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1. CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE 2. LECŢIA 1 - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECŢIA 2 - CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR 4. LECŢIA 3 - MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE 5. LECŢIA 4 - VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ 6. LECŢIA 5 - DIATEZA PASIVĂ 7. LECŢIA 6 - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECŢIA 7 - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECŢIA 8 - MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE 10. LECŢIA 9 - CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor 10.3. Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale 10.4. Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi indirectă 10.5. Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă 10.6. Exerciţii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exerciţii cu construcţii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE
Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română.
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV
Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know.
A. Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ I work. You work. He/she/it works. We work. You work. They work. I You He/she/it We You They Negativ do not (don’t) do not (don’t) does not (doesn’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) work. work. work. work. work. work.
Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work?
Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?)
You are always losing your things. They are not (aren’t) working. Negativ I am not working. We are not (aren’t) working. Where are you going? I am going to school. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. Afirmativ I am working. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. You are not (aren’t) working. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. You are working. Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. We are working. există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. He/she/it is working. De asemenea. You are working. You are not (aren’t) working. În acest caz. .I am a student. My father is taking me in his car. pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. I go to school by bus this week. They are working.
ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. 4. I trust my friend. 3. You (dream) at night? Yes. a poseda”. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). . formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 1. 6. I have lunch at one o’clock. 11. They are swimming in the river. 3. 12. 7. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. They live in Bucharest. 2. It is raining. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: 1.EXERCIŢII cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous: 1. She talks too much. In England it often (rain). 4. 7. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 2. I (dream) every night. Notă: Verbul „to have”. atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea. 10. 2. 2. 9. 5. You (write) to John now? Yes. 7. I am having a walk. He remembers my phone number. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 10. My mother is resting. 6. I (not like) that boy. 4. 10. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 3. I always (write) to him on his birthday. What you (do) on Sundays? 3. You (like) this book? 8. I (be). 5. 5. You are typing a letter. I love my brother. 8. He has a hot bath every day. 9. 6. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. We are studying English. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. The child is learning to play the piano. to have a shower. Ann is knitting. 8. My friend is wearing a new dress. I understand you. 9. He is telling the truth. to have a party). I always believe you. You play the piano very well.
Ce carte citeşti? 10. forma II . 15. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul. 18. 8. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. Cui îi telefonezi? 13. except Saturdays and Sundays. 4. 2. 3. Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. of course. 14. merge pe jos. B. as usual.You (know) what time is it? 4.13. I always (have) a rest after lunch. as I (not want) to miss the first act. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5. 19. 19. but he is late. 14. forma III – participiul trecut to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ . 20. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. 9. Eu nu studiez seara. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi. 17. Dacă verbul este neregulat. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. 16. You (go) to work every day? Yes. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. 16. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate: to work – worked. 6.Paste Tense. Iarna ninge. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 7. Ea îşi face bagajul. Când merg la mare îmi place să înot mult.
work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută, terminată, efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută, terminată. Este timpul de naraţiune. Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus. Yesterday I went for a walk. (Ieri am mers la plimbare.) Last year I travelled to England. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.) Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I was working. You were working. He/she/it was working. We were working. You were working. They were working. Negativ I was not working. You were not working. He/she/it was not working. We were not working. You were not working. They were not working. Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working?
Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. Se traduce, de obicei, cu imperfectul. This time yesterday, I was watching TV. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor.) Adesea, în aceeaşi frază, este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. În acest caz, verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul), reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). While I was crossing the street, I met John. Este, de asemenea, posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. În această situaţie, ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul, ele arătând acţiuni paralele, în plină desfăşurare, într-un moment trecut. While John was reading, his sister was watching TV. (În timp ce John citea, sora lui privea la televizor.)
EXERCIŢII cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous:
1. Puneţi verbele din urmatoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 2. He meets John on Sundays. 3. You speak English well. 4. You drink too much. 5. You ask too many questions. 6. I play football. 7. I own two umbrellas. 8. I like to have a coffee in the morning. 9. That sounds interesting. 10.I always make cakes on Sundays. 2. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. He thought about you. 2. They drank all the wine. 3. I hated him. 4. He changed his library book every day. 5. I sold my car. 6. We worked very hard. 7. He came home late. 8. I enjoyed travelling. 9. He translated the text. 10.He forbade her to do this. 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. When you (come in), I talk on the phone. 2. When I first (meet) him, he (work) in a bank.
3. While he (learn) to drive, he (have) an accident. 4. As I (write), someone (ring up). 5. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. When I (enter) the classroom, the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 8. When I (arrive), she (have) dinner. 9. This time last Sunday, I (watch) a film on TV. 10.He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses.
4. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. 2. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? 3. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. 4. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. 5. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. 6. Ieri pe vremea asta plouă. 7. Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţa? 8. Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. 9. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. 10. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. 11. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. 12. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 13. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 14. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. 15. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. 16. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 17. Ieri m-am sculat devreme, mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la
18. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. 19. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. 20.El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. 21. Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 22.În timp ce ploua, eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia.
C. Present Perfect Simple
Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent, la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have worked. You have worked. He/she/it has worked. We have worked. You have worked. They have worked.
• . dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiază. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta.) • arată o acţiune trecută. începând din) şi for (de. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă.) Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. În acest caz. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni. dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella. dintr-un motiv sau altul. De asemenea.Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. this week. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din. se foloseşte Past Simple. I must buy a new one. I haven’t seen John for two months. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent.) I have known John since 1990. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. interesează în prezent. În acest caz. terminată. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. this month. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut.) • Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”. care are rezultate în prezent sau care.) I didn’t get up early this morning. timp de). nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect.) I have known John for two years. this year. arată o acţiune trecută.) I haven’t seen John since September. dacă se pune o întrebare referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată. I lost my umbrella yesterday. I must buy a new one.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. I have seen two films this week. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. I haven’t got up early this morning.
seldom.) După cum se poate observa. yet (în propoziţii negative). never. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut. (Plouă de 3 ore. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua. we shall have floods. I have often been to England. If it doesn’t stop soon. Afirmativ I have been working. Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. ever. He hasn’t returned home yet. It has been raining for three hours.) De asemenea. Yes. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) No. I have never been to England. I am tired because I have been working all day.) I haven’t seen him lately. He has not (hasn’t) been working. (El nu s-a întors încă acasă. just. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare. We have been working. . să continue şi în viitor. vom avea inundaţii. You have been working. You have been working. în funcţie de context.Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând. He/she/it has been working. already. fie cu perfectul compus. între un moment trecut şi prezent. cu accent pe durată.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. always. care continuă în prezent. They have been working. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately.
5. I’m tired of it. 11. Would you like a cake? 7. The radio (play) since 7 a. You (not see) it anywhere? No. I (lose) my pen. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike.You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. I (lend) him some money today. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. thank you. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 5. 2. 3. No.You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19.EXERCIŢII cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous: 1. 9.He (not go) to bed yet.It (not rain) since December. I just (have) one. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. I already (see) this film. He just (leave) home. 4.He (sleep) for 10 hours now. she (try) to make trouble. 4. 12. I (cook) all the morning.He always (rely on) his friend. 8. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. You (water) the flowers? 3. 3. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. When you (use) it last? .I (live) here for one year. You must come and see it. I haven’t. 10. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1. We (know) each other for several years.I (not be) to the seaside this year. He (not come) home yet. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market.How long you (live) here? 22. 21. When are you going to do it? 12. 10. I (buy) a new house. I (water) the flowers. 18. 15. 2.Ever since that woman came to work here.m.You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 11. 2.You ever (drive) a car? 17. 7. It’s time we woke him up.You ever (eat) caviar? 14.I (not write) to my friend for three months. 16. 6. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet.
18. am petrecut o lună aici. 16. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 19. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last.Da. acum doi ani.It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. 7. D.Ninge de două ore. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. 9. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. l-am luat la ora 8. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5.Da. 4. Un copil a spart geamul. 10. 23. You (see) your mother this week? No. Afirmativ I had worked. 25.Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. 8. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă. 4. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Nu am mers la vot. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă. 9. I (try) last year but I (not 3. 8. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. 7. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate.Da. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. 11. 21. El este ministru de doi ani. I am not out of work now. 10. A plecat John? 20. 4.La ce te-ai uitat? 15. I (get) a job last month.De când mi-am cumpărat maşina. 11. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. . 14. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning.Ai mai fost în acest oraş? 24. 13. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. 2.A fost un accident. You (be) out of work long? 5. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 6. 12. a plecat acum o oră. 6. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin).Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă.succeed). la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat.
(El a spus că plouă de 3 zile. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute.) He said it had been raining for three days. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară. (Când el a intrat în cameră. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. he got bored. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute. I had finished writing my homework. Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”.) . ca şi Present Perfect. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Afirmativ I had been working. Este. she had been typing for one hour. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast.) When you rang me up. în acest caz.Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. ea bătea la maşină de o oră.) Ca sens. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. terminasem de scris temele. De asemenea. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. When he entered the room. un verb de relaţie. dar. s-a plictisit.
7. When she sat for the exam. she felt chilly. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. she (study) the subject for a week. 2. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. After John (leave). The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. 2. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. . 5. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. After we (walked) for an hour. 4. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 4. 8. 10. 3. When I arrived home. When I called on her unexpectedly. 4. She said she already (be) to England. When we reached the top. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. I (return) from school. 2. 6. 5. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 4. 2. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. When she decided to have a rest. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. mother (cook) for two hours.The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 3. 6. EXERCIŢII cu Past Simple şi Continuous: 1. El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. 7. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 3. When we met them. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. we (climb) for 7 hours. 10. 9. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. After they (finish) dinner.When we arrived at Sinaia. 9. 2. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. 6. we (realize) we (lose) our way. 3. 10.După cum se observă. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. At 3 o’clock on Friday. When I rang her up. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. 8. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour.Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. 8. 9. I realized she (have) a party. she (write) letters for one hour. 7. they drank some coffee. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. it (rain) for one hour. 5.When I (find out) he (get married). When I left home.
We (shall) will go. a înmânat-o profesorului. Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. You will not go. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. 4. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. They will go. I (shall) will meet him next week.Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. will la persoana II şi III. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. You will not go. We (shall) will not go. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare. E. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. 5. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. am mers la culcare. They will not go. You will go. You will go.3. Ei mi-au spus că locuiau în Franţa din 1980. Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. 6. 10. Negativ I (shall) will not go. acasă. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. 8. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta 7.) Future Continuous . Afirmativ I (shall) will go. 9. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. se foloseşte numai „shall”. He/she/it will go. Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t. He/she/it will not go. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat.
Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will. They will have gone. la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. You will not be going. You will have gone. You will have gone. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. They will not be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. You will be going. (have + forma III). Negativ I (shall) will not be going. I will be travelling to England. We (shall) will be going. We (shall) will have gone. We (shall) will not be going. He/she/it will not be going. You will be going. (Mâine la ora 3 voi călători spre Anglia. You will not be going. . At three o’clock. He/she/it will have gone.Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”. He/she/it will be going. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. They will be going.
Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română. You would not go. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de 3 ore. . I will have reached Predeal. We (should) would go. We (shall) will not have gone. He/she/it would go. When you come home. You would not go. I will have been studying for three hours. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. I (shall) will have been going. Afirmativ I (should) would go. (Mâine până la ora 3 voi fi ajuns la Predeal. You will not have gone. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română. Când vei veni tu acasă. They will not have gone. We (should) would not go.You will not have gone. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. You would go. They would go. He/she/it will not have gone. Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. By three o’clock tomorrow.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. Negativ I (should) would not go. You would go. Este un timp rar folosit. He/she/it would not go.
You (be) in London tomorrow. I am going to read this book. he would be travelling to England.) It is going to rain. He (be) pleased if you invite him. I leave for London tomorrow. I hope I (pass) the exam. He said that at 3 o’clock. la ora 3. va călători spre Anglia. 10. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive. . • EXERCIŢII cu timpurile „Future”: 1. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. (Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. Arată o intenţie. (El a spus că în ziua următoare. Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t.) • Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. I am meeting John this morning. bine stabilit. 5.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor.) • Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta.You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. Într-un astfel de context. 3. iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară. (El a spus că va întârzia. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut. 7. the next day. I (remember) this day all my life. I am sure I (succeed). You (remember) to post my letter? 9. 8. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I am sure you (like) this book. I (know) the results in three days’ time. arată un program precis.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală). un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. I should (would) be going. atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut. 2. 6. He said he would be late.They would not go. Este un timp destul de rar folosit.
4. 5. the baby (cry). we (take) our exam. By the beginning of next week. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1.By the end of the month. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? 3. 4. 3. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5. By the end of the season. I (swim) in the sea. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. 7.Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă. 6. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 2. When you reach Sinaia.2. By 5 o’clock. 10.Don’t expect me home for dinner. 7. între orele 12 şi 1. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! 12. 2. 10. Voi vizita târgul internaţional. 3. Până la sfârşitul lunii. 8. Let’s hurry to the beach. He (study) all day tomorrow. I (pay off) all my debts. I (work) on this paper for a month. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. Next year. In a week’s time. 2. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. I am sure when I arrive home. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. 4. She (watch) TV. 11. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. This time next day. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. I (cook) for two hours. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. Vineri. I (work) at the office till late at night. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. 9. we (climb) the mountain. When I take the exam. 4. This time next month. 8. 5. 8. 10.E un obiect frumos. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. they (be married) for 25 years. By the time you come home. 9. Până la ora 1. 9. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. If we don’t hurry. Unde îl vei pune? mâine. voi fi economisit 5 milioane. it probably (rain). 6. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori. . ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. 7. I (have) breakfast. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. 6. 3.m.
(El a spus că merge la şcoală. desigur. Present Perfect Simple. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat. . (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi. Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past”. (Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). Past Tense Continuous. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple.) He said he was going to school. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii. Present Tense Continuous.) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.LECŢIA 2 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. (El a spus că este bolnav. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Propoziţia principală Orice timp cerut de sens. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare. a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill. nu în propoziţii. Past Perfect Simple.) Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală. Futurein-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată. secundara cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. 2. ci în fraze. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta.) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Propoziţia principală 1.) She promised her mother she would help her. (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară.
(Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza. Se poate întâlni. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă. să ajungă regulă. EXERCIŢII cu concordanţa timpurilor: . Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time.) 3. (Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu.) 2.) b.He said he would come to see me when he had time. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens.) I will have finished studying when you come home. Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. Când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut.) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. (Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp. cu timpul.) 3.) Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. Pentru moment însă. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: a. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. de exemplu. Când propoziţia secundară este atributivă. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. cu excepţia propoziţiilor temporale sau condiţionale. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”. (Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. Last year I worked more than I have done this year.
He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 2. I understood you (be) a painter. 10.When I heard the main actor was ill. 9. 5. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. When I arrived. As wages had gone up. She told me his name after he (leave).He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect ( Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). 7. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). He just (leave) home when he came across John. 8. 8. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 5. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. 4. 9. 10. 2. 8. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect ( Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1. too. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 3. 2. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. When it started to rain. 6. 3. . He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 3. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 1. Looking out of the window. 4. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. 4. 9. 5. When he finally reached London. I thought you soon (have) a holiday.1. 3. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. He promised he (drive) me home. After I (hear) the news. ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: 1. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 6. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. we supposed prices (go up). the concert already (begin). We all believed he (win) the competition. 6. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 10. 2.I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. I congratulated him. It was clear they (talk) business again. 7. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. I was not sure if you (speak) English. They didn’t know that I (play) football. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. 7.
7. 9. 15. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 2. 2. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. he will drive to Sinaia. 7. 12. He told me he never (see) the sea. 5.I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. ţinând seama de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. 17. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. By the time you (finish) translating the text. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 18. this beach will become very crowded. After he (repair) the car. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. 6. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now.4. 4. you will feel better. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 4. 2. she will take a job as a secretary. 10. 8. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 5. 3. In 1998. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work.After you (drink) a coffee. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. I shall have typed all the letters. As soon as the holidays (begin). 20. When their first baby (be born). precum şi excepţiile: 1. 16. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 3. 11. After she (learn) to type. 14. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. 6. 10. 5. they will have been married for five years. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). 3. I will lend it to you. 4. . 9. 6. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). 8. 19. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 5. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 13. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. When I (finish) the book. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me.
17. After we have finished dinner. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-i răspund. they were listening to music. 16.He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon.Maşina pe care o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. he decided he (change) his job. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 10. 6. 8. 9.6. Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. 7. 12. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 7. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. 19. 3. After having visited Italy. 9. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. 7.Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul. not before. I will do it when I (want) to. 13. 15. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. I (not decide) yet. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 8. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte. 11. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. When I finally arrived home. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. 12. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. . we (drink) coffee and brandy. LECŢIA 3 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent) Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III. 2. 20. 11. 10. When we (go) to see them last night. He was very upset because I (be) late. You will never know how much I (suffer). 5. la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. 18. A week ago. 4. 14.
You would not go. We should/would go. You would go. They would not go. You would go. . Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge.). He/she/it would not go. They would not go. Negativ I should/would not have gone.Afirmativ I should/would go. He/she/it would go. Negativ I should/would not go. wouldn’t. Afirmativ I should/would have gone. You would not have gone. You would have gone. You would not go. We should/would not have gone. You would have gone. He/she/it would have gone. Past Conditional (condiţional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). You would not have gone. We should/would have gone. They would have gone. ar merge etc. He/she/it would not have gone. Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ai merge. We should/would not go.
ar fi mers etc.). (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua. What shall we do.They would not have gone. cu excepţia verbului „to be”. Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale: Tipul 1: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?) . supposing. ai fi mers. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună. unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună.) I would stay at home if it rained. suppose. Tipul 3: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine.) Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. providing.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.) I will stay at home if it rains. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună.) Tipul 2: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers. in case.) Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that).
he (take) a pill. If it (go on) raining. spune-i că nu sunt acasă. 2. 8. I would be nervous. I (greet) him. should). If he were more careful. dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. I would ring him up. you (not pass) the exam. . we shall have floods. should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de fraza condiţională. tell her I am out. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. If I (know) his phone-number. 7. 10. If I tell you something. If I won the lottery. 2. în loc de Present Simple. If she finds out what has happened. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come EXERCIŢII cu fraze condiţionale: 1.. were. we would be fined. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If she should ring up. had. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul. If I (move) to the country-side. 4. 9. would you visit me? 3. În acest caz. you will have to look after it. you (not find) me at home. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4.Unless you come at 6. (În caz că telefonează. If I see him. If you (take) a dog. 2. 7. she (be) very angry. 5. 3. If you don’t hurry. 8. If I (give up) smoking. I (buy) a car. should se traduce cu: în caz că. atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă. Should he have a headache. he (not make) so many mistakes. I (buy) it. şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time.if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1. If I like the dress. you (be) late. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. If the police should find out the truth. Unless you study more.) De asemenea. noi am fi amendaţi. 5. este posibilă omiterea lui if. dar improbabilă. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul.
Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. străzile ar fi fost ude. If I (see) him. you wouldn’t have an accident. 3. 2. 7. Dacă ar ploua. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10. 8. ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. If he had written a letter to me. 2. he would have gone home.You (be) sick if you eat so much. 6. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 9. I would speak to him. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. 4. Dacă va ploua. I (answer) it. 7. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. 5.Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. străzile ar fi ude. I would go home immediately. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 6. 5.9. 8. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. I would have succeeded. If I (be) you. If he (realize) it was so late. He (tell) you if you had asked him. I (answer) your question if I can. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. 9. 4. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi.Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. It (be) better if you had waited. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. he (get) a bar of chocolate. 10.Had I been at home. Dacă ar fi plouat. If you had known English. 10.Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John? 6. If the child is good. I (answer) the phone. Had I learned English grammar. Were I in your place. 6. 10. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. If you (drive) more carefully. 3. If I (not tell) him. I (not do) this. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. he would never have known. 5. 5. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 2. 4. If you had taken my advice. If I (work) harder. . 4. străzile vor fi ude. you (not get) into trouble. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. 7. 3. If I (know) you had no driving licence.
He said: „She gave me a book”. 7. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. He said „I was ill”. mi-ar fi fost frig. Se schimbă pronumele. Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână. He said he had been working hard. He said „I will do the exercise”. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni 10. He said „I have been working hard. 9. He said he had been ill. 2. He said she had given him a book. Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă.Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. în funcţie de sens. 1. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp. 4. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă.2. He said he would do the exercise. ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor. He said he was ill. i-ai da? Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. acolo. 1. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra. în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. 3. 5. Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens. Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani. voi mânca la un restaurant. 6. 8. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week . LECŢIA 4 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home”.
He told me not to go out. Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) He said: „I am ill”. Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: „If it rains. 3. 3. I would stay at home. He said: „I might be late”. He told me to go out. could. I will stay at home. Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă). He said he would be at home on that day. 2. should. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. on holiday. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă: 1. He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was.He said he might be late. Verbele modale would. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) He said „Go out”. ought to. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară.” He said if itrained he would stay at home. Where have you been? I’ve been away. Întrebări: există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. He asked me where I had been. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. ceea ce este o greşeală. .two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. He asked me if I liked music. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. I would have stayed at home. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. „If it had rained.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb. He said (that) he was ill. o tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: „If it rained. He said „Don’t go out”.
5. 11. Don’t drive so fast! 2. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. 4. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. I am very busy today. Were you at the library yesterday? 9. 10. 8. 7. 9. Write me a letter when you get to England! 5. 6. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. Take this pill! 9. I would have answered the phone. Don’t smoke so much! 8.Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. Do you live in London for a long time? . I will go shopping right now. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. If I have enough money. 2. Was your mother at home? 6. ordered) me to come in. I saw this film a week ago. 1. Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. please! 4.EXERCIŢII cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă: 1. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Will you help me. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7.I am going to have a nap this afternoon. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. please! 3.If I had been at home. 1. 1. Has the train left? 4. The weather was fine yesterday. please? 2. 12. Read the text. 3. I will buy a car next year. 2. I went to England two years ago. Be careful with my books! 7. Did you drink coffee every day? 8. Open the door. Do you know what this word means? 5.
I am asked. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat.Can you speak English? 11. Would you like a cake? 12. I will be asked. complementul prepoziţional. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. When will you be back? 5. I was asked.How did you travel? LECŢIA 5 Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. When did the rain stop? 9. Why is it so dark in this room? 8. What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. (by me) . Activ: I gave him a book. Complement direct Subiect A book was given to him. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. I have been asked.Could you lend me a book. în unele cazuri. How long have you been learning English? 2. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv. complementul indirect şi. 1. Unde complementul direct este a book. (by me) Complement indirect Subiect He was given a book. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. Who is this man? 7. În limba română. iar complementul indirect este him. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. Desigur. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine.10. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. please? 4. I had been asked. În limba engleză. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct.
His coworkers must do something for him. În multe cazuri. 10. They will give me a reward. The guide showed the museum to the tourists.The teacher asked me a difficult question. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. Notă: Se poate folosi aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 7. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 2. 6. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri. 4. poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). 3. 2. EXERCIŢII cu diateza pasivă: 1. my flat was being painted. A specialist will repair my TV set.They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. Someone has found the missing child. 3. In this office punctuality is insisted on. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. care. when I passed by. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient.În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality . He has found your bag. de asemenea. se omite formularea by. I have lent John two of my books. They have given me a nice present. They are building a new house round the corner. my flat is being painted. 9. 5. The policeman will show us the way. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. 9. 6. While I was in hospital. I will invite my friend to a party. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1. I teach them English. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. 10. 2. 8. The noise frightened me. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb + prepoziţie: . They will finish the work today. 7. 8. Activ: She looked after the child. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). People play football all over the world. 4. 5. While I am in hospital. În aceste situaţii. 3.
5. 3. 7. This book will soon be forgotten. 2. English is spoken all over the world. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. 4. Have you fed the dog? 7. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. 10. This house has been built out of stone and cement. They didn’t look after the children properly. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Will someone tell him the details? 6. 9. 6. 9. They set fire to the shed. 9. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. We laughed at John. 4. 2. 5. 6. 3. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. 6. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. 6. I was recommended a very good doctor. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. Burglars broke into the house. The pupils will be told where to sit. We objected to his proposal. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. We called for the doctor.Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 7. În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. 4. 3. Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 4. 5. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8.Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 8. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 10.1. 8. .He hates being made fun of. These books mustn’t be taken away. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 8. A reception was held in his honour. 7. 2. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că i se furase portofelul.
Can = infinitiv. (Voi putea veni la tine mâine. prezent. may. (Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. (Pot să fac aceasta. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Se traduce cu a şti să. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. . could. (N-am putut să vin la tine ieri.) 2. Can 1. 15. • Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”.) I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. will. 14. should.) Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to. need. might. Se folosesc înlocuitori.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. 12.Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. I can swim. would Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Can is a model verb. ought to. Are sensul de a putea.) I can speak English.) În vorbirea familiară. a fi în stare: I can make this traslation. (Vreau să fac aceasta. He can speak English. • Nu au toate timpurile. I can do this. shall. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc.11. Can you make this translation? Could Past Tense.) Cu acest sens. (N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. prezent Negativ: cannot.) I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. LECŢIA 6 VERBELE MODALE can. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală. 13. He cannot (can’t) speak English. (Ştiu să înot.Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular.America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea.) Could you help me? (Ai putea să mă ajuţi?) Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut He could have been here in time. can’t I cannot (can’t) make this translation. (Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii. must.Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru.
se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta?) 3. El e în străinătate. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să. Trebuie să plec acasă. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. prezent Nu are alte timpuri.) Negativ: may not. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. (Telefonează-i lui John. (Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. (Da. You may/might help me when I am in need.) 3.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. Are sensul de a putea.) Must 1. It may/might rain. (Nu se poate să fie ora 9.) I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. I must go home. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum. May/might pot exprima un reproş. (S-a făcut târziu. (Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în cameră aceea. A trebui: It’s got late. a avea permisiunea: May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră?) Yes.) 2.) Ring up John. . I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room.) Cu acest sens. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. May/Might – s-ar putea să: Take your umbrella. He said I might smoke in that room. nu e posibil să.) May 1. can I take your car? (Tată. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. you may. The sun hasn’t set yet.) Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. poţi.) Negativ: must not. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). He may/might be at home now. Soarele nu a apus încă. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. He is abroad.Father. (Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. (Ia-ţi umbrela. s-ar putea să plouă. to be permitted to. (Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. (De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti. (Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă.
Hai să mergem acasă. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. (Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară.) . Let’s call on him. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. cu sensul de a avea nevoie: He doesn’t need this book. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut.) John must be at home now. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. există 2 posibilităţi: • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. (El nu are nevoie de această carte.) You mustn’t drive so fast. se foloseşte verbul must. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”. there is a speed limit here. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. you needn’t. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. (Probabil că John e acasă acum.) Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus.) Cu acest sens. 2. Probabil că era târziu. Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu.I had to finish the traslation yesterday. cu sensul de a fi nevoie: Ca verb modal. Need I be here at one o’clock? (E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1?) No.) Should. You should/ought to help your mother with housework.) Need Există două verbe: • To need: verb obişnuit. You needn’t drive so fast. (A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. ar fi bine să. dar a fost făcută. o obligaţie morală. ar fi cazul să. (Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Hai să-l vizităm. aici e limita de viteză.) I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă. o recomandare. (Probabil că e târziu. It must have been late. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes.) Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă? • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută. noţional. De asemenea. You needn’t have watered the flowers. (Nu.) • Need: verb modal. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ. (Va trebui să termin traducerea mâine. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi. nu e nevoie. (Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul We didn’t need to do this exercise. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile. avem destul timp. (Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede. you must! (Da. we have enough time. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut. trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need. Let’s go home.
Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul. (Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor. • Acţiune repetată: .) She will be her sister. poate indica. (Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. shall poate arăta o promisiune. o ofertă sau o sugestie. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. interogativ. my mother would read me fairy tales. When I was a child. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti. (Când eram copil. o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte.) • Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. my mother used to read me fairy tales. This girl looks very much like Jane.) This radio won’t work. solicitarea unui sfat. (Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane. (O fi sora ei. ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”.) Shall Folosit cu persoana I.) . care are numai formă de trecut. (Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-i spun. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit. shall indică viitorul. .în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Used to eate un verb semi-modal.în trecut When I was a child. Will. Folosit cu persoana I. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Would • Formula de politeţe.Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. de asemenea. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul. Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie să cumpăr?) Shall I wait for you? (Să te aştept?) Shall we meet at one o’clock? (Să ne întâlnim la ora 1?) Folosit cu persoanele II şi III.) Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. (O fi ajuns la Paris până acum.) Notă: În afară de „would”.
It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 8. 2. Everybody may borrow books from this library. 14. 7. You may not smoke in this room. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 6. You may leave earlier. He can swim very well.She can read and write at the age of five. Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 5. 19. 11. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. Can you help me? 9. 15. . 12. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. I must look up the words in the dictionary. 16. 15. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 2. He ought to tell me the truth. 4. 10. You might write to me more often. It might rain. 17. there is plenty in the fridge. I must go soon. 6. 19. 3. I cannot translate ten pages a day. Can you speak Chinese? 18. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. You might pay more attention to your work. 10. He should go to school everyday. May I walk on the grass? 11. He needn’t buy milk. It can’t be too late. You might change your mind about that. John must be ill. 7. 13. He may be at home. You mustn’t do this . 14. You may not speak to your mother like that. Must you be so rude? 20. 9. 2. I must learn English. 8. You needn’t do this. She can lend you that book. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 3. 18. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. acolo unde este necesar: 1. 4. 5. He must be delayed at the office. 12. 16.EXERCIŢII cu verbe modale: 1. This child may have another cake. 13. She can play the piano very well.
John could be a winner. 3. else. He is probably older than he looks.You have probably forgotten his address. You must have forgotten to lock the door. 3. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. It may/might have snowed in the mountains. You probably forgot to lock the door. 6. 9. Man …travel through space now. 1. 7. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains.20. 5. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. He was probably late. 3. He probably thinks I am wrong. 1. He must speak English well. 6. 3. 5. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. perhaps it will rain. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. I have bought his latest book. 2. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 7. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. He …even drive on its surface. 2. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. Don’t wait. but I doubt it. 4. 5. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. 2. Take your umbrella. 10. . But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone 10. holidays will be very different. 9. She is probably a very good doctor.Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. 8. He probably came home very early. perhaps it is a good one. I think she was angry with you. 4. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 8. It may/might snow in the mountains. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. It is possible for her to be very late. 4. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. It is possible that I come home early. 5. 4. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world.
9. 4. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. When I was young. … you help me solve this problem? 3. I don’t believe you were right. 5. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 9. The sky is clear.You … worry about money. You … take an umbrella. 10. I 3. 2. believe that he has passed the exam. 8. 2. I 2. You can’t be right. You…water the flowers. . 8. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t: 1.6. 4. think he is at the office so late at night.When I was a teenager.I don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t believe it is his fault. 10. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. I 4. please? 7. believe she has married that awful man. You … take sleeping pills too often. 6. believe she has got so fat. I 8. 1. 7. 3. 8. 1. 7. You can’t have been right. I 6. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. it will soon start raining. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: He …read for hours on end. …you tell me the truth. I 10. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 5. I 7. I 9. they are addictive. You …not go to bed so late at night. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. believe it was his fault. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. I’ll give you as much as you want. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 3. People … speak during the concert. 9. I 5. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. I …wear my hair long. for once? This …be John’s house. I …read one book a day. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. think the weather will change. believe she has learnt English in two months. think this is a true story. I … return the books before the 1st of September. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. 6. think you will miss the train if you hurry. 2.
The student …(write) such a long composition. You …(wait) for me. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. He has one of his own. It’ll get stale. You …(see) Anna yesterday. She …write an article for this magazine every week. It …(rain) here. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. I haven’t got my bag with me. 5. 4. He …(be) at home. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi. 5. I …(answer) the questions. 10. 10. Go to sleep. Traduceţi în limba engleză.” „His family consider he should. 6.This letter is full of mistakes. 8. but he himself believes he needn’t. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. which would have saved me a lot of work. I am sorry you wasted your time. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul 1. . I …(be) in the garden. I …(see) him for that. 8. 2. 9. I didn’t hear the phone.” „Yes. The child … (leave) home. 10. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. 4. Încercaţi să gasiţi un sens următorului dialog: „Do you think he will?” „I think he might. He …(swim) across the Danube. 8. 6. which was very convenient. the road is dry. The light was on in his room. 9. … you correct my exercise. I …(answer) the questions. 7. If you win the contest. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must. You …do this whether you like it or not. 3. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. please? 10. 3. he is a very poor swimmer. 5. he is a nice boy. 6. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 9. I wrote him a letter. 2. 11. he was back soon.” 13. I …(leave) it on the bus. but I forgot it was Sunday. I promise you not …be disturbed. John …(do) such a thing. 7. This door … not unlock. 2. I …(get up) so early today. She is away. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. We …(wait) too long. 4.4.It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. I locked the door and took the key with me. You …(lend) him so many books. You…(lend) him your text – book. 3. he will never read them all.You …(buy) so much bread. you …re-type it. trecut: 12. 7. you…get a nice present.
Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă.Vreţi. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. vă rog.De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. 29. 7. 22. 5. 8. Come what may. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea.Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. Probabil că eram încă la facultate. Apare în propoziţii exclamative.Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. 9. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. 13. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. 27. Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil. 17. 1. Nu ştiu să croşetez. 24. Nu. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect. Va trebui să plec curând. may. 20. LECŢIA 7 MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. De asemenea. o dorinţă sau un blestem. Nu a fost nevoie să-i telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. 6. 12. Fie ce-o fi. 11. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. o încuiasem chiar eu. 10. would + infinitiv. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă.Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. 18.Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30. 23. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal.Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul.noroi. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv: a. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de 14. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. 26. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! . exprimând o lozincă.Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. o urare.Unde mergem acum? 28. 16. am băut deja două astăzi. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. might. 21. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii.Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns. 19.Ar fi trebuit să insişti.
to suggest. 1. apare ca were la toate persoanele. to recommend. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Ex. d. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. to urge. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. It is impossible that he do this. I wish (mi-as dori. Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Ex. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. to order. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine: Everybody leave the hall. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent. După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. se foloseste would. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. I wish it would stop raining. Ex. It is necessary that you be present. it is necessary that. în engleza contemporană. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. e. I wish I were in England now. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c.b. . b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. bine ar fi sa) • Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. în situaţii în care. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. it is desirable that. to demand. to insist. Toată lumea să părăsească sala. După verbe ca: to propose. it is likely that. I wish I had been born in England. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. ca echivalent de subjonctiv.
Hurry up lest you miss the train. You speak English as if you had lived in England. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. It is impossible that he should have done this. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. (E timpul. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. to urge.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. In exemplul de mai sus. Ex. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. to suggest. Ex. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. it is necessary that. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. (Era de mult timpul. to insist. It is time the child went to bed. Dupa cum se observa. to recommend. a. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. I would sooner stay at home tonight. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. Ex. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). d)It is time. Ex.) It is high time. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios.Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. It is impossible that he should do this. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. Ex. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. It is necessary that you should be present. 1. .) Ex. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. to demand. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. • De asemenea. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. It is high time you began to study seriously.
Ex. in order that Ex. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv • . whenever. Whoever you may/might be. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. • Dupa whoever. whichever. Oricine ai fi. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. in secundara se foloseste may. where. iar in aceste cazuri. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. I wish I could speak English. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. iti voi telefona. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. you have no right to do this. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. no matter when. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. fie in vorbirea direca. why. Oriunde as fi. I wish I might borrow your car. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. in secundara se foloseste might. I hope that he may pass the exam. It was possible that he might be here in time.when. you have no right to do this. • Dupa to hope. • Dupa it is possible. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. It is possible that he may be here in time. it was possible Ex. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. I will ring you up. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. may. however. wherever. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. • Dupa so that. Wherever I may/might be. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. etc.Intrebari introduse prin how. Ex. Ex. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. a. to be afraid Ex. No matter who you may/might be.
I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 1. 5. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I regret I have only one child. 3. I regret you didn’t win the competition. 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. 6. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 3. 7. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 8. 4. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I wish he would take my advice. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 10. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 4. 2. 9. 5. 2. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. 6. 2. 6. 7. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 1. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I am sorry you live so far away. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 9. 1. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I am sorry books are so expensive. . I was sorry you were out when I called. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 8. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii.1. 5. 10. I regret I am not a student. 1. 1. I am sorry I was late for the party. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I regret I have no children. I was sorry you had got a fine. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 10. I wish the weather were fine. 3. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. 1. You behave as if you (own) the place. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. I am sorry my friend is ill. 7. I am sorry it rains so often. I am sorry you had an accident. 9. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 8. I regret I can’t go to the concert.
Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. 9. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 14. I would rather you (close) that window. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 6. 4. 12. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 18. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 12. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 3. 14. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 19. It’s time we (go) home. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. . 10. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 8. 19. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 20. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. 13. 5. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 17.Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. 2. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. As prefera sa merg la teatru. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 16. 16. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 4. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 11. 11. 6. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 3. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. la tara. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 10. 2. 7. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. If only I (not forget) his phone number! He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! If only I (become) a millionaire. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. 13. 18. 9. 20. 15. 17. 2.
6. 8. 10. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. 6. 7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 3. 4. 7. 11. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 9. 3. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. you should remember your own phone number. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. 5. 2. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 2. Oricând te vei intoarce. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 8. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 7. 5. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 14. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. I wish my car (not break down) last week. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 7. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. Oricare ar fi motivul. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. 12. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. Orice mi-ai spune. 13. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 5. .3. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. The road is wet. 8. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 6. 9. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. 4. nu te pot crede. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 6. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 8. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. 1. Oricât te-ai stradui. 9. 8. 3. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. 2. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. 4. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. 5. 10. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 10. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 4.
(Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. I’d like him to come with me. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. diateza si timpuri. in cazul verbelor neregulate. Ex. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. to like.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. to wish. Ex.) I want John to do this. I have such a boring job. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. 17. All success (attend) you! 18. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Infinitivul poate avea aspect.) . (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.15. I want you to go now. I wish I (find) another. Diateza activa o nedefinit: calling o perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei . Diateza activa o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called o infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. to dislike. 16.ed la verbele regulate. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o to call – called – called o to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. to hate. 19. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. I wish I (be) there when it happened. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza.
to hear. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. cu verbele: to happen. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. Ex. I saw him leave the room. to consider. Ex.) I let him go out and play. He is considered to be a good student. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. verbe exprimând un ordin. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. to allow. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. I consider him to be a good student. to feel. He was declared to be the man of the year. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. He considered the news to be false. b. Ex. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. They declared him to be the man of the year. to expect. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.) e. a. to hear. I made him study English. I consider him to be a good student. verbe declarative: to state. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). He was made to study English. to say. to turn out. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. I made him study English. to seem. Ex. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on.b. to make. to count upon/on . to prove.) I expected him to come in time.) 1. to cause. to know. The news was considered to be false. to suppose.) f. to suppose. Ex.) They declared him to be the man of the year.) d. to consider. to believe. Ex. to appear o la diateza activa: . Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. to declare.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to admit. He is said to be a good writer. to know. to believe. (Consider ca el este un bun student. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). He admitted the news to be false. to order. I rely on you to do this.) c. to expect. to watch. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) He ordered the door to be locked. to understand.
to smell.) This remains for him to decide. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând.) I left / found her crying. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. to hear.) I happened to meet him in the street. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. a.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) It is necessary for me to go there. de obicei. (Am auzit-o cântând. He proved to be a good journalist. to leave.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.) If I happen to meet him.) It is impossible for him to come. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". It is easy for sa me to . She is sure to come in time. to watch. I will tell him where you are. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv.) I heard her singing. precum si cu verbele to find. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. Ex. It is necessary that I (should) go there. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriu-zisa. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. Ex. ii voi spune unde esti. It is impossible that I (should) come. 1.Ex. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. (E usor fac asta. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. do this. Ex.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.
Ex: The classes being over. plecând. Acuzativ seen vazut heard auzita Participiu cu Participiu: leaving. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. (Daca vremea va permite. 6.2. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. 10. 2. 12. am mers acasa. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": . El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. (Orele fiind terminate.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. 2.) I will have my hair done. 14. 8. we went home. I-am privit jucând fotbal. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. 7. cântând. vom merge la plaja. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 9. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 5. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. She had two sons killed in the war.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. Ex. 3. we shall go to the beach. 13. Nominativ cu Este pasivul constructiei Ex: He was (El a fost She was (Ea a fost 3. I had my bedroom window broken.) Weather permitting. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. 4.) Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. 11. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 15.) singing.
5. 5. 4. 7. The people were impatient. It is possible that I might buy a car. I ordered a taxi. 2. It is sure they have had an argument. It is impossible that he should have said that. This is the main thing. You should bear it in mind.Model: This translation is easy. 4. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 4. Expected that he would resign. It is important to know the truth. 2. 1. This problem is too difficult. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. It is necessary that he be present. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 3. 6. 3. 9. 8. You should read it. 7. It was proved that she was a liar. 2. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. We should do it now. It is advisable that you should resign. I cam make it. . I thought she was unable to win the contest. 5. 5. This is a good book. 7. 4. 10. 3. I can’t solve it. They said she was ill. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. I didn’t want her to miss the train. The match was about to begin. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. I don’t want you to catch a cold. 6. She was thought to be a gifted child. We should have a heart to heart talk. 8. 10. I have closed the window. It is important that you should come to the office. Everybody. It’s time we met again. 8. 1. This is a valuable piece of advice. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 3. This is a strange thing. This fact is important. 6. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 9. This translation is easy for me to make. I can’t believe she said that. You should take it. The time has come. at once. 1. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 9. 10. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. They heard him repeat it several times. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child.
3. I went home relaxed. My mother isn’t resting. I am not having. I found her digging in the garden. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. 2. remembers. 3. Weather permitting. The sun having risen. 5. are you hurrying? I don’t want. 2. I could hear her typing. 19. speaks. Ann isn’t knitting. You aren’t typing. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 1 am cooking. I saw her lying on the beach. 13. 6. 10. Do you like? 8. he is having. we sat down to dinner. 4. You don’t play. Do you smoke? 17. I don’t understand. 9. The concert being over. The river having risen in the night. 5. the audience left the hali. They don’t live. it is raining. The decision being taken in my favour. Do you usually get. am taking. The child isn’t learning. My friend isn’t wearing. 4. go. Is my friend wearing? 7. 12. 8. 6. drinks. we were seared about having floods. 9. am. I went shopping. I heard the child breaking the vase. The letter being written. l. It isn’t raining. we hurried to the beach. He doesn’t have. I saw the peasants working in the field.The dog was heard barking. 14. 10. He isn’t telling. Does he have? 9. I went to post it. always borrow/is always borrowing. 15. They aren’t swimming. don’t understand. is drinking. Are you writing. Are they swimming? 6. Do you go? 16. The rain having stopped. 6. 6. He doesn’t remember. Does she talk? 3. Everybody being at home. Are you typing? 5. I always have. I don’t trust. 10. Is Ann knitting? 10. 20. I don’t have. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. Do I trust? 10. I don’t always believe. I stopped smoking. The mud having ruined my shoes. Does he remember? 7. 4. She heard the baby crying. 2. 11. Do they live? 8. Do you play? 5. Do you dream? I dream 9. are you thinking? I am thinking. Are we studying? 9. I am not going. Is he telling? 4. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: . do you do? 3. are you waiting? I am waiting. I saw the plane landing. 7. Am I having? 3. Do I understand? 4. write. 7. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. 1 don’t like. I don’t love. I saw her fainting. She heard the hunters shooting. She doesn’t talk. I found the boy breaking the window. We aren’t studying. The plane having taken off. 7. I had to change them. 18. 8. Is my mother resting? 8. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. Is it raining? 2. 5. Do I love? 2. Do I always believe? 6. it often rains.
While I was looking for my passport. Yesterday. What were you doing last Tuesday. 17. 3. Did I enjoy? 9. I played. 1 liked. I didn’t sell. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. 14. 10. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. They didn’t drink. 2. someone rang up. I was watching. 9. 16. 10. were you going. Have you watered? 3. I entered. 3. I haven’t been. 18. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. He met. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. I have bought. 1 first met. I met. 14. she was having. Have you read? 18. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 19. When did you buy this TV set? 12. 8. I arrived. He didn’t forbid. I haven’t written. I got up late yesterday morning. he doesn’t get up early. 4. 3. he was working. my friends played chess. 8. 20. 9. It snows in winter. Yesterday I lost my gloves. 7. Exercitiul 2: . 13. 5. 2. Have you been? I have been. you came in. 14. I have already seen. When did you return from the mountains? 11. Did we work? 7. 6. He sat for his first exam last week. 17. 7. 6. I was talking. he wasn’t wearing. Exercitiul 2: 1. 17. I do not study in the evening. He didn’t change. He hasn’t come. I don’t like coffee. Have you ever driven? 16. 7. 8. Have you ever eaten? 13. Have you lived? I have lived. he had. 4. Exercitiul 4: 1. the teacher was writing. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. You spoke. He has always relied. 19. I always made. When I go to the seaside. I found this old photo. 11 . Did he come? 8. Did he translate? 10. I owned. I have just had. 10. Did I sell? 6. Have you paid? 19. We didn’t work. 8. 6. I didn’t hate. What do you do on your free days? 12. I5. Whom are you ringing up? 13. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. On Sundays. Last night. Did he think? 2. 4. I was writing. he realized. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. 2. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. 6. 2. I like to swim a lot. Did I hate? 4. 5. I often read English books. You drank. 10. 9. This time yesterday it was raining. were you doing? 7. Now I am doing my homework in English. he walks. the engine – drivers have gone. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. She goes shopping on Saturdays. 8. He didn’t translate. 9. I had breakfast and then I left for school. He has just left. 5. 7. Why are you opening the window? I5. 6. Did he change? 5. Did they drink? 3. He didn’t think.l. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I was driving to Sinaia. he was-learning. You asked. That sounded. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. She is packing her luggage. How often do you write to your parents? 18. What book are you reading? 10. 5. 2. 4. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. The secretary is just typing a report. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. Yesterday I got up early. 20. Did you sleep well last night? 3. 9. 1t hasn’t rained. Last Sunday. While it was raining. I have lent. Have you visited? 12. 4. 16. He hasn’t gone. He didn’t come. I didn’t enjoy. I slept.
I have been cooking. we had lost. 18. I was sorry I had hurt him. 6. Have you seen? she left. two years ago. he went. 20. He has been sleeping. Exercitiul 3: I. 7. congratulated. he had thought. He has been fishing. have you been. 10. 11. . He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. she had been writing. it had been raining. 8. 4. Has John left? Yes. had been swimming. 19. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. 7. Have you been to this town before? Yes. 6. she told. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. had been having. 4. 2. How long have you been learning English? 5. 9. I got up. 9. I got. I saw. she had already been. I entered. 7. 3. had been speaking. 2. it had been raining. had been climbing. I have lost. I went to bed. 4. have you been wearing? 6. I found out. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. When I arrived at the bus stop. I realized I had left my bag at home. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. he went. 5. The weather has got warmer lately. She has changed. He has been a Minister for two years. 6. he had been. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. he has caught. 7. 10. had eaten. we asked. he had caught. Exercitiul 2: 1. Exercitiul 4: 1. 8. I had returned. Exercitiul 3: 1. I rang him up. 10. I was. I have been watering. we left. 5. it had been raining. 9. I called. I spent a month here. they had finished. 10. We have known. he told. 2. She had just gone out. The radio has been playing. I didn’t succeed.l. 4. I have seldom walked to my office. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. I had it at 8 o’clock. he had learned/he had been learning. 5. Have you been. she had been cleaning and dusting. 8. A child has broken the window. have you cooked? 7. she had not passed. 4. he had visited. It has been snowing for two hours. I have been doing. 13. they had been. 5. 4. had left. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. 3. 6. had listened. we had been walking. 9. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 9. had been cooking. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 2. 14. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 2. 3. 3. 7. she had been studying. she has been trying. 7. 12. I had met. he handed it to the teacher. It has been raining. Since I bought a car. We have been walking since 3 o clock. We have walked 10 km so far. He thanked me for what I had done for him. The child has been playing. 6. had spread. began. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 5. they had been waiting. 6. He has been. What did you look at? It was an accident. 10. We must replace it. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 4. 15. 5. Exercitiul 4: 1. he left an hour ago. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. 8. I have been asking. I returned. 9. had not told. 10. As soon as the guests had left. 9. Have you ever tried? I tried. we realized. 8. 3. I have’ been shopping. 3. 10. 8. 8. he had got married. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. I have been wearing.
10. 2. 6. 5. you were. 16. 8. would be cancelled. Exercitiul 3: 1. will be crying. 10. 3. he had just left. you see. You will have seen. is. I played/I was playing. Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. 9. 5. he had left. we had been digging. 2. I will earn/will be earning. they would remain. will soon move. He will be. She will be watching. 11. 8. I had done. is. 10. 6. you do. 2. 2. you have read. 9. 2. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. you have drunk. 3. 6. 4. 8. he would finish. 3. 9. he had stolen. I would remain. I shall/will have read 8. 3. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. He will be studying. Will you recognize? 4. he would pass. he has arrived. I had lost. melts. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. 7. 3. 2. 2. 4. Exercitiut 2: 1. I had heard. 10. 7. you would soon have. You had to type. 10. 7. 13. 6. 4. You will not/won’t find. You will like. On Friday. 7. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. is born. 12. you are reading. 8. I had not enjoyed. he tells. it will probably be raining. I shall/will know. they have been. 5. I usually read. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. 3. 8. he would drive. I finish. you see. 7. is. did not remember. Exercitiul 5: 1. you see. 3. they will be having their last English class. he had been travelling. 7. 2. Will you be needing? 5. I shall/will be swimming. prices would go up. 5. 3. I shall/will have been cooking. 5. 9. will/shall will be climbing. she notices you have broken. 9. I had read. will have risen. 5. had already begun. 6. 10. I shall/will be having. would end. I have been reading. you have just told. she has changed. I read. Exercitiul 4: 1. will have spent. 9. arrive. 4. he has repaired. 6. 4. I shall/will pass. I shall/will remember. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 6. 5. Exercitiul 3: 1. wilt be rising. 7. 10. 8. 4. I have received. By this time next year. I shall/will have been working. 4. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. I shall/will have paid off. 20. I shall/will be working. Wil1 you remember? 9.Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 14. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. We shall/will have taken. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 6. he would give. 9. 2. 8. 19. 3. they have done. I shall/will have finished. 17. between twelve and one o’clock. they will have been married. begin. they were talking. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 18. 5. I have. Exercitiul 6: . You will be. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. you finish. 10. was shining. 10. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. I shall/will succeed. you spoke. 7. he would win. 7. 4. she looks. 8. 15. she has learnt. he wanted. we reach. you were.
I had not told. would you give him some? 3. I moved. 2. 16. they had been listening. If it had rained. 8. 10. I would not have made. I gave up. 11. 4. 5. you had been wearing. I would spend. he would not make. you take. he had eaten. 5. the streets will be wet. I will greet 2. 12. I wouldn’t do. 10. 10. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 2. do not eat. he had not expected. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. I will lend. you will be. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. you will not pass. 2. 6. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. he trusted. 7. 7. we will drink. 8. I was. 8. It would have been. I work/I worked. I would have answered. you will be. If dinner is not ready in time. he will get. 3. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 12. I will buy. I were. 5. If a beggar asked you for money. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 2. he would have told. I finish. 4. 6. the streets would be wet. I would buy. 5. 2. 13. 7. 3. I knew. 7. 4. 5. Exercitiul 4: l. you would have read. you will not find. 9. I had not eaten. you wouldn’t have got. you had driven. I have suffered. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. I had known. he had tried. 7. 3. You will see him if you wait. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 8.1. 19. 2. she will be. 6. Exercitiul 5: 1. 4. I had worked. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. he leaves. I had not decided. I want. The secretary told me the manager was busy. he would not remember. 6. 2. 7. he had never seen. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. would not go. 3. there are. Exercitiul 2: 1. 3. I would have answered. 8. 6. will you promise? 6. I saw. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. I knew you were in Bucharest. 7. 8. he would take. 5. 8. I would like the play more if it were shorter. it would not be raining when I arrived. 4. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 5. 14. Exercitiul 7: l. he had to write. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. 10. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. 11. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. 9. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. the streets would have been wet. I will answer. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. he hoped. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. If it rains. 3. 9. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. What would you do if you meet John? 12. you were. 20. 9. 6. 10. 4. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. I will eat at a restaurant. we went. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. I would knit another sweater if I had . 18. he would change. 15. he had realized. 10. he would have. 9. Would you buy? 4. 7. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. they had known. it goes on. 17. I was. If it rained. 6. 9. had failed. 3. you had invited. 5. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8.
6. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 9. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 7. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 7. He asked me when I would be back. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. 3. 8. 9. 7. 10. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 10. 8. He told me to open the door. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). 10. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 11. 3. 12. Exercitiul 4: 1. He told me to read that text. 7. 3. He said he was very busy on that day. A nice . Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. He said he had seen that film a week before. 4. 11. He told me not to smoke so much. when I passed by. 6. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). Football is played all over the world. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). I was frightened by the noise. I have been given a nice present (by them). He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. 4. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 2. 5.more wool. He told me to take that pill. 5. 2. Exercitiul 2: 1. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. Your bag has been found (by him). 3. 2. He asked me how I had travelled. 5. 4. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). He asked me if the train had left. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He said she would go shopping right then. He asked me if I would like a cake. He told me to be careful with his books. 7. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. Exercitiul 3: 1.English. 8. 2. The work will be finished today (by them). He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 5. 4. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 3. He asked me how long I had been learning . He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 6. He said he had gone to England two years before. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 10. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 9. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 10. 9. The missing child has been found (by someone). LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. 2. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. 12. 6. He asked me who that man was. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 6. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He asked me if I would help him. 2. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. 4. 5. 9. 8. 8.
4. Exercitiul 4: 1. 10. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. 7.: 3. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. He will be able to swim. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. 3. 5. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. 5. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. The house was broken into (by burglars). You were allowed/permitted to leave. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. 3. I had to go. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. He could swim. Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. 3. They are taught English (by me). The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). I will be given a reward (by them). 9. Has the dog been fed? 7. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. 8. 9. 5. Were you told about the meeting? 9. 4. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. I will have to go. 9. We were told very interesting things at the conference. . Many new blocks are being built in our district. A reward will be given to me (by them). John was laughed at (by us). 4. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 11. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 13. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. America was discovered at the end of the 15 th century. 2. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. We were asked to show our passports. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 6. They held a reception in his honour. Exercitiul 3: 1. 2. His proposal was objected to (by us). 8. People mustn’t take away these books. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. Exercitiul 6: l. 7. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). 12. 6. 7. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 8. 10. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. 2. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. The museum was closed for repairs. 2. 10. He hates people making fun of him. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 6. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). She could lend. The doctor was called for (by us). 14. Fire was set to the shed (by them). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 5. 4. 6. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. John has been lent two of my books (by me). 4. 9. People speak English all over the world. English is taught to them (by me). People will soon forget this book. 15. 8. They have built this house out of stone and cement. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. The way will be shown to us by the policeman.present has been given to me (by them). 3. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. We will be shown the way by the policeman. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them).
The child will be allowed/permitted to have. Exercitiul 2: 1. would. 20. 5. You needn’t have done. 14. 8. He should have gone. shall. 7. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. This can’t be a true story. You must have known the lesson. He must have been late. 5. 3. She may/might have been out. He can’t have passed. 19. The child was allowed/permitted to have. 6. It may/might be a good one. 12. can. 6. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. It may/might rain. Exercitiul 4: l. She will be able to read and write. should. It must have taken a long time. 13. I won t be able to translate. can. 9. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 8. 2. 14. He must think. 8. 4. 9. It can t have been. It can’t have been his fault. 16. 7. 10. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 17. 2. 10. He may/might have done. This must be the best. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. I will have to learn. 7. You won’t have to do. 9. 10. 15. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. She can’t have got. He must have been delayed. It can’t be his fault. 3 It might have rained. He can’t be at the office. 6. can’t. 6. I couldn’t translate. 5. will. You shouldn’t have gone. You must have left your umbrella. can. 7. 9. 6. would. 4. You should have visited. mustn’t. can’t. 15. He was not allowed/permitted to come. 2. needn’t. She will be able to play. Exercitiul 8: l. 2. He could read and write. needn’t. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 13. You might have written. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. 7. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. I may/might come home. He needn’t have bought. It can’t have been. shall. 6. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 8. will. would. 3. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 5. The weather can’t change. 2. You can’t miss the train. Exercitiul 7: 1. 3. 6. 4. 4: She must be a very good doctor. Exercitiul 6: 1. 9. 10. He must have been. 3. can. I will have to look up. 8. 6. John must have been. 2. 4. 4. She can’t have married. 12. 4. 8. needn’t. You must have forgotten. needn’t. should. You might have paid. He must be older. 10. 9. He may have been. mustn’t. 9. 11. Exercitiul 10: . will. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 7. She may/might be very late. S. will. You didn’t have to do. 4. would. 18. It must have been. You can’t have been. 5. 2. 5. John could have been. mustn’t. needn’t. She may/might have returned. 16. Exercitiul 5: 1. will. 10. You might have changed. would. 5. should. 6. I had to learn. will. 5. 3. 10. 2. You can’t have seen. mustn’t. He must have come home. He may/might have been right. 8. shall. shall. 3. 7. 10. I had to look up. 7. would.She will be able to lend. He ought to have told. mustn’t. She could play. Exercitiul 9: 1. She can’t have learned English. She may/might have been angry. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. 5. should. 19.
because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 10. 6. 10. a porter could help you. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 26. needn’t have answered. 5. No. 2. 2. I will have to leave soon. 6. 3. wait for a few minutes? 30. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. needn’t have lent. Exercitiul 12: 1. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 19. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". 7. needn’t have waited. 16. can’t have done. can’t have swum. 9. 3. 6. needn’t have got up. Where shall we go now? 28. Will you. 5. didn’t need to answer. can’t have left. All the students can and must write this paper. 4. I wish I could pay the piano. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 8. didn’t need to wait. You needn’t have made coffee for me. You ought to/should have insisted. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. I rang you up and nobody answered. 2. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 5. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wish I had money to buy that painting. Exercitiul 2: l. 6. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 2. 4. 7. 7. you shall have the book tomorrow. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 9. I have already drunk two. 13. I wish it didn’t rain so often. 3. I must have been still at the faculty. please. needn’t have lent. 8. 8. I could play the piano when I was a child. 20. I promise you. 24. I wish I were a student. 10. 8. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 4. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. today. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 2. must have taken. 9. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 6. 10. 25. 5. I wish you had won the competition. 4. 1 wish I had children. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. Exercitiul 11: 1. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. You can’t have found the door open. needn’t have written. I can’t knit. 9. must have left. 11. 22. 7. I wish you didn’t live so far away. 5. You may not speak during the exam. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. can’t have rained. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. must have been. Exercitiul 3: . I wish I didn’t have only one child. I had locked it myself 27. didn’t need to buy. 3. 7. didn’t need to see. can’t have seen. I wish I could go to the concert.1. You will have to help me more today. 14. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 8. Exercitiul 13: 1. 10. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 12. 23. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 17. must have been. 29. 21. 4. 18. 3. needn’t have bought. I wish I lived in Bucharest. 9.
3. 7. 4. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 12. I were. 6. No matter how hard you . I wish/If only I were young again! 8. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 19. I got. 10. 4. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. you were. 11. Exercitiul 6: 1. 13. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 14. he took.1. 12. 8. 9. his book would become. 3. you started. 20. 6. 7. Whatever you may/might tell me. You speak as if you were angry with me. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. 8. 16. you closed. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. 6. 15. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. 17. I wish you would come on holiday with me. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 9. 7. 13. I would become. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 3. we went. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. I would rather you went to the theatre. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. you didn’t waste. 2. I had entered. we could go to the beach. It is important that you (should) know English well. 10. I were. 18. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 8. 5. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. 4. stopped. I wish he would accept my proposal. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. S. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I can’t believe you. 19. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. I stayed. 9. 17. he told. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 16. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 7. 5. my telephone worked. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. I wish you would take a driving licence. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. 5. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. his daughter didn’t get married. Exercitiul 4: 1. 3. I hadn’t forgotten. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 3. 2. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 4. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 18. watched. I would rather you got up earlier. 6. 8. 2. 4. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 4. 6. 2. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. I insist that you (should) accept this job. Exercitiul 8: 1. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. you owned. 14. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. 11. Exercitiul 5: l. he would have. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. too. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. S. 10. 9. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 2. She looks as if she were a model. 20. hadn’t caught a cold. I wish they would sign the contract.
10. 2. It is possible for me to buy a car. She was seen fainting. 4. 3. you may/might understand. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 19. Exercitiul 9: 1. 9. She made me understand what had happened. 6. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. The people were impatient for the match to begin. you shouldn’t lie to me. 5. 16. 7. 9. I saw him speaking to his friend. 12. 5. 3. He was expected to resign. It’s time for us to meet again. 2. She was said to be ill. you should have. you retired. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. This is a good book for you to read. He wanted me to help him. 13. This is a strange thing for her to have said. I would find. John admitted the fault to be his. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. The hunters were heard shooting. It is important for you to come to the office at once. hadn’t broken down. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 9. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 8. It is impossible for him to have said that. Whatever the reason may/might be. he were. 5. (should) have. Exercitiul 4: 1. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. . 6. they (should) divorce. 13. you can’t win such a competition. It is necessary for him to be present. 7. 8. 7. She was found digging in the garden. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. should have told. you may/might be. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 6. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 5. It is advisable for you to resign. 2. I rely on you to lend me some money. he were. 4. 7. 10. The peasants were seen working in the field. It is possible that she might be away. 9. 20. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 12. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 7. I had been. He was heard to repeat it several times. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. I had. I will be at home waiting for you. 6. 6. 7. Exercitiul 5: 1. 9. 10. 8. Whenever you may/might return. 15. may attend. I think him to be a good husband. The child was heard breaking the vase. we should take. 18. 17. we (should) leave. 9. 8. 2. He made me miss the train. Mother would like me to become a doctor. I watched them playing football. 3. 10. it should get. 4. 3. 2. 2. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. She was thought to be unable to win the contest.may/might try. The plane was seen landing. 3. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. Exercitiul 2: 1. She was seen lying on the beach. 14. I expected you to come earlier. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 8. The boy was found breaking the window. 10. you shouldn’t have believed it. They are sure to have had an argument. The baby was heard crying. 9. 5. 4. 6. 8. She (was) proved to be a liar. 4. she should have left. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. I saw some children playing in the park. 8. 14. it might not get. 10. 11. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. She could be heard typing. 7. 10. 5. might prosper. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 11. This is the main thing for us to do. She seemed to be satisfied with me. 3. 6. 15.
am plecat la cumparaturi. a trebuit sa-i schimb. am plecat acasa linistit. 6. 3. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 10. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. .Exercitiul 6: 1. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. ne-am asezat la cina. 2. ne-am grabit spre plaja. Concertul fiind terminat. 9. publicul a parasit sala. am mers sa o pun la posta. Daca vremea va permite. 7. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. 4. 8. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. Intrucât soarele rasarise. 5. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. Intrucât ploaia incetase. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa.
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