial there. IIand IIIin press). 91-106.Montpellier. "Un Mythe didactique chez Christine de Pizan: S6miramis ou la veuve h6roique. 333-338. 96-99 and 206-207."6 The status of pagan deities (Ceres. 315-343. 220-241. 67-93. de Winter. Chamb6ry and Turin. but all remain at a respectable distance. See R. 56 glossing and reinterpreting the text it illustrated. "Zur Kenntnis der kiinstlerischen Uberlieferung im spiten Mittelalter. Sterling. 131) is replaced by a naked Venus in the mid-15th-century example (fig. fol. The miniatures make this proximity especially plain. 58I This content downloaded from 190. The relationship between Christine de Pizan and the Cldres femmes is analyzed by A. an image like this could undermine Boccaccio's intention. etc. Msfr. xxiII. the pictorial telescoping of the classical and the Christian past is a meaningful trait of the aristocratic visual culture of the late Middle Ages: pagan women usurped the forms of saintly figures and endlessly translated the ultimate Christian model. 1974. La Cour Amoureusedite de CharlesVI. ConcerningFamous Women. XLVIII. 1989. Bumgardner.~ 26-: j -~?i --I 8 Eve. 19-50. Nat. On this topic. "Le Simulacre ambigu: Miroirs. 1982. 60Ibid. 12420). Very interestingly. the miniature forgoes allusions to such aspects of Venus's persona. Discrepancies between image and text are always culturally relevant. 59 Huizinga. however." Nouvelle Revue de psychanalyse. Minerva. where the "Youth Betrothed to a Statue" theme in Vincent of Beauvais's Miroir historial provides a significant example of a secular appropriation of a previously Christian motive: the 14th-century statue of Virgin and Child (fig. C. Loyau. surrounded by four men who pay homage to her. 1963. and it is tempting to read the one at hand as an indication of the author's and the patron's divergent inclinations toward women and sexual subjects. In addition to the process of actualization." SecondaMiscellanea di studi e ricerchesul Quattrocento francese. Haarlem. original text ed. certainly did not correspond to the concept of love developed in French courtly society during the "waning of the Middle Ages. since it is often impossible to distinguish pagan from Christian figures without the help of the text.136. Nat." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischenSammlungendes allerhdchsten Kaiserhauses. De mulieribus claris o delle donnefamose.A. 1967. Paris. 598). In order to satisfy the tastes of a French courtly audience. French translation completed in 1402 according to the colophon of the richly illustrated manuscript acquired by Philippe le Hardi from Jacques Raponde (Paris." which Johan Huizinga saw as characterized by a bewildering array of erotic manners. women were deemed unable to confine their sexual desires to the reproductive act and the few exceptions conformed to an allegedly canonical male restraint. 1987. Equally revealing is the analysis of figured objects in medieval literature by D. 1981.' " Romania. carnal sins and feminine nature were indissolubly linked together. the halo. I. 132). 93-105. as are many female characters in the same manuscript.216 on Tue. 1963. 6). 107-119. "Boccace et Christine de Pizan. C. ca. 287-290. 290. was credited with the invention of brothels and the perpetuation of the most lecherous acts.58 Boccaccio's austere moral view in his late career. New Brunswick.' principale source du 'Livre de la Cite des Dames. 60 The very success of a text like the Cleresfemmes among the French aristocracy is illuminating. Paris. and J. attuned to an ecclesiastical perspective rather than to the Decameron's effervescence. She is dressed in an aristocratic blue costume. Le 'De claris mulieribus. 279-338. instead endowing her with all the codified attributes of courtly temptation. 37-52.Chicago and London. as for the entire medieval tradition. A second copy was given shortly afterwards to Jean de Berry (Paris. The EssaysofJoan Kelly. Bozzolo.) is signified by the Christian attribute par excellence.. La Peinture mdie'vale d Paris (1300-1500). 23-25.W. so that the scene seems a forceful contrast to that of the lasciviously clasped couple of the Faits et dits memorablesmanuscript (Fig.

Camille. 158-160. For additional information on this quarrel. burning-as of Froissart.67 Even if not as fanatically minded as Savonarola. Mass. Fourrier. 194v (photo: Bibl.Cambridge. Suleiman. tory) passage The representation of nakedness. vii. while absorbing marital and extramarital love stories in place of the amor Dei. has best analyzed Pygmalion's story within the context of late medieval visual culture. inevitably displaced the question of the interplay between spectators. as in copies of the Decameronor the frontispieces of Valerius Maximus's Faits et dits mimorablesmade for the French aristocracy. 116-122. representations." but his formulation belongs to the same semantic the (albeit more celebrafield-heat. like the courtiers in the Venus image. LeJoli Buisson. "The Virgin's One Bare Breast: Female Nudity and Religious Meaning in Tuscan Early Renaissance Culture.. so that all occasion of vain thoughts may be and removed".R. secular images could turn into overt vehicles of sensual and sexual enticement: "No beryls.348.) did not specify exactly what he meant by "lecherous texts and paintings. the eminent rector of the University of Paris in the early fifteenth century and religious counsellor to the Valois family. saphirs ne dyamans. 65 68 Freedberg. that of Pygmalion. Nude figures surfaced in the margins of manuscripts where they were often cast in a literally perverted form. bad ones lead to dissoluteness. saintly. one might recall that the 13th-century liturgist William Durandus praised the Greek Church for admitting only paintings "from the navel upwards. 66 Camille. as in an endearing image of the uncanny Blemmyae drawn from the Livre des merveilles (Fig. 154-158." was not singled out by Gerson. and referents as it had been posited from at least the twelfth century on in terms of an anagogic ascent of the worshipping viewer to the sacred archetype.Livre des merveilles." Oeuvres completes.'"68 Gerson was clearly alarmed by the proliferation of deceitful imagery produced outside the guarded boundaries of the temple. 13) as well as of exotic or fantastic people. Geneva. esp." exclaimed the poet Jean Froissart when recovering a portrait of a past beloved. P. 71 M.. a major shift in Western visual culture stimulated by new socio-economic conditions and the proliferation of secular products commissioned by laymen. Paris. as Pythagoras said. can heat me more than my image does. 1981. Paris.ed. . For a fine perspective from a philosopher. La parola e il fantasma nella cultura occidentale. J.. and. Stanze. flames.London. trans. manuscript patrons could through a glance caress and possess exemplary but human feminine stereotypes. Agamben. known as the Querelle du Roman de la Rose. see G. secular images. who encouraged people to burn "profane paintings. Miles. The Symbolism of Churches ChurchOrnaments. courtly images did not show naked figures on their own. Nat." The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Glorieux.. Msfr. the duke of Burgundy. Cambridge.216 on Tue. Le Dibat sur le Roman de la Rose./qu'on dist qui areste le fer. topazes. 1967. Because of their proximity to religious models. On the contrary and even more easily.. It is worthwhile to remember that explicit erotic imagery only reemerged at the end of the Middle Ages. which are supposed to stop iron.136. 1966.65 The best known myth of the conflation of image and referent operated by the desiring gaze. This is why sermons are composed and images painted in churches. on Christine de Pizan's side. sapphires or diamonds. 1986. launched by a letter of protestation by Christine de Pizan.69 Yet nakedness appeared only in precise thematic contexts. J.. This content downloaded from 190. 2810. 1843. 8). biblical or otherwise. 67 "Contre le Roman de la Rose. Paris.ed.86 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 exemplary figures and cultivate their taste for the past. the Virgin suckling the Christ Child. especially of women. Saenger (as in n. to condemn the allegory which he obviously knew through illuminated copies: But what can inflame souls more than dissolute words and lecherous texts and paintings? We can observe that good. nakedness was a charged index of lower-class status (Fig. Nat. 70 Another ofJean de Berry's manuscripts. 298-337. according to Paul Saenger. was admirably staged by Jean de Meung at the climatic end of the Roman de la Rose. paintings. 54. and texts inspire devotion. Bibl. vv.66 Now. S../Qui me peuis faire escaufer/Ensi que mon ymage a fet". 607-612. "artists took advantage of the privacy offered by each person's own book of hours to portray erotic scenes unimaginable in public art or publically displayed liturgical texts".. perhaps most often. 9).. carbuncles or loadstones. Meiss. Neale and B.119. Accounts of sexually arousing images (including Pygmalion's statue) as well as the elision between image and prototype are central to Freedberg. Other conditions for exposed bodies included companions sharing the same bed or bath. He .R. On the issue of visual decorum. for. Moreover. intervened. Jean de Meung's piece gave rise to a very interesting debate on literary ethics and poetic license.N. Jean sans Peur./escarboucles ne aymans. 317-377. 9 Blemmyae. and devout words. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1977.. They also migrate into religious manuscripts. which propelled him into an anamnestic dream without fulfilling its promise of her possession. 306. though it might partially coincide with "lechery. A. 1977. Webb. 69 Erotic scenes invade manuscripts toward the middle of the 15th century. 1975. at the end of the fourteenth century.Turin.71 It was as if the late medieval representational regime required a pictorial surrogate for the viewer's gaze upon the unveiled object of desire-perhaps because it was not founded "I1 n'est bericles ne topasse/Rubis. TheMonstrousRaces in MedievalArt and Thought. Mass. 193-208. offered to him by his nephew. 1412. fol. Friedman. Entirely or partially undressed women were depicted surrounded by men (or vice versa) in such contexts as baptisms or other ceremonial functions requiring partial disrobing.. see E. 268. Gerson. Potentially.B.70 As a rule. Hicks.

7' For example. 1956. Bryson 7" N.S. Paris. 1410. sothly for to say/ The remenaunt was wel keuerede to myn pay/ Ryght with a subtyl couercheif of Valence. Given that the Middle Ages interpreted the clothing of Adam and Eve as a punishment. 1972. D. But when Adam disappears.75 The spectator of Eve's image was perfectly able to relish her bodily forms. vetement masculin 'i la fin du Moyen Age. 1985-86. 1975. Watson. translated by the humanist Laurent de Premierfait." Actes du Ier Congres International de l'Histoiredu Costume. see V. 1957. 1987. A Studyin Ideal Form." but rather inscribed it. Compare. further suggests that the multiplication of naked pictorial bodies in Western art should be linked to the suppression of the painter's and viewer's body within the logic of the Gaze as structured by monocular perspective. Endowing costumes with a positively alluring signification was certainly a provocation for moralists. Dressing Eve in a finely crafted. For a complete list of illustrated manuscripts of Boccaccio's works." Studisul Boccaccio. 183-199.. as it were. 190. 113-127. Bibl. not only as a premonitory signal of the shame befalling humankind after the Fall. 10 Adamand Eve. vv. ed. N. v. as opposed to sixteen for the Cleres femmesand fifteen for the Decameron.'" let alone to interpret the surge of it. the erotic play between naked and veiled 72 The relationship between the "little hole" of Brunelleschi's experiment as described by Manetti and Lacan's "mirror stage" is theorized by H. 8). and V. the enclosed garden. It is not possible thus to have nudity coincide with eroticism. 3-29. 1955."" What was to become the ultimate commonplace of Western art. draperies. I. Damisch. 10). Post. fol.New York. Geneva. "La Naissance du vetement masculin moderne. the miniature contradicts the Bible and Boccaccio and the iconographic tradition alike. Eve's textured appeal may have been almost subversive. The Logic of the Gaze. 75The shape of dresses underwent a dramatic change toward the mid. however. but also to avoid their exposure to the beholder of the image. Hollander. and they relentlessly criticized aristocrats displaying exuberant fashions. Eve is as exposed as the prelapsarian Adam listening to her. Seeing throughClothes. Le Point de vue des moralistes.C. Washington. D. Alpers. as in the quite extraordinary image that opens the Cleresfemmes cycle (Fig. 85-188./ Ther was no thikkere cloth of no defense. 129-148. since. and. 283. idem." such images would belong to the latter category.D.F. Meiss. despite the obliteration of her genitals. ed. For a more specific account of the perception of new courtly fashions. Des nobleshommesetfemmes. Laurentde Premierfait's"Des cas des nobleshommesetfemmes." Les Cahiersdu ldopard d'or. onto the pictorial surface itself. and costumes is explored by A. For a brief comment sensitive to gender issues. See P. "Le Boccacedu duc de Berry.M.216 on Tue. seductive garment might have more ambivalent meanings than evident at first glance. 1982. This was customary in medieval images for both sexes. Branca. The historical relationship between nudity. attributes it to the Lugon Master."Chapel Hill. as was the case with the shapeless garments of previous periods. Visionand Painting. deciphered through the bright and clinging textures in the typical close-up imposed by the medium. Gagnebin. L'Origine de la perspective. as a loss. It requires no particular effort. This content downloaded from 190. is analyzed by P.translated in 1414 by Laurent de Premierfait and Antonio of Arezzo. 83-87.72 Following Norman Bryson's suggestion of a historical dualism between representations calling for a "Gaze" as opposed to a "Glance. 40). Dtirer's famous engraving Draftsman Drawing a RecumbentWomen remains the most tantalizing collusion between the (re)invention of nudity and the origin of perspective. Broude and M. see 0.136. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Kirkham. Manchester.74 Her body is erotically detailed. the Cleresfemmesimage of Venus to an almost contemporary literary description of Venus given by Chaucer: "And nakyd from the brest unto the hede/Men myghte hyre sen. and the shut door clear traces of this obliteration. 76 As implied by the very biased terminological distinction between nude and nakedness introduced by K. "Vetement f6minin. P. "Boccaccio visualizzato. 1968. New York. another biographical collection mostly dedicated to the changing fortunes of famous historical figures. "Art History and Its Exclusions: The Example of Dutch Art. Eve's clothes Boccaccio. Blanc. 94. xv. Publique et Universitaire MSfr. 1983. Bryson. 1974. in a miniature from a copy offered to the duc de Berry of Boccaccio's Des nobles hommesetfemmes (Fig." Genava. 74 B. for instance.L. sixty-nine copies have come down to us. 243-251. esp. 269-273. see S. according to Bozzolo." Feminismand Art History.119. who unfortunately skips the Middle Ages almost entirely. By dressing Eve before the Fall has actually happened.L'Enluminure(as in n. for the portrayal of both the cause (apple offered by serpent) and the consequence (awareness of nakedness) of the Fall does not dictate this choice of a contemporary. courtly costume to shape Eve into an acceptable didactic model instead of the embodiment of Original Sin.14th century with the spread of the short male costume. 7v (photo: BPU) on the "peeping gaze" postulated by Brunelleschi's costruzione legittima. Brewer. This must have been Boccaccio's most successful work in 15th-century France. Elaborate costumes sculptured the body into an artifice that emphasized erotic zones rather than concealing them. Clark. This cannot be explained in terms of narrative necessity. The text. Garrard. 77 The Parlement of Foulys. The Nude.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 87 rr I- s -~ 3. for they did not "bracket out the process of viewing. without paying attention to different representational practices in this period. 1990. Gathercole. to perceive in the vertical towers and trees.

1990. Des clhresfemmes.D. in respect of erotic expression. "Titian."8 it is certain that the ever-increasing presence of nakedness pictorial intimatelyparticipatedin the transformation of the ways of seeing at the end of the Middle Ages. 616. The most systematic attack on sexually arousing images was formulated by Johannes Molanus in the De picturis et imaginibus sacris published in 1570. 8" Huizinga. visual systems of this period were regulated by the carefully orchestrated disclosure of terrestrialthings. 36r (photo: Bibl.iou . The most far-reaching conclusions on the history of sexuality in Western society are still to be drawn from M. . 82 On medieval attitudes toward sexuality. The pictorial and historical differences between the draped Venus of the Cleres femmesand later representations. Bibl. 12 Minerva. could be expressed in words but not in secular images. . ca. Nat. ArtemisiaGentileschi. Gilbert. TheHistoryof Sexuality. such as naked women and the like. :: 41 --Tw . and other heroines are to be found in H. and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. remember. such as Botticelli's floating goddess. 1989. 75-87. Venus.New York. 598. relish. but it came too late and was doomed to remain ineffective. 1403." Art Bulletin. Womenin Renaissanceand BaroquePrints.C. 229-245. cat. not because of their beauty but because of their arrangement. Paris.136. cannot be identified merely with the presence or absence of erotic contents. Sex. Washington. National Gallery of Art. . 79Translated and discussed by C.Clues.. fol. . XLI..I Nat.1. But what fictions did miniatures reveal to the noble eye? Late medieval miniatures evinced a world governed by order. Garrard. MSfr.216 on Tue. Chicago.D. Paris. "Johannes Molanus on Provocative Paintings. Bibl.Princeton. although his examples date from after the middle of the century. See D.. Saint Antoninus's condemnation of heterodox representations of the Trinity are well known. miniatures captivated the eyes. On a purely perceptual level. Gaston Phebus.Nat. 315-316. Based on an aesthetic of contained profusion.7' are even more self-evident. naked women were common in theatrical representations and tableauxvivants. Law."' secular miniatures initiated an irreversible reorganization of desiring perception by dissociating (sometimes against the texts) the customary links between profane vision. and analogous to the shift from Gerson's generic aversion to licentious images to Saint Antoninus of Florence's pithy stigmatization of artists who created images that stirred the libido. MS fr. as if they represented similar deviations from the official canon.. 1971."Journal of the Warburgand Courtauld Institutes. and thus into another kind of regulation.119. 77-95.. Ovid and Sixteenth-Century Codes for Erotic Illustration.Emblems. which the Church had repressed for centuries. fol. Foucault. . Eva/Ave. yet were less prolific than Renaissance manu- This content downloaded from 190.) 11 Cats. slowly escaped from its control and migrated into the secular domain. 80 The proliferation of nude women in Renaissance paintings as legitimized cultural objects responding to male scopic drives is taken up by M. exh. 1959. and 78 More unusual examples of Eve. "The Archbishop on the Painters of Florence. a musicathat punctuated the text and introduced visual pauses where the gaze could rest. the exfoliation of a lavishly illuminated manuscript. C.. They exhibited a larger spectrum of realia than thirteenth-century Gothic manuscripts. 1990." On the contrary. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Russell. Along with other social forms of representation. Boccaccio.) dream.A. by either closely linking it to sin or by spiritualizing it. xxxiv." Myths."79 Even if the precise history of the advent of naked (female) bodies as the foremost locus of sexual desire still remains to be written. Nat.82 But the sensual pleasures induced by the turning of pages. Brundage. Both theologians associated "lecherous"pictures with innovative religious iconography.. notes the "restraint displayed in fifteenth-century art. Livrede la chasse. but the censure directed towardthe first type of images deserves to be quoted: "They [the painters] are at fault when they make images that provoke to desire. and women. 1978. 13r (photo: Bibl. Ginzburg. see J. Erotic desire. Miniatures lured because they produced a rhythmical sequence.88 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 limbs. learn. for the scintillating layout of colors enhanced manuscripts that otherwise would have remained monotonously covered with dark patterns of written signs.. . 1410. 1450. D. vices.... Freedberg. 1987.

" Art Bulletin. 154. "Menu pictures. Kans. 87The basic study on Jean de Berry remains F. weaving. 367. and social knowledge visible-and able. Other manuscripts. 70). Lawrence. they represent a fantasy of absolute social domination. Friedman has aptly called them. Late medieval visual systems devised their own organizational codes to posit reality." as John B. Banton. 4 vols. Because of this capacity to categorize reality. meticulous inventories described not only the physical aspect of manuscripts.) reflect this reality. but codified and perpetuated an ideal world of order. Aby Warburg's analysis of the cultural sadism involved in the figuration of peasants for the nobles remains exemplary: "Arbeitende Bauern auf Burgundischen Teppichen" (1907). are displayed in a number of stereotypical attitudes. duc de Berry(1360-1416).ca. and specifically so in Jean de Berry's domains. the late medieval world was in a state of permanent social unrest. Lehoux. 1974. duc de Berri.83 Such images literally transformed textual enumerations into visual collections of real and imaginary beings. and thus to suture lacunary experiences. late medieval rulers also ensured their proper survival in the libraries and memories of future generations. 1984. 86 In spite of its brevity. legislating the objects that mediated between the human and the divine. encouraged an imaginary capture of the social order and the feminine alike. such as the Chlresfemmes. the Church regulated or attempted to control the visual domain defined as sacred. de 1966-68. and the production of oil. or gender relations. Paris. 112-153. 85According to the distinction formulated by C. as denizens of visual myth.87 Images did not IA . Calkins. Lacour. Taxonomy was. 1966. 1932.86 The self-absorbed peasants.85 as evident in a scrupulously organized calendar miniature from Jean de Berry's Tr6s Riches Heures (Fig. from the workshop into the collection. 11). the apprehension of the world-as-representation was certainly a major power. See also R. mathematics. More pertinent on this topic is R. Sa Vie. London.119. of belle ordonnance.G.216 on Tue." Anthropological Approachesto the Study of Religion.. Manuscripts of Gaston Ph6bus's Livre de la chasse (Fig. emblematically represented in one instance by Minerva (Fig. These objects were not only material. 84 Meiss. Paris. Leipzig. and esp. Chantilly. tamed wild animals by subduing them within the order of a directory and by displaying them in space for an all-embracing perception. laboring under the panoptic gaze of a castle. Geertz. 7v (photo: Giraudon/Art Resource. 1411-16.136. inherited from the classical "8Friedman (as in n. "Labeurand Paresse: Ideological Representations of Medieval Peasant Labor. 3. 13). Le Gouvernement I'apanagedejean. 436-452. 221-230. Gesammelte Schriften. TresRichesHeures dejean de Berry. N. the Christian past and present.Y. 12). ethnic. "Fields and Fortresses in the Tres Riches Heures. the fascinating Livre des merveilles (Fig. By classifying and tracking the objects they deemed worthy of enriching their environment and their memory. During the entire Middle Ages. Secular images were not portrayals of actual social.84 for instance. LXXII. made objects of natural. M." Programs of Medieval Illumination. Son Action politique (1340-1416). the saintly dead and living. In a society in which images were a relatively rare cultural good. a strategy consistent with the only way the medieval West could represent the pagans. 1-46. Jean de France. but functioned as models both of and for reality. 1934. For the Valois. Alexander. the goddess credited with the invention of music. Emblems of faceless productivity.MANUSCRIPTS IN LATE MEDIEVAL COURTLY SOCIETY 89 scripts and paintings in which narrative and mimetic primacy produced a decisive increase of elements governed by perspectiva's rule. 13 July. since the multifaceted concept of imago or simulacrum. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but also their circulation from one hand to another. Musde Cond6 Ms 65. 9) domesticated the exotic Other by making it conform to a long-established tradition of mirabilia. Ironically. the accumulation of books and miniatures both necessitated the creation of archives and gained meaning from entering such sanctuaries. operating in texts and social practices as well. were a common idiom in manuscripts produced for the Valois. of course. ed. ordered hierarchically according to specific spatial and chromatic devices. the compensatory profits offered by such miniatures should be remembered when considering representational strategies of the Late Middle Ages. the incisive account by J.. "Religion as Cultural System. to impose an order where there appeared to be none. geothus consumgraphic. 1990. as the astounding increase of illuminated manuscripts among the Valois attests. to categorize beings and events. This content downloaded from 190. Miniatures. fol. Like a sort of pre-colonial sales catalogue.

from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris. Hopman.M. What is certain. Meiss. then. The different functions of such images have been separated for the clarity of the argument. and "The Sculptures of Souillac" (1939). as in the representations of the labors of the months affixed to Gothic cathedral fagades. Collecting was a taxonomic act that permitted the elaboration of a class-specific memory. (Cambridge and Theory zn theHzstory of Freedberg.. Response. the variety of newly illustrated texts was instrumental in dividing the visual realm into thematic sectors. securing for viewers a certain control over the imaginary organization of the visible. TheLzmbourgs zntheTzme . rather. relics. taxonomic. exemplary. etc. 24). As such. If the very distinction between secular and religious is problematic. mankind's likeness to God. they played a prominent part in the identity formation of the upper ranks of late medieval society. "Th6orie et pratique de l'image sainte a la veille de la R6forme. they secured objects that devised a historical memory.J. courtly audiences of the late Middle Ages ruled over the fate of vernacular texts and profane visual spectacles.89 Laymen.1985. apparitions. and solidified them into discursive lines different from those articulated by religious imagery. Londonand NewYork. 1-55 and 102-130 respectively. Master. duc de Bourgogne le Hardz. were allowed to manipulate such objects only by delegation (though they could be appropriated or.M. and London andThezr 2 vols. The mutually reinforcing effects and affects mobilized by this imagery generated an aristocratic visual tradition engaged in everchanging confrontations with the pictorial propositions emanating from other social groups.D. TheWanzng Huizinga. F. In the competition for the power of images and power over them. (XVime and Image-makzng Idol. ofLzfe. A Studyof Memory zn Medzeval Carruthers. also embraced immaterial images (Christ as an image of the Father. for a host of fascinating examples of the mutual contamination of things spiritual and things temporal.NewYork. The Bookof Memory.216 on Tue. if not anachronistic. 2). She has published in Europeanjournals. French Pazntzng ofJeande Berry. even within the chronological and geographic limits of this article. and is presentlyat work on a bookon thefirst manuscriptof the Clkres femmes [Smith College. Fig.. ThePowerof Images. as objects of knowledge. expropriated. Crucifix. 01063]. a more socially diverse range of consumers. and ideological functions delineated in this essay do not cover the entire field of semantic action for secular images. aesthetic.1989. J. znMedzeval Camille. TheGothzc Cambridge. power. except for some holy emperors and kings.. See. 2.. La Bzblzotheque a apezntures surlesmanuscrzts d'une (1364-1404).2 vols.D.90 THE ART BULLETIN MARCH 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 1 eikon and eidolon88and repositioned by early medieval patristics. szecle). d'Humanzsme Biblzotheque drawn attention to the 90 Meyer Schapiro. andXVth andtheNetherlands Centurzes zntheXIVth znFrance (1924).1989.Studzes Chicago. "On the Aesthetic Attitude in Romanesque Art" (as in n. 1986. incarnated the exotic unknown. Cambridge. bas-de-pages. Wirth.136. and pleasure. the considerable increase of available images responded to. French zn the Tzme ofJean de Berry. Internatzonal. each of which addressed different communities and corresponded to specific modes of visual manipulation. Londonand New Century York. dreams.... 1967. See also Huizinga. Secular images thus became a strategic site of economic. and structured social relations shaken in actuality by anonymous producers of goods. de. at least partially. M. were not passive illustrations of texts or mirrors of existing cultural patterns. human passions. Culture Lzterature. cultural and affective investment for the aristocracy.P. The economic. 1983. By the late Middle Ages. erotic. XLVIII. see J. Furthermore.. visions. The very proliferation of secular images was itself a source of pleasurable power. C. London.90 it is certainly true that in late medieval art many pictorial subjects were increasingly disconnected from a religious framework and recast. Contemporarzes. Etude prznczdre collectzon dustyle"Gothzque Paris. both in Romanesque Art. etc).Ideology Art. the religious realm absorbed all secular motifs and themes. embodied the desires and fears inspired by the female. 89 For the status of art objects within the sacramental system. andArt A Study Thought oftheMzddle Ages. Sacred imagines belonged to a system of devices capable of setting in motion the redeeming translatio from worldly to divine matters through the sacraments and the sacramentalia (Eucharist. New York. however. Myth and Thought among the Greeks.M. they incorporated thoughts. miniatures "" As discussed by J. Frequently Cited Sources de Boccace des traductzons d'oeuvres Bozzolo.P.1990. New York. has repeatedly pressure exerted by secular tendencies within ecclesiastical art. de Phzlzppe Winter. 1977. 25 Jun 2013 17:01:45 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Studzes znMedieval x). as shown by the solitary but intense dialogue between Jean de Berry and the Virgin in the Petites Heures. 156165. Until then. is that there is no such thing as a finite list of the workings of the visual. TheBouczcaut 1968.). 319-358. 1974.1954. even better.119. Northampton. and fostered in return. including M6di6vales and Studi sul Boccaccio. for instance. into autonomous visual territories. or in marginalia. fears and desires." l'Vpoque This content downloaded from 190.TheLate Pazntzng andthePatronage Fourteenth oftheDuke.1974. Manuscrzts franpazses Padua. until the thirteenth century. Vernant. who allied themselves or competed according to the fluctuations of the art market. Mass. phantasms. trans. sacred vases. and other frames for sacred subjects in manuscripts. French zntheTzme Pazntzng ofJeande Berry. Brigitte Buettner received her Ph." et Renazssance. but evidently they operated simultaneously. mnemonic.

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