# Logic Gates

CS/APMA 202, Spring 2005 Rosen, section 10.3 Aaron Bloomfield
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Review of Boolean algebra
Just like Boolean logic Variables can only be 1 or 0

2

Review of Boolean algebra
Not _ is a horizontal bar above the number
 

0 _ =1 1=0
0+0 = 0 0+1 = 1 1+0 = 1 1+1 = 1

Or is a plus

 

And is multiplication

  

0*0 = 0 0*1 = 0 1*0 = 0 1*1 = 1
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Review of Boolean algebra
Example: translate (x+y+z)(xyz) to a Boolean logic expression

___

(xyz)(xyz)

We can define a Boolean function:

F(x,y) = (xy)(xy)

And then write a “truth table” for it:
x y F(x,y)

1
1 0 0

1
0 1 0

0
0 0 0
4

Quick survey

a)
b) c) d)

I understand the basics of Boolean algebra Absolutely! More or less Not really Boolean what?

5

Today’s demotivators

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Basic logic gates
Not And Or Nand Nor Xor
x x

x y
x y

xy
x+y

x y z x y z

xyz
x+y+z

x y
x y x y

xy
x+y xÅy
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Rosen, §10.3 question 1
Find the output of the following circuit

x y y

x+y (x+y)y y
__

Or (xy)y

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Rosen, §10.3 question 2
Find the output of the following circuit

x y

x

xy
y

xy

___ __

Or (xy) ≡ xy

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Quick survey

a) b) c) d)

I understand how to figure out what a logic gate does Absolutely! More or less Not really Not at all

10

Rosen, §10.3 question 6
Write the circuits for the following Boolean algebraic expressions __ a) x+y

x y

x

x+y

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Rosen, §10.3 question 6
Write the circuits for the following Boolean algebraic expressions _______ b) (x+y)x

x y

x+y

x+y

(x+y)x

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Writing xor using and/or/not
p Å q  (p  q)  ¬(p  q) x Å y  (x + y)(xy)
____

x 1 1 0 0

y 1 0 1 0

xÅy 0 1 1 0

x y

x+y xy xy

(x+y)(xy)

13

Quick survey

a) b) c) d)

I understand how to write a logic circuit for simple Boolean formula Absolutely! More or less Not really Not at all

14

Converting decimal numbers to binary
53 = 32 + 16 + 4 + 1
= 25 + 24 + 22 + 20 = 1*25 + 1*24 + 0*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 = 110101 in binary = 00110101 as a full byte in binary

211= 128 + 64 + 16 + 2 + 1
= 27 + 26 + 24 + 21 + 20 = 1*27 + 1*26 + 0*25 + 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 1*20 = 11010011 in binary
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Converting binary numbers to decimal
What is 10011010 in decimal?
10011010 = 1*27 + 0*26 + 0*25 + 1*24 + 1*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 0*20 = 27 + 24 + 23 + 21 = 128 + 16 + 8 + 2 = 154

What is 00101001 in decimal?
00101001 = 0*27 + 0*26 + 1*25 + 0*24 + 1*23 + 0*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 = 25 + 23 + 20 = 32 + 8 + 1 = 41
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A bit of binary humor

Available for \$15 at http://www.thinkgeek.com/ tshirts/frustrations/5aa9/

17

Quick survey

a) b) c) d)

I understand the basics of converting numbers between decimal and binary Absolutely! More or less Not really Not at all

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Consider adding two 1-bit binary numbers x and y
   

0+0 = 0 0+1 = 1 1+0 = 1 1+1 = 10

Carry is x AND y Sum is x XOR y The circuit to compute this is called a half-adder

x 0 0 1 1

y 0 1 0 1

Carry Sum 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

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Sum = x XOR y Carry = x AND y

x y

x y

Sum Carry

Sum Carry
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We can then use a half-adder to compute the sum of two Boolean numbers
1 1 +1 ? 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

21

Quick survey

a)
b) c) d)

I understand half adders Absolutely! More or less Not really Not at all

22

How to fix this
We need to create an adder that can take a carry bit as an additional input
 

Inputs: x, y, carry in Outputs: sum, carry out Will add x and y with a half-adder Will add the sum of that to the carry in It’s 1 if either (or both): x+y = 10 x+y = 01 and carry in = 1

This is called a full adder
 

x y c carry sum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0

  

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0

1 1 0
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c x y
X

X

HA

S S

s c

Y

C C

HA

S

Y

C

24

The full circuitry of the full adder
c s x y c

25

x0 y0 x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3

X

HA

S

s0
C X Y C

Y

C

FA

S

s1
C X Y C

FA

S

s2
C X Y C

FA

S

s3 c
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A half adder has 4 logic gates A full adder has two half adders plus a OR gate

Total of 9 logic gates

To add n bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA and n-1 FAs To add 32 bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA and 31 FAs

Total of 4+9*31 = 283 logic gates

To add 64 bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA and 63 FAs

Total of 4+9*63 = 571 logic gates
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Quick survey

a) b) c) d)

I understand (more or less) about adding binary numbers using logic gates Absolutely! More or less Not really Not at all

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To implement a logic gate in hardware, you use a transistor Transistors are all enclosed in an “IC”, or integrated circuit The current Intel Pentium IV processors have 55 million transistors!

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Pentium math error 1

Intel’s Pentiums (60Mhz – 100 Mhz) had a floating point error

 

Graph of z = y/x
Intel reluctantly agreed to replace them in 1994

Graph from http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/cwis/units/IPPBR/pentium_fdiv/pentgrph.html

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Pentium math error 2

Top 10 reasons to buy a Pentium:

10 Your old PC is too accurate 8.9999163362 Provides a good alibi when the IRS calls 7.9999414610 Attracted by Intel's new "You don't need to know what's inside" campaign 6.9999831538 It redefines computing--and mathematics! 5.9999835137 You've always wondered what it would be like to be a plaintiff 4.9999999021 Current paperweight not big enough 3.9998245917 Takes concept of "floating point" to a new level 2.9991523619 You always round off to the nearest hundred anyway 1.9999103517 Got a great deal from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 31 0.9999999998 It'll probably work!!

Flip-flops
Consider the following circuit:

What does it do?
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Memory
A flip-flop holds a single bit of memory

The bit “flip-flops” between the two NAND gates

In reality, flip-flops are a bit more complicated

Have 5 (or so) logic gates (transistors) per flipflop
1 Gb = 8,589,934,592 bits of memory That’s about 43 million transistors!

Consider a 1 Gb memory chip

In reality, those transistors are split into 9 ICs of about 5 million transistors each
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Quick survey

a)
b) c) d)

I felt I understood the material in this slide set… Very well With some review, I’ll be good Not really Not at all

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Quick survey

a)
b) c) d)

The pace of the lecture for this slide set was… Fast About right A little slow Too slow

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