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# ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION

Year : III / IV B.Tech ECE Semester: 1

Question Bank – Subjective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIT 1
1. (a) Draw the Dual characteristics of an antenna. (b) Explain the Radiation from Two wires. 2. (a) Distinguish between Directive Gain and Power Gain. (b) An antenna has a radiation resistance of 73 ohms and a lossy resistance of 7 ohms. If the power gain is 20, calculate the directivity and the efficiency of the antenna. 3. (a) Define the terms: i. Beam Width ii. Side Lobe Level iii. Polarization iv. Effective Aperture Area. (b) What is the effective length of an antenna. Determine the effective length of a half wave dipole antenna. 4. (a) Define antenna beam width and directivity and obtain the relation between them. (b) Calculate the electric field (Erms) due to an isotropic radiator radiating 3KW power at a distance of 2 Km from it. 5. (a) Explain the following terms: i. Beam Width ii. Omni Directional pattern iii. Side Lobe Level iv. Radiation resistance v. Field Pattern of antenna. (b) Define the terms Directivity and Power Gain. Show that the Directivity of a short current element is 1.5. 6. Find the effective length of a λ/2 dipole and λ/4 monopole. Hence calculate their directivities, using the appropriate radiation resistances. 7. (a) As related to Antennas, define and explain the following terms: i. Directivity ii. Radiation Resistance iii. Beam Width iv. Band Width. (b) Evaluate the directivity of i. An Isotropic Source ii. Source with Bi-Directional cosθ power pattern. 8. (a) Explain the terms “Isotropic”, “Directional” and “Omni directional pattern”, “Radiation Intensity”. (b) Define Effective Aperture and calculate the effective aperture of a 0.25 λ di-pole.

Maximum power transfer theorem. (a) Derive an expression for radiance resistance of current element starting from the expression for radiation fields. ii. (b) A grounded vertical antenna has an effective height of 111. (b) What is Folded Dipole ? Find its Radiation Resistance.8kms. derive an expression for radiated electric field for half wave dipole and sketch the field strength pattern. . (a) Derive expressions for the electric and magnetic fields radiated by a half wave length dipole antenna. (b) Prove that leff(transmitting) is same as leff(receiving) for any antenna where leff is effective length of an antenna. 5. 3.with base current of 725 amps. (a) Derive the expressions for electric field in case of short current element and hence obtain the conditions for the field to be in Franhofer region. (b) Find the distance from a radiating element with 60Hz current such that radiation and induction fields are equal. 4. Reciprocity theorem. (b) Explain the Lorentz Gauge Condition and show that where ¯A is magnetic vector potential. 6. calculate the power received at a distance of 10kms from the transmitting antenna. (a) Starting from the fundamentals. Short Dipole and Half-Wave Dipole. (b) A half wave transmitting antenna radiates 10KW of power at 100MHz. (a) State the following antenna theorems and bring out their importance in antenna measurements : i. 2. Obtain the Directivity of an Isotropic Antenna. (a) Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop is equal to 320π 4(A/λ2) ohms where A is loop area. (a) State the Reciprocity Theorem for Antennas? Prove that the Self Impedance of an Antenna in transmitting and receiving mode is same.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B. (b) Define Directivity. 7. (b) Prove that the impedance of an isolated antenna when used for receiving is same as when used for transmitting.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 2 1. 8. Find the E and H fields at a distance of 150kms and power radiated by it.3 mts and operates at a wavelength of 18. (a) What is Retarded Potential? Explain different approaches to solve radiation Problems.If the heights of transmitting and receiving antennas are 100m and 9m.

ii. Compare Broadside array and End fire array. 0 8. Find i. HPBW for N=20. (a) How an unidirectional pattern is obtained in an end fire array? Explain in detail. (b) 64 isotropic elements are to be arranged in a binomial array form. 6. . Effective aperture. 3. (b) What is the requirement for tapering of arrays. Hence find the directivity. (b) What are linear arrays. (a) Calculate i.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 3 1. Directivity. 0 5. (b) What is optimum spacing used in parasitic array? Why. (a) What is the necessity of an Array? Explain the three different types of arrays with regard to beam pointing direction. Calculate the inner element phase shift required if the elements are spaced at 3 cms and the frequency is 64 KHz. (a) Explain the principle of pattern multiplication. Calculate and plot the field pattern. HPBW. (a) What are the various differences between binomial and linear arrays. Solid Angle if a linear array having 10 isotropic point source with λ/2 spacing and phase difference δ=90 . 4. (b) Write short notes on Hansen-Wood yard end fire array. 2.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B.What is the effect of earth on the radiation pattern of antennas. Also find the directivity and beam width. The pattern is to be optimum with a side lobe level 26db down the main lobe maximum. Determine the current ratios and find polar plot of the array. (a) In order to scan the beam of a linear array to 300 off broadside. (b) A uniform linear array consists of 16 isotropic point source with a spacing of λ/4 if the phase difference α=-90 . (c) State the applications of arrays. (a) Explain the procedure for measuring the radiation pattern of a half wave dipole. (b) List out the mathematical relations for a N element half wavelength spaced binomial array. 7. (a) A linear broadside array consist of 4 identical equal in phase point source with λ/3 spacing. iii. HPBW ii. (b) Design a 8 element broadside array of isotropic sources of λ/2 spacing between elements.

(a) Distinguish between i. 2 λ. 7. (b) Show that a single wire excited with a traveling wave current is an end fire antenna with a sharp null along the direction of extension of the wire. (a) State the advantages and disadvantages of Rhombic Antenna. (b) Describe the characteristics of long wire traveling wave antenna. (a) Write short notes on “Helical Antenna”. λ/2 ii. Resonant and Non Resonant antennas. (b) What is a ‘V’ antenna? Explain its characteristics. . 8. 5 λ iii. λ. (a) Distinguish between Traveling wave and Standing wave antennas. 4λ and 8 λ.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 4 1. 3. (a) Describe the construction and properties of Rhombic Antenna. 4. Narrow Band and Wide Band antennas. Sketch their pattern for lengths of i. (a) Explain the construction and radiation characteristics of Helical Antenna. (b) Draw the radiation pattern for traveling wave antenna for L=λ/2. (a) Derive an expression for electric field of a Non Resonant antenna of length ‘l’ carrying current. (a) Explain how a rhombic Antenna is formed by a V antenna and an inverted V Antenna. ii. (c) Explain the working of Rhombic antenna. (b) Derive an expression for radiated electric field strength of a traveling wave radiation of length ‘l’. 20 λ. (b) Compare Resonant and Non Resonant antennas.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B. (b) Explain the reason why length of a traveling wave radiation is multiple of half wave length. 5. (b) Sketch and explain the constructional features of a Helical Antenna. 6. 2.

(a) Sketch the current distribution of folded dipole and find out input impedance when two legs have unequal diameters. A Paraboloid reflector of 1. (b) A Parabolic dish provides a power gain of 50dB at 10GHz.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 5 1. HPBW. ii. 8. (b) Design Yagi-Uda antenna of six elements to provide a gain of 12dB if the operating frequency is 200MHz. (a) What is a Parasitic Element? Describe the use of different types of parasites in TV receiving antennas. 3. Types of Feeds. What are Retro Reflectors? . BWFN.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B. (a) Discuss the application of the Image antenna concept to the 900 corner reflector. 2. Calculate the beam width between the nulls and gains in dBs. 4. Explain how the radiation pattern of folded dipole will be modified with the addition of a reflector and two directors parasitic elements. 6. Front toBack Ratio iii. Aperture Efficiency ii. Bring out the differences between Active and Passive Corner Reflectors. principle beam width and HPBW of a 10m diameter parabolic dish with a half wave length dipole feed in focus at 10GHz. (b) Explain the Cassegrain mechanism in transmission mode. (a) Compute the gain. diameter. List out the advantages and disadvantages of Cassegrain feed.8m diameter is used at 6GHz. (a) With reference to paraboloids. (b) Derive an expression for aperture field distribution of a parabolidal reflector. with 70% efficiency. (b) What is a parabolic cylinder antenna? Derive an expression for field distributions on the surface of reflector. 5.explain the following: i. Find out i. 7.

6. Find out the gain of the large antenna. (a) Distinguish between Sectoral. Explain their utility. Calculate the minimum distance required to measure the field pattern of an antenna of diameter 2m at a frequency of 3GHz. explain the absolute method of measuring the gain of an antenna. 7. 2.5.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 6 1. Derive the necessary equation. (b) Write short notes on “Radiation from Sectoral Horn”. . What is an electromagnetic horn antenna? What are its applications? The length of an E-plane sectoral horn is 15cms. Describe the method of measuring the gain and radiation pattern of an antenna. Sketch the sectoral horns. (a) What is the principle of equality of path length? How is it applicable to horn antenna? (b) Discuss how the directivity of horn antenna can be measured. 4. (a) What is Zoning? What are its advantages? (b) Discuss the applications of Horn Antenna. A standard gain horn antenna with a power gain of 12. Design the horn dimensions such that it is optimum at 10GHz. 3. (a) Explain the principle of operation of Dielectric Lens Antenna. 5. is used to measure the gain of a large directional antenna by comparison method. (b) With a neat setup.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B. Pyramidal and Conical horns. The test antenna is connected to the receiver and an attenuator adjusted to 23dB in order to have the same receiver output. 8.

Virtual height of the ionized layer=200kms. ii. 2. Find MUF. . (a) Describe the salient features of Ground wave propagation. Space wave propagation. What is Secant law? 4. Discuss the effect of frequency earth constants and curvature of earth on ground wave propagation. Derive the expressions for the same.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 7 1. If the height of ionosphere is 200kms and its critical frequency is 5MHz. Calculate the LOS distance if the heights of transmitting and receiving antennas are respectively 50m and 10m. 6.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B. 5. (b) Communication by ionosphere propagation is required for a distance of 200kms. calculate the field strength at the receiving neglecting ground reflected wave. (b) What is Critical Frequency? What is Virtual Height? Find the maximum distance that can be covered if the virtual height of the ionospheric layer is 250kms. VHF communication is to be established with a 50watt transmitter at 100MHz. (b) A radio link has to be established between two earth station at a distance of 25000kms. (a) Show that Ionosphere act as a variable refractive index medium. Duct propagation.2MHz. Describe the Ground wave propagation. Deduce the working formula. 8. Describe the following: i. Calculate MUF and angle of take off of the transmitted wave from the following: Highest signal frequency returned to earth after vertically upward propagation=7. Define MUF and Critical frequency. Assuming the capture area of the transmitting antenna is 25sqmts. Calculate the MUF for the given path. 7. (a) What are different mechanisms of propagation of electromagnetic waves? Explain. Also calculate the electron density in the ionosphere layer. height of the layer is 220kms and the critical frequency is 5MHz. It is defined to establish short wave communication between two points on earth’s surface(assumed flat) separated by 1200km. 3.

3. 7. (b) Derive the expression for space wave electric field produced by an antenna at a distance point.Tech ECE Semester: 1 Question Bank – Subjective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- UNIT 8 1. What is the maximum power received by receiver? Frequency of operation is 100MHz. (b) Show that the radius of curvature of ray path is given by 2/(dεr/dh) for tropospheric waves. The transmitter antenna. 6. Calculate the power transmitted. 5. (b) Write short notes on “Troposcatter”. (a) Discuss the characteristics of F1 and F2 layers. (a) A police radio transmitter operating at a frequency 1.5mv/m at a distance of 16km. . (b) Derive the fundamental equation for free space propagation. Give the reasons. Transmitter power is 1KW. 2. ii.69GHz is required to provide a ground wave having a strength of 0. Write explanatory notes on i. (b) Give an account of effect of earths imperfections and roughness. 8. The ground wave has σ= 5 × 10−5 mho/cm and εr= 15. (a) Describe the troposphere and explain how tropospheric ducts can be used for microwave propagation. (b) Discuss the reasons for reduction of field strength in sky wave propagation. Selective fading and Interference fading. (a) Write short notes on “M Curves and their characteristics”. distance between transmitter and receiver is 100km. (a) Distinguish between Radio and Optical horizons. (a) Derive the field strength of tropospheric wave. assuming a flat earth. A communication link is to be established between two stations using half length antenna for maximum distance gain. Field Strength calculation for radio AM broadcast waves. 9. having an efficiency of 50% produces a radiating field proportional of cosθ. 4. (a) Prove that the radio horizon distance between transmitting and receiving antennas is given by dmiles=p2ht+p2hr. (b) Write short notes on M-Curves.ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION Year : III / IV B.