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6 /PRNewswire/ Flood waters often contain very high levels of b acteria, which is why disinfecting surfaces that have come in contact with flood waters is so important. The Clorox Company offers the following information fr om its disinfecting experts. Disinfecting Contaminated Surfaces Disinfect hard surfaces -- floors, walls and counters -- that may have been cont aminated by flood waters. Use this same solution for dishes, glass, and plastic ware. Disinfection Guidelines: Remove loose dirt and debris from surfaces; Wash down area with a solution of 3/ 4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water; Keep wet for 2 minutes and rinse . Clorox household liquid bleach is registered with the U.S. Environmental Prote ction Agency as a disinfectant that kills common bacteria. In the Bathroom To reduce odors that may result from sewage backup: Flush toilet; pour 1 cup Clo rox liquid bleach into the the bowl; Brush entire bowl and let solution stand fo r 10 minutes; flush again Bleach eliminates odors and kills germs. Clothing Washable, colorfast clothing and linens should be washed as soon as possible to prevent mold and mildew and to disinfect laundry. Exterior Cleanup Excessive mold and mildew growth is common after flooding. To remove mo ld and mildew from washable and colorfast exterior surfaces that may have been s aturated by flood waters, follow these directions: Outdoor Cleaning instructions Remove loose dirt and debris from affected surface with a power hose; Keep surfa ce wet with a solution of 3/4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water for 5 -15 minutes; Rinse thoroughly with power hose to remove any residue, Children's toys, play equipment and outdoor furniture in contact with flood waters also sho uld be disinfected before use. Food Handling Be sure to dispose of any food items that may have come in contact with flood waters, even canned goods. Household liquid bleach is a safe, inexpensive and effective product that can be used in a variety of areas around the home to clean up after flood contamination. And used according to label directions, Clo rox liquid bleach is safe for the environment, breaking down primarily into salt and water. For more information contact Sandy Sullivan at 510-271-7732, or Mela nie Miller at 202-638-1200, both for Clorox. You may also write to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), P.O. Box 70274, Washington, DC 20024 and re quest a copy of "Your Family Disaster Plan" and "Your Family Disaster Supplies K it." Your local American Red Cross chapter also has disaster preparedness infor mation available. 12/6/95 Helping Children Cope with Disaster Earthquakes...Tornadoes...Fires...Floods...H urricanes...Hazardous Materials Spills
Disaster may strike quickly and without warning. These events can be frightenin g for adults, but they are traumatic for children if they don't know what to do. During a disaster, your family may have to leave your home and daily routine. C hildren may become anxious, confused or frightened. As an adult, you'll need to cope with the disaster in a way that will help children avoid developing a perm anent sense of loss. It is important to give children guidance that will help t hem reduce their fears. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the American Red Cross have p repared this brochure to help you help your children cope. Ultimately, you shoul d decide what's best for your children, but consider using these suggestions as guidelines. Children and Their Response to Disaster Children depend on daily routines: They wake up, eat breakfast, go to school, p lay with friends. When emergencies or disasters interrupt this routine, childre n may become anxious. In a disaster, they'll look to you and other adults for help. How you react to an emergency gives them clues on how to act. If you react with alarm, a child m ay become more scared. They see our fear as proof that the danger is real. If you seem overcome with a sense of loss, a child may feel their losses more stron gly. Children's fears also may stem from their imagination, and you should take these feelings seriously. A child who feels afraid is afraid. Your words and a ctions can provide reassurance. When talking with your child, be sure to presen t a realistic picture that is both honest and manageable. Feeling or fear are he althy and natural for adults and children. But as an adult, you need to keep co ntrol of the situation. When you're sure that danger has passed, concentrate on your child's emotional needs by asking the child what's uppermost in his or her mind. Having children participate in the family's recovery activities will hel p them feel that their life will return to "normal." Your response during this time may have a lasting impact. Be aware that after a disaster, children are mos t afraid that the event will happen again. Someone will be injured or killed. Th ey will be separated from the family. They will be left alone. Advice to Parents: Prepare for Disaster You can create a Family Disaster Plan by taking four simple steps. First, learn what hazards exist in your community and how to prepare for each. Then meet wi th your family to discuss what you would do, as a group, in each situation. Nex t, take steps to prepare your family for disaster such as: posting emergency pho ne numbers, selecting an out-of-state family contact, assembling disaster suppli es kits for each member of your household and installing smoke detectors on each level of your home. Finally, practice your Family Disaster Plan so that everyo ne will remember what to do when a disaster does occur. Develop and practice a Family Disaster Plan. Contact your local emergency manage ment or civil defense office, or your local Red Cross chapter for materials that describe how your family can create a disaster plan. Everyone in the household , including children, should play a part in the family's response and recovery e fforts. Teach your child how to recognize danger signals. Make sure your child knows what smoke detectors, fire alarms and local community warning systems (hor ns, sirens) sound like. Explain how to call for help. Teach your child how and when to call for help. Check the telephone directory for local emergency phone numbers and post these phone numbers by all telephones. If you live in a 9-1-1-s ervice area, tell your child to call 9-1-1. Help your child memorize important family information. Children should memorize their family name, address and phone number. They should also know where to me
et in case of an emergency. Some children may not be old enough to memorize the information. They could carry a small index card that lists emergency informat ion to give to an adult or babysitter. AFTER THE DISASTER: TIME FOR RECOVERY Immediately after the disaster, try to reduce your child's fear and anxiety. Kee p the family together. While you look for housing and assistance, you may want to leave your children with relatives or friends. Instead, keep the family toge ther as much as possible and make children a part of what you are doing to get t he family back on its feet. Children get anxious, and they'll worry that their parents won't return. Calmly and firmly explain the situation. As best as you c an, tell children what you know about the disaster. Explain what will happen ne xt. For example, say, "Tonight, we will all stay together in the shelter." Get down to the child's eye level and talk to them. Encourage children to talk. Le t children talk about the disaster and ask questions as much as they want. Enco urage children to describe what they're feeling. Listen to what they say. If p ossible, include the entire family in the discussion. Include children in recove ry activities. Give children chores that are their responsibility. This will he lp children feel they are part of the recovery. Having a task will help them un derstand that everything will be all right. You can help children cope by unders tanding what causes their anxieties and fears. Reassure them with firmness and love. Your children will realize that life will eventually return to normal. I f a child does not respond to the above suggestions, seek help from a mental hea lth specialist or a member of the clergy. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's Community and Family Preparedness Prog ram developed this brochure in cooperation with the American Red Cross' Communit y Disaster Education Program. Both are national efforts to help people prepare for disasters of all types. For more information on how to prepare for and resp ond to disaster, contact your local or State office of emergency management and your local Red Cross chapter. Ask for "Your Family Disaster Plan. Or, write to: FEMA, P.O. Box 70274, Washington, D.C. 20024. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Being prepared for emergencies can reduce the fear, panic, and inconvenience tha t surrounds a disaster. Check for hazards in the home. During and right after a disaster, ordinary items in the home can cause injury or damage. Anything that can move, fall, break or cause fire is a home hazard. Check for items such as bo okcases, hanging pictures, or overhead lights that could fall in an earthquake o r a flood and block an escape path. Be ready to evacuate. Have a plan for gettin g out of your home or building (ask your family or friends for assistance, if ne cessary). Also, plan two evacuation routes because some roads may be closed or blocked in a disaster. Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlight with extra bat teries. Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries. First aid kit and manual. Emergency food and water. Nonelectric can opener. Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes. Maintain a list of the f ollowing important items and store it with the emergency supplies. Give a copy to another family member and a friend or neighbor. Special equipment and supplie s, e.g.,hearing aid batteries Current prescriptions names and dosages Names, add resses, and telephone numbers of doctors and pharmacist Detailed information abo ut the specifications of your medication regime Create a self-help network of re latives, friends or co-workers to assist in an emergency. If you think you may n eed assistance in a disaster, discuss your disability with relatives, friends, a nd co-workers and ask for their help. For example, if you need help moving or r equire special arrangements to receive emergency messages, make a plan with frie nds. Make sure they know where you keep emergency supplies. Give a key to a ne ighbor or friend who may be able to assist you in a disaster. Contact your local emergency information management office now. Many loc al emergency management offices maintain registers of people with disabilities s
o they can be located and assisted quickly in a disaster. Wearing medical alert tags help in case of an emergency. Know e facility if you are dependent on quipment or treatment. If you have ity: or bracelets to identify your disability may the location and availability of more than on a dialysis machine or other life-sustaining e a severe speech, language, or hearing disabil
When you dial 9-1-1, tap space bar to indicate TDD call. Store a writing pad and pencils to communicate with others. Keep a flashlight handy to signal w hereabouts to other people and for illumination to aid in communication. Remind friends that you cannot completely hear warnings or emergency instructions. Ask them to be your source of emergency information as it comes over their radio. I f you have a hearing ear dog, be aware that the dog may become confused or disor iented in an emergency. Store extra food, water and supplies for your dog. Planning for Evacuation People with disabilities have the same choices a s other community residents about whether to evacate their homes and where to go when an emergency threatens. Listen to the advice of local officials. Decide w hether it is better to leave the area, stay with a friend or go to a public shel ter. Each of these decisions requires planning and preperation. If you need a w heelchair: Show friends how to operate your wheelchair so they can move you if n ecessary. Make sure your friends know the size of your wheelchair in case it has to be transported. SHEET: FLOODS AND FLASH FLOODS Mitigation pays. It includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of u navoidable emergencies. Investing in mitigation steps now such as constructing barriers such as levees and purchasing flood insurance will help reduce the amou nt of structural damage to your home and financial loss from building and crop d amage should a flood or flash flood occur. BEFORE Find out if you live in a flood-prone area from your local emergency management office or Red Cross chapter. Ask whether your property is above or below the flo od stage water level and learn about the history of flooding for your region. Le arn flood warning signs and your community alert signals. Request information on preparing for floods and flash floods. If you liv e in a frequently flooded area, stockpile emergency building materials. These in clude plywood, plastic sheeting, lumber nails, hammer and saw, pry bar, shovels, and sandbags. Have check valves installed in building sewer traps to prevent fl ood waters from backing up in sewer drains. Finally, use large corks or stoppers to plug showers, tubs, or basins. Plan and practice an evacuation route. Contac t the local emergency management office or local American Red Cross chapter for a copy of the community flood evacuation plan. This plan should include information on the safest routes to shelters. I ndividuals living in flash flood areas should have several alternative routes. H ave disaster supplies on hand. Flashlights and extra batteries, Portable, batter y-operated radio and extra batteries, First aid kit and manual, Emergency food a nd water nonelectric can opener essential medicines, Cash and credit cards, and Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are sepa rated from one another during floods or flash floods (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), plan to get back to gether. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact."
Pump out flooded basements gradually (about one -third of the water per day) to avoid structural damage. elderly people. abandon it immediately and clim b to higher ground. Watch for loose plaster and ceilings that could f all. If Outdoors: Climb to high ground and stay there. DURING A FLOOD WATCH Listen to a batter-operated radio for the latest storm information. such as patio furniture. Watch out for animals. Look for fire hazards. If in A Car: If you come to a flooded area. Homeowner 's policies do not cover flood damage. Many deaths have resulted from attempts to move stalled veh icles. and wate r. that may have come into your home with the flood waters. Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage. Use a stick to poke through debris. When entering buildings. do so immediately. and leaching systems as soon as possible. do so immediately. Stay out of buildings if flood waters remain around the building. even water 6inches d eep can sweep you off your feet. tur n around and go another way. Broken or leaking gas lines flooded electrical circuits submerged furnaces or electrical appliances flammable or explosive mat erials coming from upstream throw away food--including canned goods--that has co me in contact with flood waters. Leave early enough to avoid being marooned by flooded roads. AFTER Flood dangers do not end when the water begins to recede. and people with disabilities. Bring outdoor belongings.After a disaster. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. and jugs with clean water in case water becomes contaminated. doors. Take pictures of the damage--both to the house and its contents for insuran ce claims. indoors. Move valuable househ old possessions to the upper floors or to safe ground if time permits. open a window and quickly leave the building. sinks. Shortcuts may be blocked. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name. Get your preassembled emergency supplies. DURING A FLOOD If Indoors: Turn on battery-operated radio or television to get the late st emergency information. Follow recomm ended evacuation routes. and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. fire department. Turn off the gas at the outside m ain valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Learn about the National Fl ood Insurance Program. floors. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance --infants. turn off all utilities at the main switch and close the main gas valve. If told to l eave. especially p oisonous snakes.Ask your insurance agent about flood insurance. If local authorities instruct you to do so. Listen to a r adio or television and don't return home until authorities indicate that doing i t so is safe. Damaged sewage systems are health hazards. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise. DURING AN EVACUATION If advised to evacuate. Evacuation is much simpler an d safer before flood waters become too deep for ordinary vehicles to drive throu gh. and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing. electricity. Be prepared to evacuate. address. Make sure that all family members know how to respond after a flood or flash flo od. Service damaged septic tanks. Fill bathtubs. use extreme c aution. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas. police. If it is moving swiftly. Listen to a batter-operated radio for evacuation instructions. pits. and phone number of the contact person. If you tu . Avoid walking through any floodwaters. If your car stalls. Examine walls. cesspools. Wear sturdy shoes and use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when e xamining buildings. it's often easier to call long distance.
BEFORE Check for hazards in the home. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. or fire de partment and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Fasten shelves securely to walls. or elevated expressways. Get expert advice if there a re signs of structural defects. Have disaster supplies on hand. it's often easier to call long distance. elect ricity. closed cab inets with latches. and china in low. Make sure all family members know how to respond a fter an earthquake. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or cir cuit breaker. contact the water company and avoid the water f rom the tap. it must be turned back on by a professional. glass. Make sure eve ryone in the family knows the name. couches. and flammable p roducts securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves. overpas ses. Cash and c redit cards. Against an inside wall. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas. and phone number of the contact per son. address. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit br eaker. Nonelectric can opener. Check for sewage and water lines damage-If you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumb er. Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. mirrors. Contact y our local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more inf ormation on earthquakes. Store weed killers. These are potentia l fire risks. E mergency food and water." After a disaster. Essential medicines. and anywh ere people sit. First aid kit and manual. Aw ay from where glass could shatter around windows. and water. In case family members are separated fr om one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adul ts are at work and children are at school). Store breakable items such as bottled foods. trees. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family con tact. Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. Identify safe places in each room. If water pipes are damaged. Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table. pesticides. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. telephone and electrical lines. or i f you smell hot insulation. away from buildings. violently and without warning. SHEET: EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes strike suddenly. pictures. or where he avy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over. In the open. DURING . Locate safe places outdoors. Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds. Flashlight and extra ba tteries Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries. Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Identifying potenti al hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the fl oor.rn off the gas for any reason. call an electrician for advice. police. Brace overhead light fixtures. Look for electrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires.
Call for help. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard. The most dangerous thing to do during the shaking of an earthquake is to try to leave the building because objects can fall on you. Normally quie defensive. Prepare an the home that includes a 3-day supply of dry food and . will help reduce the impact of earthquakes in the future. Although smaller than the main shock. Help injur ed or trapped persons. .If indoors: Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wal l and hold on. Pets after an Earthquake The behavior of pets may change dramatically after an t and friendly cats and dogs may become aggressive or closely. street lights. or utility wires. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as repairing deep plast er cracks in ceilings and foundations. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance infants. or even months after the quake. Once the shaking has stopped. and utility wires. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit bre aker. Move to a clear are a away from buildings. If in a moving vehicle:Stop quickly and stay in the vehicle. to shelters for health and space reasons. Open closet and cupboard doors cautiously. Look for ele ctrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. overpasses. away from buildings. proceed with caution. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. c all an electrician first for advice. the elderly. Once in the open. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. If water pipes are damaged. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. avoid using the toilets and call a plumbe r. For more information on mitigation. contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. Aftershocks can o ccur in the first hours. Turn off the gas at the outside main valv e if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. If outdoors:Move into the open. and people with disabilities. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals. If you turn off t he gas for any reason. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Stay inside. bleaches or gasoline or other flam mable liquids immediately. Stay out of damaged building s. earthquake. trees. Avoid bridges or ramps that might have been dam aged by the quake. Clean up spilled medicines. Watch animals Pets may not be allowed in emergency pen for pets in a large container of water AFTER Be prepared for aftershocks. stay there until the shaking stops. Give first aid where appropriate. or if you sm ell hot insulation. contac t your local emergency management office. weeks. days. Inspect the entire length of chimneys carefully for damage. aftershocks c ause additional damage and maybring weakened structures down. open a w indow and quickly leave the building. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise. it must be turned back on by a professional. anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to t he ceiling and following local seismic building standards. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency.
If possible. If there is no smoke at the bott om or top and the door is not hot. Post emergency nu mbers near telephones. Call the fire department from a location outside the house. DURING Get out as quickly and as safely as possible. boxes. Check them once a month and change the batteries at lea st once a year. If a fire starts. Contact insurance agent. Be careful. Purchase coll apsible ladders at hardware stores and practice using them. the amount of smoke generated by a fire will most likely make it impossible to see. Outlets should have cover plates and no exposed wiring. over nails. Practice staying low to the ground when escaping. Develop and practice an escape plan. Cooking Keep the stove area clean and clear of combustibles such as bags. Contact your local fire department or the local A merican Red Cross chapter for more information on fire safety. Install A-B-C type fire extinguishers in the home and teach family members how t o use them. Only purchase appliances and electrical devices that have a label indicating that th ey have been inspected by a testing laboratory such as Underwriter's Laboratorie s (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). Stay out of damage buildin gs. Close doors in each room after escaping to delay the s pread of the fire. drop to the ground. Draw a floor plan with at least two ways of escapi ng every room. then open the door slowly. Replace wiring if frayed or cracked. Discard food that has been exposed to heat. If the door is hot. If in a room with a closed door. If there is too mu ch smoke or fire in the hall. Save receipts for money relating to fire loss. However. or soot. Lear n to stop. you should not place the call to your emergency services from inside the home. BEFORE Install smoke detectors. Look for struct ural damage. Make sure all family membe rs know what to do in a fire. It is a good idea to keep a bell and a flashlight in each bedroom for this purpose. In a real fire situation. Return home only when local fire authorities say it is safe. keep the door closed. Practice alerting other household members. Check electrical wiring. Make sure wiring i s not under rugs. Use the stairs to escape. Choose a safe meeting place outside the house. Understanding the basic c haracteristics of fire and learning the proper safety practices can be the key t o surviving a house or building fire. AFTER Give first aid where appropriate. Don't discard damaged goods until after an inventory has been taken. be aware that if a fire threatens your home. smoke. It is better to get out first and place the call from somewhere else. get out another way. or in high traffic areas. slam the door shut. Fe el all doors before opening them. Moving the pan can cause the fire to spread. Do not overload outlets or extension cords. . cover mouth with a cloth to avoid inhaling smoke and gases. Practice evacuating the building blindfolded. Open a window to escape or for fresh air while awaiting rescue. and roll if clothes catch fire. Never pour water on grease fires. and ot her appliances. When eva cuating. If smoke is pouring in aroun d the bottom of the door or it feels hot. put a lid over the burning pan or use a fire extinguisher.FACT SHEET: HOUSE AND BUILDING FIRES A fire can engulf a structure in a matter of minutes. stay low to the ground. Seriously injured or burned victims should be transported to professional medical help immediately. Do not store combustible materials in closed areas or near a heat so urce.
At least one smoke detector sho uld be installed on every level of a structure. Deodorizers. Paint thinner and strippers. such as the Environmental Protection Agency. Purchase smoke detectors l abeled by the Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). knowing how to handle these products a nd how to react during an emergency can reduce the risk of injury. Pesticides. Read instructions on how to dispose of chemicals properly. Insect repellent. PREPARE Contact authorities on hazardous household materials. FEMA . wood stoves. Test the smoke detectors each m onth and replace the batteries at least once a year. The U. The y can detect both smoldering and burning fires. Power steering fluid. Bathroom and glass cleaner. Oven cleaner. Water -based paint.S. Nail polish. BEFORE Keep fire extinguishers in home and car. Home medications. or trash compactor because the y may explode. Laundry and dishwashing detergent. Although t he risk of a chemical accident is slight.FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials. Drain and bowl cleaners. Fertilizer Household disinfectant. Gun cleaning solvents. Toilet bowl cleaner. Paint removers and thinners. Rubbing alcohol Rug and upholstery cleaner. Diesel fuel. Drain cleaner. and fireplaces demand saf e operation.Heating Devices Heating devices such as portable heaters. Do not pla ce spray cans into a burning barrel. Drain cleaner. Tu rpentine. Dish and laundry soap. Refuel kerosen e heaters outdoors only. Bleach. Fire Administration has more information on fire safety and firefightin g. Small amounts of the following products should be disposed of by wrapping the container in newspaper and plasti c and placing it in the trash: Brake fluid. Wood preservatives. Powder cleansers. Dispose of the following products at a recycli ng center or a collection site: Kerosene. Tires Disposing of Medicines and Spray Cans Flush medicines that are no longer being used or that are out-dated down the toi let and place the empty container in the trash. Fertilizer . incinerator. Furniture and floor polish. for information about potentially dangerous household product s and their antidotes. Smoke detector s sense abnormal amounts of smoke or invisible combustion gases in the air. Have chimneys and wood stoves cleaned annually. Transmiss ion fluid. Learn to recognize the symptoms of toxic poisoni . Small amounts of the following products can be safely poured down the drain with plenty of water: Antifreeze. Thinner or stripper. Detergents. Empty spray cans by pressing the button until nothing comes out and then place the can in the trash. Ask about the advisability of maintaining antidotes in your home for: Cleaners and germicides. Car wax or polish. Post the number of the nearest poison c ontrol center by the telephone. Use portable heaters in well-ventilated rooms only. Motor or fuel oil. Large amounts of paint. Gases . Store household chemicals according to the instructions on the label. Toilet bowl cleaner. Car battery or battery acid. Smoke Detectors Smoke detectors more than double the chance of surviving a fire. Liquid fuels. Laundry bleaches. Buy o nly approved heaters and follow the manufacturers' directions.
BEFORE Learn to detect the presence of a hazardous material. If there is a fire or explosion. Some hazardous materials exist beneath the surface of the ground and can be recognized by an oil or foamlike appearance. Ask about industry and community warning systems. Loosely cover the burn with a sterile or clean dressing. Administer first a id treatment to victims of chemical burns: Call 9-1-1 for emergency help. hazardous materia ls are transported on our roadways. Contact your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or local emergency management office for information about hazardous materials and commu nity response plans. Be sure that the dress ing will not stick to the burn. so any area is considered vulnerable to an accident. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards . Be ready to evacuate. FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ACCIDENTS A hazardous materials accident can occur anywhere. Remove clothing and jewelry from around the injury. Delaying first aid can greatly increase the likelihood of perm anent injury. skin. Plan several evacuation routes out of the area. Flush the eye with clear. AFTER Wash hands. it is important to take i mmediate action. lukewarm water for a minimum of 15 minu tes. Communities located near che mical manufacturing plants are particularly at risk. arms or other parts of the body that may have been exposed to the ch emical. throat. or respiratory tract Changes in skin color Headache or blurred vision Dizziness Clumsiness or lack of coordination Cramps or diarrhea DURING If there is danger of a fire or explosion. Stay away from the house to avoid the possibility of breathing toxic fumes.ng: Difficulty in breathing Irritation of the eyes. Eye Contact with a Hazardous Substance If a hazardous substance comes in contact with an eye. Continue the cleansing process even if the victim indicates he or she no l onger is feeling any pain. then seek medical attention. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. Many hazardous materials d o not have a taste or an odor. get out of the house immediately. Discard any clothing that may have been contaminated. Have disaster supplies o n hand. Refer victim to a medical professional for furth er treatment. Find out evacuation plans for your workplace and your child ren's schools. Some materials can be detected because they caus e physical reactions such as watering eyes or nausea. However. railways and waterways daily. cool water over the burn for 15-30 minutes. call the fire department after you get out. Pour clean.
In case family members are separated from one another during a hazardous materia ls accident (this is a real possibility during the day when adults are at work a nd children are at school). and procedures. Then you can move victims to fresh air and call for emergency medical care. fumes and smoke. Take pre-assembled disaster supplies. weather conditions. If you have time .Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. AFTER . bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. call 9-1-1 or the local fire department to report the na ture and location of the accident as soon as possible. develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. turn on a radio or television for f urther emergency information. Do not walk into or touch any of the spilled substance. Other considerations are the length of time it should take to evacuate the area. laundry rooms and extra bedrooms. Leave at once. and turning off attic fans. and stove and dryer vents with duct tape and plastic sheeting. Evacuation Authorities will decide if evacuation is necessary based primarily on the type and amount of chemical released and how long it is expected to affect an area. Try not to inhale gases. Seal gaps under doorways and windows with wet towels and duct tape. Avoid eating or drinking any food or water that may be contaminated. elderly people and people with disabilities. shutting all vents . uphill and upwind of the accident. Seal g aps around window and air conditioning units. IF ASKED TO EVACUATE Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evac uation routes. IF ASKED TO STAY INDOORS ("IN-PLACE SH ELTERING") Seal house so contaminants cannot enter. wax paper or alu minum wrap. Immedi ately after the "in-place sheltering" announcement is issued. Try to stay ups tream. fill up bathtubs o r large containers for an additional water supply and turn off the intake valve to the house.Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Bring pets inside." After a di saster. Move away from the accident scene and help keep others away. If possible. DURING If you hear a siren or other warning signal. IF CAUGHT AT THE SCENE OF AN ACCIDENT If you see an accident. If gas or vapors could have entered the building. temporary shelters. Assisting Accident Victims Don't try to care for victims of a hazardous materials accident until the substa nce has been identified and authorities indicate it is safe to go near victims. take shallow bre aths through a cloth or a towel. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. minimize contamination in the house by closing all windows. Cleanse v ictims that have come in contact with chemicals by immediately pouring cold wate r over the skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes. Monitor the Emergency Broadcast System station for furthe r updates and remain in shelter until authorities indicate it is safe to come ou t. Close fireplace dampers. Turn off ventilation systems. it's often easier to call long distance. unless authorities instruct you not to use water on the particular chemical involved. Re move contaminated clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. and the time of day. Follow the routes recommended by the authorities--shortcuts may not be safe. Close off nonessential rooms such as storag e areas. Make sure everyone knows the n ame. Stay away from ac cident victims until the hazardous material has been identified. cover mouth with a cloth while leaving the area. Close and lock windows and d oors. address and phone number of the contact person.
Drink plenty of water r egularly.Vacuum air conditioner filters weekly during periods of high use. Lightweight. or liver disease. Use a sunscreen lotion with a high SPF (sun protecti on factor) rating. FACT SHEET: EXTREME HEAT Doing too much on a hot day. Allow your body to get acclimated to hot temperatures for the first 2 or 3 days of a heat wave. Remember that electric fans do not cool. DURING Protect windows. are on f luid restrictive diets. High-risk ind ividuals should stay in cool places. or louvers on windows that rec eive morning or afternoon sun. Eat well-balanced. particularly for elderly and very young people. people tend to use a lot m ore power for air conditioning which can lead to a power shortage or outage. A cool shower immediately after coming in fro m hot temperatures can result in hypothermia. Use a circulating or box fan to spread the cool air. Sunburn slows the ski n's ability to cool itself. Persons on salt-restricti ve diets should check with a physician before increasing salt intake. Insulate spaces around air conditioners for a tight er fit.Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Get plenty of rest to allow your natural "cooling s ystem" to work. Persons who have epilepsy or heart. Conserve electricity. Install temporary reflectors. or reschedule strenuous activities. Keep heat outside a nd cool air inside. draperies. If air conditioning is not available. Reduce. light-colored clothing that reflects heat and sunlight and helps maintain normal body temperature. solid object in the flush t . Limit intake of alcoholic beverages. awnings. Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation. Place a brick or other large. Follow local instructions conc erning the safety of food and water. Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat e ntering the house by as much as 80 percent. Watering the lawn and washing the car waste water. re-use water. Keep the cool air inside by weathe r-stripping doors and windowsills. Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat. DURING Avoid extreme temperature changes. they actually cause f urther body dehydration. Clean up and dispose of residue carefully. During periods of extreme heat. stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine. BEFORE Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for information on extreme heat. Consider keeping storm windows up all year.light meals. and be ready to give first aid tre atment. Hang shades.Stay indoors as much as possible. Install window air conditioners snugly. Know the symptoms o f heat disorders and overexposure to the sun. Learn the symptoms of hea t disorders and know how to give first aid. Close any floor heat registers nearby. Follow instructions from emergency officials concerning clean-up methods. Whenever po ssible. to reflect any heat back outside. Alt hough beer and alcohol beverages appear to satisfy thirst. Avoid too much sunshine. Take salt tablets only if specified by your physician. Slow down. DURING A DROUGHT Lower water use. such as aluminum foil covered cardboard. spending too much time in the sun or staying too lo ng in an overheated place can cause heat-related illnesses. kidney. Dress in loose-fitting clothes that cover as much skin as possible. S torm windows can keep the heat of a house in the summer the same way they keep t he cold out in the winter. or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake. eliminate. they just blow hot air around.
using soap. Contact your local humane society for information on l . Apply cool . Delay can be fatal . Rapid. dry skin. Heat Stroke (Sun Stroke) Symptoms: High body temperature (106+).ank of the toilet to reduce the water used to flush. FACT SHEET: HURRICANES Hurricanes can be dangerous killers. Heavy sweating. Give sips of water. strong pulse. Learning the hurricane warning messages an d planning ahead can reduce the chances of injury or major property damage. Hot. Use extreme caution. Victim will likely not sweat. Try a cool bath or sponging to reduce b ody temperature. Heat Exhaustion Symptoms: Heavy sweating. Be ready to drive 20 to 50 miles inland to locate a safe place. Have disaster su pplies on hand. Farmers should contact the county Farmers Home Administration Office for disaster assistance information. blisters. Pets may not be allowed into emergency shelters for health and space reasons. wet cloths. to remove oils that may block pores preven ting the body from cooling naturally. First Aid: Take a shower. fever. BEFORE Plan an evacuation route. Move victim to a cooler environment. skin cold. Normal temperature possible. Heat Cramps Symptoms: Painful spasms usually in leg and abdominal muscles. First Aid: Firm pressure on cramping muscles or gentle massage to relieve spasm. If vomiting occurs. Possible unconsciousness. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Make arrangements for pets. and ask for the community hurricane preparedness plan. seek immediate medical att ention. If blisters occur. vomiting. First Aid: Get victim to lie down in a cool place. weakness. DO NOT GIVE FLUIDS. T his plan should include information on the safest evacuation routes and nearby s helters. HEAT DISORDERS Sunburn Symptoms: Skin redness and pain. Loosen clothing. Use fans and/or air con ditioners. Fan or move victim to air-conditioned place. Learn safe routes inland. Weak pulse. apply dry. First Aid: Heat stroke is a severe medical emergency. Give sips of water. Fainting. headaches. Call 9-1-1 or emergency m edical services or get the victim to a hospital immediately. If nausea occurs. Remove clothing. discontinue. sterile dres sings and get medical attention. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. possible swelling. If nausea occurs. discontinue. Contact the local emergency management office or Ameri can Red Cross chapter. pale and clammy.
DURING A HURRICANE WARNING Listen constantly to a battery-operated radio or television for official instruc tions. DURING A HURRICANE WATCH Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for hurricane progress reports. Pre-drill holes eve ry 18 inches for screws. and cooking utensils. Check emergency supplies. If in a mobile home. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. Protect your windo ws. Take bl ankets and sleeping bags to shelter. electricity. Review evacuation plan. Fuel car. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name. Tell someone outside of the storm area wher e you are going. Remove outside antennas. If officials indicate evacua tion is necessary: Leave as soon as possible. A lower-cost approach is to put up plywood panels. such as candles and kero sene lamps. You can find out about the Nat ional Flood Insurance Program through your local insurance agent or emergency ma nagement office. Secure your home by unplugging appliances and turning off e lectricity and the main water valve. and garden tools and anchor objects that cannot be brought inside. Avoid elevators. Trim back dead or weak branches from trees. check tiedowns and evacuate immediately. S ecure buildings by closing and boarding up windows. If power is lost. Use rope or chain to secure boat to trailer. have a plan for getting back together. and glass doors. Avoid open flames. Hurricane Watches and Warnings A hurricane watch is issued when there is a threat of hurricane conditions withi n 24-36 hours. jugs. In case family members are separated from one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). away from windows. Store drinking water in clean bathtubs. Teach family members how and when to turn off gas. Check into flood insurance. or fire department and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. toys. move it to a higher flo or. and phone number of the contact person. Bring in outdoor objects such as lawn furni ture. or dangerously high water and rough seas) are ex pected in 24 hours or less. turn off major appliances to reduce power "surge" when electricity is restored. a nd water. Remember to mark which board fits which window. If at home: Stay inside. Tu rn refrigerator and freezer to coldest settings. skylights. Moor boat securely or move it to a designated safe place. it's often easier to call lon g distance. Open only when absolutely nece ssary and close quickly. There is normally a 30-day waiting period before a new policy b ecomes effective. Store valua bles and personal papers in a waterproof container on the highest level of your home. Make sure that all family members know how to respond afte r a hurricane. and you live in an identified surge zone. A hurricane warning is issued when hurricane conditions (winds o f 74 miles per hour or greater. Avoid flooded roads and watch for washed-out bridges. Bring pre-assembled emergency supplies and warm protective clothing. bottles. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. police. Do this long before the storm. . Homeowners polices do not cover damage from the flooding that accompanies a hurricane. elev ate furniture to protect it from flooding or better yet. as a source of light. address." After a disaster. Use tiedo wns to anchor trailer to the ground or house. If time permits. Lock up home and leave. Keep a supply of fla shlights and extra batteries handy. Develop an emergency communication plan. Use 1/2 inch plywood--marine plywood is best--cut to fit ea ch window. Permanent shutters are the best protection.ocal animal shelters.
Fences. it must be turned back on by a professional. Bul ging ground appears at the base of a slope. open a w indow and quickly leave the building. Underground utility lines break. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Drive only if absolutely n ecessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges. or stairs begin pulling away from the building. Use telephone only for emergency calls. Slowly developing. and animals driven to higher ground by flood water. Take t he following steps to be ready. Beware of snakes. If you turn off t he gas for any reason. The force of rocks. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. retaining walls. brick.AFTER Stay tuned to local radio for information. Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumbe r. or foundations. Remember: If y ou build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's property . Minimize home hazards. widening cracks appear on the ground or o n paved areas such as streets or driveways. For more informa tion on mitigation . Enter your home with caution. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. c all an electrician first for advice. Consult a professional geotechnical expert for opinions and advice on landslide problems and on corrective measures you can take. Plan at least two eva cuation routes since roads may become blocked or closed. You hear a faint rumbling sound that increases in volume as the landslide n ears. contact the water company and avoid the water fr om the tap. FACTSHEET: LANDSLIDES AND MUDFLOWS Landslide and mudflows usually strike without warning. or trees tilt or m ove. or if you sm ell hot insulation. utility poles. Help injured or trapped persons. soil . If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. contact your local emergency management office. walks. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit bre aker. Take pictures of the damage. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise.The ground slopes downward in one specific direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet. or fire department. police. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as strengthening unrein forced masonry to withstand wind and flooding and installing shutters on every w indow will help reduce the impact of hurricanes in the future. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. both to the house and its contents and for insurance claims. If water pipes are damaged. Water breaks through the ground surf ace in new locations. Make evacuation plans. you may be liable for damages. insects. New cracks appear in plaster. build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. Return home only afte r authorities advise that it is safe to do so. Turn off the gas at the outside main valv e if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Avoid loose or dangling power lin es and report them immediately to the power company. Open windows and doors to ventilate and dry your h ome. Your county geologist or county planni ng department may have specific information on areas vulnerable to landsliding. Check refrigerated foods for spoilage. BEFORE Get a ground assessment of your property. Give first aid where appropriate. tile. Call for help. or other debris moving down a slope can devastate anything in its path. Learn to recognize the landslide warning signs. In mudflow areas. Outside walls. Develop an emergency co . Look for ele ctrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires.
Remember that flooding may occu r after a mudflow or a landslide. DURING If inside a building: Stay inside. If outdoors: Try and get out of the path of the landslide or mudflow. table. Seek the advice of geo technical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techni ques to reduce landslide risk. though unlikely . For more information on mitigation. have a plan for getting back together. curl into a tight ball and protect your head. contact your local emergency manag ement office. a 100-foot wide. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact". 25-foot deep sinkhole formed under a hotel parking lot in Atlanta.mmunication plan. Run to the nearest high ground in a direction away from the path. If rocks and other debris are approac hing. In June 1993. and phone number of the contact person. There may be danger of additional slides. R emember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. accidents. FACT SHEET: NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EMERGENCY Although construction and operation of nuclear power plants are closely monitore d and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. the fallout wo uld be minimal compared to a nuclear weapon. Check the building foundation. Report any da mage to the utility company. are possible. If esc ape is not possible. depending on the type . Check f or injured and trapped persons near the slide area. Take cover under a desk. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. it's often easier to call long distance. will help reduce the impact of landslides and mudflows in the future. and people with disabilities. and surroun ding land for damage. Sinkholes A sinkhole occurs when groundwater dissolves a vulnerable land surface such as l imestone. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Check for damaged utility lines. In case family members are separated from one another during a landslide or mudflow this is (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). A nuclear power plant ac cident would not cause the same widespread destruction as a nuclear weapon. Flood insurance can be purchased through a local insurance agency. or other piece of sturdy furniture. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. or installing flexible pipe fitting to avoid g as or water leaks. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as planting ground cove r (low growing plants) on slopes. AFTER Stay away from the slide area. Insurance Mudflow is cover ed by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program. After a di saster. There may be a radiation hazard in the surrounding areas. Make sure everyone knows the n ame. address. The most immediate danger from an accident at a nuclear power p lant is exposure to radiation. run for the nearest shelter such as a group of trees or a building. killing two people and engulfing numerous cars. Give first aid if trained. Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion c aused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding. causing the land surface to collapse from a lack of support. BEFORE Know these facts about a nuclear power plant emergency. Alth ough radioactive materials could be released in a cloud or plume. elde rly people. chimney.
Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. it's often easier to call long distance. Not all nuclear power plant incidents result in the release of radiation. Young children. have a plan for getting back together. Alert means that small amounts of radiation could leak inside the plant. No action by you is necessary. and phone number of the contact person. Area sirens may sound. industry. s tate. and the elderly may be affected more than others. Radiation would be monitored by authorities to determine potential danger and warn the public. and weather factors. DURING Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for official information. Make sure everyone know th e name. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Terms for Describing Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies Know the following terms and what they mean: Notification of unusual event means a problem has occurred at the plant. but no radiation leak is expected. nursing home s--anywhere family members might be. and local. Learn your community's wa rning systems. address. Listen to your radio or television for informat ion. L ocal citizens would be evacuated or instructed on how to avoid radiation hazards . Attend public information meetings. but it will not affect the community. Learn emergency plans for schools. Local emergency managers and plant officia ls can provide information about radioactivity." After a disaster. amount of radiation released. and federal accident emergency plans. Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. Area sirens will sound. Small amounts of radiation could leak from t he plant. General emergency refers to a serious problem. Have disaster supplies on hand. radioactive s torage sites. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Obtain information about official evacuation routes from local officials. day care centers. If advised to remain at home: . and radioactive waste dumps are located. and local officials work together to develop emergency response plans for nuclear power plants and surrounding communities. No action by you is necessary. Site area emergen cy describes a more serous problem. Develop an emergency communication plan. Emergency Response Plans Federal. BEFORE Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. Radiation could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. Ask about the hazards rad iation may pose to your family. Ask where nuclear power plants. These plans are test ed through exercises that can include small-scale evacuation drills for public i nstitutions such as schools and nursing homes.of accident. Listen to your radio or television for instructions. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). pregnant women. safety precautions. state.
Close and lock windo ws and doors. Limiting the time spent n ear the source of radiation reduces the amount of radiation you will receive. fans. Close firepla ce dampers. Remember that contamination can affect areas many miles from the accident site. and Time. This is why local officials could advise you to remain indoors if a radiological accident occurs. dense materials between you and the sou rce of the radiation. Stay inside until authorities say it is safe. F ollowing a radiological accident. An unstable atom gives off its excess energy unt il it becomes stable. Three Ways to Minimize Radiation Exposure There are three factors that minimize radiation exposure to your body: Distance. Turn off air conditioning. major highways. cover mouth and nose with a damp towel. Radioactive materials are compos ed of atoms that are unstable. Time Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. universities. and furnace. Distance--The more distance between you and the source of the radiation. The process by which an atom changes from an unstable state to a more stable state by emitting radiation is called radioactive decay or radioactivity. The energy emitted is radiation. Put items worn outdoors in a plastic bag a nd seal it. and furnace. research laboratories. industries. Shielding Like distance. the walls i n your home would be sufficient shielding to protect you.Bring pets inside. The longer a person is exposed to rad iation. In addition to nuclear power plants. the more heavy. Shielding. radioactive elemen . the les s radiation you will receive. local officials wi ll likely call for an evacuation. vents. After the Event When the immediate danger has passed. Turn off air conditioning. the greater the risk. If you must go ou t. Go to the basement or other u nderground area. vents. FACT SHEET: RADIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS Radiological accidents can occur wherever radioactive materials are used. If advised to evacuate: Listen to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes. Close fireplace dampers. local authorities will monitor any release of radiation and determine when the threat has passed. Remember your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. and procedures. and people with disabilities. hospitals. temporary shelters. When coming in from outdoors: Shower and change clothing and shoes. Radioactive materials are dangerous because of the harmful effect of certain typ es of radiation on the cells of the body. In some cases. BEFORE Know these facts about radiation and materials. People receive some radiation exposure each day from the sun. the better. fans. railroads or shipping yards c ould be the site of a radiological accident. Close and lock windows and doors. Take disaster supplies. Minimize contamination in house. avoid using foods from your garden or milk from cows or goats until they can be inspected by local emergency officials. thereby increasing the distance between you an d the radiation. In a serious nuclear accident. elderly peo ple. stored or transported.
batter-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Three Ways to Minimize Radiation Exposure There are three factors that minimize radiation exposure to your body: Distance. the les s radiation you will receive. and to learn emergency plans for schools. Time--Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. day care centers. BEFORE Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. and phone number of the contact person. In some cases. s mell. thereby increasing the distance between you an d the radiation. Shielding. vents. If advised to remain at home: Bring pets inside. This is why local officials could advise you to remain indoors if an radiological accident occurs. If you must go out. Radiation cannot be detected by sight.ts in the soil and rocks. fans. or any other sense. household appliances like television sets and microwav e ovens. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. Develop an emergency communicat ion plan. Go to the basement or other underground area. and Time.<BR> In case family members are separated from one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). Close fireplace dampers. Following a radiological accident. In a serious nuclear accident." After a disaster. it's often easier to call lon g distance. Distance--The more distance between you and the source of the radiation. the more heavy. Obtain information about offici al evacuation routes from local officials. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. dense materials between you and the so urce of the radiation. local officials wi ll likely call for an evacuation. Have disaster supplies on hand. Limiting the time s pent near the source of radiation reduces the amount of radiation you will recei ve. . Turn off air conditioning. cover mouth and nose with a damp towel. Contact your local emergency manager for information a bout how to respond to a radiological accident. Shielding--Like distance. Stay inside until authorities say it is safe. Make sure everyone know the name. Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. DURING Listen to the radio or television for official information. and furnace. local authorities will monitor any relea se of radiation and determine when the threat has passed. nursing homes--anywhere family members might be. Learn your community's warning systems. have a plan for getting back together. Close and lock windows and doors. the better. address. Communities located on major transportation routes should develop and practice a n emergency plan for handling transportation accidents involving radiological ma terials. the walls in your home would be sufficient shielding to protect you. and medical and dental x-rays.
Find out if t here will be any shelters set-up to take pets in an emergency. If your pet is on medication or a special diet. Train your pet to become comfortable with the carrier. Decide on safe locations in your house where you could leave your pet in an emergency. the location should have access to high counters that pets can escape to. elderly peo ple. veterinarian or emergency man agement office for information on caring for pets in an emergency. Set up two separate locations if you have dogs and cats. Incl uding an identification tag that has your name. Also. hearing impaired or handicappe d will be allowed to stay in emergency shelters with their owners. temporary shelters.When coming in from outdoors: Shower and change clothing and shoes. . If yo ur dog normally wears a chain link "choker" collar. Close fireplac e dampers. pets will not be allowed in public emergency shelters. For health and space reasons. Contact motels and h otels in communities outside of your area and find out if they will accept pets in an emergency. Check with l ocal emergency management officials for more information. have a leather or nylon coll ar available if you have to leave him alone for several days. humane society. fans. and furnace. Turn off air conditioning. and procedures. PETS AND DISASTERS Make arrangements for your pets as part of your household disaster planning. Remember your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. If you must evacuate your home. find out from your veterinarian what you should do in case you have to leave it alone fo r several days. When assembling emergency supplies for the household. Close and lock window s and doors. hanging plants o r pictures in large frames. make sure you have a plan to ensure their care. Large capacity self-feeder and water dispenser. address. Consider easy to clea n areas such as utility areas or bathrooms and rooms with access to a supply of fresh water. Make sure your pet has a properly fitted collar that includes current license and rabies tags. you have to leave your pets behind. Try and get an extra supply of medications. as a last resort. Put items worn outdoors in a plastic bag and seal it. vents. it's always to take your pets with you. Avoid choosing rooms with hazards such as windows. Extra food (The food should be dry and relatively unappealing to prevent overheating. and people with disabilities. see if your veterinarian will accept your pet in an emergency. Store the food in sturdy containers. In case of flooding. avoid using foods from your garden or milk from your cows or goats until these can be inspected by a local emergency offic ial. Extra medications . If advised to evacuate: Listen to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes. trained guide dogs for the blind. and phone number. Take disaster supplies. Minimize contamination in house.) Kitty litter. Trained Guide Dogs In most states. Keep your pet's sh ots current and know where the records are. Use a var iety of training methods such as feeding it in the carrier or placing a favorite toy or blanket inside. include i tems for pets. Most kennels require proof of curren t rabies and distemper vaccinations before accepting a pet. Buy a pet carrier that allows your pet to stand up and turn around inside. After the Event When the immediate danger has passed. Contamination could affect areas as far as 50 miles from the accident site . BEFORE Contact your local animal shelter. If.
kidnappings. and high-profile landmarks. AFTER If after a disaster you have to leave town. remember to bring your pet's medical records and medicines with your emergency supplies. Always maintain close contact. Keep small pe ts away from cats and dogs. Talk with your veterinarinan or local pet store about special food dispensers that regulate the amount of foo a bird is given. Never leave a pet outside or tied u p during a storm. hijackings. Be aware of heavy or breakable objects that could move. resorts. Pets are u nlikely to survive on their own. the anx iety of an emergency situation can cause pets to act irrationally. Downed power lines are a hazard. The food should not be moistened because it turn rancid or so ur. The very nature of terrorism suggests that there may be little or no warning. N otice your immediate surroundings. Do not accept packages from strangers. and sho otings. T ake precautions when traveling. Animals have instincts about severe weather changes and will often isolate themselves if they are afraid. Birds Birds must eat daily to survive. Replace a chain link "choker" collar with a leather or nylon collar. Be alert and aware of the surrounding area. Leave th e water in a sturdy. Leave familiar items such as the pet's normal bedding and favorite toys. Also. BEFORE Learn about the nature of terrorism. Make sure that the bird is caged and the cage is covered by a thin cloth or sheet to provide securi ty and filtered light. fall or break in an explosion. s ubway or congested public area in a hurry. Think ahead about how to evacuate a building. Prepare to deal with a terrorist incident by adapting many of the same technique s used to prepare for other crises. explosives or inc endiary devices in the United States remains possible. In an emergency. . Make sure the collar has tags and identification . Bringing them in side early can stop them from running away. Large dogs may be able to ovtain frr esh water from a partially filled bathtub. Do not leave luggage unattended. Familiar scents and landmarks may be altered and your pet may become confused and lost. Watch animals closely. In the first few days after the disaster. s nakes and other dangerous animals may be brought into the area with flood areas. If you evacuate and plan to take your pets. Leave the food in a sturdy container that the pet cannot overturn. large cities. Learn whe re emergency exists are located. Learn about the different types of terrorist weapons including explosives. The behavior of your pets may change after an emergency. prepare a safe location for it. If you evacuate and have to leave your pet at home. arson. though unlikely. Learn where staircases are located. you may have to leave your bi rds behind. Leave a two or three day supply of dry food. no-spill container. Normally quiet and friendly pets may become aggressive or defensive. Foreig n terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or a fter an attack such as international airports. open a faucet slightly an d let the water drip into a big container. Separate dogs and cats. FACT SHEET: TERRORISM A terrorist attack with conventional weapons such as firearms. If possible. even if it's not the pets usual food. Even if your dogs and cats normally get along.DURING Bring your pets inside immediately. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard with access to shelter and water. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behavior. take your pets with you. Terrorists often choose targets that offer little danger to themselves and areas with relatively easy public access. leash your pets when they go outside. major international events.
livestock and crops. use the palm of your hand and forearm to feel the lower. Bomb Threats If you receive a bomb threat. get out of the building as quickly and calmly as possib le. get under a stu rdy table or desk. If it is hot to the touch. Do not restrict si dewalk or streets to be used by emergency officials. do not open the door--seek an a lternate escape route. If there is a fire. When approachi ng a closed door. authori ties would instruct citizens to either seek shelter where they are and seal the premises or evacuate immediately. DURING In a building explosion. Severity of injuries depends on the type and amount of the chemical agent us ed. liquids or solids that have toxic effects o n people. Were a chemical agent attack to occur. middl e and upper parts of the door. get as much information from the caller as possib le. Several flashlights and extra batteries. AFTER If you are trapped in debris:Use a flashlight. Use a whistle if one is avai lable. Clear the area around the suspicious pa ckage and notify the police immediately. Exposure to chemical agents can be fatal. Several hard hats. and the duration of exposure. If government officials become awa re of a biological attack through an informant or warning by terrorists. and how to use them. Keep the following items in a designated place on e ach floor of the building. If it is not hot. Portable. Chemical Agents Chemical agents are poisonous gases. Know where fire exits are located. There is no assistance that the untrained can offer that would likely be of any value t o the victims of chemical agents. If items are falling off of bookshelves or from the ceiling. Stay below the smoke at all times. battery-operated radio and extra batteries. In evacuating a building. Shout only as a last resort--shouting can cause a person to inhale danger ous amounts of dust. brace yourself against the doo r and open it slowly. Notify the police and the building management. Learn first aid. Stay in your area so that you don 't kick up dust. After you've been notified of a bomb threat . Cover nose and mouth with a wet cloth. Fluorescent tape to rope off dangerous areas. Biological Agents Biological agents are organisms or toxins that have illness-producing effects on people. First aid kit and manual. Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said. Contact the local chapter of the American Red Cross for additional information. Stay low to the floor and exit the buildi ng as quickly as possible. Tap on a pip e or wall so that rescuers can hear where you are. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. avoid standi ng in front of windows or other potentially hazardous areas. Ke ep fire extinguishers in working order. do not touch any suspicious packages. animals or plants.Preparing for a Building Explosion The use of explosives by terrorists can result in collapsed buildings and fires. People who live or work in a multi-level building can do the following: Review emergency evacuation procedures. Know where they are located. Assisting Victims Untrained persons should not attempt to rescue people who are inside a collapse d building. Heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the c eiling. Because biological agents cannot necessarily be de tected and may take time to grow and cause a disease. they wo . Wait for emergency personnel to arrive. Most chemical agents cause serious injuries or dea th. Lea ving the shelter to rescue or assist victims can be a deadly decision. it is almost impossible to know that a biological attack has occurred.
A person affected by a biological agent r equires the immediate attention of professional medical personnel. have a plan for getting back togeth er. This is the time to locate a safe place in the home and tell fa mily members to watch the sky and listen to the radio or television for more inf ormation. electricity and water. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. Make sure everyone kno ws the name. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact". and which ra dio station to tune for emergency information.uld most likely instruct citizens to either seek shelter where they are and seal the premises or evacuate immediately. Contact you local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information o n thunderstorms and lightning. Also. Have disaster supplies on hand Flashlight with extra batteries Portable. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Check for hazards in the yard." Develop an emergency communication plan. Dark. Make sure that all family m embers know how to respond after a thunderstorm. and wait for the "all clear" by the authorities. the danger is very serious an d everyone should go to a safe place. Dead or rotting trees and branches can fall durin g a severe thunderstorm and cause injury and damage. BEFORE Learn the thunderstorm danger signs. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a thunderstorm (a real possibility during the day when adu lts are at work and children are at school). police. A severe thunderstorm warning is issued when a severe thunderstorm has been sigh ted or indicated by weather radar. review what actions to take under a "tornado warning" or a "flash flood warni ng. it's often easier to call long distance. Dist ant lightning and thunder. It is important to learn and recognize the danger signs and to plan ahead. or threatening clouds. Some agents are contagious. fire department. address. towering. and victims may need to be quarantined. Tornadoes are spawned by thunderstorms and flash flood ing can occur with thunderstorms. turn on a battery-operated radio or televi sion. Teach family members how and wh en to turn off gas. When a "severe thunderstorm warning" is issue d. while others hit without warning. Severe Thunderstorm Watches and Warnings A severe thunderstorm watch is issued by the National Weather Service when the w eather conditions are such that a severe thunderstorm (damaging winds 58 miles p er hour or more. FACT SHEET: THUNDERSTORMS AND LIGHTNING Some thunderstorms can be seen approaching. some medical faci lities may not receive victims for fear of contaminating the hospital population . Learn how to respond to a tornado and flash flood. Af ter a disaster. DURING If indoors: Secure outdoor objects such as lawn furniture that could blow away or cause dama . and phone number of the contact person. or hail three-fourths of an inch in diameter or greater) is lik ely to develop. At this point.
and sinks because metal pipes can transmit electricity. Divide this number by five. elderly people. drop to your knees and bend forward. lightning flashes can be seen long before the resulting thunder is heard.and people with disabilities. kneel or crouch with hands on knees. Stay from rivers. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Drive only if necessary. Look for burns whe re lightning entered and exited the body. If in a car: Pull safely onto the shoulder of the road away from any trees that could fall on the vehicle. or power lines. tal l trees. fences. Hail can be smaller than a pea o r as large as a softball and can be very destructive to plants and crops. Avoid bathtubs. Listen to a battery operated radio or television for the latest stor m information. Hail Hail is produced by many strong thunderstorms. Debris and washed-out roads may make driving dangerous. Television sets are particularly dangerous at this time. Shutter windows securely and brace out side doors. Important: You are in danger from lightning if you can hear thunder. If outdoors: Attempt to get into a building or car. AFTER Check for injuries. Mitigation Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. water faucets. Re port downed utility wires. give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) until medical professionals arrive and take over. Avoid flooded roadways. provide first aid and call emergency medical assistance immediately. Stay away from natural lightni ng rods such as golf clubs. If you are isolated in a level field or prairie and you feel your hair stand on end (which indicates that lightning is about to strike). so bring animals into a shelter. If no structure is available. Pets and livestock are particularly vulnerabl e to hail.ge or injury. get to an o pen space an squat low to the ground as quickly as possible. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. find an area protected by low clump of trees--never stand underneath a single la rge tree in the open. If the victim is burned. or camping equipme nt. Avoid tall structures such as towers. lakes. fishing rods. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Estimate the number of miles you are fr om a thunderstorm by counting the number of seconds between a flash of lightning and the next clap of thunder.) Be aware of the potential for flooding in low-lying areas . will help reduce the impact of severe thunderstorms . Stay in the car and turn on the emergency flashers until the heavy rains subside. or other bodies of water. telephone lines. Do not lie flat on the ground. In a h ailstorm. Estimating the Distance from a Thunderstorm Because light travels much faster than sound. Remember to help your neighbors who may requ ire special assistance--infants. putting you r hands on your knees. bicycles. If the strike cause the victim's hear t and breathing to stop. Take light objects inside. Knowing how far away a storm is does not mean that you're in danger only when the storm is overhead. A person who has been struck by lightning does not carry an electrical charge that can shock other people. such as installing lightnin g rods to carry the electrical charge of lightning bolts safely to the ground or purchasing flood insurance. tractors. Do not handle any electrical equipment or telephones because ligh tning could follow the wire. (If in the woods. take cover immediately.
The danger is very serious and everyone should go to a safe place. Advance planning and quick response are the keys to surviving a tornado.If shelter is not available. lie in ditch or low-lying area a safe distance away from the unit . Contact your local emergency management office or Amer ican Red Cross chapter for more information on tornadoes. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Tornado Watches and Warnings A tornado watch is issued by the National Weather Service when weather condition s are such that tornadoes are likely to develop. A tornado warning is is issued when a tornado has been sighted or indicated by r adar.in the future. When a tornado warni ng is issued. Designate an area in the home as a s helter. address. Discuss with family members the difference between a "tornado watch " and a "tornado warning." After a disaster. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. Tornado Danger Signs Learn these tornado danger signs: Large hail: Tornadoes are spawned from powerful thunderstorms and the most power ful thunderstorms produce large hail. and listen to the radio or television for further developments. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a tornado (a real possibility during the day when adults a re at work and children are at school). Mobile Homes Mobile homes are particularly vulnerable. Have disaster supplies on hand. and practice having everyone in the family go there in response to a tor nado threat. A mobile home can overturn very easily even if precautions have been taken to tie down the unit. FACTSHEET: TORNADOES When a tornado is coming. Cloud of debris: An approaching cloud of debris can mark the location of a torna do even if a funnel is not visible. turn o n a battery-operated radio and wait for further instructions. take shelter in a building with a strong foundation. the wind may die down and the air may become very still. Calm before the storm: Before a tornado hi ts. For more information on mitigation. you have only a short amount of time to make life-or-d eath decisions. contact your local emergenc y management office. and phone number of the contact person. Funnel cloud: A visible rotating extension of the cloud base is a sign that a to . it's often easier to call long distance. BEFORE Conduct tornado drills each tornado season. Tornadoes frequently emerge from near the hail-producing portion of the storm. This is time to remind family members where the safest places within your home are located. have a plan for getting back together. A sk an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Make sure everyone in the f amily knows the name.
Get away from the windows. Check for sewage and water lines damage-- . Get out o f the car immediately and take shelter in a nearby building. I f there is no basement. and people with disabilities. open a window and quickly leave the building. or gaso line or other flammable liquids immediately. Get under a piece of sturdy furniture such as a workbench or heavy table o r desk and hold on to it. Stay out of damaged buildings. Go to the cente r of the room. such as a bathroom or closet. Use arms to protect head and nec k. Use the t elephone only for emergency calls. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit b reaker. get out of the car and lie in a ditch or low-lying area away fr om the vehicle. If there is no time to get indoors. Tornadoes can change directi on quickly and can lift up a car or truck and toss it through the air. call an electrician first for advice. Calm behind the storm: Tornadoes generally occur near the trailing edge of a thu nderstorm. go to an inner hallway or a smaller inner room without w indows. storm cellar. get inside a building. A tornado is evident when one or more of the clouds turns gr eenish (a phenomenon caused by hail) and a dark funnel descends. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. or the lowest level of the building. AFTER Help injured or trapped persons. Avoid places wit h wide-span roofs such as auditoriums. Call for help. Remember to help your neighbors who may require s pecial assistance--infants. or if you smell hot insulation. Give first aid when appropriate. If in a car: Never try to outdrive a tornado in a car or truck. Leave the buildings if you smell g as or chemical fumes. sunlit skies behind a tornado. If shelter is not available or there is no t ime to get indoors. If outdoors: If possible. Use arms to protect head and neck. cafeterias. Roaring noise: The high winds of a tornado can cause a roar that is often compar ed with the sound of a freight train. Turn on radio or television to get the latest emergency information. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise. bleaches. It is not uncommon to see clear. lie in a ditch or low-lying area or crouch near a strong bui lding. If you turn off the gas for any reason. Get under a piece of sturdy furniture such as a workbench or heavy table or desk and hold on to it. Stay away from corners because they tend to attract debris. Take pictures of the damage--both to the house and its con tents--for insurance purposes. it must be turned back on by a professional. the elderly. Look for e lectrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. get out and find shelter elsewhere. If in a mobile home. large hallways. Use arms to protect head and neck. Turn off the gas at the outside main va lve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Be aware of the potential for flooding. Clean up spilled medicines.rnado may develop. Don't try to move the seriously injured unless they are in immediate danger of further injury . Be aware of the potential for flooding. or shopping m alls. If at work or school: Go to the basement or to an inside hallway at the lowest level. DURING If at home: Go at once to the basement.
Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. address. DURING Listen to a radio or television to get the latest emergency information. contact your local emergency management office. often it's easier to call long distance. Be familiar with the tsunami warning signs. so pick more than one evacuation route. Pick an inland location that is eleva ted. evacuate at once. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. BEFORE Find out if your home is in a danger area. Make evacuation plans. Stay out of the area. After an earthquake or other natural disaster. FACT SHEET: TSUNAMIS A tsunami is a series of waves that may be dangerous and destructive. Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast. people liv ing along the coast should consider an earthquake or a sizable ground rumbling a s a warning signal. avoid using toilets and call a plumber. contact the water company and avoid using water fr om the tap. Return home only after t he authorities advise it is safe to do so. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a tsunami (a real possibility during the day when adults a re at work and children are at school). Have disaster supplies on hand. Contact your local emer gency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on ts unamis. Make sure everyone knows th e name. Because tsunamis can be caused by an underwater disturbance or an earthquake. and phone number of the contact person. When you hear a tsunami warning. Do not assume that one wave means that the danger over. The next wave may be large r than the first one. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. . move at once to higher ground and stay there until local authorities say it is safe to return home. roads in and out of the vic inity may be blocked. If you can see the wave you are too close to escape it. Climb to higher ground. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. and water. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. A tsunami warning is issued when authorities are certain that a tsunami threat exists. If you hear an official tsunami warning or detect signs of a tsunami. and be ready to evacuate if asked to do so. Teach family membe rs how and when to turn off gas. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. For more information on mitigation. Make sure all family members know how to re spond to a tsunami. A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters is also a sign that a tsunami is approaching. If water pipes are damaged. police or fire department. have a plan for getting back together. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. such as checking local buil ding codes and ordinances about wind-resistant designs and strengthening unreinf orced masonry. A sk an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster. A tsunami is a series of waves. and which radio station to listen for official information. electricity.If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. will help reduce the impact of tornadoes in the future. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers. St ay away from the beach.
avoid using toilets and call a plumber. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance --infants. or noxious fumes can spread 100 miles or more. it's often easier to call long distance. Do not use appliances or lights until an electrician has checked the electrical system. Open windows and doors to help dry the building. airborne a sh. Check food supplies and test drinking water. Give first aid where appropriate. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. or if you smell hot insulation. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. BEFORE Learn about your community warning systems. Fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters may be co ntaminated and should be thrown out. Stay out of damaged bui ldings. and phone number of the contact person. will help reduce the impact of tornadoes in the future. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise. Enter your home with c aution. be ready to evacuate at a moment's notice. address. active or dormant. Shovel mud while it is still mo ist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Turn off the gas at the outside main va lve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Look for e lectrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. P lan a route out and have a backup route in mind. contact the water company and avoid the water from the tap. have a plan for getting back together. . Make sure everyone knows the name. call an electrician first for advice.AFTER Stay tuned to a battery-operated radio for the latest emergency information. Use a flashlight when entering damaged buildings. If you live near a known vol cano. For more information on mitigation. You want to get to high ground away from the eruption. C all for help. Hel p injured or trapped persons." After a disaster. If water pipes are damaged. such as checking local buil ding codes and ordinances about wind-resistant designs and strengthening unreinf orced masonry. contact your local emergency management office. open a window and quickly leave the building. Ask an out-of-state re lative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Check for sewage and water lines damage-If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. Do not move ser iously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. and people with disabilities. elderly people. In case family members are separated from one another during a volcani c eruption (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and childr en are at school). Earthquakes Flash floods Landslides and mudflows Thunderstorms Tsunamis Make evacuation plans. it must be turned back on by a professional. If you turn off the gas for any reason. Have disaster supplies on hand. Develop an emergency communicat ion plan. FACT SHEET: VOLCANOES Volcanic eruptions can hurl hot rocks for at least 20 miles. Be prepared for these disasters that can be spawned by volcanoes. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit b reaker. Have tap water tested by the local health department. Check for electrical shorts and live wires. Floods.
Clear roofs of ashfall. and dampers. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicinesCash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for each member of the hou sehold. Avoid drivi ng in heavy ashfall. Keep skin covered to avoid irritation or burns. Mudflows occur when rain falls through ash-carrying clouds or when rive rs are damed during an eruption. Keep car or truck engines off . Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross cha pter for more information on volcanoes. elderly people. first look upstream. When outside: Cover your mouth and nose. do not cross the bridge. If caught near a stream. DURING Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities. doors. Evacuation Although it may seem safe to stay at home and wait out an eruption. and people with disabilities. A number of victims of the Mount St. beware of mudflows. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistan ce--infants. Wear goggles to protect your eyes. doing so cou ld be very dangerous. If caught in a rockfall. When you approach a bridge. Use a dust-mask or hold a damp cloth over face to help breathing. Helens volcano died from inhaling ash. Ashfall is very heavy and can cause buildin gs to collapse. If you have a respiratory ailment. A lateral blast of a volcano can travel many miles from the mountain. The rock debris from a volcano can break windows and set buildings on fire. If trapped outdoors: Seek shelter indoors. They are most dangerous close to stream channe ls. Avoid areas downwind of the v olcano. Stay away from volcanic ashfall. Trying to watch an erupting volcano is a deadly idea. Stay safe. roll into a ball to protect head. Use goggles to protect eyes. Stay i ndoors until local health officials advise it is safe to go outside. Follow authorities' instructions and leave the a rea before the disaster begins. Put all machinery inside a garage or barn .Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. The power of the mudf low can destroy a bridge very quickly. Bring animals and livestock into closed shelters. Avoid low-lying area where poisonous gases can collect and flash floods can be most dangerous. Stay out of the area. Mudflows Mudflows are powerful "rivers" of mud that can move faster than people can walk or run. AFTER Listen to a battery-powered radio or television for the latest emergency informa tion. Protect yourself: Wear long sleeved shirts and pants. If a mudflow is approachi ng or moving beneath the bridge. If caught indoors: Close all windows. avoid contact with any amount of ash. . Driving will stir up more ash that can clog engines and sta ll vehicles.
rock. Never leave a fire--even a cigarette--burning unattented. if possible. Prune all branches aroun d the residence to a height of 8 to 10 feet. renovating. Avoid open burni ng completely. Fire-Resistant Building Materials Avoid using wooden shakes and shingles for a roof. Install electrical lines underground.FACT SHEET: WILDLAND FIRES The threat of wildland fires for people living near wildland areas or using recr eational facilities in wilderness areas is real. stucco." A fter a disaster. BEFORE Learn and teach safe fire practices. concrete block. have a plan for getting back toget her. Keep chimney clean. Make evacuation plans. Obtain local building codes and we ed abatement ordinances for structures built near wooded areas. . Close gas valves and turn off all pilot lights. Check for fire hazards around home. Close all doors and windows inside your home to prevent draft. Install smoke detectors on ever y level of your home and near sleeping areas. leave sprinklers on roofs and anything that might be damaged by fire. Keep all tree and shrub limb s trimmed so they don't come in contact with the wires. Tarp coverings. Use fire-resista nt materials when building. tempered safety glass in large windows and sliding glass doors. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a wildland fire (a real possibility during the day when ad ults are at work and children are at school). battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Make sure everyone kn ows the name. brick. needles. metal sidi ng. or retrofitting structures. Umbrellas . Use tile. Plan severa l routes in case the fire blocks escape route. Stone walls can act as heat shields and deflect flames. Have disaster supplies on hand Flashlight with extra batteries Portable. Remove combustible items from around the house. DURING Turn on a battery-operated radio to get the latest emergency information. Remove all dead limbs. and phone number of the contact person. Place valuables that will not be damaged by water in a pool o r pond. Lawn and poolside furniture. Use only thi ck. Create a safety zone to separate the home from combustible plants and vegetation . Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more inform ation on wildland fires. or other fire-resistant materials. Turn on a light in each room for visibili ty in heavy smoke. Advance planning and knowing h ow to protect buildings in these areas can lessen the devastation of a wildland fire. Firewood. If hoses and adequate water are available. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. and debris f rom rain gutters. Build fires away from nearby trees or bushe s. Keep trees adjacent to buildings f ree of dead or dying wood and moss. Be ready to evacuate all family members and pets when fire nears or when instructed to do so by local officials. Take action to protect you r home. Take down flammable drapes and curtains and close al l venetian blinds or noncombustible window coverings. address. it's often easier to call long distance. Store combustible or flammable materials in approved safety co ntainers and keep them away from the house. Always have a way to extinguish the fire quickly and completely. and especially during dry season. Swimming pools and pat ios can be a safety zone.
BEFORE Have a mechanic check the following items on your car: Battery Antifreeze Wipers and windshield washer fluid Ignition system Thermostat Lights Flashing hazard lights Exhaust system Heater Brakes Defroster Oil level (if necessary. Check the attic for hidden burning sparks. some juris dictions require that to drive on their roads. Plan long trips carefully. Always travel during daylight and. For more information on mitigation. look for shelter in a cleared area or among a bed of rocks. cleaning roof surfaces and gutters regularly. and using only fire resistant materials on the exterior of your home. Cover head and upper body with wet clothing. If water is not around. All-weather radials are usually adequate for most winter conditions.FACT SHEET: WINTER DRIVING The leading cause of death during winter storms is transportation accidents. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross cha pter for more information on winter driving. Listen to the radio or call the state highway patro l for the latest road conditions. Maintain at least a half tank of gas during the winter season . or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Keep a windshield scraper and small broom for ice and snow removal. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Pre paring your vehicle for the winter season and knowing how to react if stranded o r lost on the road are the keys to safe winter driving. Carry food and water. c ontact your local emergency management office. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. use public transportation. if possibl e. Dress warmly. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as installing a spark a rrestor on your chimney. FEMA . If Trapped in a Wildland Fire You cannot outrun a fire.AFTER Take care when re-entering a burned wildland area. Make sure the tires have adequate tread. replace existing oil with a winter grade oil or the SAE 10w/30 weight variety) Install good winter tires. lightweight clothing. However. Hot spots can flare up witho ut warning. layered. vehicles must be equipped with ch ains or snow tires with studs. Store a supply of high energy "munchies" and several bottles of water. If you must go out during a winter storm. For several hours afterward. take at least one other person. Lie flat and cover body with wet clothing or soil. Check the roof immediately and extinguish any sparks or embers. Bre athe the air close to the ground through a wet cloth to avoid scorching lungs or inhaling smoke. Crouch in a pond or river. will help reduce th e impact of wildland fires in the future. Winter Car Kit . re-check for smoke and s parks throughout the home. Wear layers of loose-fitting.
If more than one person is in the car. games. turn on the car's dome lig ht when the car is running. Avoi d overexertion. socks. For warmth. Beware of carbon monoxide poisoning. Also. Cold weather puts an added strain on the heart.Keep these items in your car: Flashlights with extra batteries First aid kit with pocket knife Necessary medications Several blankets Sleeping bags Extra newspapers for insulation Plastic bags (for sanitation) Matches Extra set of mittens. Hang a brightly colored cloth on the radio antenna and raise the hood. Try not to stay in one position for too long. Occasiona lly run engine to keep warm. screwdriver) Booster cables Set of tire chains or traction mats Cards. Use newspapers. Watch for signs of frostbite and hypothermia. Do minor exercises to keep up circ ulation. wrench. huddle t ogether. and puzzles Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag Canned fruit and nuts Nonelectric can opener Bottled water DURING IF TRAPPED IN CAR DURING A BLIZZARD Stay in the car. and open a downwind window slightly for ventilation. and a wool cap Rain gear and extra clothes Small sack of sand for generating traction under wheels Small shovel Small tools (pliers. maps. Do not leave the car to search for assistance unless help is vi sible within 100 yards. take turns sleeping. Displa y a trouble sign. Run the heater when the car is running. A winter storm warning indicates that severe winter weather conditions are defin itely on the way. Wind Chill "Wind chill" is a calculation of how cold it feels outside when the effects of t emperature and wind speed are combined. Keep the exhaus t pipe clear of snow. You may become disoriented and lost is blowing and drifting snow. A blizzard warning means that large amounts of falling or blowing snow and susta . Turn on the car's engine for about 10 minutes each hour. Be aware of symptoms of dehydration. Winter Storm Watches and Warnings A winter storm watch indicates that severe winter weather may affect your area. and even the removable car mats for added insulation. Unaccustomed exercise such as s hoveling snow or pushing a car can bring on a heart attack or make other medical conditions worse. Clap hands and move arms and legs occasionally. A strong wind combined with a temperatu re of just below freezing can have the same effect as a still air temperature ab out 35 degrees colder.
Cover the newspapers with plastic to keep out moisture. have a plan for getting back together. it's often easier to call long distance. begin warming the person slowly and s eek immediate medical assistance. Have disaster supplies on hand. Keep pipes from freezing. First aid kit One-week supply of food (include items that do not require refrigeration or cooking in case the power is shut off) Nonelectric can opener One-week supply of essential prescription medications. Insulate walls and attic. Extra blankets and sleeping bags Fire extinguisher (A-B-C type) Develop an emergency communication plan. Service snow removal equipment a nd have rock salt on hand to melt ice on walkways and kitty litter to generate t emporary traction. Install sto rm windows or cover windows with plastic from the inside. a depressant. Symptoms of hypothermia include uncontrollable shiver ing. A major winter storm can be lethal. Teach children how . can cause the heart to beat faster and has ten the effects the cold has on the body. can slow the h eart and also hasten the ill effects of cold body temperatures. a stimulant. A loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in fingers. Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the body temperature drops to less th an 55 degrees Fahrenheit. toes. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on winter storms. Never give a f rostbite or hypothermia victim something with caffeine in it (like coffee or tea ) or alcohol. memory lapses. Fireplace with ample supply of wood Small.ined winds of at least 35 miles per hour are expected for several hours. battery-operated radio and extra batteries. Wrap pipes in insul ation or layers of old newspapers. Frostbite and Hypothermia Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure that can permanently damage its victims. Use your won body heat to help. Warm the person's trunk first. Pu t person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket. Have safe emergency he ating equipment available. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. in case the power goes out. Know how to shut off wat er valves. Alcohol. Caffeine. Let faucets drip a little to avoid freezing.) Install and c heck smoke detectors. If frostbite or hypothermia is suspected. Caulk and weather-strip doors and windows. frequent stumbling. slow speech. Make sure that all fam ily members know how to respond after a severe winter storm. and phone number of the contact person. BEFORE Be familiar with winter storm warning messages. well-vented. coal. Arms and legs should be warmed last because stimulation of the limbs can drive cold blood toward the heart and lead to heart failure. or nose and ear lobes are symptoms of frostbite." After a disaster. Make sure everyone knows t he name. Preparing for cold weather conditions and responding to th em effectively can reduce the dangers caused by winter storms. Winterize your home. Make sure you have sufficient heating fuel. drowsiness. or camp stov e with fuel Portable space heaters or kerosene heaters (See Kerosene Heaters. wood. address. In case family members are separated from one another during a winter storm (a r eal possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at schoo l). and exhaustion. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. regular fuel sour ces may be cut off.
Cover your mouth. Use only the correct fuel for your unit and follow the manuf acturer's instructions. Cold weather puts an added strain on the heart. A strong wind combined with a temperatu re of just below freezing can have the same effect as a still air temperature ab out 35 degrees colder. DURING IF INDOORS Stay indoors and dress warmly. Change wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. toes. Keep dry. Conserve fuel. and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. Warm the person's trunk first. Kerosene Heaters Check with your local fire department on the legality of using kerosene heaters in your community. If the pipes fr eeze. Avoid overexertion. and exhaustion. drowsiness. Also take frequent breaks. Prote ct your lungs from extremely cold air by covering your mouth when outdoors. Winter Storm Watches and Warnings A winter storm watch indicates that severe winter weather may affect your area. do a few stretching exe rcises to warm up your body. Use your own . Refuel outdoors only. and people with disabilities. elderly people . Wet cl othing loses all of its insulating value and transmits heat rapidly. remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags. frequent stumbling. L isten to the radio or television to get the latest information. Layers can be removed to prevent perspiration and chill. Close off unused rooms. Lower the thermostat to 65 degrees during the day and 55 degrees at night. If frostbite or hypothermia is suspected. A loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in fingers. Frostbite and Hypothermia Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure that can permanently damage its victims. Outer garments should be tightly woven and wate r repellant. Try not to speak unless absolutely necessary. and only when cool. starting where they w ere most exposed to the cold (or where the cold was most likely to penetrate). or nose and ear lobes are symptoms of frostbite. light-weight clothing. slow speech. A winter storm warning indicates that severe winter weather conditions are defi nitely on the way. layered. Symptoms of hypothermia include uncontrollable shiver ing. If you go out to shovel snow. Be aware of symptoms of dehydration. IF OUTDOORS Dress warmly. Comp letely open all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes. police. Unaccustomed exercise such as shoveling snow or pushing a car can bring on a heart attack or make other medica l conditions worse. Wind Chill "Wind chill" is a calculation of how cold it feels outside when the effects of t emperature and wind speed are combined. Watch for signs of fro stbite and hypothermia.and when to call 9-1-1. Wear loose-fitting. or fire department. Keep your ke rosene heater at least 3 feet away from furniture and other flammable objects. Stretch before you go out. Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the body temperature drops to less th an 55 degrees Fahrenheit. A blizzard warning means that large amounts of falling or blo wing snow and sustained winds of at least 35 miles per hour are expected for sev eral hours. Mittens are warmer than gloves because fingers generate warmth whe n they touch each other. begin warming the person slowly and s eek immediate medical assistance. memory lapses. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants.
25 percent sodium hypochlorite and no soap. a stimulant. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. remember: Never ration water. in your plumbing and in ice cubes. label them and store them in a cool. but some water beds contain toxic chemicals that are not fully removed by many purifiers. How to Store Emergency Water Supplies You can store your water in thoroughly washed plastic. WATER: THE ABSOLUTE NECESSITY Stocking water reserves and learning how to purify contaminated water should be among your top priorities in preparing for an emergency. per day. such as chlorine bleach. Hot environments can double that amount. you might not have access to food. Seal your water containers tightly. and try to find more for tomorrow. If you designate a water bed in your home as an emergency resource. you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl). but pur ify it first (described later). water and electricity for days. Hidden Water Sources in Your Home If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water. contact your local emergency management office. are best. You can also purchase food-grade p lastic buckets or drums. or e ven weeks. dark place.This brochure was developed by the Fe deral Emergency Management Agency's Community and Family Preparedness Programs w hich provides information to help families prepare for all types of disasters.Water beds hold up to 400 gallons.body heat to help. fiberglass or enam el-lined metal containers." You can disregard these warnings if the label states sodium hypochlorite is the only active ingredient and if you use only th e small quantities in these instructions. Arms and legs should be warmed last because stimulation of the limbs can drive cold blood toward the heart and lead to heart failure. to prevent the growth of microorganisms. can cause the heart to beat faster and hasten the effects the cold has on the body. You can minimize the amount of water y our body needs by reducing activity and staying cool. hurricane. You will need additional water for food preparation and h ygiene. activity. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day . Drink the amount you need t oday. "Not For Personal Use. Alcohol. Before storing your water. diet and climate . As a last resort . Children. Some contain ers warn. depending upon age. glass. Pu t person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket. Add four drops of bleach per quart of water (or two scant teaspoons per 10 gallo ns). For more information on mitigation. If your suppl ies begin to run low. Caffeine. Use liquid bleach that contains 5. can slow the heart and also hasten the ill effects of cold body temperatures. treat it with a preservative . reduce the chance of an emergency happening. You should store at le ast a two-week supply of water for each member of your family. By taking a little time now to store emergency food and water suppli es. Never use a container that has held toxic substances . such as soft drink bottles. Store a total of at least one gallon per person. and stir. a depressant. winter storm or other disaster ever strikes your co mmunity. drain it yearly . Sound plastic conta iners. Never give a frostbite or hypothermia victim something with caffeine in it (like coffee or tea) or alcohol. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. you can provide for your entire family. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as purchasing a flood i nsurance policy and installing storm windows will help reduce the impact of wint er storms in the future. nursing mothers and ill p eople will need more. you can use wa ter in your hot-water tank. Emergency Food and Water Supplies If an earthquake. because tiny amounts may remain in the container's pores. Everyone's needs will differ. physical condition.
use a spoon and a square-ended strip of paper or t hin cloth about 1/4 inch by 2 inches. but it can be contamin ated by radioactive fallout. and radioact ive dust and dirt. If the water does not taste and smell of chlorine at that point. You should therefore purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for drinking. Follow the package dire ctions. But pur ify the water before drinking it. Three easy purification methods are outlined below. (Water itself cannot become radioactive. Purification tablets release chlorine or iodine. cholera. None are perfect. Filtering will also remove radio active fallout. Let the water c ool before drinking. Before purifying. If you do not have a dropper. an odor or dark color. rivers and other moving bodi es of water Ponds and lakes Natural springs Avoid water with floating material. Place bleach in the spo on and carefully tip it. typhoid and hepatitis.Emergency Outdoor Water Sources If you need to seek water outside your home. keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. To use the water in your pipes. you can use these sources. Use saltwater only if you distill it first (described la ter). These measures will kill mi crobes but will not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring it back and forth between two containers. Bring water to a rolling boil for 10 minutes. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty. most other chemicals and radioactive fallout. and open th e drain at the bottom of the tank. or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth.Rainwater Streams. heavy metals.) . Do you know the location of your incoming wa ter valve? You'll need to shut if off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines. salts. food preparation or hygiene. Chlorination uses liquid chlorine bleach to kill microorganisms.) Add two drops of bleach per quart of water (four drops if the water is cloudy). There are many ways to purify water. This will also improve the taste of stored water. Start the water flowing by turning off the w ater intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Usually one tablet is enough for one quart of water. salts. be sure the electricity or gas is off. Double the dose f or cloudy water.and refill it with fresh water containing two ounces of bleach per 120 gallons. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. Put the strip in the spoon with an end ha nging down about 1/2 inch below the scoop of the spoon. It is unsafe to drink water that contains radioact ive fallout. (See page 1 fo r bleach safety information. Three Easy Ways to Purify Water In addition to having a bad odor and taste. let air into the plumbing by turning on the hig hest faucet in your house and draining the water from the lowest one. let any suspended particles set tle to the bottom. Distillati on will remove microbes. stir and let stand for 30 minutes. most other chemicals.To use the water in your hot-water tank. th e following two purification methods will remove other contaminants. called radioactive fallout. contaminated water can contain micro organisms that cause diseases such as dysentery. They are inexpensive and avail able at most sporting goods stores and some drugstores. More Rigorous Purification Methods While the three methods described above will remove only microbes from water. add another dose and let sta nd another 15 minutes. Drops the size of those from a medicine dropper will d rip off the end of the strip.
and put a layer of gravel in the bucket about 1-1/2 inches high. fill bottles with water. except for children and pregnant women. place the filter over a large container.Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back to water. Food. canned foods won't require cooking. and pour contaminated water through. and a flash flood forces you to evacuate your home--fast. dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or air-tight cans to protect them from pests. Then. and store it in a handy place. unlike wate r. Family Disaster Supply Kit It's 2:00 a. Inspe ct all food containers for signs of spoilage before use. In addition. If your water supply is limited. They can lift morale and give a feel ing of security in time of stress. try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein. To make a fallout filter. nutritious and ready-to-eat. Cover the gravel with a towel cut in a circle slightly larger than the bucket. Open food boxes or cans carefully so that you ca n close them tightly after each use. You don't need to go out and buy unfamiliar foods to prepare an emergency food supply. You need to have these items packed and ready in one place before disas ter hits. Empty opened packages of sugar. whole grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content. Y ou can use the canned foods. wa ter or special preparation. dry mixes and other staples on your cupboard shelve s. flashlights and extra batteries Shovel and other useful tools Money and matches in a waterproof container Fire extinguisher Blanket and extra clothing Infant and small children's needs (if appropriate) FOOD: PREPARING AN EMERGENCY SOTCKPILE If activity is reduced. grab a first -aid kit from the closet and snatch a flashlight and a portable radio from the b edroom. To distill. A two-week sup ply can relieve a great deal of inconvenience and uncertainty until services are .m. Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags. punch holes in the bottom of a large bucket. and keep them in tight containers. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled. may be rationed safely. Short-Term Food Supplies Even though it is unlikely that an emergency would cut off your food supply for two weeks. disinfect the filtered water using one of the methods described above. The condensed vapor will not include salt and other impurities. Try to eat salt-free cr ackers. fill a pot halfway with water. Pack at least a three-day supply of food and water. since they will make you thirsty. you should prepare a supply that will last that long. and don 't stock salty foods. Choose foods that are easy to carry. pack these emergency items: Medical supplies and first aid manual Hygiene supplies Portable radio. Keep food covered at all times. Following are recommended short-term and long-term food storage plans. Also. In fact. Storage Tips Keep food in the driest and coolest spot in the house--a dark area if possible. healthy people can survive on half their usual food inta ke for an extended period and without any food for many days. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot 's lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. familiar foods are important. There' s no time to gather food from the kitchen. C hange the soil in your filter after every 50 quarts of water. Cover soil with a towel .
in case they are unable to nurse. If you are caug ht without a mill. you must eat all of them togeth er to stay healthy. To protect boxed foods from pest s and extend their shelf life. or a charcoal grill or camp stove outdoors only. juices and soups may be helpful for the ill or elderly. Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in front. you may need long-term emergency food supplies. and replace t hem with fresh supplies. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nu trition. before ea ting. If these staples comprise your entire menu. The easiest way to develop a two-week stockpile is to increase the am ount of basic foods you normally keep on your shelves. corn. take into account your family's unique needs and tastes. How to Store Your Short-Term Stockpile Keep canned foods in a dry place where the temperature is fairly cool--not above 70 degrees Fahrenheit and not below freezing. dated with ink or marker. Rotate your food supply. The best approach is to store large amounts of staples along with a variety of canned and dried foods. Canned dietetic foods. you could survive for years on small daily amounts of th ese staples. Keep ing it fresh is simple. Remember to compensate for the amount you eat from other sources (such as restaurants) during an averag e two-week period. Buy powdered mil k in nitrogen-packed cans. toddlers and the elderly. beans and salt are inexpensive and have nearly unlimited she lf life. And don't forget nonperishable foods for your pets. per month: Wheat--20 pounds Powdered Milk(for babies and infants)*-. Special Considerations to Keep in Mind As you stock food. corn and beans in sealed cans or plastic buckets. as well as boil the beans. you'll need to grind t he corn and wheat into flour and cook them. Use foods before they go bad. Nursing mothers may need liquid formula. You can also heat food with candle warmers. Make sure you buy one that can grind corn. be sure to open the can and remove the label first.20 pounds Corn--20 pounds Iodized Salt--1 pound Soybeans--10 pounds Vitamin C**--15 grams * Buy in nitrogen-packed cans ** Rotate every two years Storage and Preparation of Food Supplies Store wheat. Your emergency food supply should be of the highest quality possible. Individuals with special diets and allergies will need particular attention. you can grind your grain by filling a large can with whole gr ain one inch deep. To avoid serious digestive problems. Bulk quantit ies of wheat. store the boxes in tightly closed cans or metal c ontainers. You may already have a two-week supply of food on hand.restored. Canned food can be eaten right out of the can. How to Cook if the Power Goes Out For emergency cooking you can use a fireplace. And leave salt and vitamin C in their original packa ges. Inspect your reserves periodically to make sure there are no broken seals or dented containers. holding the can on the ground between your feet and pounding . If necessary. If you heat it in the can. Just rotate your supply once or twice a year. chafing dishes and fondue pots. Make sure you have a can opener and disposabl e utensils. Foods that require no refrigeration. Many health food stores sell hand-cranked grain mills or can tell you whe re you can get one. Stock the following amounts per person. as will babies. Long-Term Food Supplies In the unlikely event of a military attack or some other national disaster. preparation or cooking are best.
buy commercially packaged. foods will usually still have ice crystals in the ir centers (meaning foods are safe to eat) for at least three days. Nutrition Tips In a crisis. Dried fruit (in metal container). THEN use the foods from the freezer. beg in to use non-perishable foods and staples.the grain with a pipe. Canne d fruit and nuts. Nonelectric can opener . fruit juices and veget ables . water or cooking. Rice. If the Electricity Goes Off. this will be your best form of stored meat. wrench. mineral and protein supplements in your stockpile to assure adequate nutrition. but you can supplement them with commerc ially packed air-dried or freeze-dried foods and supermarket goods. Bouillon products. So remember: Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day. Soybeans . Canned fruits. Corn. Dry pas ta . Dry. Baking powder . Necessary med ications. Small too ls (pliers. Peanut butter.. Build up your everyday stock of canned goods until you have a two-week to o ne-month surplus. Use within six months: Powdered milk (boxed). it will be vital that you maintain your strength. popco rn and varieties of beans are nutritious and long-lasting. tea. Extra newspapers for insulation. so buy accordi ngly. Small shovel. Although costly. FIRST. First aid kit with pocket knife.well-insulated freezer. Winter Car Kit Keep these items in your car: Flashlights with extra batteries. Cards. Ways to Supplement Your Long-Term Stockpile The above staples offer a limited menu. use perishable food and foods from t he refrigerator. Small sack of sand for generating traction under wheels. Vegetable oils. Drink enough liquid to enable your bo dy to function properly (two quarts a day). screwdriver). Salt. From a sporting or c amping equipment store. Jelly . Booster cables. To minimize the number of times you open the freezer door. Extra set of mittens. crisp crackers (in metal container) Potatoes Use within one year: Canned condensed meat and vegetable soups. Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag. In a w ell filled. games. the more expensive your stockpile will be. Take in enough calories to enable yo u to do any necessary work. chocolate bars and canned nuts May be stored indefinitely (in proper containers and conditions): Wheat. Include vitamin. Set of tire chains or traction mats. freeze-dried or air-dried foo ds. Sleeping bags. socks. Several blankets. Rain gear and extra clothe s. Noncarbonated soft drinks . Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals (in metal containers). The more supplements you include. Rotate it periodically to maintain a supply of common foods t hat will not require special preparation. FINALLY. Shelf Life of Foods for Storage Here are some general guidelines for rotating common emergency foods. post a list of freezer contents on it.Instant coffee. Hard candy. Powdered milk (in nitrogen-packed cans). Plastic bags ( for sanitation) Matches. and puzzles. The following is an eas y approach to long-term food storage: Buy a supply of the bulk staples listed ab ove. and a wool cap.. White rice. Vita min C. Cocoa .
strikes. the beef jerky of the Indians. breakdown of food production and dis tribution. modern processing insures high nutrition as we ll as faithful flavor and appearance for many of the things you eat everyday . Dragoon. storage space and weight is greatly reduced. AN INTRODUCTION TO LO-MOISTURE FOOD STORAGE The concept of a food reserve is not new. Such a res erve serves to protect against such occurrences as: food shortages.Bottled water. Even though they bel . where. WHY FOOD STORAGE? Most people have various types of insurance for all kinds of emergencies. Plus they are packed in a spec ial heavy duty double enameled can. For centuries men have benefited from dr y grains and cereals. we all have to eat! WHAT ARE LO-MOISTURE FOODS? Preserving foods by drying them is probably as old as man. no matter what happens. a nd associated color and flavor changes. with all of the oxygen. With Ready Reserve dehydrated foods you get choice fresh foods with even more of the moisture delicately removed to retain full flavor and nutrition and built-i n convenience as well as the storage advantages. Some advanced processed foods of today have gone the ancients two better. or loss of income through personal illness or injury. That common sense self-sufficiency of the pantry tradition is still val id. to the "hard-tack" of the U. S. they discovered that f ew things spoil if they could be dried. in our complex soc iety we are dependent on others to supply many of our physical needs. Today's technology and Ready Reserve Foods provide a great variety of food t hat stores in less space and in a form that will keep much longer. easily usable reserve can help give the same peace of mind that a ful l pantry gave in past generations. . the oxygen is removed by a vacuum process an d an inert storage atmosphere is injected to retard oxidation. and ti me-saving convenience and flexibility are built-in. nutrition-loss.greater variety and better quality foods through technology. considering that the shelf-life is greatly ex tended. It wasn't too long ago that almost eve ry family had a pantry filled with food that could sustain them from harvest to harvest. To day we have. spices and condiments in their dry form. storing what you use and using what you store. WHAT SHOULD I STORE? Some people worry about what they should store or how much.these foods can be adapted to your meals to provide an easy trans ition when an emergency forces you to switch to your food reserve. Traditional sun dried foods still retained fr om 20% to 30% moisture. In times past. . waste is eliminated. 2) space-saving compactness and 3) they also permit variety in emergency situations. Food s torage is a necessary and practical form of insurance. Moisture and oxygen stimulate most bacterial growth and chemical changes that ca use foods to deteriorate or spoil. people on the move or people with a surplus turned to drying as the answer to maximizi ng their resources. C ost per serving is reasonably low. This highly n utritious. Finally. The fact is. with Lo Moisture fo ods can you enjoy a variety of normal menus. civil unrest. natural disa sters. From the Roman soldiers' field ration called Pulmentum (roas ted and crushed grain made to be 'rehydrated' to mush or a cake). WHY LO-MOISTURE FOODS? In addition to long storage life. Dehydrated foods are noted for having 1) an excellent long-storage life with storage stabil ity characteristics. unemployment. dried fruits.
you can determine their condition. you may decide to include many Lo-Moisture Foods in your daily meals. A basement or other cool areas. these amounts assure the best use of available foods. A well rounded diet ca n be attained with with Ready Reserve Lo Moisture foods. oats and other grains. and salt are five most common items along with bean s. rice. they fear that if they store the wrong foods.E. protein-rich f oods. By including fruit. three people for four months or four people for three months. of wheat or flour to provide 1/2 loaf daily bread 1/2 cup serving of fruit 1/2 cup serving of potatoes 2 cups milk Although some of our prepackaged supplies provide food for larger quantities tha n these suggestions. learn how to use the m. consider the following daily amounts. PUT AWAY AND FORGET? Even though Ready Reserve Lo-Moisture foods properly prepared for storage are mo re worry free than any other food items. The can. Plastic lids (included in pre-selected food supplies) are available to re-close partially full cans. In the times of food shortage and a ccompanying stress. sugar or honey. but keep in mind that some of these kinds of foods will need co nstant rotation. it may be wasted. The most important counsel concerning food storage is to "store what you use and use what you stor e" .R.You can increase storage lif e by providing the best storage conditions. dry milk. Don't store directly on a cement f loor. attic or metal storage shed where temperatures fluctuate to high degrees . The most satisfactory way to establish a food reserve is to store those foods that permit normal menus. we still recommend the above proportions served as a minimum daily re quirement for emergency planning. While most dehydrated products stay in good condition over four. in some instances. When using our Ready Reserve prepackaged supplies. This special can lengthens shelf-life. and the seal are all selected to provide maximum protection to the quality foods inside. especially if it is dry . and other emergency rations s uch as M. dairy and grain products one is assured of a nutritionally balanced diet. 1/2 cup serving of vegetables 1 cup of protein 8 oz. wet-pack. it will be very difficult for a family to adjust to an auste re food storage program that has little resemblance to their normal diet. Rust on the outside will not damage product if the can does not rust through. If your storage conditions are not cool and dry. Why? Because many people have approached food storage by putting away items that have little to do with everyday meals. like a closet. Pain t or varnish cans to prevent rust if area is damp or humid.ieve in the concept of food storage and desire to establish a food reserve. To ut ilize some recipes in a cookbook. eight years or . we recommend periodic checking. WHERE SHOULD I STORE? Ready Reserve Foods high quality dehydrated foods are packaged under careful sup ervision to meet the highest technical packaging standards. and with most items neither will relatively high temperatures for a s hort period of time. By chec king your food supplies. one might. A cardboard box tends to draw moisture from the cement like a sponge. combine the two fruit servings to a one cup serving. the atmosph ere. A program some people u se is a combination of dehydrated foods. is best. check your stocks more often to determine their current condition.'s. Freezing will not harm products. If you are not using one of our pre-select ed units. and find out what you and your family like to eat. vegetables. the recommended year's supply for one person would be enough for two people for six months. six. Whea t. Do not store food in a garage. HOW MUCH SHOULD I STORE? For reference. Because our storage foods are designed to provide normal meal variety.
Earthquakes. floods. airplane crashes. emergency supplies. fire. Church? Club? Other? Are medical cons ent forms complete? ___________________________________________________________ Identify where emergency supplies and equipment are located. neighbour. Family Disaster Plan and Personal Survival Guide there are many different kinds of disasters. park. Periodic checks will build confidence in your reserves a nd provide comforting assurance that they will be in good condition when needed. and co-workers. the rotation (use and replacement) of stored foods every few ye ars is a wise practice. friends. relatives. gloves:_______ . food. This guide is primarily geared t o earthquakes. Share your plans with neigh bours. Show it to baby-sitters and house guests when you're going to be away. Occasional drills will assure quick r eaction and avoid injury and panic in an emergency. fires. Be sure everyone in you household is familiar with it. equipment and supplies are needed. p ipeline leaks and explosions. etc.more of storage. Family Meetings: At least once a year have a meeting with your family to discuss and update your plan and determine what tra ining.g. which seldom give war ning are equally devastating to their victims. e. etc. List alternate places to meet around home Outside: ___________________________________________ Inside: ____________________________________________ Alternate reunion locations when family is not at home. school. Fire extinguisher: ___________________________ Flashlight/Batteries: ________________________ Portable radio: ______________________________ Tools: _______________________________________ Safety equipment: ____________________________ Water: _______________________________________ Sanitation supplies: _________________________ Food: ________________________________________ Cooking equipment: ___________________________ Blankets: ____________________________________ Extra eyeglasses: ____________________________ Medication: __________________________________ First Aid Supplies: __________________________ Complete set of clothes. caustic fumes. chemical spills. shoes. Location of gas valve: _______________________ Location of wrench: _________________________ Location of main water valve: ______________________ Location of main circuit breaker: ____________________ Location of other utilities:_______________________________________________ Draw a Plan of your home On a piece of paper draw a floor plan of your home showing the location of exit windows and doors. First Aid Kit. Learn First Aid (available through your local Red Cross Chapter) Persons Trained: ____________________________ Date: ___________________ Location of First Aid kit: ___________________________________ Learn how and where to shut off utilities. smoke. tools. clothing. utility cutoffs. ___________________________________________________________________ Learn and discuss school disaster policy. and others. Red Cross shelter. Preparedness Activities Learn how to protect yourself from falling objects. small and large. They could use it to direct someone to a utility cutoff in an emergency. but the planning you and your family do now will be of benefit wh en and if any disaster strikes you. relative.
It is probably best to leave on ly dry pet food. roof and chimney for damage. Do not leave pets in a car with windows closed. Clothes. Pets In a Disaster Pets are not permitted in shelters. . contact lens supplies. Wheelchairs. Baby supplies. Special Health Needs. turn off main gas valve. Be prepared to evacu ate when necessary. Remove fallen objects from top of stove. If damage to electrical system is suspected. Turn on radio and listen for advisories. The most important task is to provide water. Sleeping bags/blankets. Clean up potentially harmful materials.After an Earthquake be prepared for after shocks If you must evacuate Special Health Needs Be prepared for after shocks Put on Heavy shoes immediately to avoid injury from stepping on glass and other debris.. sparks or the smell of hot insulation) turn off sy stem at main circuit breaker or fuse box. low in protein and fat. Fill a tub or several b uckets. It may be better to le ave no food than to leave food which will spoil. If water leaks are suspected. Tie any vessel so that it cannot be tipped over. Check to see that sewage lines are intact before continued flushing of toilets. Food. Never leave cats with dogs. Open closets and c upboards carefully. Do not turn lights on or off or light matches or do anything that makes a spark. but not water. Check for injuries and give first aid. Check emergency supplies. Special dietary needs. garage or bathroom. Include such items as: Medication. Do Not turn it back on unt il the gas company or plumber has checked it out. Eyeglasses. insulin & syringes. so families should plan for their pets in th e event of a disaster such as an earthquake. Dentures. They sho uld be confined to a basement. If you smell gas or suspect a lea k. Name and number of famil y doctor and dentist. Chec k for fires and fire hazards. even friendly dogs. Oxy gen tanks. Do not touch downed power lines or objects touched by downed wires. radio and batte ries Important papers and cash. you s hould very seriously consider provisions for leaving your pets behind. (frayed wires. Toiletrie s and personal item. open windows and carefully leave house. walker. Do not use phone except for genuine emergencies. Check neighbours for injury. If you must evacuate prominently post a message indicating w here you can be found. Note: Do not shut off gas unless an emergency exists. Leave only friendly dogs tog ether. Dogs and cats adapt well to deprivations of food. Keep a list posted of supplies/equipment that your particular family members may need to take with the m in case of evacuation. if you must leave your home. shut off water at main valve. Cooperate with public safety officials. Sniff for gas leaks. crutches. starting at the hot water heater. Check house. Locate light source if necessary. Take with you a First Aid kit Flashlight. Do not go sightseeing. special baby formula.