KDN PP11720/01/2010(023647) ISSN 0128-4347 VOL.43 SEPT-NOV 2009 RM10.00

Volume 43 Sept - Nov 2009


President’s Message Editor’s Note Announcement
Pelaksanaan One Stop Centre (OSC) Online Publication Calender




Cover Feature
Occupational Safety And Health Forensics

15 Safety And Health In Road Transportation 18 Safety And Health Assessment System In Construction


Engineering & Law 21 The PAM Contract 2006 At A Glance

Feature 23 Legislative Approach To Water Quality Management In
Malaysia – Success And Challenges

28 Economic Value Of Wild Bees In Honey Collection From The Forest


33 Good Animal Husbandry Practice 37 Centralized And Decentralized Wastewater Management In Malaysia – Experiences And Challenges (Part 2) 45 Safety of Electrical Workers 49 Treatment of Timber In Housing For Safe Occupation


Engineering Nostalgia 54 A Mega Project In The 1970s – Temengor Hydro
Electric Project

55 Kuala Lumpur In The 1950s – Jalan Medan Pasar

president’s message
KDN PP11720/01/2010(023647) ISSN 0128-4347

Vol. 43 Sept - Nov 2009 MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA (BEM) 2009/2010 President YBhg. Dato’ Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Judin Abdul Karim Secretary Ir. Ruslan Abdul Aziz Registrar Ir. Hizamul-Din Ab. Rahman Members YBhg Tan Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Mohd Zulkifli bin Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali YBhg Dato’ Ir. Hj. Ahmad Husaini bin Sulaiman YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Abdul Rashid Maidin YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Dr Johari bin Basri YBhg. Datuk (Dr) Ir. Abdul Rahim Hj. Hashim YBhg. Brig. Jen. Dato’ Pahlawan Ir. Abdul Nasser bin Ahmad YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Prof. Dr Chuah Hean Teik YBhg. Datuk Ir. Anjin Hj Ajik YBhg. Datuk Ar. Dr Amer Hamzah Mohd Yunus Ir. Wong Siu Hieng Ir. Mohd Rousdin bin Hassan Ir. Prof. Dr Ruslan bin Hassan Ir. Tan Yean Chin Ir. Vincent Chen Kim Kieong Ir. Chong Pick Eng Mr Jaafar bin Shahidan EDITORIAL BOARD Advisor YBhg. Dato’ Sri Prof. Ir. Dr Judin Abdul Karim Secretary Ir. Ruslan Abdul Aziz Chairman YBhg. Dato’ Ir. Abdul Rashid bin Maidin Editor Ir. Fong Tian Yong Members Prof. Sr. Ir. Dr Suhaimi bin Abdul Talib Ir. Ishak bin Abdul Rahman Ir. Prof. Dr K.S. Kannan Ir. Mustaza bin Salim Ir. Prem Kumar Ir. Mohd Rasid Osman Ir. Dr Zuhairi Abdul Hamid Ir. Ali Askar bin Sher Mohamad Ir. Rocky Wong Executive Director Ir. Ashari Mohd Yakub Publication Officer Pn. Nik Kamaliah Nik Abdul Rahman Assistant Publication Officer Pn. Che Asiah Mohamad Ali Design and Production Inforeach Communications Sdn Bhd Printer Art Printing Works Sdn Bhd 29 Jalan Riong, 59100 Kuala Lumpur The Ingenieur is published by the Board of Engineers Malaysia (Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia) and is distributed free of charge to registered Professional Engineers. The statements and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the writers. BEM invites all registered engineers to contribute articles or send their views and comments to the following address: Commnunication & IT Dept. Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia, Tingkat 17, Ibu Pejabat JKR, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50580 Kuala Lumpur. Tel: 03-2698 0590 Fax: 03-2692 5017 E-mail: bem1@streamyx.com; publication@bem.org.my Website: http://www.bem.org.my Advertising Subscription Form is on page 48 Advertisement Form is on page 56

As the nation continues on its way to fully developed status, the health and welfare of its workforce become ever more important. The role of engineers in ensuring safety and health cannot be overstated, whether directly as safety officers, designers or as engineers in maintenance of plant and equipment. The Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994 (OSHA) makes it obligatory for the designer of buildings as well as plants to ensure that they are safe for use. Safety and health matters encompass almost every aspect of engineering works from the simple electronic assembly factory to utilities, industries and complex construction works. Many shop drawings require sound engineering input on good method statement. Engineers can no longer leave it to contractors alone to ensure work site safety. Work site accident rate can be reduced further if all stakeholders go the extra mile to give due priority to safety and health matters. The costs resulting from an accident such as medical and insurance payments can be exorbitant. Where it results in loss of human lives, the anguish of the victim’s family is tremendous. As the pace of technological advancement continues its steep upward curve, engineers will be expected to come up with innovative measures to address safety and health issues. I hope that the recently introduced Safety and Health Assessment System in Construction developed by CIBD will enhance the overall safety and health standard in our construction sites and all other work places. More standards and guidelines in other work places should be drawn up as the safety and health of our work force cannot be compromised. Dato’ Sri Prof Ir. Dr. Judin bin Abdul Karim President BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA

editor’s note
The recent spate of building failures has attracted wide publicity in the press. Engineers as usual are conveniently associated with these mishaps. Public perception of engineer’s role and competencies with respect to the above should remind us to revisit the safety and health aspects of our design and supervision works. The work of Occupational Safety and Health Forensics is well highlighted in an article from DOSH. The Construction Industry Standard on Safety and Health Assessment System in Construction (SHASSIC) paper provides an insight into the important aspects of site assessment that should be of interest to the construction site management team. As the year end is always linked to monsoons and natural mishaps, we hope extra effort will be given to mitigating foreseeable landslides through better management of safety and health measures. Ir Fong Tian Yong Editor


BOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIA CIRCULAR NO. 1/2009 Kepada Semua Jurutera Profesional,

Reference is made to the amendment and implementation of the First Schedule of the Stamp Act 1949 (act) which came into effect from 1st January 2009. Consequential to this amendment, all service agreements of the construction industry are now chargeable with an ad valorem stamp duty at the rate of RM5.00 for every RM1,000.00, or part thereof, of the total contract value. Prior to that, the stamp duty for such contract was a standard fixed sum of RM10.00. The Board is of the view that Stamp Duty, similar to Service Tax, is not part and parcel of the fees payable to an engineering consultant for services rendered to a client. As such, Stamp Duty shall be borne by the client. Should ‘BEM FORM (1999) – BEM MODEL FORM OF MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN CLIENT AND CONSULTING ENGINEER FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES’ is used, engineers are advised to insert the following new clause under General Conditions prior to signing the agreement :Clause 11.9 The Client shall be responsible for paying any Stamp Duty arising from the signature and executive of the Agreement. [269th Board Meeting / 12th May 2009]

Susulan Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Tetap Pengaduan Awam Bil. 1/2009 yang dipengerusikan oleh Y.Bhg. Tan Sri KSN, Jabatan Kerajaan Tempatan telah menganjurkan satu mesyuarat yang turut dihadiri oleh wakil Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia (LJM), Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM), REHDA dan Lembaga Perancang Bandar dan Desa membincangkan isu keseragaman pelan-pelan yang akan dikemukakan oleh submitting person bagi pelaksanaan OSC online. Mesyuarat tersebut bersetuju agar keperluan-keperluan berikut diambil kira:1. Menunjukkan lokasi Pencawang TNB dan Sewerage Treatment Plant di dalam pelan susunatur; 2. Menunjukkan lokasi tangki septik individu di dalam pelan bangunan; serta 3. Menunjukkan lokasi feeder pillar dan fire hydrant di dalam pelan jalan dan parit. Pelan-pelan ini akan menjadi sebahagian daripada Perjanjian Jual Beli yang ditandatangani. Semua Jurutera adalah diingatkan untuk mematuhi keperluan-keperluan di atas. Sekian. Saya Yang Menurut Perintah, Setiausaha Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia.



cover feature

Occupational Safety And Health Forensics
By Ke Geok Chuan Director, Forensic Engineering Division, DOSH, Malaysia The paper will explain occupational safety and health forensics and how forensic engineering approach and methodology can be used for occupational safety and health forensic investigations. It will then touch on the beginning of the Forensic Engineering Division under the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), its activities and the investigative processes involved. This will be followed with examples on occupational safety and health forensic investigations that had been conducted. Finally, this paper will elaborate what has been achieved, and how resultoriented investigations on workplace accident allow DOSH to respond proactively to such matter of interest, with the issuance of further policy directive or action.


orensic comes from the Latin word ‘forensis’ meaning ‘public’ and in those early days, cases were brought to the public square or forum to be discussed and resolved. Nowadays, it refers to facts pertaining to or fitted for legal or public argumentation in the courts of law.1 R e a d e r s w i l l b e g ive n a n overview of occupational safety an d h eal th fo ren si cs, in th e context of science-based techniques and processes that are applied to obtain crucial and relevant i n f o r m a t i o n a n d f a c t s wh e n undertaking investigation into the accidents (of myriad nature and characteristics) in the workplacesstructural collapse, combustible dust explosion, catastrophic failure of pressurized vessel, toxic gas release or occupational hygiene malaise. Such forensic findings can then be used and contended later in the law court, or formal argumentation.

Scene of Jaya Supermarket building collapse

Questions that occupational safety and health forensics seek to answer are: (i) How did the workplace accident or occupational poisoning malaise happen and whether it is accidental or due to negligence? (ii) Why the building or structure collapse in a progressive manner?

(iii) What are the items, exhibits or evidence are to be discovered, recovered, collected, bagged, tagged and preserved for eventual analysis in the accredited testing laboratory? (iv) What on-site monitoring measurements are to be recorded in case of toxic gas releases, and the techniques used?

and ● Using validated computer software for engineering analysis or modelling. under the Department of . THE INGENIEUR 9 Background on Forensic Engineering Division Th e Fo r e n s i c E n g i n e e r i n g Division was set up on June 1. written records of inspection. 2005. repair and maintenance. findings and recordings at the scene of accident or plant wreckage. Occupational Safety and Health. Presently. C o n s e q u e n t l y. Each section is headed by a senior officer who then reports to the divisional director. (iii) Occupational Hygiene. Kuala Lumpur. Such answers cannot be underpinned through classical investigation due to its underlying limitations. materials. testimony at hearings and trials i n a d m i n i s t ra t ive o r j u d i c i a l proceedings. contract documents. and (v) Laboratory Testing. ● Physical samples or evidence collected from the scene of accident. while work is in process in the work area? (vii) What nature of work was undertaken before and during the accident? These answers can be found by conducting occupational safety and health forensic investigations through the forensic engineering a p p r o a ch wh i ch i s o n e o f the fields of expertise under forensic science. ● On-site sampling or measurement readings using validated rapid-test investigation kits for transient or physical samples. structure or plant drawings and calculations. it has 11 officers who are from various technical disciplines and background and is housed in the Department’s head office. products.cover feature (v) Who occupied the workplace and had control and duty of care over it? (vi) When and where it happened. for example. photographs. Their driver escaped unscathed. (iv) Petrochemical. structures or components in the workplaces. ● The documentary records and statements from the witnesses or any knowledgeable persons. The accident caused the death of an influential corporate director and caused serious injuries to his wife. Ministry of Human Resources. site CCTV tapes. Using this approach means using the art and science of engineering in identifying the root or basic causes of the accidents involving plants. o b t a i n i n g information and facts judiciously on the accident will allow preparation of complete engineering reports. There are five sections under the division. 2007. involving the fall of a piece of heavy formwork from a building under construction on a car in Sri Hartamas.2 ● Initial site observations. (ii) Construction engineering. aerial or land survey of the area. sketches of the work accident scene. Specifically. there are various sources of information and facts that can be obtained when conducting a forensic engineering investigation. namely:(i) Mechanical engineering. technical information copied from computer hard discs. to simulate and understand the mode and m e ch a n i s m o f t h e a c c i d e n t structural failure. Th e d e c i s i o n t o s e t u p t h e d iv i s i o n c a m e f r o m C a b i n e t after the high-profile accident case on December 30. building. and the rendition of further policy directives by the department with regards to the preventive measures affecting life and property. toxic gas releases or explosion. and the results obtained Figure 1 Statistics of Fatality Accident by sectors by DOSH later from accredited testing laboratory.

cover feature Roles and responsibilities of Forensic Engineering Division Th e D i v i s i o n u n d e r t a k e s and leads forensic engineering investigations into high-profile accident cases. and also provides casework support and assistance to the investigating officers from regional offices for cases which are highly technical and complex in nature. assists law courts by giving expert opinion in the determination of cases when subpoena is received by the officer. t h e division can be called by other Government departments to assist in the investigation of collapse of building structure. W h e n n e c e s s a r y. Figure 3 Basic OSH framework managemet system based on OHSAS18001 10 THE INGENIEUR . fatalities at the Figure 2 Negative impacts due to incident at workplace.

the division’s involvement in such accident cases in the past two years. through report preparation to adjudication and tends to be holistic. is frequently successfully challenged when contrary evidence based on multiple forensic approaches is introduced. The most successful forensic engineering investigations rely on the approach of selecting the most applicable scientific techniques from numerous methodologies.cover feature Figure 4 The objectives of Construction Design Management Regulations workplace. When forensic evidence is arrayed as multiple. and new tools.2 Attention has to be given during the collection of evidence in the accident scene to ensure that the strict requirement of chain of custody is upheld at all times. exclusive of other available tools. A few cases are still pending. Otherwise. and premature failure of completed building system and machinery. Reconstruction of the accident or event will be conducted after Figure 5 CHAIR Process THE INGENIEUR 11 . involving multiple disciplines. a stronger scientific case. Also. but independent lines of evidence. Forensic Engineering Investigation Process Forensic engineering investigation starts from initial site visit. a variety of old tools (used in the new ways). This comes about when the defendant can raise reasonable doubt on the management of the exhibits that have been identified and collected. the case exhibits or samples that have been collected even though relevant to the investigation can be held inadmissible later in the courts of law. Written protocol on the need for forensic engineering services during investigation have been established and communicated clearly to divisional and regional officers. the division has notched several casework successes. Since its inception. investigation officers from regional offices will lead investigations but the provision of specialized investigative services for complex or intricate cases will be provided by the Forensic Engineering Division. have contributed and helped the regional offices to reduce the number of cold or unresolved cases. An investigation relying on the results of single forensic techniques. awaiting the decisions of the courts. less susceptible to scientific challenge emerges. About four completed cases have been decided by the courts and the responsible party or parties have been fined and sanctioned. In all workplace accidents.

Tampoi in June 2007 which caused three fatalities. Through such joint investigative actions. In the latter case. the underlying causes for the . Examples are: the sudden collapse of elevated temporary loading platform at the Kipmart building project site. and costly production outages.Klang with one fatality. cascading collapse and failure of several TNB transmission towers during stringing and tensioning of metal conductors on April 14. Since its inception. failure of temporary gondola or motorized loading platform equipment in early 2008 which caused the death of three construction workers in Bukit Antarabangsa. which should lead to more definitive findings and less scope for experts to disagree. massive damage to production facility. leading to greater formalization of investigation methods. the Division has investigated a number of interesting and highly technical cases involving construction or engineering activities. It is expected that some of these cases can become extremely protracted. the Division led the forensic engineering investigation into the accident and the reports have been completed and made available to other Government departments for further deliberation. fire on two bulk storage tanks at the petroleum terminal facility in Tanjung Langsat Port with damages running into millions of dollars which was recorded by the site CCTV. as expert witnesses in law court sometimes provide conflicting interpretations of the investigative data. Petaling Jaya on May 28. It is in this context that occupational safety and health forensics is developing into a specialism. Figure 6 Steps in implementing GUIDE Forensic cases investigated Some of the big cases that have been investigated are as follows: combustible dust explosion in a grains and flour milling factory in Lumut which caused the death of four workers and widespread and severe damage to the loading and unloading jetty and appurtenances.cover feature the laboratory results have been received so that the testable hy p o t h e s e s c a n b e c h e c k e d and confirmed for the complete accident report to be prepared.00pm during the demolition work on the building. and the catastrophic collapse of Jaya Supermarket. 2009. Such technical collaboration with outside agency will be strengthened further in the years ahead. The accident killed seven workers and injured three workers. technical assistance and expertise was sought from the Construction Engineering Testing Unit (CETU). t h e r e h a v e b e e n increasing number of prosecutions by the Department against companies who have contravened occupational safety and health laws. failures of several hammerhead and luffing tower cranes during lifting operation and involving a number of fatalities in the last two years. L a t e l y. and destruction of more than 400 cylinder bottles. which caught the attention of the country’s leadership. 2008 in Kapar. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The collapsed portion of the building was constructed using the two-way pre-stressed concrete unbounded tendons method. Now it is a significant subject in its own right in courses offered by local and overseas public universities. fire and explosion caused by static electricity discharge during the processing of stevia powder in Nilai which caused serious damages to factory building. Since the case was complicated. and fire and explosion 12 THE INGENIEUR involving acetylene gas during filling and bottling operation. at the factory in Simpang Pulai which caused injuries to workers. at about 5.

fixtures. Lessons learnt Repercussions from the Jaya Supermarket building collapse. found that the levels exceeded 100ppm. connections and appurtenances did not show any leakages and the system test pressure was maintained. for example. the Division was also called to investigate an accident case at the jetty in Tanjung Karang fishing village. and concluded within the time-frame agreed.cover feature progressive failure of the building structure had been discovered. Recently. The stocks were usually packed in 50kg bags and then normally kept Fish holding compartment in Tanjung Karang Village where six died refrigerated. there were six fatalities and three injuries due to exposure and inhalation of toxic gas involving hydrogen sulphide (H2S). affecting the public who were passing by the area.The gas evolved when the decomposition of the discarded fishes took place in the storage compartments. The accident findings had been communicated to the state Government and other relevant authorities. At the levels recorded. Carbon disulphide (CS 2). due to power outages for five days. The holding stock in each compartment is about 3. In this unfortunate case. Post-accident measurements of the H 2 S levels in the holding compartments. and disrupting THE INGENIEUR 13 . reverberated beyond the accident site: causing great inconveniences to the surrounding residents. the concentrations of H2S deadened the smell and no odour was detectable. Leak tests on the cooling coils. using calibrated multi-gas meters. analyzed. and carbon monoxide (CO) gases were also detected but ammonia (NH 3 ) gas was not detected. The refrigeration system used chlorofluoromethane or R-22 as the refrigerant media. Brochures containing basic safety information when working in such similar environment will be circulated. Briefings to fishermen and owners of the other jetties have been scheduled to make workers.000kg. employers and occupiers aware of what had happened and how to safeguard their personal safety and health.

my It is important that written documents from the companies are taken into possession early. From cases investigated. information and facts during an accident investigation. is a thing of the past once this system is ready by September this year. s o f t wa r e technology support and rapid-test investigation equipment. by having sound and practicable investigative framework in place. and conferences whether locally or abroad on a regular basis. retrieve and distribute relevant technical data. credibility. (ii) Providing adequate resourcesm o n e t a r y. Additionally. and the publication of ‘Safety Alerts’ in the department’s portal http://www.3 authorities like the Police or the Fire and Rescue Department. employers and the nation as a whole. Lag in responsiveness on sharing of such information among investigators.gov. Last but not least. the following plans of actions have been identified: (i) Enhancing expertise of officers by the provision of broadbased opportunities to attend forensic engineering seminars. l o g i s t i c s . To enable the Division to move forward and respond quickly and effectively to accident cases in future. to allow the investigators to examine.King-Chair in Engineering. 3. Also. Moving forward The Division has faced many challenges since its establishment and at the same time the officers have learned a lot from the many high profile cases. will able officers to undertake a ny o c c u p a t i o n a l s a f e t y a n d health forensic investigation with confidence. and scope of work which is different for each case also necessitates co-operative teamwork from each of the officers in the investigation team. The Division needs to anticipate new casework challenges in the years ahead. analyze and extract whatever pertinent information and facts that may help in the direction and management of the case. archive. Emphasis is placed on lessons learned from each failure. (iii) Collaborating with experts from local higher institutions of higher learning and accredited testing laboratories. (vi) Establishing good rapport and liaisons with the other relevant Conclusion Th e Fo r e n s i c E n g i n e e r i n g Division has achieved its primary objective as demonstrated from the number of high profile cases investigated and completed. it was found that officers must have a flair for investigative work and possess good communication skills in addition to engineering knowledge. public and all other interested parties through the publication of forensic engineering case series. BEM REFERENCES 1. the experience obtained and the wisdom accrued. dosh. and occupational safety and health expertise. there is a need for an internet-based repository system with capabilities to store. the facility will allow for on-line interactive discussion and collaboration between the investigators on the ground and officers in the office. (v) Allowing serving officers to attend post-graduate courses on forensic engineering or allied disciplines and tutored by experienced lecturers. Forensic Engineering: Detective Engineering. The University of Texas at Austin.Fowler and Joe J. RE Hester ad RM Harrison. Although the road ahead looks tortuous. Steps have been taken to have such information disclosed and disseminated to the workers. Carper. a lot of useful occupational safety and health information were obtained which can then be used by the Department to formulate further policy directives to prevent such similar accidents or events. David W. analytical skills. . Forensic Engineering. the adoption of occupational safety and health forensics in accident cases can contribute to improvement in the standard of occupational safety and health compliance in workplaces and benefit workers. and redoubtable integrity. Environmental Forensics. Similarly. (vii) Using validated software tools for investigative work to understand fully the mode and mechanism of an accident or event.cover feature business activities around the scene of the accident. courses. seminars and promotion activities. Understanding 14 THE INGENIEUR the difficulties on the ground. Kenneth L. 2. (iv) Building and establishing technical rapport and links with external forensic engineering experts from overseas institutions.

construction.25% in Malaysia from 2000 to 2005 ( AH. as the safe system approach has put forward that not only drivers are to be blamed. the Safety. They require vehicles to drive and ride on. drivers were usually been singled out as the primary cause of accidents. The enactment for safety in working environment as outlined in the Occupational Safety and Health 1994 Act (OSHA) Regulation already exists. in a concerted effort. and the vehicles in turn require the infrastructure to cruise on. to educate and create awareness about safety and health at the workplace and also to ensure that the public is not exposed to accidents and/or risks due to the practice of the industry. but also protects others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of the person at work. The SHE COP’s specific objectives serve as a guideline to employers and employees regarding the correct and effective methods of handling matters pertaining to the safety and health of employees. with crashes involving buses increasing by 131. addressing the vehicle’s owner as a whole and not only micro-managing each individual cause only. such as design. Each of these will also require many entities behind them to make it work as safe system. but the entire system must play its role instead. Inspired by the more stringent requirement for safety in the air and maritime sector. operation. Since its introduction in 2007. I n the past.cover feature Safety And Health In Road Transportation By Ahmad Farhan Mohd Sadullah & Aimi binti Mohd. Health and the Environment (SHE) Code of Practice (COP) was introduced in 2007. This paper provides highlights of the SHE COP content as well as the lessons learnt from its implementation. Health and Environment management system are obvious when it comes to the commitment of upper management. As a result. the road transport industry in Malaysia has been the subject of many scrutinies with regards to the safety of its operation. this has changed lately. The frequency of high profile accidents of commercial vehicles involving multiple deaths has become a grave concern. Road traffic accidents involving commercial vehicles will undoubtedly affect third party victims which are passengers and/or drivers of other vehicles. After all. Fahmi Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) The Occupational Safety and Health regulations are seldom associated with the road transport industry. & Sarani. Zulkipli. It is therefore fitting that the road transportation system be governed by a safety system. and the Safety.35 % in accidents involving commercial vehicles. The target group of the COP are all the employers and the employees of the transportation industry. legal framework and others. a group of Government agencies and some from the private sector. Othman. SHE COP has only been THE INGENIEUR 15 . drivers are not driving in a vacuum. driver management and also vehicle maintenance. However. Any crash involving commercial vehicles will catch the attention of the public. and analysis has shown that there are many flaws governing the safety standards of the road transport industry. ensuring safety and decreasing the number of accidents and fatalities. Ther e was an increase of 25. health and welfare of the person at work. Seeing this as urgent. The intention of SHE COP is to improve fleet management in Malaysia. OSHA is not only an Act that makes provisions for securing the safety. started to work on the Safety. The principles in Safety. Health and Environment (SHE) Code of Practice is one such example. The crash investigations carried out by the Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) have discovered that crashes involving commercial vehicles need to be addressed via the system approach. but has never been implemented and tailored to the transportation sector. 2007). Health and Environmental (SHE) Code of Practice (COP) for the Transportation Sector in 2007.

at least amongst commercial vehicles. & Sarani. These five elements are essential in ensuring the continual improvement of the implementation of SHE COP and shown in Figure 2 . but must cascade down to the service levels. Many crashes were associated with the issue of driver management. organisation. 2007 ). where the safety of the service is going to be experienced by passengers. SHE COP aspires to have transport companies responsible towards the safety of their service for both workers and customers. w e m ay a ch i e ve o u r a i m o f “zero fatality”.cover feature Figure 1 Accidents Involving Lorries and Buses implemented either on a voluntary basis or as a punitive measure following inquiries and litigation. Under the Continual Quality 16 THE INGENIEUR Improvement (CQI) process. The implementation of SHE COP can be considered as a success as the number of accidents involving lorries and buses have seen a steady decrease beginning in 2007 (PDRM) as illustrated by Figure 1. competent and legal drivers will address the issues associated with the quality and Figure 2 Main Elements of SHE COP . the entire SHE culture must include a performance-based evaluation. As a system approach. vehicle management. planning and implementation. SHE COP is mindful that all its aspirations must not be lip or documentservice only. When companies see safety as “good business sense” and “a social responsibility”. This is under the custody of the Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board (LPKP). The implementation of SHE COP consists of five elements of management responsibility towards SHE which are policy. Th e S t a n d a r d O p e r a t i n g Procedure (SOP) in the implementation of SHE COP consists of four main elements which are driver management. Othman. It is clear that if all transport companies heed the principles behind SHE COP. Zulkipli. evaluation and action for improvement. From the many crash investigations carried out by MIROS. many contributing factors to crashes can be avoided had the companies heeded and made SHE COP a culture and practice in their companies. The recruitment policy to ensure suitable. an internal audit as well as an external audit system. many tragic crashes involving commercial vehicles like lorries and buses can be avoided. risk and t rave l m a n a g e m e n t a n d a l s o quality assurance system (QAS) through document management. Table 2 provides details of SOP in SHE COP ( AH.

condition of brakes and tyres may be easily tackled with the implementation of SHE COP. K. R. the commitment towards safety is primarily from the exterior. strong seat anchorage points.. Othman.cover feature Table 2 Standard Operating Procedures of SHE COP Key Elements ● ● ● Sub-elements Driver hiring procedure Driver categorization Training & mindset change Driving procedure (journey) Driving hours & working hours Driver scheduling Reward & penalty Vehicle acquisition Checklist on turn on/off engine Seatbelt for drivers & passengers (bus & lorry) Display vehicle license Fuel fill-up procedure Vehicle usage Service & maintenance Replacement & disposal of vehicle Specific driver for specific vehicles Management of passengers & goods Risk & hazard identification Journey risk management Emergency response Insurance coverage Personal accident coverage (PA) Incident/Accident Report System Management of complaints & concerns SHE training & competency Management of contractors Driver Management Records Vehicle Management Records Risk & Journey Management Records Surveillance System – logbook/blackbox/GPS/tachograph Self-evaluation Driver Management ● ● ● ● ● Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) ● ● ● Vehicle Management ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Risk & Journey Management ● ● ● ● ● ● ● QAS through Document Management ● ● ● ● ● ● the discipline of drivers. I. Z. It is therefore imperative that SHE COP transform the prevailing attitude towards safety towards “self-enforcement”. Another issue commonly associated with crashes involving commercial vehicles are the “road-worthiness” or “crash-worthiness” of commercial vehicles. Issues of structural integrity.. SHE COP for the Transportation Sector has now been taken under the guardianship of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH) under the Ministry of Human Resources. (2007). backed by “good business sense”. Kesihatan dan Persekitaran untuk sektor pengangkutan.e through legal means. there are many and usual means to “trick” the system. Presently. PDRM. Th e Tataamalan Industri Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan bagi Aktiviti Pengangkutan Jalan is currently being drafted by DOSH and its implementation and enforcement will be more holistic in approach and governed by the more appropriate OSHA 1994. if companies do not see safety in the light of what we aspire. However. & Sarani. THE INGENIEUR 17 . Kod Amalan Keselamatan. i. BEM REFERENCES AH.. Zulkipli.

Regulations and OHS management system standards shall take precedence. OSH organisation. safety and health designated person should not use SHASSIC to decide if the project site or parts of the project site are in accordance with requirement of the relevant Acts and Regulations or OSH Management System. Occupational Safety and Health Act. the assessment shall be carried out when there are different type of activities going on at same time (concurrent activities) and many workers of different trades are involved at the site. Scope Of SHASSIC SHASSIC sets out the safety and health management and practices of contractors for various aspects of the construction work activities. ● Evaluate the performance of contractor(s) on the safety and health practices at site. ● Assess safety and health performance of contractor(s) based on this standard. 1967 (Act 139) and Use Of SHASSIC In Construction Activities SHASSIC is intended to complement the normal contractual requirement and specification in a project. For the purpose of terms and references. code of practice. HIRARC. It is not intended to be used independently as working requirement and specification. specifications and contractual requirements. site/workplace inspection and employees’ interview covering components such as OSH policy. ● safety and health of construction site conforms to legislations requirement. ● Improve and take necessary corrective action on OSH performance and management at site. 1967 and regulations made under this Act such as Factories and Machinery (Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction) (Safety) Regulations 1986. It is still the responsibility of the contractor to ensure that 18 THE INGENIEUR . particularly work activities covered under Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is recommended that SHASSIC assessment be carried out when physical work progress is between 25% and 75%. materials management. emergency preparedness. accident investigation and reporting. CIDB S afety and Health Assessment System in Construction or SHASSIC is an independent method to assess and evaluate the safety and health performance of a contractor in construction works/ projects. and Factories and Machinery (Safety. records management and performance monitoring. SHASSIC was developed by a Technical Committee comprising industry stakeholders. Factories and Machinery Act. Preferably. the following Acts. approved standards. 1994. 1970. and ● Compile data for statistical analysis. It was published as Construction Industry Standard or CIS 10:2008 in November 2008. ● Have a standard system on safety and health assessment in the construction industry. Standard & Quality Division. OSH training and promotion.cover feature SHASSIC Safety And Health Assessment System In Construction By Ir M Ramuseren Senior Manager. Factories and Machinery Act. Unless specified in the project contract. Application shall cover COSH management system and practices during construction work activities. SHASSIC Objectives SHASSIC was designed and developed to enable the user to achieve any or combination of the following objectives: Benchmark the level of safety and health performance of construction industry in Malaysia. guidelines. SHASSIC covers three main components of assessment such as document check. Health and Welfare) Regulations. machinery and equipment management. 1994 (Act 514) and Regulations.

Category ‘B’ – Three employees from safety and health personnel or OSH Committee members and/or combination of both. enforced and practiced at site/workplace. C is the total number of “Compliance” NA is the total number of item that is “Not Applicable”. There are 63 questionnaires identified for this component check.(A) (63 – Number of ‘NA’) ● Workplace Inspection Total Number ‘C’ Scored X 40 % = SHASSIC score for Workplace Inspection . Stars awarded range from 1 star to 5 stars as per Table 2. Basic formulas for respective component weightage are as follows: ● Document Check Total Number ‘C’ Scored X 40 % = SHASSIC score for Document Check . document check. The assessor may also discuss with the principal contractor prior to selection of these high risk areas for assessment. work site inspection and employee interview. SHASSIC Assessment Basically.cover feature Regulations and Rules. Workplace inspection shall be carried out at five high risk areas within a site. These locations will be determined by the SHASSIC assessor. Employee’s interview Employees shall be randomly selected from all levels and occupation so that they could be interviewed by the assessor using established standard questionnaire.(B) (310 – Number of ‘NA’) ● Employees Interview Total Number ‘C’ Scored X 20 % = SHASSIC score for Employees Interview . 1. Document check C h e ck i n g o f O S H .(C) (330 – Number of ‘NA’) where. There are 48 questions for this component. The total SHASSIC score in Document Check (A) plus (+) total SHASSIC score in Workplace Inspection (B) plus (+) the total SHASSIC score in Employees Interview (C) components shall justify the ranking star or stars. and Category ‘C’ – Ten workers from various trades/skills. This assessment shall provide the assessor with the valuable visual comparison evidence on the OSH programmes implemented. SHASSIC assessment is divided into three different components namely. 2. 3. Allocation of weightage for components Components Document check Workplace inspection Employee interview Total score Weightage (%) 40 40 20 100 The weightage system is aimed at making the score quantitative in representing the safety and health performance of the respective contractor.r e l a t e d d o c u m e n t s a n d records will enable the assessor to determine the compliances of the establishment of safety and health programmes and activities. Weightage & Score The weightage for safety and health performance are allocated in accordance to three components as shown in Table 1 and the score calculation is shown below. The number of employees from each category to be interviewed are as follows: Category ‘A’ – One employee from management personnel. MS 1722: 2005 and ILO OHS MS: 2001. Table 1. The employees in this component are categorised into three categories. Site/workplace inspection There are 62 items identified for inspection for this component. as spelt out in Annex C. THE INGENIEUR 19 . OHSAS 18001: 2007.

Currently CIDB is providing this service Free of Charge (FOC). or ● A Construction Safety and Health Officer (CSHO*) with two years experience in the construction industry. A SHASSIC Assessor shall fulfil one of the following criteria below. (Exempted from attending one-day course conducted by CIDB). Has successfully attended and passed one day course organised by CIDB and has a minimum of five years working experience in the construction industry. or ● Has successfully attended and passed OHSAS 18001 Lead Auditor Course and has a minimum of three years working experience in the construction industry (construction site). BEM . ● Guided checklists based on SHAASIC’s document will help the Safety and Health Officers to discharge their duties more effective and efficiently Note: CSHO means a person who is registered with DOSH as Safety & Health Officer and attended 5 five-day course organised by CIDB for Construction Safety & Health Officer. 20 THE INGENIEUR CONCLUSION SHASSIC was developed to assist everyone particularly the contractors. Kuala Lumpur and fax it to 03 – 40451808. accidents can be prevented or minimized. Potential and significant risks/ hazards poorly managed and not properly documented. Grand Seasons Avenue. Jalan Pahang. by using the SHASSIC assessment system as a norm of practice at site. the contractor could identify ‘areas’ where they have failed or did not score high. Potential and significant workplace high risks/ hazards are managed and documented but there are few medium risks work activities neglected. Customise training or remedial measures could be arranged to improve safety and health management for these ‘areas’ ● A proper safety and health assessment system could be established at construction sites and would make it easier for authorities to inspect site as OSH system is already in place. That’s all. Contractors may engage any qualified person a b ove t o c a r r y o u t S H A S S I C a s s e s s m e n t o r alternatively they can make arrangement with CIDB to carry out SHASSIC assessment. Star Ranking SHASSIC (Score %) 85 to 100 70 to 84 Star(s) Awarded Justification Potential and significant workplace high risks/ hazards are managed and documented. (Exempted from attending one-day course conducted by CIDB) ● How Contractors Can Benefit From SHASSIC Assessment? Some of the benefits that the contractor could expect after carrying out SHASSIC assessment are listed below :● Based on SHASSIC score. CIDB believes. so simple! CIDB officers will contact the contractor and will make arrangement for SHASSIC assessment. 10th Floor.cover feature Table 2. Contractors just need to fill in a FORM which is available at Standard & Quality Division. Potential and significant workplace high risks/ hazards are managed and documented but there are few low risks work activities are neglected. Potential and significant workplace high risks/ hazards partly managed and not properly documented. ★★★★★ ★★★★ ★★★ ★★ ★ 55 to 69 40 to 54 39 and less Who Can Be A SHASSIC Assessor? A SHASSIC Assessor must be a person who is qualified and have certain years of working experience in construction industry. in managing safety and health at construction sites based on safety and health performance’s assessment.

. The Malaysian Standard Form of Building Contract (PAM 1998 Form ‘Without Quantities Edition’) Agreement and Conditions of Building Sub-Contract (PAM 1998 Sub-Contract Form) NEW FORM Agreement and Conditions of PAM Contract 2006 (With Quantities) Agreement and Conditions of PAM Contract 2006 (Without Quantities) Agreement and Conditions of PAM Sub-Contract 2006 APPLICATION For Building Contracts based on Bills of Quantities (BQ) For Building Contracts based on Drawings and Specifications For Nominated Sub-Contractors It should be noted that the above forms are for contracts (or sub-contracts) employing the ‘traditional general contracting’ route of procurement and are only for building works. NUMBER OF CLAUSES With Quantities Edition PREVIOUS FORM (PAM 1998) 35 NEW FORM (PAM 2006) 38 CHANGE (CLAUSES) Additional 3 Clauses THE INGENIEUR 21 .E. The above necessitated a further review which culminated in the drafting and implementation of the latest revised form entitled “The PAM CONTRACT 2006”.. P. In the mid-nineties. much changes occurred in the building industry and the pertinent law but the said forms remained static without any updating.S. FORMS REVISED The PAM 2006 family of forms of conditions of contract comprise the following individual forms that have been revised: PREVIOUS FORM The Malaysian Standard Form of Building Contract (PAM 1998 Form ‘With Quantities Edition’). No such form has been drafted nor formulated for contracts procured along the ‘turnkey/design & build/design & construct/EPC’ method of procurement and/ or for ‘fee’ contracting. PAM undertook a complete revamp of the PAM/ISM 1969 Form which was replaced by the PAM 1998 Form. The PAM 1998 Form was extensively employed for the building industry in Malaysia but was subjected to much criticism by a segment of the said industry due to alleged deficiencies and shortcomings. The latter form has been officially launched and intended by PAM to replace the earlier PAM 1998 Form. the label suggesting that they were also endorsed by The Institution of Surveyors. Harbans Singh K.engineering & law The PAM Contract 2006 At A Glance By Ir. C. Eng. Malaysia. These forms were published as PAM/ISM 1969 Forms. Advocate and Solicitor (Non-Practicing) The PAM (Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia) standard forms of contract have been widely used by the local building industry over the last 40 years or so. Over the years.

the form appears to be just a revision and reformulation of the previous PAM 98 Form with the layout being maintained but additions/amendments made on a “cut and paste” basis. etc. save for some welcome changes. It would have been more appropriate to undertake a wholesale revision and reformatting of the previous PAM 98 Form to bring it in tandem with other contemporary forms of conditions of contract. which being a standard form cannot fit into the varied uses that are likely to be encountered in practice. This will positively further good contract administration practice. it is submitted that the form could have been structured such that it would have given the parties especially the employer greater flexibility and more options in using the form. although these are still relatively deficient in some material aspects. it appears to be now so-called more “contractor friendly”. In the absence of being privy to the drafting philosophy. payment. despite some improvements in style and formatting. it falls rather short of expectations. for a standard form that has just undergone major revisions apparently to address the alleged shortcomings of the previous form and perhaps to make it a frontrunner for the local building industry.engineering & law Without Quantities Edition PREVIOUS FORM (PAM 1998) 35 Sub-Contract Form PREVIOUS FORM (PAM 1998) 23 NEW FORM (PAM 2006) 33 CHANGE (CLAUSES) Additional 10 Clauses NEW FORM (PAM 2006) 38 CHANGE (CLAUSES) Additional 3 Clauses PRINCIPAL CHANGES Although the general arrangement of the clauses as in the previous PAM 98 Form. etc. Definite time periods for the principal procedural matters have now been stipulated even for the architect and the employer. on an overall basis. The revisions undertaken have generally not taken into account contemporary developments in the industry e. the employer’s obligations and liabilities have been appreciably enhanced with its rights relatively reduced or “watered-down”. The contractor’s and employer’s obligations and liabilities have been now set out in much clearer language and the roles and responsibilities of the Architect (and the quantity surveyor and the engineers) expanded and amplified. especially the employers who still remain the single most influential segment of the local building industry.g. should have been set out in close relation to each other instead of being all over the form. CONCLUDING COMMENTS Despite the various changes undertaken. Like provisions dealing with similar issues should have been collated and drafted consecutively e. both the format and content in the new forms have been appreciably altered. the predominant use of terms and expressions that are inherently vague or smacking of legalese will certainly contribute to lack of clarity. in particular. Consequently.. Furthermore. The end result of the above changes is that notwithstanding it being presumably intended to be a more “balanced” form in terms of risk allocation. Prima facie. Furthermore. as compared with the previous PAM 98 Form. Overall. it may need another major revamp depending on how it is accepted by all the main players in the industry. the form is still cluttered with deficiencies. 22 THE INGENIEUR . material omissions and provisions difficult to comprehend and implement by an average practitioner. Consequently. provisions dealing with financial matters such as variations. in terms of risk allocation. has been maintained. there is a significant transfer of the risk involved in the contract to the employer as compared to the previous PAM 98 Form.g. the layout and design of the form is inadequate and confusing. thereby defeating the aim of the local industry being on par with international developments/practice. Some changes undertaken have brought the new form more in tandem with contemporary developments. Finally. in the context of the local building industry. precision and thereby lead to possible disputes as to interpretation. the recommendations of documents such as the SCL Protocol on Delay and Disruption have not been given due consideration.

These laws are largely sectoral in character and focused on specific areas of activity. This paper describes the legislative approach to water quality management in the country. c o n s e r va t i o n o f a river’s vitality and diversity. h e N a t i o n a l Po l i c y o n E nv i r o n m e n t s t a t e s t h a t the nation shall implement environmentally sound and sustainable development for the continuous economic. Since achieving independence. social and cultural progress and enhancement of the quality of life of Malaysians. This shift and a rapidly growing population have both threatened rivers as a vital source of water supply. river water quality has deteriorated. E nv i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y (Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil) Regulations 1977. Department of Environment Malaysia Water resources in Malaysia come in the forms of rivers. WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT Legislation L aw s a r e u s e d a s a f o r m of management response to environmental problems in Malaysia. As long as we can remember. The Act came into force on Apr 1. It is based on eight inter-related and mutually supporting principles and where water is concerned will include the sustainable use of water r e s o u rc e s . and its success and challenges. A holistic approach is required to manage river water quality. the country has developed by leaps and bound from an agriculture-based society to an urbanised and industrialised nation. making its availability for consumption much more difficult. and the continuous improvement of its water quality. Drainage and Building Act. Amongst the laws relevant to water quality management are the 1929 Mining E n a c t m e n t . Three pieces of subsidiary legislation were formed as an initial legislative approach to water quality management. lakes and ground water. T pollution control and prevention of environmental degradation. These were: ( i ). The increasingly complex environmental problems faced by Malaysia required a comprehensive piece of legislation which came in the form of the 1974 Environmental Quality Act. In addition. t h e 1 9 3 0 Wa t e r s Enactment. The continual pollution of rivers will deplete this water resource even further and will have serious repercussions on the national agenda to become a fully developed nation by the year 2020 if essential steps are not taken to improve river water quality. the 1954 Drainage Works Ordinance and the 1974 Street. The policy outlines the strategies and measures to be taken towards an effective management of water resources. THE INGENIEUR 23 . rivers have served as the sole source of water supply for our consumption in almost all parts of the country.feature Legislative Approach To Water Quality Management In Malaysia – Success And Challenges By Hashim Daud Director (Marine and Water Division). 1974 for the abatement and control of pollution and enhancement of the environment.

petroleum. All manufacturing industries are required to install wastewater treatment systems to arrest their water pollutants before they are dumped into rivers. manufacturing industries generate inorganic pollutants. S o u rc e s o f p o l l u t i o n t h a t threatened our water environment have been subjected to these regulations since the 1970s. The manufacturing industries are encouraged to implement alternative options such as cleaner production. and ( iii ). ● Manufacturing industries Prevention The legislative approach in water quality management effected by the 1974 Environmental Quality Act makes use of Section 34A where a report on impact on the environment resulting from prescribed activities (EIA requirement) is mandatory. waste minimisation and waste re-utilisation in order . additional legislation is also in place to effect prevention of pollution into a river or water b o dy. and waste treatment and disposal facilities. In addition to organic pollutants. A t h i r d m e ch a n i s m involves a continuous assessment or monitoring of all the rivers in the country to ascertain the improvement or otherwise of our river water quality. These industries did not only invest in pollution control A new set of environmental problems has emerged as the nation progressed in its industrial development. power generation.and mediumscale industries have difficulties in complying with discharge standards. It is essentially a command and control approach utilising effluent discharge standards. They were induced to install effective wastewater treatment systems instead of paying the prohibitive effluent-related or pollution fees imposed under the licensing requirements that came into force in 1977. Earthworks and land clearing activities contribute to siltation of rivers and can be both point and non-point sources of pollution. The organic pollutant load dumped into rivers has been greatly reduced by more than 90% of the total load generated. sullage or grey-water from commercial and residential premises. The major point sources of pollution are sewage treatment plants. and pig farms. In addition to making use of these laws to control pollution. The achievement in controlling effluent discharges from these manufacturing industries varies from industry to industry. resort and recreational development. housing. E nv i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y (Prescribed Premises) (Raw Natural Rubber) Regulations 1978. Water Pollution Sources and Control Malaysian rivers are degraded by both point and non-point sources of pollution. mining. Nonpoint source (or diffuse) pollution is largely due to storm runoff after a downpour. Among the prescribed activities or projects that can cause water pollution include airport. For non-prescribed activities. industry. The small. The effluent discharge standard was made much stricter for pollution sources upstream of public water supply intakes than those of downstream of such intakes. ● research and development but also made great efforts to comply as rapidly as possible with the stipulated effluent-discharge or land-disposal standards. The control of pollution from these sources involved a combination of both economic and command-control instruments which has proven to be very successful. The Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979 also require that written permission be obtained before the construction of any building or carrying out any work that may result in a new source of effluent or discharge.feature ( ii ). agrobased industries. Constraints cited include financial problems and lack of space for the construction of wastewater treatment facilities. E nv i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979. manufacturing industries. Rubber factory additional pollution load and the requirement for waste disposal. toxic wastes and persistent organic pollutants. site suitability evaluation would also be carried out so as to assess the capacity of the area to receive 24 THE INGENIEUR Agro-based industries Th e e a r l y y e a r s o f p o s t independence saw a proliferation of agro-based industries such as raw natural rubber factories and palm oil mills which polluted our rivers.

As rivers pass through urban areas and populated places. plowing and irrigation. They are also encouraged to adopt the approach of self-regulation and strive for ISO 14001 Certification not only to ensure compliance with discharge standards but also to attain competitiveness in the global arena. This industry has a high demand for water and discharges large quantities of wastewater with high organic content into the rivers. oil. Initial efforts to control sewage are very much focused on protecting public health but there is now a gradual shift to protect water resources and the natural environment. feedlots. treatment and disposal. At present. ammoniacal nitrogen and nutrients to a river nearby. livestock waste. pesticides. The management of toxic wastes is based on the cradle-tograve concept. ● to manage sewerage works and sewage disposal in the country since 1994 but currently it is only responsible for 86 out of 144 local authority areas. individual septic tanks. restaurants. As it moves. The management of sewerage in these 86 areas is far from holistic since there are sources that do not come under the company such as private sewage treatment plants. Firstly. This is a problem of the past centuries that continues to plague the nation as it enters the 21 st century. A private company has been tasked Car washing centre . rivers and even ground water. reduce waste generation and thereby its final disposal cost. Usually a stream in an urban area does not have enough assimilative capacity to absorb pollutant loads and will contribute organic pollutants. harvesting. Efforts are also being stepped up to eliminate indiscriminate disposal of toxic wastes and uncontrolled release of persistent organic pollutants. cropland. The wastewater can come from places such as kitchen sinks. the sullage will become a major contributor to water pollution. grazing. ● sullage is not treated and poses a problem to improving river water quality. Good agricultural practices are required to manage THE INGENIEUR 25 Sewage is a major polluter of our rivers. transportation. One of the best ways to control this pollution is to implement best management practices. washing machines. The runoff will deposit manure. There are at least three types of runoff pollution in the country. ammonia. There are still a lot of efforts required and measures needed to reduce the sewage pollutant loads so that river water quality can be improved. fertilising. ● Pig Farming Pig farming cannot continue to be a backyard industry if it is to flourish in the country. Non-Point Pollution And Its Control Non-point pollution is pollution that comes from many diffuse sources and is associated with rainfall moving over and through the ground. There are laws in place to control their generation. wet markets and car washing centres. sewage from primitive systems and discharges of raw sewage from squatters. planting. soil and sediment. storage. toxins. Such options could also enhance production efficiency. Sullage (Grey-Water) Sewage Disposal and Sewerage Works An important source of point pollution is sullage or grey-water which originates from residential and commercial premises but is often overlooked. bathrooms.feature Construction site to reduce water pollution further. An integrated stateof-the-art treatment and disposal facility has been set up and is in full operation since August 1998 to assist the manufacturing industries in the proper management of their toxic wastes. This runoff pollution can come from many different land uses covering large areas and is far more difficult to control than pollution from point sources. fertilisers. the runoff picks up and carries away natural and man-made pollutants and deposits them into lakes. agricultural runoff that carries pollutants that originate from activities such as pesticide spraying. Designated pig farming areas are required not only to ensure a proper control of its wastewater discharges but also for disease control.

S e c o n d l y.feature these activities so that runoff pollutants are minimised. 15 automatic water quality monitoring stations are installed to detect changes in river water quality on a continuous basis at strategic locations in major river basins. The monitoring programme includes both the in-situ measurements and laboratory analyses of as many as 30 physico-chemical and biological parameters. This organic pollutant originated from agrobased industries. Th e c o n t r o l o f n o n . road construction and use in forested areas. The estimated BOD loads from agro-based industries. destabilisation of stream banks and disruption of river habitats. Plan’ made by the Drainage and Irrigation Department and the ‘Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Soil Erosion and Siltation’ issued by the Department of Environment (DOE). It also serves to support environmental management and planning in the country. These have resulted in soil erosion and the dumping of sediments into rivers. nevertheless. Over the same period. Thirdly. In addition. RIVER QUALITY MONITORING The DOE has established a river monitoring network since 1978 to ascertain the status of river water quality.085 water quality monitoring stations sited within 140 river basins throughout the nation. the country has embarked on rigorous land clearing activities and earthworks for construction purposes. the number of polluted rivers. construction of gross pollutant traps at appropriate places. and mechanical preparation for tree planting. the number of clean rivers has risen from 33 to 80 while polluted rivers remained between nine and 16 (see Figure 1). It is necessary to impose control measures on developers to comply with the ‘Erosion of Soil and Control 26 THE INGENIEUR . remains as a significant polluter whose loading need to be reduced drastically. Some of the measures that can be implemented include installing storm water filter to treat drainage and runoff. and constructing wetlands wherever feasible as a good re-vegetation practice to improve river water quality. detect changes in the water quality and. pig farms and sewage. removal of streamside vegetation. Its control is also a major challenge in other parts of the world including the US and countries in Europe. Water quality levels for specific parameters can be transmitted real-time to the DOE. to identify the pollution sources of rivers.p o i n t pollution is far from satisfactory but the problem is not unique to this country. Erosion and Siltation Control In the pursuit of national development. sewage. manufacturing industries. as measured in terms of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) ranged between 14 and 31 rivers (Figure 2). f o r e s t r y r u n o f f associated with activities such as timber harvesting. Good forestry practices are required to minimise soil erosion and siltation. maintaining vegetation as filters along contours. wherever possible. Between 1998 and 2005. urban runoff that will deposit many and high amount of pollutants into rivers and other water bodies. There are 1. manufacturing industries and pig farms were dwarfed by the BOD loads from sewage (Figure 3). Significant negative impacts on the rivers have occurred not only in the form of siltation but also the loss of river habitats. sullage. This suggests that while industries and pig farms are the major polluters.

and for effluent discharge standards to be set accordingly in order to comply with these river or stream standards. The nation will continue to use water from its rivers for many years to come and it is imperative for the authorities to reduce pollutant loads and improve river water quality on a sustainable basis. Some State Governments are requiring palm oil mills to comply with much stricter discharge standards than those imposed by the Federal Government. CONCLUSION The legislative approach in water quality management using the 1974 Environmental Quality Act has been successful in reducing pollution to a certain extent. CHALLENGES In addition to the challenges outlined earlier. p r e ve n t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n a n d continuous assessment (monitoring) of the river environment. Noor Azme and Rosmiza for their assistance in the preparation of this paper. Views expressed are not necessarily those of the Department of Environment. Most of the past and present efforts are very much directed at controlling pollution from point sources while non-point pollution has continued unabated.feature discharge standards and there is a necessity to review these standards to be in line with current acceptable international standards and availability of treatment technology. There are still many challenges that need to be addressed to achieve holistic water quality management. The necessary technical. A number of sources are not able to comply with existing ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author would like to express his gratitude to Mohd Rosiskada. It has involved pollution control. For better protection. institutional and legal arrangements are also necessary to treat sullage (grey-water) adequately before it is discharged into rivers. BEM THE INGENIEUR 27 . The uniform discharge standard is applicable throughout the country and does not take into account the assimilative capacity of a river or water body. there are a number of other challenges that need to be given consideration. there is a need to develop river or stream standards.

(iii) their biological dimensions are poorly under­stood. It is noted that economic evaluation techniques are still evolving and many methodologies deemed acceptable previously are now proven inadequate and being improved. How these three categories of NTVs rate with respect to the above characteristics influences the degree of difficulty in their valuation. (1990). Cheng (1994). According to Lampietti and Dixon (1995). owing to the rising awareness of the importance of non-timber value (NTV). there is a realization that in some tracts of forest. Some of these are easier to estimate than others. The value of wild bees in the forest is influenced by the market price of honey. Non-extrac­tive values are harder to measure because they represent somewhat intangible services. Forestry Department Headquarters. In Malaysia.feature Economic Value Of Wild Bees In Honey Collection From The Forest By Mohd Shahwahid H. This implies that forests which until a few years ago. the role of NTV may be grossly under-valued. n Malaysia. Now. There are three categories of NTV namely. and preservation. Jamal (1997) and Mohd Shahwahid and Nik Mustapha (1991).O. that are harvested from the forest and may be sold in local markets. (ii) 28 THE INGENIEUR I they can be non-excludable. Nik Mustapha (1993) and Mohd Shahwahid and Awang (1999). Faculty of Economics and Management. which neither quantities nor prices exist. so much so that the benefits from NTV are ignored and not valued. A complete valuation of NTV requires esti­mating the values for all the cells as shown in Table 1. Preservation values are hardest to measure because they are intangibles. like rattans and honey. and (v) they are joint products. Peninsular Malaysia The residual technique was used to measure the economic value of wild bees in honey production. Universiti Putra Malaysia & Poh Lye Yong. Results from the study showed that the value of wild bees in honey production was RM24. It can only Table 1 : Component of non-timber values of tropical forest Extractive Values Rattan extraction Bamboo extraction Hunting and fishing Honey gathering Other minor forest products Non-Extractive Values Recreation Aesthetic Watershed effects Nutrient Cycling Natural Hazard Control Carbon sequestration Preservation Values Option Existence Source: Lampietti and Dixon (1995) . weight of honey that can be potentially extracted. Extractive values are easiest to measure because they represent tangible goods. valuing of NTV had been attempted by Ahmad et al. some State Governments are willing to set aside some portions of the forest for protective purposes. There exist methodologies to estimate the value of these NTV and the costs of the externalities from logging operations. These data were obtained from a survey of 12 wild honey collectors in the state of Pahang. (iv) they require an extended planning horizon. valued for their timber. like water flow regulation and recreation for which prices are usually unavailable. non-extractive. five characteristics make valuing NTV difficult: (i) there is inadequate information about their price and quantity. the value of timber revenues cannot match the summation of the costs of externalities arising from logging and the loss of NTV. number of hives available per tree and the profit margin assigned by the wild honey collectors.90 per hive. In specific cases. extractive. are suddenly more valuable as intact forests.

transportation and processing. one derived the residual value. This approach is a direct application of derived demand: all costs other than that of the wild bees are subtracted from the market price of the product. By subtracting all costs from the product’s final sales price – from extracting to transporting.feature k V = ∑ Qj { HPj . which is equal to APMj = (πHPj)/(1 π) (3) m I where π = average Malaysian industrial profit margin in percent but adjusted to reflect the risk undertaken by the wild honey collector. the variations in the value of bee colonies within a tract of forest will be influenced by the productivity of bee hives. prices of honey and related products. This economic value is based on an extractive good in the forests. adapted from the formula for stumpage timber value of Davis (1977). that is. THE INGENIEUR 29 . In this analysis a π of 30% is used which is considered quite representative for this industry in general. custodian of the forest. The formula for calculating the value of wild bees in honey production. In this study. This residual value is the economic rent or value of the wild bees in its function for the production of honey. COMPUTATION PROCEDURE Valuation of wild bees in honey production require two basic sets of information: (i) prices and costs. that is based on the price delivered to the middleman. ADC transporting and processing cost of honey (not inclusive of collector’s equitable profit margin) APMj = equitable profit margin allocated to the collector for harvesting honey and related products j. Hence. where = proportion of bee hives bearing honey = number of bee hives s j that can be potentially harvested for honey and related product j Ci = number of trees with bee hives in the forest reserve = average direct collecting. and Mohd Shahwahid and Awang Nor (1999) is given below: From the above equations. V = HPj = Qj = Qj value of wild bees in honey production per tree with hives market price of honey and related products j quantity (kg) of honey and related products j which is estimated to be equal to (2) = (m sj Ci) BASIC MODEL The value of wild bees in honey production is basically the value of the available stock of honey that can be extracted from bee hives. and costs of collection. the approach required determining the selling price of the product or products potentially extracted from the bee hives. Firstly.(ADC + APMj ) } (1) j = 1 where Harvested honey comb with honey be measured with survey-based questionnaires that describe hypothetical markets. the Forestry Department. This paper attempts to appraise the value of wild bees in the production of honey available from hives build on selected forest trees. and (ii) potential quantities of honey extracted from bee hives found on selected trees in the forest. The product that has a market price is honey. and further deduction for whatever amount deemed necessary to pay to the entrepreneur wild honey collector for his or her contribution. the residual value approach is adopted. this rent can be allocated as the value of the returns to the resource owner.

Table 2 : Location of samples by forest districts in Pahang Forest areas Bera Kemasul Jerantut Forest district Temerloh Temerloh Jerantut No.00 37.79 25.66 32.01 9.00 RM / hive 8. Another factor is the influence of the marketing channel adopted by the collectors. Although 15 collectors were interviewed.81 37.41 5. costs of collecting wild honey. Table 3 : Average revenue from honey collection & economic value of wild honey bees Average Bera RM / hive Direct Production Cost Wages* Production Cost Profit Margin+ Value of Wild Bees Revenue * = imputed wages of collection crew + = imputed profit margin 25% Forest Reserve Kemasul (%) 2.21 100.92 21.09 15.43 12.00 59.feature STUDY SITE Various data are needed to compute the value of wild bees in honey production.62 8.63 (%) 10. yield per honey-bearing hive. Business may not be forthcoming and extra marketing effort is needed. three cannot be used for the analysis as the information required was inadequate.63 Jerantut RM / hive (%) 29.76 21.08 29. Various reasons can be attributed to the variation in revenues per hive from the forest trees.67 30 THE INGENIEUR . transportation and packing.79 18.89 RM / hive Overall Average (%) 10.67 per hive and RM 86. of samples 4 3 5 Comments Natural forest Natural forest and Acacia forest plantation Natural forest Since there is no population list of wild honey collectors in the country. The higher prices obtained in the earlier marketing channel is the higher risk involved. field surveys of wild honey collectors are conducted.71 25. Forest District Offices are contacted to enquire whether field staff are aware of any wild honey collectors.67 24.70 13. Analysis is conducted on 12 respondents in three forest areas (see Table 2) located in the state of Pahang.63 per hive from honey production are obtained by collectors from the Bera and Kemasul Forest Reserves respectively. proportion of honey-bearing hives.10 28.00 17. To obtain these data.79 32.14 100.09 32.76 57. Average revenue from the Jerantut Forest Reserve is less than half the amount obtained by the collectors from the earlier two forest reserves. Higher average revenues of RM74.00 42. One possible reason is the number of bee hives available per tree and the number of trees available.00 6.29 100. This included the number of hives per tree.18 100. A survey of one honey collector leads to the identification of another in the district. Harvesting the part containing honey RESULTS Table 3 shows the average revenue from wild honey collection and the economic value of wild honey bees in the forest.15 7. Collectors selling direct to consumers at farmers’ market and by the roadside stalls obtained higher honey prices as compared to those selling to middlemen.72 24.82 25.00 8.52 17.86 25.21 74.67 44.21 86.26 14.77 11. and a fair profit margin for the wild honey collectors.00 2. the selection of sample is based on snowball non-probability sampling.90 58. ex-middleman prices of bottled honey.01 27.83 19.

00 265.01 1. the imputed wages and number of honey collection crew. The economic value of wild bees in honey production vary between collection in natural forest and plantation forest. it raised the production cost to 32. The estimated function is relatively a good fit with an adjusted R 2 of 56.54 1.feature The breakdown of the average revenue per hive suggested that direct production cost is small (10. The list of the forest reserves and their associated calculated economic value of wild bee colonies for the production of honey vis-à-vis the total revenue is provided in Table 4.00 681. The honey yield per hive is also higher in natural forest trees. yield. But because the value per hive in Jerantut Forest Reserve is very low. particularly. This explains why Bera and Kemasul Forest Reserves proportionally have higher proportion of the component of wild bee economic value and smaller compositions of direct production cost and imputed wages and profit to the collection crew.90 4. prices of honey and imputed wages are statistically significant factors. If imputed wages of the collecting crew are included. To obtain the total economic value of wild bees in honey production involve the overall computation during a collecting trip at the forest site. the total economic value for the Kemasul Forest Plantation is lower. Allowing a 25% normal profit margin for entrepreneurial efforts by collectors.67 86. The function showed that the economic value of wild honey bees is positively influenced by the number of hives available and the price of honey but negatively dependent on the number of collecting team members at 5% level of significance.00 25. Bee colonies from forest reserves have a higher number of hives per tree and the number of trees with bee colonies.29% of the revenue generated from honey production. Table 3 provides information on the average revenue per hive and the economic value of wild bees in honey production on a per unit hive basis. and selling price of honey. The economic values Table 4 : Total economic value of wild honey bees in honey production (RM) Average Bera Economic Rent / hive Average no. This value is allocated as the economic rent of wild bees in honey production. The above average revenue varied among the forest reserves.03 254.08 5.326. Wild bees tend to build a higher number of hives in taller trees with many perpendicular branches which are more readily available in the natural forest than in forest plantation.71% of the average revenue per hive.24 are higher for collection activities from the natural forest as compared to forest plantation if the economic value per hive is equally high. a residual value of RM 24.26 1. This high proportion allocated as the economic rent is due to the low usage of capital since the honey and honey comb in the hives are self-produced by the bees without any human effort to culture the honey involved. of hives / tree Average value of wild bees / tree Average number of trees / collector team Number of collecting team / forest area Average value of wild bees 44.50 4 3 5 4 1.30 258.92%). A r e g r e s s i o n b e t w e e n e c o n o m i c va l u e o f wild honey bees with several influencing factors suggested that only direct cost. the distinction between natural and forest plantation is not seen. where despite the higher rent. This is unlike the case in the Kemasul Forest Plantation.6% and a F test that is statistically significant at 5% significant level.25 Forest Reserve Kemasul 32.21 6.40 2. distance to the forest trees with bee hives.90 per hive is obtained. Equation 1 below provides the full econometric diagnostic of the economic value function. Overall.00 Overall Average 24. THE INGENIEUR 31 . This occurred due to variations in the direct cost.00 Jerantut 5.21 2. Hence.56 113. This function is also useful for the projection of the economic value of wild bees in respect to honey production. the economic rent represented 42. it has fewer hives per Acacia tree.

the value of bees constituted a large proportion of the revenue from honey production since direct production cost incurred by collectors are minimal given that the true work of gathering nectar and processing them into honey is naturally done by the bees. it is possible to identify the trade-offs involved when forests are opened for timber harvesting or deforested.1 + 43. Secondly.4) (.318. it had demonstrated a simple method to put values on the role of wild bees in honey production in the forest.4) (3. A word of caution on the use of these economic values of honey bees should be in order.3Crew + 7. The fourth piece of information is of potential value for policy makers and analysts.2. Apart from the use of this function to show the partial relationship between the economic value of honey bees with each of the following variables: number of hives. there will be sufficient monetary-based information to help better decision making on forest land use. accessibility and the cost of extraction. The other cost elements deducted from the revenue are imputed wages of the honey collecting crew. With this information. other factors remain unchanged.feature Value = .1.7)** (1. and (ii) the total market in a given area normally exhibits a downward-sloping demand curve with increasing quantity demanded in response to decreasing prices. The economic value of wild bees is higher in natural forest than in forest plantation. Thirdly. owing to the variations in bee hives and trees selected by the bees to build their hives.6* where Value = economic value of wild honey bees (RM/trip) Hive = number of hives per trip (hive/trip) Yield = weight of honey harvested per trip (kg/trip) Crew = number of collecting team members Price = price of honey (RM/kg) Figures in bracket are the t statistics Adjusted R2 is the adjusted coefficient of multiple determination F is the F statistic **.. A more integrated management of land use should be implemented to avoid the loss of these NTV values. This assumes that the supply of wild honey is infinitely elastic at these prices. BEM CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS This paper contributed several interesting findings. * are indications of statistical significance at the 1% and 5% levels of significance. This valuation exercise is site-specific. Fourthly. honey prices across the country. This function is also useful for projecting the economic value of wild bees with respect to honey production. given that the essential role played by wild bees is considered useful information for biodiversity conservation. The resource rent is the return to resource owners. Its findings are not directly transferable to appraise wild honey bees in other locations.1)* (2.5Yield – 45.3)** Adjusted R2 = 56. possibly licensing wild honey collection. applying the economic values to computing the total value of all harvestable honey over the whole state can be erroneous. The first three sets of information are potentially useful for biodiversity conservation of the forests. The timber harvesting system can be specified to take into account the multiple-use of the forest resources so as not to forego these NTV benefits. With the estimation of most of these NTV. price of honey and the number of team crews. The economic value of potential wild honey available in the forests reflects the resource rent that can be collected by forest resource owners.2Hive + 45. it can be included into the total economic values of forests. transportation and processing. This latter information is especially useful to State 32 THE INGENIEUR . particularly to the study locations. the trustee of the forest. Two problems are associated with this: (i) it contradicts an implicit assumption of the residual approach (infinitely inelastic supply).5Price (1) (.6% F = 4. Firstly. Further. the average total economic value of wild honey collection per tree (or price of honey that can be potentially harvested from the forest trees) has been obtained. Government regulators in setting appropriate user fees for the extraction of wild honey. basically the State Government. as well as the Government agency responsible for licensing the extraction of non-timber forest products. The ability to appraise the value of the role of wild bees in honey production suggests that other NTVs have a high probability of being valued as well.

The animal husbandry industry shall strut in the right key in tandem with the GAHP tune. animals are kept in a wide variety of situations. Most owners have had no practical training in animal care and all too often receive dubious advice from fellow owners. These GAHP are intended as an educational tool in the promotion of sound husbandry and welfare practices. Concern for a 1 Codes of Practice is synonymous with Good Animal Husbandry Practices THE INGENIEUR 33 . This cannot by itself be used as compliance or prequisite to certain law or rule of operations. in line with this. proprietors.. When the word ‘must’ is used. This code shall be used as an adjunct for professionals or testimony in reviewing the Animal Act 1953. The Good Animal Husbandry Practice (GAHP) book endeavour’s therefore to define standards for the basic principles of animal management.feature Good Animal Husbandry Practices By Raden Fadzilah A’ini Abdul Kadir Universiti Pertanian Malaysia) The Good Animal Husbandry Practices (GAHP/Code of Practice 1 ) are nationally developed as a guide to the care and handling of different animal species. It is timely to amplify to the public. the positive angle of quality animal care. The codes contain recommended housing or abodes. traders and related agencies in this sector to compare and improve the management practice or licensing guidlines. Thus.. farmers. transportation and management practices for animals. it emphasizes the importance of a specific practice. where they were made to adapt to a broad range of environmental conditions. the growing affluence of M a l ay s i a n s o c i e t y h a s sowed a tremendous increase in awareness of the need to provide animals with proper care and attention. The Department of Standard Malaysia through its arm. Thus owners or premise managers must provide the optimum environment to these species in confined areas. In the case of long cooped-up animals a conducive environment is needed. the animal husbandry industry is set to adhere to conditions laid down by the Department of Veterinary Services. from the smallest ‘worm’ to the Gigantic Whale. Throughout the world. The codes contain recommendations to assist owners. Ranges of pets sizes and prices D uring these past decades. has awarded the STANDARD MALAYSIA Good Animal Husbandry Practice (GAHP) MS 2027:2006. SIRIM Bhd. Many species or breeds exist. This inculcates the need to enhance animal keeping/farming/ranching in the country.

With better control of the production inputs. For example. Exotic bird shop (England) Misunderstood Care Inappropriate practice together with exorbitant veterinary or licensing fees should be a taboo in the local animal practice. Gases generated from animal wastes such as ammonia. In tangent with the issue is the misuse of drugs. b r e e d s . example. ostrich or birds. A continuous interchange of gene pool promotes conservation of natural habitat by giving it added economic value. A well developed Code gives confidence to all parties that their interest are being protected. Withdrawal period should be adhered to and monitored to prevent untoward incidences. accordance to World Health Organisations limits. physiology. . b e h av i o u r s . 34 THE INGENIEUR Concept of “Ranching” of wildlife promotes sustainability of products and animals in increasing the number of animals and maintains the gene pool Examples are deer. A conducive in-door environment for tropical birds ranched for sale in England Pollution from animal keeping as in noise or smell can be reduced based on scientific research. Designing Animal Dwellings To begin designing an animal dw e l l i n g .0 GUIDELINES IN THE GOOD HUSBANDRY PRACTICES (GAHP) FOR ANIMALS SALT encompasses the guiding principles of the GAHP {husbandry. as in overcoming noise pollution in edible-nest Swiftlets premises was a colloborative effort of the Ministry of Housing and Local Goverment and The Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry. a n i n d iv i d u a l m u s t consolidate knowledge of animal s p e c i e s . 2. feceas or guanos and treat the liquid waste effectively. vices. and should be properly controlled. this system of mangement has the potential to customise good animal care all round. sustainable and clean environment must be the primary adjunct in awarding licences in the future for such premises.feature Ostriches in Malaysia Good Animal Husbandry Practice Book published by the Department of Veterinary Services. The storage of dirty water containers could breed pathogens Humidifiers are recommended to avoid wastage. nitro-furan etc. Why is the word ranch and not farming is used in the keeping of wildlife? This is self explainatory when farming is a form of captive breeding versus ranching where wild animals are reared in a control environment. diet. biosecurity and SPS measures (part of halal requirement)}. habits. gender. so as not to contaminate the soil as well as the surface and underground water. This echoes a well managed production system which ensures benefits to the environment. methane. environmental control. beta-agonist. sulpha dioxide contribute to the global greenhouse effect. The owners of animal farms must be able to collect the droppings. contamination and control water run-offs. status. There must be judicious management in the use and monitoring of drugs in animal care and feeding. shortcomings.

By taking all this into account can than an almost perfect shelter be built for one or group of animals. heights. material used. the enterprenuer or non-animal savy person interprates the comfort zone for noise. Use of aluminums louvres to camouflage the ventilation holes give it an aesthetic look THE INGENIEUR 35 . Thus. Disease Surveillance For the purpose of achieving competetiveness in the International Animal Trade. production targets. The challenge for the animal husbandry industry is to be proactive in Close-house system Modern multi-tier close-house chicken on wheels (mobile). weights. Veterinarians are usually consulted on the matter above to ascertain the design.feature Humidifier to maintain humidity Volumes of birds call to bait ediblenest Swiftlets in animal premises mating ratio. demonstrating its commitment to provide inputs into for Government regulatory policy and at the same time remain economically viable. high standards of animal welfare are legally important. Below are environment friendly production houses for ‘animal production’. management procedures w i l l e vo l ve . strength. climate. with automated feeders and drinkers. M o s t d e ve l o p e d countries are using these as a tool to ban imports from less developed nations. Arrow points to birds-nest premise where the façade harmonizes with the building. The birds are ready for the market. AlertThreshold mechanism is a function that needs to be incorporated at every level. smell and others for animals from the human perspective. have direct economic benefit and ensure that the animal husbandry industry has a place in the international arena. land carrying capacity. plants. These are to rule Issues Accertained A continuous scrutiny of ‘animal premises’ shall ensure that they are sustainable and driven abide by regulations. control and eradication systems established are in line with the International Standards laid down by the Organization of International Epizootic (OIE). The following ”freedoms” are recognized as criteria: ● freedom from hunger and thirst ● freedom from thermal and physical discomfort ● freedom from pain. As scientific and technological knowledge advances. We know now that for birds’ a perch is a must as it is their natural instinct to perch upsidedown or upright. This is particularly so. where the urban encroachment and the `RIGHT’ people feel they have to live in a pristine environment free from odour. This is in line with world standards. Provision Of This Code Very often. orientation and others. Animal disease surveillance. injury and disease ● freedom from undue anxiety ● freedom to display most normal patterns of behaviour The recommendations in these Codes come from publications and literatures from a variety of international sources. The comfort of the animal is in the perspective of the animal and not vice-versa. monitoring. As animal health status becomes a tool in determining conditions for animal trade. it of paramount importance for the country to adhere to quality animal health management standards. noise and dropping contaminations.

as follows: (i) ISO 11784 Radio-frequency identification of animal-Code structure (ii) ISO 11785 Radio-frequency identification of animal-Technical concept . Pets and Exotic Animals.. Adequate tracing of animals in the event of theft. A. Laurie Wagner has developed a software called EARS (Early Aberration Reporting System) Identification And Traceability Identification and traceability of animal products will be the norm with the implementation of AFTA. (1999). These are registered manufacturers in Malaysia.K. Below is an example of and ’organic product – birds nest’ from a birds nest premise in Malaysia. A. contact holdings and zones. Human resource development at all levels. Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of edible-nest Swiftlets. Bhd.feature Examples of Codes 458 Malaysia country code 458 Malaysia country code 0 pet code 1 livestock code --manufacturer’s code --manufacturer’s code …. A . Conclusion Animal health must continue to improve with corresponding improvements in animal husbandry and management. M.Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of edible-nest Swiftlets. BEM White birds nest worth RM3. National Congress on Animal Health & Production R. This is the motto ” from farm to the fork’. Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pets and Exotic Animals. Ideally. not excluding the veterinarians. The Department of Veterinary Services Malaysia has outlined standard as endorsed by Department of Standard Malaysia via SIRIM.e: 0 . must be actively taken by all parties in the animal husbandry industry to ensure vibrany. Malaysia White-nest from Johor. Fadzilah (2004). Red-nest from Indonesia REFERENCES Red-nest from Sarawak.500 per kilogram raw. R . R.food animal/livestock (v) Next should be manufacturer’s code (next three digits).. Malaysia Yellow-nest from Sabah. Fa d z i l a h ( 2 0 0 4 ) . animal sequence (iii) ISO 3166-1 Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions Part 1 country code for Malaysia being 458 (1 st three digits) (iv) Followed by the application code one digit i. K . out false positive or false negative cases.Ariff Omar.pets and 1 . Veterinary Association Malaysia Congress. Effective control or reprimand depends on rapid traceability and impromtu identification of premises. Fadzilah (2004).. Malaysia D e p a r t m e n t o f Ve t e r i n a r y Services SALT Booklet (2003) Jim Edwards (2002).K. At Davis University. an outbreak or 36 THE INGENIEUR drug misuse or abuse is critical. there should be uniform traceability strategies within the animal fraternity. animal sequence ….

does not belong to the plant operators. the land areas required for treatment plants serving 2000 PE or less range between 500 m 2 and 5000 m 2 for Standard B category. This land issues need to be addressed for smooth operation and maintenance of the existing public plants including public sewers and for long term operational improvements. in terms of design. Furthermore THE INGENIEUR 37 Land issues WSIA does not specifically address land issues. Some of the problems faced by the public plant operators are: (a) Certain public sewerage systems or part of the system including public sewers are situated on or run under private land. Complex combinations of sewerage systems Almost 90% of the public STPs are less than 5000 PE in capacity. The vast differences in the land areas occupied indirectly imply great variation in the design of system built. Ir. For example. and remained in the ownership of a private owner. whereas these plants are only serving some 30% of the total connected PE. quality and prices for ranges of sewage treatment plant products registered with the regulators. Haniffa Hamid. private plants. specifications. wo r k m a n s h i p .1 is an illustration of the polluters in a typical local river stretch which demonstrates that public STPs are not the main polluters. Dorai Narayana & Engr S. The quality of constructed sewerage works varies greatly from one to another. when water treatment plants are shut down due to high ammonia cal nitrogen or E-coli level. Often. Quality of sewerage infrastructures in Malaysia though not extremely poor. is not very good either. Statistics from Department of Environment (DOE) shows that almost 50% of river contamination originated from sewage related pollution. fingers are pointed towards public STPs as the main source of these pollutants. Figure 5. (e) Land acquisition problems for the siting of new sewage or sludge treatment facilities.Experiences And Challenges (Part 2) By Ir. construction and manufacturing issues There is great diversity in types. Design. septic tanks and pour flush systems and sullage from old housing areas that the authorities need to focus to effectively improve river water quality. (c) Some plants are situated within the same compound as the owner’s residential property.feature Centralized And Decentralized Wastewater Management In Malaysia . developers merely hand over the sewerage system to the Government for operation but the land was not transferred. Public STPs only contribute a fraction of the sewage pollution and there are other sewage polluters i. Public STPs are mainly situated on land that . (d) Some private owners insist on payment of market value for land or insist that the plant be removed to enable the owners to develop them. Anusuyah Bai Indah Water Konsortium Sdn Bhd Part 1 of this article appeared in the June-Aug 2009 issue of Ingenieur. (b) Periodically. r e l i a b i l i t y a n d performance. River pollution Issues related to river contamination and shortages of water supply have created pressure on parties identified as contributors to river pollution.e.

and continues to do so. However. Th e multipoint sewerage systems were constructed by developers on a piecemeal basis as and when development took place. technologies and product options. enforcement and funding support. wh e r e by developers connecting to existing sewerage systems need to contribute SCC. 38 THE INGENIEUR Inadequate Government investment Most areas in Malaysia do not have a centralized system in place due to lack of Government i nve s t m e n t i n t h e p a s t . the rate of investment and construction of new facilities by the Government has not kept pace with the development of new land schemes.feature in other growth areas or to upgrade and expand existing systems to cater for new developments. while each type of the aeration equipment is made available by several manufacturers who offer variation in design and t e ch n o l o g i e s . The operators of the public plants will face difficulty if they were not properly trained to operate and maintain various kinds of treatment facilities. and also offsetting and other mechanisms linked to the Sewerage Contribution. under the new WSIA regime. What is called for is investment to provide sewerage infrastructure a h e a d o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Besides the scattered distribution of the sewerage facilities. Figure 5. For example. operators of the private plants need to obtain Class Licence to operate . Developer investment & integration Th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e country at a fast pace resulted in individual developments providing their own disintegrated piecemeal sewerage systems. t h e r e are countless combinations of the treatment processes and equipment at the some 5. Secondly. These multipoint systems are extremely challenging to operate and maintain efficiently due to the wide variation in the designs. Much investment by developer went into providing sewerage infrastructure. some of the plants will be outsourced to other contractors to operate and maintain and they too need to be trained properly.000 PE in capacity located mostly in densely populated cities. Th e Government has also introduced a system of Sewerage Capital C o n t r i b u t i o n ( S C C ) . The SCC funds could be used to construct new sewerage systems Training and skills development Currently. Besides that. resulting in numerous combinations treatment process and equipment. The new developments in these areas could connect to the centralized sewer networks instead of providing their own standalone sewerage systems. resulting in proliferation of multipoint sewerage systems in most areas. there are easily ten types of aeration equipment used locally. However. This presents operational logistics which are extremely complicated. there are only a handful of large STPs over 100. due to the high number of existing treatment plants. In contrast. these have seen little results due to inadequate mechanisms of policy. various treatment systems and equipment are being built into these treatment systems. However. I n s h o r t .1: Typical Sources of River Pollution these plants are dispersed in development pockets nationwide. the number of public plants in the country are many and consist of various kinds of treatment systems. As a result the growth of multiple sewerage systems in these areas was not so rampant. a difference could be seen in places such as Kuala Lumpur and Penang where the Government has invested in centralized sewerage systems. There have been attempts at integrating developer investments through scheme developments.000 sewage treatment plants currently under the care of public sewerage service.

and income gap between poor and rich is wider. 2. a structured training and skills development programme needs to be instituted. This can be linked to a scheme of accreditation and licensing to ensure that only qualified and trained people are involved in related functions. For long term sustainability.feature and maintain their plants. For this. The sewerage industry needs competent manpower in order that the varied functions involved can be carried out effectively and efficiently. enhancement. full cost recovery must be from beneficiaries Full cost recovery issues Traditional thinking has been to move the sewerage sector towards full-cost recovery. where most infrastructures are ready and income gap between poor and rich is narrow. The middle path principle of achieving this is basically: 1. entire mechanism based on tariff burden on the customer. Suitability for beneficiary pays will be in developing countries. a combined principle of polluter pays and beneficiary pays must be adopted. upgrades and consequent O&M costs. Polluter pays would be applied to prevent a change to a more polluting activity whereby they must pay for the damage they cause. renewal as well as operation and maintenance. Suitability for polluter pays will be in developed countries. This should be equally applicable to CAPEX involved in sewerage infrastructure provision. Beneficiary pays would be used to encourage a change to a more environment beneficial outcome whereby whoever benefits from a clean environment should be responsible for pollution control costs. with the Figure 5. where most infrastructure need to be constructed. and for building new sewerage systems (CAPEX) the full cost recovery is from polluters (b) For improvements.2 Full Cost Recovery – Users vs Beneficizzaries THE INGENIEUR 39 . Practical application would be. upgrades. (a) For O&M of existing systems. It is important for the private plants operators to undergo training as well before obtaining their Licence to operate the plants.

Examples of such areas are Terengganu and Kelantan. renewal. Scenario 4: Sewerage Infrastructure for Redevelopment Projects Figure 6. Location/area/slope issues. (c) Environmental – Compliance. land availability and technology. Buffer issues. Odour. Noise. Th e l a n d ava i l a b i l i t y issues may force a decentralized concept. Fi g u r e 6 .1: Sustainable Sewerage Systems Such scenarios exist when there is a need for centralized regional . individual septic tanks. OPEX. Whole Life Cost and Sustainability (b) S o c i a l . In this context. Scenario 2: Existing Sewerage Infrastructure in developed areas Existing systems serving an area has now to be expanded to serving a large area as well as increased density. RECOMMENDATIONS & WAY FORWARD Recommendations Sustainable sewerage management is the management of sewerage system according to the principles of sustainable development. These areas might consist of many different types of systems: public sewage treatment plants. Sizing is determined to meet development needs which can vary from 5. Centralized sewerage systems are easily implemented. where the sizing of STPs can be determined upfront (eg: 100. Nuisance Control. and who should bear the costs.000 PE. Customer Service.2 shows the various parties who benefit from water services.L e ve l o f S e r v i c e . Examples of areas which went through Scenario 1 are Putrajaya and Cyberjaya. It is more expensive and disruptive to carry out these wo r k s . To build a truly s u s t a i n a b l e s e w e ra g e s y s t e m management requires the integration of action in three key areas: (a) Economics . Affordable Tariff. The recommendation is not to prefer one over the other but choosing the appropriate type of sewerage system depending on the area. The main drivers for 40 THE INGENIEUR proper sizing of STPs are Sewerage Catchment Area. Visual. Full Cost Recovery.feature However.000 PE – 50. primitive systems and sullage wastes connected to drains. There are no centralized sewage treatment facilities. sizing of STPs (in terms of centralized system or decentralized system) in Malaysia depends on the area. Figure 5. Not in My Backyard (NIMBY) Concept. The appropriate type of sewerage systems in Malaysia based on va r i o u s s c e n a r i o s a r e s t a t e d below: Scenario 1: New sewerage systems for Greenfield Developments Planning for sewerage infrastructure can be done concurrently with development. the needs and the existing development and facilities. Sizing of STP may vary from 200. Transparency in Services.000 PE) in a centralized system. Buffer. the cost is lower and the disruption will be minimal. It needs a phased programme consisting of upgrading of systems. this middle path principle could not be applied currently.000 PE – 1. Land Use/ Land Availability and Logistics.000 PE – 600. refurbishment as well as new facilities.8 million PE with priority of funding. Examples: Pantai Catchment (Kuala Lumpur) and Greater Georgetown Catchment (Penang). Sustainable design balances human needs (rather than human wants) with the carrying capacity of the natural and cultural environment. due to high CAPEX for centralized systems. the sewerage system in Malaysia is a combination of centralized and decentralized system.CAPEX. It minimizes environmental impact and importation of goods and energy as well as the generation of waste. The cost will be absorbed as part of development costs. 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e integration of the three components of sustainable sewerage system. Population and PE Projection. Scenario 3: Sewerage Infrastructure for Slow Paced Development Area Basically there are two main sewerage practices in slow paced development areas which are onsite sewerage treatment systems and communal multipoint system. As mentioned before. private sewage treatment plants.

g. the cost of operation and maintenance will be higher. This will be done as part of the business plan formulation process. A proper Nationwide Sewerage Catchment Strategy must be in place which acts as a timetable that defines the types of improvements which will take place in each Catchment area in a set timeframe. However.feature sewerage systems in existing areas with mixed sewerage systems.standard systems (c) Poor quality of facilities (d) Wasteful investment (iii) Need for Whole Life Concept and Net Present Value Currently. particularly the Government and the Developers. centralization. including: (a) P r o l i f e ra t i o n o f s e w e ra g e systems (b) Non. depreciation and cost of finance) (h) Replacement or disposal (iv) Need for Seed Fund Mechanism Government investment in providing sewerage infrastructure i n a dva n c e o f d e ve l o p m e n t . An example of such area is Wilayah Pembangunan Iskandar (Johor). growth coverage. As time passes. with targets including coverage. Sizing is determined on the phasing of development and practicality of implementation which can vary from 50. Stated below are suggestions on proposed directions that could effectively address all major issues facing the sewerage sector and achieve the National Sewerage Development Goals. unless a mechanism to financially assist developers in this endeavour can THE INGENIEUR 41 Way forward for effective sewerage system management in Malaysia In order to move towards a more effective sewerage sector development. Policy. Typical areas of expenditure which are included in calculating the Whole-Life cost are: (a) Planning (b) Design (c) Construction/acquisition (d) Operations (e) Maintenance (f) Renewal/rehabilitation (g) Financial (e. this is often not possible. funds allocation and institutional support are the three key thrusts needed in this respect to mitigate the issues faced currently. sullage issues. Although the initial construction cost is lower. . but due to the inefficiencies of equipment. The next step is to review these reports and enable the Sewerage Catchment Strategies to provide the base information and Strategic framework which can be the basis for the formulation of Action Plans to meet Strategic Goals set by SPAN. A Whole-Life cost refers to the total cost of ownership over the life of an asset.000 PE -500. there must be a proper strategy in place. (e) Th e t i m e f a c t o r i s a l s o significant. Policy and regulatory control can be used to encourage developers t o wo r k w i t h e a ch o t h e r t o develop sewerage infrastructure in line with national goals. However. Also commonly referred to as “cradle to grave” or “womb to tomb” costs. they purchase the cheapest materials and equipments in the market in order to save cost. more urban area may warrant centralized systems. property connection and provision of basic systems for all areas. These four scenarios summarize the recommendations as stated below: (a) Regional systems must be focused to cater for large urban areas (b) Planning control must be in place to minimise number of multipoint plants (c) There must be a standardised designs and equipment to help reduce overall cost and procurement and operational efficiency (d) There still can be a minimum number of on site systems (decentralized system) but confined to small scale development in isolated areas.000 PE. Most of the time. (i) Need for Nationwide Sewerage Catchment Strategy Sewerage catchment strategies have been completed for most areas. to enable new developments t o c o n n e c t t o t h e ava i l a b l e infrastructure rather than build their own would be ideal. developers who construct the centralized and decentralized systems do not use a whole life concept in building these assets. So there is a need to apply the whole life concept and choose the best options through the Net Present Value Calculation. (ii) Need for Integrated CAPEX Investment Strategy Emphasis needs to be placed on planning and schemes to facilitate integrated investments of CAPEX by various parties. these may also not be fully effective.

(c) Construction of spur sewers. The Standardisation Programme will focus on the following priority areas: (a) Design and construction (b) Operation and maintenance (c) Refurbishment and upgrading work (d) Product and equipment (e) Repair and replacement (f) Certification of works approval (vii) Need for Effective Energy Management and Optimization for Efficiencies There are a large number of inherited sewage treatment plants in Malaysia and most of them are not energy efficient. expensive to cheapest for the same range and types of products. performance. so that extensions of the networks or construction of new modules can be done by developers. equipment and treatment processes. enabling extension of sewer networks to areas where large-scale new developments are expected (d) F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o developers carrying out sewerage infrastructure developments in accordance with Catchment Strategies. It is impossible to regionalize all these areas in order to have one standardized system in place. Government effort would only be effective if the private sector also improve energy management at their private facilities. workmanship. Several Guidelines have also been published to guide the development of new sewerage infrastructure in the private sector to ensure consistent quality at the completed facilities. As mentioned before. (v) Need for Suitable Land for Ultimate Facilities New land sites are required for implementation of new sewerage infrastructure under the Capital Works projects. to be utilised for this purpose. It is proposed that a Seed Fund be created. sewerage network and sludge treatment/ disposal site is done t h r o u g h s e w e ra g e c a t ch m e n t strategy and sludge strategy. engineering design. and quality of work is essential to achieve overall industry efficiency and sustainability. Standardisation must be approached holistically to ensure successful adoption and implementation. The Federal Government has emphasised the importance of energy efficiency in the public sectors. PS. Many major exercises have been carried out to upgrade the conditions of the existing sewerage infrastructures to improve their performance. so as to enable construction of the facilities by developers (b) Construction of sewerage i n f ra s t r u c t u r e i n a dva n c e o f development.feature be put in place. There are two methods of land acquisition: 42 THE INGENIEUR (a) Application for State Land (b) Compulsory purchase under the Land Acquisition Act 1960 (LAA) The selection of suitable land sites for the purposes of STP. short term and long term project (b) Type of system suited with the existing surrounding land use (c) Social aspect (vi) Need for Standardization within the Sewerage Sector Standardisation of equipment. The fund can be utilised for the following purposes: (a) Purchase of land for siting of sewerage facilities in accordance with Catchment Strategies in areas where substantial growth is expected. Therefore an effective energy management plan would only be possible if all key stakeholders involved in the decision making are conscious about the importance of energy efficiency. It must attain commitment from various levels of stakeholders who would be required to adopt the same p r i n c i p l e s . The designers . However energy management has never been emphasised in the Guidelines and the common practices in this industry. reliability. The quality of most constructed sewerage works vary greatly from one work to another in terms of design. Consideration should also be given to the following aspects: (a) Utilise the same site for immediate. equivalent products/materials and follow systematic procedures of the proposed Standardisation Programme. inlet works or trunk sewers) are required (e) Provision of off site sludge facilities to serve multiple developments Other instances where seed funding is necessary to enable d e ve l o p e r i nve s t m e n t s t o b e channelled in line with National sewerage goals. where additional land or capacities (for STP. whilst the registered products available in the market range from best to worst. currently there are a large number of decentralized systems in Malaysia which consist of various types of design. s i m i l a r p ra c t i c e s .

focus on planning. it is important that they are clearly aware of the operating environment such as influent characteristics and the facilities capabilities. Hence commitment from all stakeholders are crucial in ensuring the smooth implementation of an energy management plan. the sewerage industry will be handled by Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) as the regulator.feature must ensure that the designs are efficient and are appropriate for the application. A structured programme to develop. This would help the operators to identify the most appropriate operating strategy to ensure that facilities are operated at their utmost efficiency and energy wastage is minimised. (viii) Need for Structured Training and Certification Programme As the new WSIA Act is in place. public sewerage s e r v i c e s h ave b e e n a c t ive l y developing its own workforce as well as related people in the industry in various aspect of sewerage management. the contractors should ensure these equipment are energy efficient and are installed appropriately to minimise energy wastage due to unwarranted losses. train and certify sewerage operators are needed which is also in line with the requirement in the WSIA. design and certification of sewerage systems with 28 training modules aimed at executives. Service Licensees (Operating and Maintaining Public Plants). Class Licensees (Operating and Maintaining Private Plants) and Facility Licensees (Owners). When the operators take over the operation of the facilities. and. Currently. Some of these modules are being used for Figure 6. At present there are no specific requirements or standards that govern the sewerage operators even though IWK has been imparting knowledge and skills over the years.: (a) Category A -.e. At the same time the technology recommended should be energy efficient. During the purchasing of the mechanical and electrical equipment. To this end there are a multitude of structured training and development programmes and materials specifically formulated for the following three categories i. necessary and/or minimum competencies to perform sewerage services efficiently and effectively. engineers and managers. The programme shall: (a) Ensure that sewerage operators have the required.2: Water Cycle and Integrated Water Resources and Reuse THE INGENIEUR 43 . (b) set a minimum standard for wastewater operators and the service licensees to comply in order to obtain and/or renew their license or the relevant permit from SPAN.

with the possibilities of recycling and reuse of effluent.focus on the construction of sewerage systems targeted for professionals in the construction sector. These may include setting appropriate standards.UK (Chapter 11: Management of Decentralised Sewerage Systems [Pg 293-332] Haniffa Hamid and Zaini Ujang) Crites. Emerging technologies such as membranes have brought water reclamation possibilities closer to economic reality. The management of the supply of clean water and the removal and treatment of sewerage by a single entity is expected to bring much logistical advantage as well as economics of scale. WSIA Act 655: Water Services Industry Act 2006. billing and related aspects can be streamlined and duplication eliminated.Z and Henze. SSA 1993: Sewerage Services Act 1993 . economic considerations and affordability must be taken into account as well. R and G. SPAN Act 654: Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara Act 2006. IWK . London. United States. Malaysia. The recommendation is not to prefer one over the other but choosing the appropriate type of sewerage system depending on the area. The Mc-Graw Hill Companies. regulation and adoption of appropriate technology. Dorai Narayana (2007) IWK’s Asset Management Strategy. Malaysia. IWK. Ir. Besides this. Cost and non-cost elements must be considered with appropriate weightages in the evaluation. strategies and planning directives must be in place to effectively manage the decentralized sewerage systems in the most effective manner. in Malaysia consisting of a mix of centralized and decentralized systems. Percetakan National Berhad. All these systems function at various degrees of efficiency. Malaysia. While it may be idealistic to follow the model of centralisation. IWK. BEM REFERENCES Ujang.feature the Water Executive Training Post Graduate Diploma course offered by UTM. CONCLUDING REMARKS The historical factors behind the development of sewerage systems in Malaysia have resulted in the current sewerage systems 44 THE INGENIEUR . The possibilities of reuse and recycling of sewage effluent are also opened with water-sewerage integration. Planning Services Section (2008) Integrated Sewerage Planning Strategy and the Need for Planning Directives. Moreover. Planning Services Section. The key is to adopt the most appropriate system for a given area. and the Catchment Strategy will be the document which will help in this decision. Malaysia. Malaysia. for a given period of time. t a k i n g i n t o consideration Population and PE Projection. Trainings is conducted at regular interval to keep employees up-to-date on equipment operation and maintenance (ix) Need for Integrated Services for Maximum Sustainable Benefits One of the considerations i n i n t e g ra t e d wa t e r.focus on operation and maintenance of sewerage systems with over 45 modules covering the existing public sewerage assets. Percetakan National Berhad. Buffer. IWA Publishing. Land Use/Land Availability and Logistics. (c) Category C -. the strategies adopted must consider these in deciding the degree of Centralisation to be adopted as well as the timeframe.s e w e ra g e management as proposed by the Government is to look at the water cycle as a whole. Sewerage Services Department. Inc. Planning and Engineering Department. The concept of centralized system and decentralized system must be driven by the Sewerage C a t ch m e n t A r e a . Tchobanoglous (1998) Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems.M (2006) Municipal Wastewater Management in Developing Countries: Principles and Engineering. standardisation. Percetakan National Berhad. Malaysia. (b) Category B -. biosolids and biogas. Sewerage Catchment Strategy Reports. the common customer for water and sewerage services means that customer services. For the areas where centralisation is not adopted.

yet there seems to be no urgent attempt to ensure their safety and protection in the course of their work. it can be seen from Fig 3 that the number of fatalities among utility staff and their contractors’ staff is almost equal. Ali Askar Sher Mohamad UNITEN eople involved in work on electrical apparatus can be divided into two broad categories: those working in the electrical industry and those employed to work on electrical installations of commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s .feature Safety of Electrical Workers By Ir. Considering only TNB Fig 1: Trend in electrical accidents in Malaysia Distribution. P Employees of utility working on an overhead line An electrical worker at an installation operating a switchboard Electrical Accidents 2002-2007 Electrical Accidents Statistics Statistics on electrical accidents in the country published by the Energy Commission show that the total number of accidents as well as the number of fatalities has more than doubled between 2002 and 2007 (Fig 1). even though the total number of accidents involving utility staff is substantially higher. Fig 2 shows that the number of accidents occurring at the utilities and commercial/ industrial installations are much higher than those occurring in residential premises. even though the latter greatly outnumber the former. The number of accidents at the utilities is especially alarming. The majority of these accidents are found to occur at the workplace. What are the causes for this high number of accidents involving electrical workers? THE INGENIEUR 45 . Th e former are mainly the employees of the electrical utilities and their vendors while the second category includes the maintenance personnel employed to operate and maintain electrical installations of buildings and complexes. Electrical accidents involving both of these categories are not rare in Malaysia.

Neither does the Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( D O S H ) h av e p r o v i s i o n s f o r Industry Codes There are two Industry codes widely in use in the country. There are no instructions on safe work procedures for electrical workers.2007/08 Fig 3: Utility and contractor staff involved in electrical accidents at TNB Distribution. ● 46 THE INGENIEUR . especially low voltage installations. The Commission has a rigorous testing procedure involving theory. 2002/03-2007/08 Legislation Legislation concerning safety for electrical workers comprises the following Acts and Regulations: Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 & Regulations and Orders This is a general piece of legislation covering all workers. Electricity Supply Act 1990 and Electricity Regulations 1994 This Act and the accompanying Regulations govern the supply of electricity in Malaysia and provides for the Energy Commission to be the agency responsible for this function. especially the provision of mandatory Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) for electrical workers. All Competent Persons need to be certified by the Energy Commission before being allowed to work at an installation. IEE Wiring Regulations (also known as BS 7671) and MS IEC 60364. practical and oral tests to determine a candidate’s knowledge and practice of safe work procedures. The Act has a section on Competent Control which makes it mandatory for all electrical installations to be operated by or under the control of Competent Persons. It defines the duties of employers and employees regarding safety and makes it obligatory to report all accidents but there are no specific clauses for electrical workers. ● including those in the electrical industry and electrical workers in other industries. ● Ut i y lit ria st u nd l/I tion a i c a er ll m nsta m i Co l Re si ia nt de l Fig 2: Distribution of electrical accidents TNB Distribution electrical accidents 2002/03 . The Regulations then define the Competent Persons required according to voltage level of the installation. Both of these Codes provide guidance on selection and erection of wiring and electrical equipment to ensure safe installation for the occupiers.feature Number of Accidents by location 2002-2007 its inspectors to check on the electrical industry or electrical installations. The Regulations provide some guidelines on safe operations of an installation but do not go into details. The Regulations are also silent about some vital aspects of electrical safety.

However. it is an open secret that many of these installations have absentee Competent Persons who are paid a nominal sum to literally “hang” their Competent certificates at the installation to comply with the Regulations. although sometimes it can be a design or manufacturing failure. Th e E l e c t r i c i t y Regulations only provide a general guide in isolating supply. this regulation is seldom enforced. Another problem is the storage. etc. Utilities also do not enforce use of PPE by its contractors. all electrical installations are required to be registered with the Energy Commission which has a duty to ensure that they are properly maintained. especially details about switching. Incompetent staff Although the Electricity Regulations specify the Competent Pe r s o n wh o c a n wo r k o n a particular installation according to voltage level. The major problem however. However. especially for arc flash protection. the operator may have been trained and duly certified. Unfortunately. 4. some of these Rules . and therefore not authorized. TNB has its own internal certification system to train and certify technical staff that are authorized to operate are quite dated and need to be reviewed with recent advances in technology. The installation may actually be operated by personnel who are not certified and are inadequately trained in safe work practices. working on a switchboard. Sometimes. Most of them do not have published Safety Rules in operating their electrical e q u i p m e n t . 1. but accidents still occur due to failure to adhere to proper procedures when handling equipment. are not adequate.000ºC. Utilities provide PPE for their technical staff and have made its use mandatory via the Electricity Safety Rules. is the situation in nonutility installations. However. Under the Electricity Regulations 1994. The most notorious is the switching of a faulty breaker which can cause an arc discharge leading to temperatures in excess of 10. who may not even be competent. Improper Personnel Protective Equipment All personnel operating electrical equipment or even coming within a certain distance of live equipment need to wear the relevant PPE in case of a flashover or other incident. It is thus left to the skill and judgment of the operator. thus making the warranty null and void. to operate the equipment. Faulty equipment is often due to lack of maintenance. Lack of safe work procedures Utilities have their Electricity Safety Rules which lay down the procedures in working on their installations. resulting in death or permanent disfigurement. This can be a result of over-confidence or simply fatigue due to long hours on the job. as well as related operations. leading to the possibility of accidents. detailing the steps for switching and isolation. Non-utility installations are far worse off. A generic code. maintenance and regular inspection of the PPE which rarely follow the recommendations of the manufacturer. as noted above. Unfortunately when an accident occurs. is needed for the industry. it is sometimes found that the actual person doing the operation was not certified.feature Causes of Electrical Accidents Electrical accidents at the utilities or at electrical installations of complexes can be attributed to four main factors. Most industries religiously maintain their production equipment but forget about the supporting electrical infrastructure. The provision of PPE depends on the recommendation of the Competent Engineer in charge of the installation and the generosity THE INGENIEUR 47 An electrical worker in full PPE the equipment in its network. there is no legislation making this mandatory or specifying the type and standard of PPE to be worn. checks with international standards like NFPA 70E show that PPE provided. 3. Faulty Equipment Operation of faulty equipment can spell danger for the operator. etc. 2. which probably explains the higher fatality rate as shown in Fig 3 . isolating supply.

and training and subsequent retraining of their staff. training and courses. PPE. especially with regard to the provision and specifications of PPE for electrical workers. It can be observed that in many cases. Electrical Safety in the Workplace Subscription Form The Ingenieur is the official publication of the Board of Engineers Malaysia. and ensure that he comes safely home to his family after work. would be a good source of reference for the drafting of this code. The current trend shows no signs of improvement.00 3 year of 12 issues RM90. Kompleks Kerja Raya Malaysia. Finally. It is published four (4) times a year. The Energy Commission has to be beefed up to oversee electrical installations and confirm that regulations pertaining to maintenance of equipment and Competent Control are adhered to. including utilities. PPE is limited to gloves and hard hats. payable to Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia.00 2 year of 8 issues RM60.00 (Please specify) Others (Please tick the appropriate circle) . Please fax/mail this form to: Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia. especially fatalities. Jalan Sultan Salahuddin. All parties need to play their part to improve the situation. Even these items may not be used properly. business opportunities and others within the engineering arena.feature of its owners. Employers. US and Canada shows we have a markedly higher number of accidents. is sorely needed. please complete the following details: BLOCK CAPITALS PLEASE Name: Address: Tel: Postcode: Fax: Country: E-mail: Enclosed is a postal order/cheque No. Conclusion Electrical accidents can be prevented or reduced. The journal provides useful and quality information on policy update. it is the electrical worker himself who has to take responsibility for his own safety and welfare. A comparison of our electrical accident statistics per KWh consumed with those of other countries like the UK. Legislation has to be strengthened. To subscribe. like NFPA 70E. 50580 Kuala Lumpur Tel: 03-2698 0590 Fax: 03-2692 5017 48 THE INGENIEUR Yes! I would like to subscribe The Ingenieur for: 1 year of 4 issues RM30. n e e d t o i nve s t i n e q u i p m e n t maintenance. for example rubber gloves may be used for both electric shock and arc flash protection. Tingkat 17. Ibu Pejabat JKR. including switching and isolation procedures. BEM REFERENCES Energy Commission Annual Report 2007 Energy Commission Analysis of Electrical Accidents in Malaysia for 2002-2006 Electricity Regulations 1994 NFPA 70E. safety and health. A National Code for safe operations of electrical installations. An international standard. accreditation of local and foreign universities.

Salamah Selamat & Mohd Nor Mohd Yusoff Forest Products Division. mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. especially those living in high humid conditions such as tropical Malaysia. Bio-deterioration of wood products by microorganisms and insects are a major problem causing great losses to property owners. they are subjected to weathering and biological attacks and not m a ny t i m b e r s p e c i e s e x h i b i t natural resistance against these physical and biological elements. sapstain Figure 2 Bostrychid beetle Figure 1 . Timber is an organic material. These wood destroying organisms are capable of breaking down the complex polymers which make up the wood structure. Knowledge on natural durability is important especially when selecting timber for structural purposes.feature Treatment Of Timber In Housing For Safe Occupation By Salmiah Ujang. When we talk about timber. insect borer ( Figure 2 ).Sapstain on rubberwood THE INGENIEUR 49 . The problem of termites ( Figure 1 ).Subterranean termites Figure 3 . The biodegradable aspect makes it a potential food source for a variety of fungi and insects. Forest Research Institute Malaysia T imber is one of the most useful building materials available and when kept in a favourable environment will last indefinitely. One of the major drawbacks associated with usage of wood products is the susceptibility of wood materials to biological deterioration and when timbers are put into service. we cannot run away from the durability aspect which has a direct influence on the performance of timber in service.

light. timber is wet.or fully-dry state. wood borer and termite attack in timber is common.880 Durability Very durable Durable Durable Moderately durable Moderately durable Non-durable Non-durable Timber species Chengal. There are very few true softwoods of commercial significance in Malaysia and none are durable in the tropics. Merbau Kasai. The main difference between the timber of hardwoods and softwoods (conifers or cone bearing plants) is the absence of vessels (pores) in softwoods. while also safe for humans and the environment. especially if the drying of timber is delayed. Teak Pauh Kijang. Sempilor Light hardwood < 720 Softwood 360 . Resak Bitis. Damar Minyak . Figure 5 . mold ( Figure 4 ) and decay fungi ( Figure 5 ) is very rampant.Mold on timber ( Figure 3 ). Rubberwood Damar minyak. medium and heavy. They are characterised by broad leaves and seeds are enclosed in a seed case. Mata Ulat. When felled. demand is currently towards preservatives that have a high degree of efficacy against termite and other wood destroying organisms. Hardwoods are divided into light. At semi. becoming very susceptible to sapstain. Pine.Rot under the floor joists due to wood decay fungi Table 1: Classification of Malaysian timbers based on density and durability Timber group Heavy hardwood Medium hardwood Density (kg/m3) > 880 720 . Light hardwoods include all the relatively light weight timbers which range in density from 400 to 720 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. medium and heavy hardwoods (Table 1). N o r m a l l y t h e s o f t wo o d s a r e characterised by needle-shaped leaves eg. effective process and wood protection are very crucial to ensure that the timbers are fully protected while in service. mold and decay fungi.705 50 THE INGENIEUR .feature Figure 4 . Kempas Sepetir Meranti. They are ‘general utility’ timbers of Malaysia such as meranti . The problem of decaying timber begins immediately after the felling process. Dicotyledons. Jelutong. ramin . Classification of Timbers Malaysian timber is classified into softwoods. However. Hence. Hardwoods are timbers that come from angiosperm ie. rubberwood.

Examples of moderately heavy hardwoods are Kapur and Kempas. The most acceptable scientific study in evaluating the durability of timber is by the graveyard test. In addition to general utility purposes many of these light hardwoods are excellent for high class joinery work.g. furniture. e. Some of these timbers are heavy and strong enough to be classified as “Heavy Hardwoods” but under tropical conditions they lack sufficient natural durability when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground unless they are properly treated with preservatives before use. Timber durability The durability of timber is defined as the number of years the timber can last based on the performance of test sticks in graveyard testing or stake test ( Figure 6 ) against wood destroying organisms and weather. They are naturally durable as they contain within their tissues some toxic materials. cabinet making. the light hardwoods as a whole make very satisfactory timbers for general construction. alkaloids or other substances repellent to wood destroying agents and can therefore be safely used without preservative treatment even in positions exposed to fungus or termite activities.A graveyard or stake test dark red meranti and medang. etc.feature Figure 6 . where timbers of standard size are buried in the ground and the length of time taken by these timbers to remain sound is computed as the durability rating THE INGENIEUR 51 . however. Heavy hardwoods are heavy or very heavy constructional timbers ranging in density from about 800 to 1. is not durable.120 kg/m 3 at 15% moisture content. The natural durability of timber. usually refers only to its degree of resistance to attack by biological agents and no wood is permanently resistant to all forms of biodeterioration. decorative panelling. the sapwood of these timbers. Examples of heavy hardwoods are Bitis and Chengal. Medium hardwoods are m o d e r a t e l y h e av y t o h e av y constructional timbers ranging in density from 720 to 880 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. however. borers and fungus. Provided that proper precautions are taken against attack by wood destroying agents especially termites.

Kempas which is rated as Moderately Durable (2-5 years) when tested under the Malaysian conditions has been found to last for 25 years in the United Kingdom. For obvious reasons. Why is the timber less durable now? The most likely explanation is that the timber that’s being used today comes from immature and smaller diameter trees and the majority contains a high proportion of sapwood. it does not really reflect the actual durability of the timber during service. resak. copperchrome-boron (CCB). When suitably applied to wood. both the ‘hard chap-char ’ and the ‘soft chap-char’ are mixed . Most of the time. door and window frames. guided by the weight of the timber. Amongst these preservatives. safe to use and handle. kekatong and kempas for building construction. Preservative only prolongs the life of wood and it does not confer immunity from attack forever. termites and other degrading organisms is essential for a more judicious and rational 52 THE INGENIEUR together and simply sold as ‘ chap-char ’ resulting in the usage of both light and heavy timbers in construction. cladding. Sometimes. CCA is the most effective against termites and Malay wooden house use of wood with a view to bridging up the gap between supply and demand of wood. Thus.feature of the timbers. piling. keranji. To many people once the timber is heavy. outdoor structures and many others. While this method gives an excellent “relative” durability of the timbers tested. This long durability used to be a characteristic of most timber houses and other buildings which can be seen clearly in some ancient houses. There are a few preservatives available for housing building materials such as copperchrome arsenic (CCA). however. With the present scenario of timbers being supplied having a high sapwood to heartwood ratio which makes the timber non-durable. broom sticks. Kempas excluding sapwood free from fungi and subterranean termites attack can last for about 20 years in service. The knowledge of the natural resistance of timber to fungal attacks. the ‘hard chap-char ’ will find their way to the construction industry for use as roof-trusses. For example. it will increase its resistance to attack by insects and fungi. Besides the use of the more common timbers like balau. will be used for boxes. Through observation some proportion of untreated medium to heavy hardwoods timber lasts for about 100 years under the ordinary conditions of its use. ‘Soft chap-char ’ on the other hand. it is going to be durable and strong. permanence in wood. However the durability of the timber concerned is dependent on the amount of preservative absorbed and the location of timber used. very often we will come across the sale of timber in the form of ‘hard chap-char ’ (equivalent t o h e av y t o m e d i u m . termites and borers. ‘unknown’ or lesser known timbers have been utilized in Malaysia in the form of ‘ chap-char ’ (mixed woods) for a long time. good penetrability into the wood. The most important properties of wood preservative are highly toxic to fungi. Usage of these preservatives and dosage required for timber components depends on specific commodity or hazard class. An example is the Istana Seri Menanti in Negri Sembilan. especially under conditions that are not similar to those employed in the test. light organic solvent preservatives (LOSP) and boron-based preservatives. Timber is also made up of less durable species of wood than that used previously. no side effects on wood and metals. ignoring the fact that the tests were performed under different environmental conditions. in the trade. consumers do not know exactly the type of timber species they use. A good preservative will maintain or increase the fire resistance properties of wood. low-cost furniture and other temporary purposes. chengal. Timber treatment using wood preservatives Tr e a t m e n t o f t i m b e r w i t h preservative is a means of converting non-durable timber into durable timber. crates.w e i g h t mixed woods) and ‘soft chapchar ’ (equivalent to mixed light woods). The use of ‘ chap-char ’ is therefore. Those who are not familiar with durability test of timbers may assume that the published data on the durability of timbers are directly comparable. it is essential to have the timbers treated with preservative to extend the service life of timber.

there is still no alternative in effectiveness against termites until now. the chemical distribution and depth of penetration remain at the same level upon releasing from pressure vessel. Treatment of timber using CCA for different hazard classes can be based on Malaysian Standard MS 360:2006. control over the retention and penetration of preservatives can be achieved ( Figure 7). Implementation of termite barriers in the design is crucial to minimize infestation by subterranean termites. columns. there is no chemical movement after the completion of Health & safety Since all preservatives are toxic compounds. This treated timber is ready for use in wood construction. H o w e v e r. The charge sheet gives useful details of the treatment charge. The presence of sufficient moisture will initiate decay. Termite control is another important aspect to be looked at. direct contact with humans need to be avoided. If treated timber is used as rafters.CCA treatment plant . the quantity of timber treated. Quality control need to be carried to determine that standard requirements are met. If the material is exposed to humans. In this method. the basic principles of operation remain unchanged. It is for this reason that timber floors have a sub-floor space to allow adequate ventilation to prevent build-up moisture and control of plumbing leaks within timber components. dry timber is loaded into a cylinder and the wood preservative is forced into the timber through the use of a high hydraulic pressure. a boundary such as ceiling is necessary. C CA i s s t i l l b e i n g u s e d f o r structural timber and joinery. This method known as the full cell process or Bethell Process was invented by John Bethell in 1838. t h e vacuum pressure impregnation process is the most widely used method. The advantages of this process is that it enables a considerable amount of preservative to be forced into the timber. builders and those involved with timber buildings and their maintenance should place top priority that the rule of “dry wood having less than 20% moisture content will not decay” applies. Evidence of treatment process should be recorded by the plant operator in the charge sheet. In Malaysia due to the rampant problem with termites. a few layers of paint or finishing h ave t o b e a p p l i ed . beams.feature highly recommended for structural components especially for rooftruss. Eventhough CCA is banned in certain countries due to arsenic content. Today. BEM THE INGENIEUR 53 Figure 7 . Procedure in MS 360 has to be followed strictly to ensure good treated timber is obtained. There are several methods used for treating timber with p r e s e r va t i v e s . the fixation process. the results achieved from the treatment as well as details of the treatment cycle. Handling of timber after the treatment process All freshly treated timbers need to be left to drip dry for about three to six hours before subjected to drying for about seven days for fixation process to take place. rafters and floor joists which are not in direct contact with the occupants. a large quantity of timber could be treated at the same time and by adjusting the treatment schedule. beams and roof truss. Building legislation & regulations Designers. Therefore. Re g u l a r inspection and maintenance need to be implemented to ensure the treated material is safe and not exposed to occupants. In CCA treated timber.

. Tan Sri Ghazali Jawi on 17/7/1975.P. Generation of power commenced in 1978 and within the budgeted cost of RM340 million . R. inspecting the construction of one of the four Power Tunnels on 24/5/1976. Temengor flowing through the completed two Diversion tunnels to downstream of the dam site to enable the filling of the rock-fill dam to commence. It is located in the North-Western part of Perak. it shows the original site of the project area at the conference of Sg. The Power Station has four generating units comprising Francis turbines vertically coupled to water-cooled generators. Perak was about 40 feet flowing at critical velocity. Four power tunnels are designed to supply 87. Liaw Y. Indonesia. of Shawinigan Engineering Co.5 MW unit each. and Edward Irwin. 54 THE INGENIEUR The Armed Forces Chief of Staff. Commencement of construction of low level upstream cofferdam to divert water from Sg. 537m in length and 127m in height. In spite encountering many unforeseen obstructions such as attack by armed terrorists causing more than three-month stoppage.engineering nostalgia A Mega Project In The 1970s Temengor Hydro Electric Project By Ir. 1979. accompanied by Defence Minister. Hans Kolle. The official opening of the project was performed by His Royal Highness. Liaw Y. Tan Sri Ghazali Shafee and the Malaysian Armed Forces Chief plus other VIPs visited the Site on 10/1/1977. Perak and Sg. The visit was conducted by Ir. Perak in 1973. the project was completed in time for impounding of reservoir in the monsoon season of 1977. The closure of Sg. administrative and other technical staff who were involved in the construction of this project can cast their names in a Malaysian construction industry history with pride! Looking downstream of Sg. The dedicated and brave workers. Perak was witnessed by the then Menteri Besar of Perak. . Perak and Sg.P. Temengor after the dense jungle had been cleared and burnt. At the narrow gorge the depth of water of Sg. Physical construction of 15 miles of access road through the virgin jungle commenced in 1972 for the main project to commence in 1974 and to complete in 1978 to meet the shortage of power supply. Ir. Tan Sri Ghazali Jawi accompanied by TNB Resident Engineer. the then Sultan of Perak on September 19. Montreal and Kumakura. delay in extraction of timber in the reservoir area and shortage of workers. engineers. the Deputy Project Manager and the Liaison Officer. At full operating condition the project will contribute 348 MW installed capacity and an average output 900 million units annually. Liaw Yew Peng T emengor Dam is one of the Southeast Asia’s largest rock-fill dam. Mr Itai of Hazama Gumi of Japan.a feat we seldom hear of nowadays.E.

engineering nostalgia Kuala Lumpur In The 1950s Jalan Medan Pasar Submitted by Ms Cheo Hong Keyong THE INGENIEUR 55 .

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