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Matakuliah Tahun Versi

: T0234 / Sistem Informasi Geografi : 2005 : 01/revisi 1

Pertemuan 01 Definisi, Karakteristik, Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografi (SIG)

1

Learning Outcomes
Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu :

• Menjelaskan mengenai konsep dasar, keunggulan, karakteristik dan contohcontoh aplikasi SIG (C2 , TIK-01)

2

Outline Materi

• • • •

Materi 1 : Definisi SIG Materi 2 : Keunggulan SIG Materi 3 : Karakteristik SIG Materi 4 : Contoh Aplikasi SIG

3

Definisi SIG (1)
• Menurut Rhind (1989).
A computer system that can hold and use data describing places on the Earth’ surfaces.

• Menurut Burrough (1986)
A set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming, and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes.

4

Definisi SIG (2)
• Menurut Prof. Jacob Rais (2001)
Sistem Informasi berbasis komputer dengan memakai data digital berujuk pada lokasi geografis di muka bumi.

• Menurut ESRI ( ESRI White Paper, 2001 )
A computer software that links geographic information (where things are) with descriptive information (what things are).

• Lainnya,
Lihat buku referensi. (Eddy Prahasta : “Konsep-konsep Dasar SIG”, hal.56-57, 2001, dsb.)
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Definisi SIG (3) Geographic Information Systems
Describing Our World
• We can describe any element of our world in two ways:
Location Information:

Attribute Information:

Where is it?

What is it?

Species: Oak Height: 15m Age: 75 Yrs 51°N, 112°W

6

Definisi SIG (4)
ESRI Canada :

GIS is a system of computer software, hardware and data, and personnel to help manipulate, analyze and present information that is tied to a spatial location. • Spatial location – usually a geographic location • Information – visualization of analysis of data • System – linking software, hardware, data • Personnel – a thinking explorer who is key to the power of GIS

GIS : A method to visualize, manipulate, analyze, and display spatial data
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Definisi SIG (5)
http://www.gis.com :

GIS is a technology that is used to view and analyze data from a geographic perspective. The technology is a piece of an organization's overall information system framework. GIS links location to information (such as people to addresses, buildings to parcels, or streets within a network) and layers that information to give you a better understanding of how it all interrelates. You choose what layers to combine based on your purpose.

Within a few hours of the destruction of Space Shuttle Columbia, GIS accurately modeled the shuttle's debris location and distribution. (see this image)
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Definisi SIG (6)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com) A GIS is most often associated with maps. A map, however, is only one of three ways a GIS can be used to work with geographic information. These three ways are: 1. The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the world—a geographic database (geo-database). It is an "Information System for Geography." Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms.

9

Definisi SIG (7)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com) 2. The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. This is called geovisualization.

10

Definisi SIG (8)
Three Views of a GIS (http://www.gis.com) 3. The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.

11

Keunggulan SIG (1)
• Kemudahan & Kecepatan Akses Data yang bervolume besar • Kemampuan untuk :
 Mencari detil berdasarkan area atau thema  Membuat link ke data set lain  Menganalisa karakteristik spasial dari data  Melakukan update data dengan cepat & murah

• Menghasilkan output sesuai kebutuhan :
Peta, Grafik, Daftar Alamat, Ringkasan data statistik , dsb.
12

Keunggulan SIG (2)
• Kemudahan & Kecepatan Akses Data yang bervolume besar
GIS contains many layers of information:
These are just a few of the kinds of layers a GIS can contain: • Base Map Data • Elevation • Surface Geology

13

Keunggulan SIG (3)
• Kemampuan untuk membuat link ke data set lain

GIS software links the location data and the attribute data:

14

Keunggulan SIG (4)
• Kemampuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik spasial
Attribute Questions:

GIS software can answer questions about our world:
Spatial Questions:
What provinces border Saskatchewan?

What provinces have more than 1.5 million people?

15

Keunggulan SIG (5)
• Kemampuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik spasial

GIS can analyze data in many ways:

16

Keunggulan SIG (6)
• Menghasilkan output sesuai kebutuhan :
Peta, Grafik, Daftar Alamat, Ringkasan data statistik, dsb.
Data Statistik

1 2 3 4

BPPT Jl Thamrin No.8 wilayah Kominfo Luas Jl Medan Merdeka kepadatan Garuda Rata-rata Jl Medan Merdeka GDP Sari Pan Jl Thamrin
UMR

230 km 120 org/km 100 760.000

17

Karakteristik SIG (1)
• Kombinasi data spasial & non-spasial
YOUR CHOICE:
TABULAR DATA?
State Johor Kedah Kelantan Melaka Population (1991) 2,074,297 1,304,800 1,181,680 504,502

OR MAP?
18

Karakteristik SIG (2)
• Kemampuan manipulasi data untuk berbagai aplikasi

• Base Map Data • Elevation • Surface Geology

19

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (1)
• • • • • • • • Environmental Public Utilities Agriculture Marketing Park Management Health Care Real Estate Emergency
20

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (2)
• Environmental

• What are the effects of Global Warming?

Land cover and temperature relationships are made clear when the data are seen at once using Geotechnology.

21

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (3)
• Public Utilities

• Is it safe to dig here?

A proposed excavation, identified by address, is compared to pipelines in the area using Geotechnology.
22

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (4)
• Agriculture

• How can I improve food production?
Geotechnology is used in making crop management decisions to maximize yields and minimize fertilizer input.
23

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (5)
• Marketing

• How can I optimize my Marketing Campaign?
Geotechnology can query a database and identify only those areas with the highest household income within a specified distance of a store.

24

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (6)
• Park Management

• Will the new building spoil the Park Scenery?
Park planners use Geotechnology to determine if a new Visitor Centre can be seen from the peak.
25

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (7)
• Health Care

• What Communities are at risk from Disease?
Geotechnology identifies communities at risk of River Blindness and helps determine the impact of treatment.

26

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (8)
• Real Estate

• Where is my Dream Home?
With Geotechnology, an agent can show a map of a neighborhood and a picture or video of the actual properties.
27

Contoh Aplikasi SIG (9)
• Emergency

• What is the fastest route to the Hospital?
Geotechnology can choose the fastest route to a hospital. The GIS can take into account traffic and other impediments.

28

Penutup
• Mahasiswa diharapkan telah memahami konsep-konsep dasar SIG, khususnya : Definisi, Keunggulan, Karakteristik, Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografi.

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