ABE 482 Lecture 2 | Waste Management | Environmental Engineering

ABE 482—Environmental Engineering in Biosystems

September 8, 2008 Lecture 2

What is environmental engineering? Scope of the class Treatment processes Waste audits Collection, storage and analysis of solid waste

Environmental Engineering The technology concerned with the reduction of pollution. and deterioration of the surroundings in which humans live.com) . contamination. (Answers.

wastewater disposal. (Sci tech encyclopedia) . and radiology. Other specialties include industrial hygiene. water supply. and hazardous-waste management. noise control.Environmental Engineering The principal environmental engineering specialties are air-quality control. solid-waste management. stormwater management. oceanography.

(Wikipedia) . and/or land resources).Environmental Engineering Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air. to provide healthy water. water. and land for human habitation and for other organisms. and to remediate polluted sites. air.

Scope of ABE 482 air-quality control water supply wastewater disposal Civil storm-water management Civil ChE 454/882 solid-waste management hazardous-waste management Chemical waste to energy conversions .

Waste Management What is waste? What is the cost of waste? .

uk/FDwaste .envirowise.What is the cost of waste? http://www.gov.

Waste Management What is waste? What is the cost of waste? What incentives are there for reduction or alternative uses of waste? Are they working? .

Are the incentives working? http://www3.ca/env/soe/waste_indicators/49_percap_waste.html .gov.ab.

Waste Management What is waste? What is the cost of waste? What incentives are there for reduction or alternative uses of waste? Are they working? Factors that affect production of waste .

Waste Management Hierarchy .

Waste Disposal vs Waste Treatment Disposal Landfills Incineration Treatment/Utilization Composting Digestion Constructed wetlands Land application Conversion facility .

Waste Treatment Processes Flowchart Liquid stream Solid stream .

Reasons for Waste Processing Treatment of organic solids Reduces overall waste “footprint” of a process or facility Generate energy Generate useful by-product Secondary and tertiary treatment of liquids Reduces negative environmental impact when discharged .

Waste Audits An assessment of the current byproducts and analysis of current handling methods of a certain process May be conducted for many reasons To ensure regulatory compliance To define existing liabilities To track costs of operation To improve efficiency of waste management .

what information would you need to know from your client? What types of waste streams would you expect from U of S Cargill Canola Crushing plant .Waste Audits If you were conducting a waste audit for a facility.

Waste Analysis Sampling and analysis requirements Must consider the medium to be sampled and the environment in which it is in Frequency of sampling and number of individual samples needed depends on the time or spatial variability of the sampling sites Must always take care to avoid contamination of the sample .

Waste Analysis Sampling and analysis techniques Collection Solid waste Semi-solid waste Surface water Free flowing water Groundwater Gas Storage and preservation Analysis Interpretation of results .

Sampling and Analysis Techniques Collection of solid waste Must obtain representative sample (may be difficult if material is heterogeneous) Random sampling “Divide and conquer” Must represent every area of pile or holding tank Often not possible to quantify the uncertainties associated with the sample selection Best to select as large a test sample as practical Sample size depends on analysis required .

shovels or soil punch Depths greater than 30 cm Trenching. augers. soil probes or split barrel samplers .Sampling and Analysis Techniques Collection of solid waste Shallow depths (15 to 30 cm) Scoops.

Sampling and Analysis Techniques Storage of solid waste Depends on the type of analysis required Usually: air tight container made of noncontaminating material Sometimes: sample must be dried and/or frozen or refrigerated if stored before analysis Minimize time between sampling and analysis whenever possible .

Sampling and Analysis Techniques Analysis of solid waste Physical parameters Inorganic parameters Organic parameters Metals Industrial hygiene Microbiological parameters .

organic C. E. Enterococci .) Metals Microbiological parameters (1 to 10 g) Coliform. Ca. P.Sampling and Analysis Techniques (For solid wastes. S.2 to 2 kg) Moisture content/solids content Density. EC Nutrients (N. porosity Chemical parameters (10 to 100 g) pH. etc. parameters of interest) Physical parameters (0. coli. K.

Waste Analysis Companies ALS Laboratory Group (Saskatoon) Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) .

Next Day Important terms/definitions Waste treatment processes (overview) Pre-treatment processes Gravity sorting Mechanical sorting Sedimentation Coagulation/flocculation .

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