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Chapter 1: Introduction

The invention all admird, and each, how he To be th inventor missed; so easy it seemd Once found, which yet unfound most would have thought Impossible John Milton

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Product Development Approaches

Figure 1.1 Approaches to product development. (a) Classic approach, with large design iterations typical of the over-thewall engineering approach. (b) A more modern approach, showing a main design flow with minor iterations representing concurrent engineering inputs. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pugsley Method for Safety Factor


Characteristica vg g f p vg g f p vg g f p vg g f p B= vg 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.45 1.6 1.75 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 1.7 1.95 2.2 2.45 g 1.3 1.45 1.6 1.75 1.55 1.75 1.95 2.15 1.8 2.05 2.3 2.55 2.15 2.35 2.65 2.95 f 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.05 2.3 2.55 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.75 3.1 3.45 p 1.7 1.95 2.2 2.45 2.05 2.35 2.65 2.95 2.4 2.75 3.1 3.45 2.75 3.15 3.55 3.95

!all Safety Factor: ns = ! d

A = vg

C=

A=g

C=

Pugsley Equation: ns = nsxnsy


D= ns 1.0 1.0 1.2 s 1.2 1.3 1.4 vs 1.4 1.5 1.6

A=f

C=

Characteristica ns s vs

A=p

C=

E=
a vs

a vg

= very good, g = good, f = fair, and p = poor. A = quality of materials, workmanship, maintenance, and inspection. B = control over load applied to part. C = accuracy of stress analysis, experimental data, or experience with similar parts.

= very serious, s = serious, and ns = not serious D = danger to personnel. E = economic impact.

Figure 1.2 Safety factor characteristics A, B, and C.

Figure 1.3 Safety factor characteristics D and E.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Design for Assembly


Screw Screw Screw Cover Cover Screw Connecting rod Bearing Pin Bush Seating Needle bearing Piston Rivet Screw Roll pin Pin Counterweight Blade clamp Screw Gear Bearing Seating Screw Housing Guard Washer Screw Guard Set screw Screw Set screw Seating Housing Plug Bearing Blade clamp Screw Gear Washer Washer Pin Bush Seal Piston Connecting rod Screw

Pin

Figure 1.2 Effect of manufacturing and assembly considerations on design of a reciprocating power saw. (a) Original design, with 41 parts and 6.37-min assembly time; (b) modified design, with 29 parts and 2.58-min assembly time. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a)

(b)

(a) SI units Quantity Unit SI base units Length meter Mass kilogram Time second Temperature kelvin SI supplementary unit Plane angle radian SI derived units Energy joule Force newton Power watt Pressure pascal Work joule

SI symbol m kg s K rad J N W Pa J

Formula N-m kg-m/s2 J/s N/m2 N-m

SI Units

(b) SI prexes Multiplication factor 1,000,000,000,000 = 1012 1,000,000,000 = 109 1,000,000 = 106 1000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0.1 = 101 0.01 = 102 0.001 = 103 0.000 001 = 106 0.000 000 001 = 109 0.000 000 000 001 = 1012 Prex tera giga mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pico SI symbol for prex T G M k h da d c m n p

Table 1.3 SI units and prefixes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a) Fundamental conversion factors English Exact SI unit value Length 1 in. 0.0254 m Mass 1 lbm 0.453 592 37 kg Temperature 1 deg R 5/9 K (b) Denitions Acceleration of gravity Energy

Approximate SI value 0.4536 kg -

Conversion Factors

Length Power Pressure Temperature

Kinematic viscosity Volume

1 g = 9.8066 m/s2 (32.174 ft/s2 ) Btu (British thermal unit) = amount of energy required to raise 1 lbm of water 1 deg F (1 Btu = 778.2 ft-lb) kilocalorie = amount of energy required to raise 1 kg of water 1K (1 kcal = 4187 J) 1 mile = 5280 ft; 1 nautical mile =6076.1 ft 1 horsepower = 550 ft-lb/s 1 bar = 105 Pa 9 degree Fahrenheit tF = tC + 32 (where tC is degrees 5 Celsius) degree Rankine tR = tF + 459.67 Kelvin tK = tC + 273.15 (exact) 1 poise = 0.1 kg/m-s 1 stoke = 0.0001 m2 /s 1 cubic foot = 7.48 gal

(c) Useful conversion factors 1 ft = 0.3048 m 1 lb = 4.448 N 1 lb = 386.1 lbm-in./s2 1 kgf = 9.807 N 1 lb/in.2 = 6895 Pa 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa 1 Btu = 1055 J 1 ft-lb = 1.356 J 1 hp = 746 W = 2545 Btu/hra 1 kW = 3413 Btu/hr 1 quart = 0.000946 m3 = 0.946 liter 1 kcal =3.968 Btu

Table 1.4 Conversion factors and definitions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Invisalign Product

Figure 1.3 The Invisalign product. (a) An example of an Aligner; (b) a comparison of conventional orthodontic braces and a transparent Aligner. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Invisalign Part 1

Figure 1.4 The process used in application of Invisalign orthodontic treatment. (a) Impressions are made of the patient's teeth by the orthontist, and shipped to Align technology, Inc. These are used to make plaster models of the patient's teeth. (b) High-resolution threedimensional representations of the teeth are produced from the plaster models. The correction plan is then developed using computer tools. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Invisalign Part 2

Figure 1.4 (cont.) (c) Rapid-prototyped molds of the teeth at incremental positions are produced through stereolithography. (d) An Aligner, produced by molding a transparent plastic over the stereolithography part. Each Aligner is work approximately two weeks. The patient is left with a healthy bite and a beautiful smile. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 2: Load, Stress and Strain


The careful text-books measure (Let all who build beware!) The load, the shock, the pressure Material can bear. So when the buckled girder Lets down the grinding span The blame of loss, or murder is laid upon the man. Not on the stuff - The Man! Rudyard Kipling, Hymn of Breaking Strain Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Establishing Critical Section

To establish the critical section and the critical loading, the designer: 1. Considers the external loads applied to a machine (e.g. an automobile). 2. Considers the external loads applied to an element within the machine (e.g. a cylindrical rolling-element bearing. 3. Located the critical section within the machine element (e.g., the inner race). 4. Determines the loading at the critical section (e.g., contact stress).

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.1

y Pin Roller 0.75 m P = 10,000 N (a) x 0.75 m P = 10,000 N (b)

0.25 m

Wp

0.25 m Wr

Figure 2.1 A simple crane and forces acting on it. (a) Assembly drawing; (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on the beam.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a) P

Types of Loads
P

P (b) P y V x P (c) M y M P V

x (d) T y T x (e) y V T (f)

M x

Figure 2.2 Load classified as to location and method of application. (a) Normal, tensile; (b) normal, compressive; (c) shear; (d) bending; (e) torsion; (f) combined.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Sign Convention in Bending

y y'' < 0 M>0 y'' > 0 M<0 x (a)

y y'' < 0 M<0 y'' > 0 M>0 x (b)

Figure 2.3 Sign convention used in bending. (a) Positive moment leads to tensile stress in the positive y direction; (b) positive moment acts in a positive direction on a positive face. The sign convention shown in (b) will be used in this book. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.2
(1) Px Normal, tensile Px = 0 B

y b z a

(2)

Py

Shear Py = P B

x P

B (3) M z B My (a) (4) T Torsion T = aP B (b) Bending Mz = - bP, My = 0

Figure 2.4 Lever assembly and results. (a) Lever assembly; (b) results showing (1) normal, tensile, (2) shear, (3) bending, and (40 torsion on section B of lever assembly. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Type of support

Reaction

Support Types

Cable

Roller

P Py

Px Pin

Py Px M Fixed support

Table 2.1 Four types of support with their corresponding reactions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Examples 2.4 and 2.5


5 5 16 4 W

y P2 P2

(Rotation)

30 30 130 10 R. 130 20 20

12

12

20

A 3 3 (a)

4W 4W W

(ml + mp)g

4W

4W dP dP (Rotation)

4W dP

W 4W

dP

dP dP dP

P1 P1 0 x

dP

Figure 2.5 Ladder in contact Figure 2.6 External rim brake and forces with the house and the acting on it. (a) External rim brake; (b) ground while a painter is on external rim brake with forces acting on the ladder. each part. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements
(b)

60

60

Example 2.6
(a)

60

60

(b)

ma g

150 N

Figure 2.7 Sphere and forces acting on it. (a) Sphere supported with wires from top and spring at bottom; (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on sphere.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Beam Support Types

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2.8 Three types of beam support. (a) Simply supported; (b) cantilevered; (c) overhanging.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shear and Moment Diagrams


Procedure for Drawing Shear and Moment Diagrams: 1. Draw a free-body diagram, and determine all the support reactions. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beams axis, which is assumed to be the x axis. 2. Choose a position x between the origin and the length of the beam l, thus dividing the beam into two segments. The origin is chosen at the beams left end to ensure that any x chosen will be positive. 3. Draw a free-body diagram of the two segments, and use the equilibrium equations to determine the transverse shear force V and the moment M 4. Plot the shear and moment functions versus x. Note the location of the maximum moment. Generally, it is convenient to show the shear and moment diagrams directly below the free-body diagram of the beam. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.7
C P l __ 2 P __ 2 P __ 2 P V = __ 2 x P V = __ 2 Pl Mmax = __ 4 P M = __ (l x) 2 x (d) y x P __ 2 V

A B P __ 2 l __ 2 (a) y A P __ 2 x x V M

(b) M M

y l __ 2 A P __ 2 x x

P M = __ x 2

(c)

Figure 2.9 Simply supported bar. (a) Midlength load and reactions; (b) freebody diagram for 0 < x < l/2; (c) free-body diagram l/2 x < l; (d) shear and moment diagrams. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Singularity Concentrated moment y

Graph of q(x)

Expression for q(x)

M x a Concentrated force y

q(x) = M x a2

Singularity Functions

P q(x) = P x a1 x a

Unit step

y w0 x a q(x) = w0 x a 0

Ramp

y w0 x a b w0 q(x) = __ x a1 b

Inverse ramp

y w0 x a b w0 q(x) = w0 x a 0 __ x a1 b

Parabolic shape

y q(x) = x a 2 x a

Table 2.2 Singularity and load intensity functions with corresponding graphs and expressions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Using Singularity Functions


Procedure for Drawing the Shear and Moment Diagrams by Making Use of Singularity Functions: 1. Draw a free-body diagram with all the singularities acting on the beam, and determine all support reactions. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beams axis. 2. Referring to Table 2.2, write an expression for the load intensity function q(x) that describes all the singularities acting on the beam. 3. Integrate the negative load intensity function over the beam to get the shear force. Integrate the negative shear force over the beam length to get the moment (see Section 5.2). 4. Draw shear and moment diagrams from the expressions developed.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.8
M V P __ 2 0 V1 V3 l __ 2 l x l __ 2 V2 V P __ 2 P __ 2 l __ 2 M M2 l M1 M3 x

x l __ 2 (b) l

(a)

Figure 2.10 (a) Shear and (b) moment diagrams for Example 2.8.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

10.5 8.5 7.5 y w0 5.0 Shear, kN

Example 2.9
x, m

x l __ 4 P1 l __ 4 P2 (a) l __ 4 l __ 4

1.5 3 2.5 5.0 6 9 12

8.5 Parabolic 40.0 33.27 l __ 6 w __ 0l 8 w __ 0l 2 x l __ 4 R1 P1 l __ 4 P2 (b) 0 l __ 2 R2 Moment, kN-m 33.0 30.0 34.53 = Maximum moment (at x 6.9 m) 25.5 (c)

Parabolic 19.5 12.0 10.0 Cubic 3 6 (d) 9

12

x, m

Figure 2.11 Simply supported beam. (a) Forces acting on beam when P1=8 kN, P2=5 kN; w0=4 kN/m, l=12 m; (b) free-body diagram showing resulting forces; (c) shear and (d) moment diagrams for Example 2.9.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.10
A RB m a1 B m a2 C 1m 3m (a) 1.5 m 1m 0.5 m (b) ma 2 g RC 1.5 m m a1g

Figure 2.12 Figures used in Example 2.10. (a) Load assembly drawing; (b) free-body diagram.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Elements
y
y y

y yz zy z
0

y yx xy yx xy x
x 0

yx xy zx xz x
x
z

Figure 2.13 Stress element showing general state of threedimensional stress with origin placed in center of element.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.14 Stress element showing twodimensional state of stress. (a) Threedimensional view; (b) plane view.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stresses in Arbitrary Directions


Figure 2.15 Illustration of equivalent stress states. (a) Stress element oriented in the direction of applied stress. (b) stress element oriented in different (arbitrary) direction.

(a)

(b)

y A cos

x xy yx y

Figure 2.16 Stresses in an oblique plane at an angle .


x

A sin

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

x + y c = ______ 2 y

Mohrs Circle
1

y , xy xy
2
0 2

x
2

xy x , xy

Figure 2.17 Mohrs circle diagram of Equations (2.13) and (2.14).

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Constructing Mohrs Circle


The steps in constructing and using Mohrs circle in two dimensions are as follows: 1. Calculate the plane stress state for any x-y coordinate system so that x , y , and xy are known. 2. The center of the Mohrs circle can be placed at x + y ,0 2 3. Two points diametrically opposite to each other on the circle correspond to the points (x , xy ) and (y , xy ). Using the center and either point allows one to draw the circle. 4. The radius of the circle can be calculated from stress transformation equations or through trigonometry by using the center and one point on the circle. For example, the radius is the distance between points (x , xy ) and the center, which directly leads to r= x y 2
2 2 + x

5. The principal stresses have the values 1,2 = center radius. 6. The maximum shear stress is equal to the radius. 7. The principal axes can be found by calculating the angle between the x axis in the Mohrs circle plane and the point (x , xy ). The principal axes in the real plane are rotated one-half this angle in the same direction relative to the x axis in the real plane. 8. The stresses in an orientation rotated from the x axis in the real plane can be read by traversing an arc of 2 in the same direction on the Mohrs circle from the reference points(x , xy ) and (y , xy ). The new points on the circle correspond to the new stresses (x , x y ) and (y , x y ), respectively.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(cw)

max = 9.43 ksi

Example 2.12
1=23.43 ksi

2=4.57 ksi 0 C

5 2 =58 8
9.4 3

c=14 ksi

2 =32

(a)

(ccw)
y

(x, -xy) = (9 ksi, -8 ksi) (a) y c = 14 ksi

1=23.43 ksi 2
A C 2 =4.57 ksi 29 x

= max = 9.43 ksi D c = 14 ksi 16 x

2 1

(b)

(c)

Figure 2.18 Results from Example 2.12. (a) Mohrs circle diagram; (b) stress element for proncipal normal stress shown in xy coordinates; (c) stress element for principal shear stresses shown in xy coordinates.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Three Dimensional Mohrs Circle


1/3 1/2 2/3
1/2

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.19 Mohrs circle for triaxial stress state. (a) Mohrs circle representation; (b) principal stresses on two planes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shear stress,

Shear stress,

Example 2.13
1/3 1/2 1
0 10 20 Normal stress, 30

2/3 2 3

1/3

1/2 1
30

2/3 3

10 20 Normal stress,

(a) Shear stress, (c)

y (y , xy)

2
0 2

c
10 20 Normal stress,

1
30

2 (x , xy) x

2
(b)

Figure 2.20 Mohrs circle diagrams for Example 2.13. (a) Triaxial stress state when 1=23.43 ksi, 2 = 4.57 ksi, and 3 = 0; (b) biaxial stress state when 1=30.76 ksi, 2 = -2.76 ksi; (c) triaxial stress state when 1=30.76 ksi, 2 = 0, and 3 = -2.76 ksi.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Octahedral Stresses
2
oct oct

+
oct oct

oct oct

oct oct

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2.21 Stresses acting on octahedral planes. (a) General state of stress; (b) normal stress; (c) octahedral stress.
1 2 2 !oct = ("x "y)2 + ("y "z)2 + ("z "x)2 + 6 !2 + ! + ! xy yz xz 3 !x + !y + !z !oct = 3
1/2

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strain in Cubic Elements


y
y

y
y y

x yx

y z
z

yx
y

x 0 (b) x
x z (a)

(a)

0 (b)

Figure 2.22 Normal strain of a cubic element subjected to uniform tension in the x direction. (a) Threedimensional view; (b) twodimensional (or plane) view.

Figure 2.23 Shear strain of cubic element subjected to shear stress. (a) Three-dimensional view; (b) two-dimensional (or plane) view.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Plain Strain
y y y

x dx
dx

xy ___ 2

y dy

dy x (a) (b) x

xy ___ 2
0 B (c)

Figure 2.24 Graphical depiction of plane strain element. (a) Normal strain x; (b) normal strain y; (c) shear strain xy

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strain Gage Rosette in Example 2.16

90

45 0
x

Figure 2.25 Strain gage rosette used in Example 2.16.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Glue Spreader Shaft Case Study

Adhesive

Slice

y RA

(a) RB x

Sheet Block Roll


75 70 70 70 75

400 N 400 N 400 N 400 N (b) 800 400 0 400 800 0 40 80 (d)

Shear, N

x (c) x

Expanded panel
Moment, N-m

Figure 2.26 Expansion process used in honeycomb materials.

Figure 2.27 Glue spreader case study. (a) Machine; (b) free-body diagram; (c) shear diagram; (d) moment diagram. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 3

Give me matter, and I will construct a world out of it. Immanuel Kant Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Centroid of Area

(a)

(b)

Figure 3.1 Ductile material Figure 3.2 Failure of a from a standard tensile test brittle material from a apparatus. (a) Necking; (b) standard tensile test failure. apparatus. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Fiber Reinforced Composites

Lead Epoxy Pure aluminum Material Wood Steel Nylon Graphite 0 100 200 300 400 500 Ratio of strength to density, N-m/kg 600 10 4

2 1
12

Fiber

Figure 3.3 Strength/density ratio for various materials.

Figure 3.4 Cross section of fiber-reinforced composite material.

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Stress-Strain Diagram for Ductile Material


Elastic Plastic Y Sy

Su P _ Stress, = _ A

U
E

R
P

Sy P

Y _ _ Slope, E = 0 0.002 _ Strain, = _ l

P _ Stress, = _ A

0 0.002 _ Strain, = _ l

Figure 3.5 Typical stressstrain curve for a ductile material.

Figure 3.6 Typical stress-strain behavior for ductile metal showing elastic and plastic deformations and yield strength Sy. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Comparison of Brittle and Ductile Materials

Brittle B P _ Stress, = _ A Ductile


P _ Stress, = _ A

Sf

Compression

Sf

Tension _ Strain, = _ l

_ Strain, = _ l

Figure 3.7 Typical tensile stressstrain diagrams for brittle and ductile metals loaded to fracture. Hamrock Fundamentals of

Figure 3.8 Stress-strain diagram for ceramic in tension and in compression. machine Elements

Example 3.6

Magnesia Steel

Figure 3.9 Bending strength of bar used in Example 3.6.

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Behavior of Polymers
Brittle (T << Tg) Limited plasticity (T 0.8 Tg)

P _ Stress, = _ A

Sy

Extensive cold drawing (T Tg) Viscous flow (T >> Tg) 0.01

_ Strain, = _ l

Figure 3.10 Stress-strain diagram for polymer below, at, and above its glass transition behavior. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

10 4

Metals Lead Copper Steels Cast iron Zinc alloys Sintered iron

Polymers

Ceramics

Density of Materials

Density, , kg/m3

Alumina Aluminum tin Aluminum Silicon nitride Silicon carbide

Magnesium Silicone rubber Acetal Phenol formaldehyde Nylon 10 3 8 10 2 Natural rubber Polyethylene

Graphite

Figure 3.11 Density for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Material Metals Aluminum and its alloysa Aluminum tin Babbitt, lead-based white metal Babbitt, tin-based white metal Brasses Bronze, aluminum Bronze, leaded Bronze, phosphor (cast)b Bronze, porous Copper Copper lead Iron, cast Iron, porous Iron, wrought Magnesium alloys Steelsc Zinc alloys Polymers Acetal (polyformaldehyde) Nylons (polyamides) Polyethylene, high density Phenol formaldehyde Rubber, naturald Rubber, silicone Ceramics Alumina (Al2 O3 ) Graphite, high strength Silicon carbide (SiC) Silicon nitride (Si2 N4 ) a Structural alloys b Bar stock, typically 8.8 103 kg/m3 c Excluding refractory steels. d Mechanical rubber.

Density, kg/m3 lbm/in.3 2.7 103 3.1 103 10.1 103 7.4 103 8.6 103 7.5 103 8.9 103 8.7 103 6.4 103 8.9 103 9.5 103 7.4 103 6.1 103 7.8 103 1.8 103 7.8 103 6.7 103 1.4 103 1.14 103 .95 103 1.3 103 1.0 103 1.8 103 3.9 1.7 2.9 3.2 103 103 103 103 0.097 0.11 0.36 0.27 0.31 0.27 0.32 0.31 0.23 0.32 0.34 0.27 0.22 0.28 0.065 0.28 0.24 .051 .041 .034 .047 .036 .065 0.14 0.061 0.10 0.12

Density of Materials

(0.03 lbm/in.3 ).

Table 3.1 Density for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

10 12

Metals

Polymers

Ceramics

10 11

Steels Cast iron Brass, bronze Aluminum Zinc alloys Magnesium alloys Babbitts

Carbides Alumina

Modulus of Elasticity

Graphite

10 10 Modulus of elasticity, E, Pa Phenol formaldehyde Acetal Nylon 10 9 Polyethylene

10 8

10 7

10 6

Figure 3.12 Modulus of elasticity for various metals, Natural rubber polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F). Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Modulus of Elasticity, E Material GPa Mpsi Metals Aluminum 62 9.0 Aluminum alloysa 70 10.2 Aluminum tin 63 9.1 Babbitt, lead-based white metal 29 4.2 Babbitt, tin-based white metal 52 7.5 Brasses 100 14.5 Bronze, aluminum 117 17.0 Bronze, leaded 97 14.1 Bronze, phosphor (cast)b 110 16.0 Bronze, porous 60 8.7 Copper 124 18.0 Iron, gray cast 109 15.8 Iron, malleable cast 170 24.7 b Iron, spheroidal graphite 159 23.1 Iron, porous 80 11.6 Iron, wrought 170 24.7 Magnesium alloys 41 5.9 Steel, low alloys 196 28.4 Steel, medium and high alloys 200 29.0 Steel, stainlessc 193 28.0 Steel, high speed 212 30.7 Zinc alloys d 50 7.3 Polymers Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 2.7 0.39 Nylons (polyamides) 1.9 0.28 Polyethylene, high density .9 0.13 Phenol formaldehyde e 7.0 1.02 Rubber, naturalf .004 0.0006 Ceramics Alumina (Al2 O3 ) 390 56.6 Graphite 27 3.9 Cemented carbides 450 65.3 Silicon carbide (SiC) 450 65.3 Silicon nitride (Si2 N4 ) 314 45.5 a Structural alloys. b For bearings. c Precipitation-hardened alloys up to 211 GPa (30 Mpsi). d Some alloys up to 96 GPa (14 Mpsi). e Filled. f 25%-carbon-black mechanical rubber.

Modulus of Elasticity

Table 3.2 Modulus of elasticity for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Material Metals Aluminum and its alloysa Aluminum tin Babbitt, lead-based white metal Babbitt, tin-based white metal Brasses Bronze Bronze, porous Copper Copper lead Iron, cast Iron, porous Iron, wrought Magnesium alloys Steels, Zinc alloys d Polymers Acetal (polyformaldehyde) Nylons (polyamides) Polyethylene, high density Phenol formaldehyde Rubber Ceramics Alumina (Al2 O3 ) Graphite, high strength Cemented carbides Silicon carbide (SiC) Silicon nitride (Si2 N4 ) a Structural alloys.

Poissons ratio, 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.22 0.33 0.26 0.20 0.30 0.33 0.30 0.27 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.28 0.19 0.19 0.26

Poissons Ratio

Table 3.3 Poissons ratio for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

3 10 2 2

Metals Aluminum Copper Brass Magnesium alloys

Polymers

Ceramics

10 2

Thermal Conductivity
Graphite

Cast iron Bronze Steel Alumina Thermal conductivity, Kt, W/m-C Stainless steel

10

Silicon carbide

Natural rubber 1

10 1

Figure 3.13 Thermal conductivity for various Acetal, nylon metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F). Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements
Polyethylene

Thermal conductivity, Kt Material W/m C Btu/fthr F Metals Aluminum 209 120 Aluminum alloys, casta 146 84 Aluminum alloys, siliconb 170 98 c Aluminum alloys, wrought 151 87 Aluminum tin 180 100 Babbitt, lead-based white metal 24 14 Babbitt, tin-based white metal 56 32 Brassesa 120 69 Bronze, aluminuma 50 29 Bronze, leaded 47 27 Bronze, phosphor (cast)d 50 29 Bronze, porous 30 17 Coppera 170 98 Copper lead 30 17 Iron, gray cast 50 29 Iron, spheroidal graphite 30 17 Iron, porous 28 16 Iron, wrought 70 40 Magnesium alloys 110 64 Steel, low alloyse 35 20 Steel, medium alloys 30 17 Steel, stainlessf 15 8.7 Zinc alloys 110 64 Polymers Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 0.24 0.14 Nylons (polyamides) 0.25 0.14 Polyethylene, high density 0.5 0.29 Rubber, natural 1.6 0.92 Ceramics Alumina (Al2 O3 )g 25 14 Graphite, high strength 125 72 Silicon carbide (SiC) 15 8.6 a At 100 C. b At 100 C ( 150 W/m C at 25 C). c 20 to 100 C. d Bar stock, typically 69 W/m C. e 20 to 200 C. f Typically 22 W/m C at 200 C. g Typically 12 W/m C at 400 C.

Thermal Conductivity

Table 3.4 Thermal conductivity for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

2 10 4

Metals

Polymers

Ceramics

10

Polyethylene Silicone rubber Natural rubber Acetal, nylon Nitrile rubber

Linear Thermal Expansion Coefcient

_ Linear thermal expansion coefficient, a , (C)1

Zinc Magnesium Aluminum Brass, copper Most bronzes Babbitts Steel 10 5 Leaded bronze Cast irons Sintered iron

Phenol formaldehyde

Alumina Silicon carbide Silicon nitride Graphite

10 6

Figure 3.14 Linear thermal expansion coefficient for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Linear thermal expansion coecient, a Material ( C)1 ( F)1 Metals Aluminum 23 106 12.8106 a 6 Aluminum alloys 24 10 13.3106 6 Aluminum tin 24 10 13.3106 6 Babbitt, lead-based white metal 20 10 11106 Babbitt, tin-based white metal 23 106 13106 6 Brasses 1910 10.6106 6 Bronzes 18 10 10.0106 6 Copper 1810 10.0106 6 Copper lead 1810 10.0106 6 Iron, cast 11 10 6.1106 6 Iron, porous 1210 6.7106 6 Iron, wrought 12 10 6.7106 6 Magnesium alloys 2710 15106 Steel, alloysb 11 106 6.1106 6 Steel, stainless 17 10 9.5106 6 Steel, high speed 11 10 6.1106 6 Zinc alloys 27 10 15106 Polymers Thermoplasticsc (60-100)106 (33-56)106 d 6 Thermosets (10-80)10 (6-44)106 6 Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 9010 50106 Nylons (polyamides) 100106 56106 6 Polyethylene, high density 12610 70106 e 6 Phenol formaldehyde (25-40)10 (14-22) 106 f 6 Rubber, natural (80-120)10 (44-67)106 g 6 Rubber, nitrile 3410 62106 6 Rubber, silicone 5710 103106 Ceramics Alumina (Al2 O3 )h 5.0106 2.8106 Graphite, high strength 1.4-4.0106 0.8-2.2106 6 Silicon carbide (SiC) 4.310 2.4106 6 Silicon nitride (Si3 N4 ) 3.210 1.8106 a Structural alloys. b Cast alloys can be up to 15 106 ( C)1 . c Typical bearing materials. d 25 106 ( C)1 to 80 106 ( C)1 when reinforced. e Mineral lled. f Fillers can reduce coecients. g Varies with composition. h 0 to 200 C.

Thermal Expansion Coefcient

Table 3.5 Linear thermal expansion coefficient for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F). Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

2.0

Metals

Polymers Natural rubber

Ceramics

1.8

Specic Heat Capacity

1.6

Specific heat capacity, Cp, kJ/ kg-C

1.4

Thermoplastics

1.2

1.0 Magnesium Aluminum 0.8 Graphite Carbides, alumina 0.6 Steel Cast iron Copper

0.4

Figure 3.15 Specific heat capacity for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

0.2

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Material Metals Aluminum and its alloys 0.9 0.22 Aluminum tin 0.96 0.23 Babbitt, lead-based white metal 0.15 0.036 Babbitt, tin-based white metal 0.21 0.05 Brasses 0.39 0.093 Bronzes 0.38 0.091 a Copper 0.38 0.091 Copper lead 0.32 0.076 Iron, cast 0.42 0.10 Iron, porous 0.46 0.11 Iron, wrought 0.46 0.11 Magnesium alloys 1.0 0.24 b Steels 0.45 0.11 Zinc alloys 0.4 0.096 Polymers Thermoplastics 1.4 0.33 Rubber, natural 2.0 0.48 Ceramics Graphite 0.8 0.2 Cemented Carbides 0.7 0.17 a Aluminum bronze up to 0.48 kJ/kg C (0.12 Btu/lbm F. b Rising up to 0.55 kJ/kg C (0.13 Btu/lbm F) at 200 C (392 F).

Specic heat capacity, Cp kJ/kg C Btu/lbm F

Specic Heat Capacity

Table 3.6 Specific heat capacity for various metals, polymers, and ceramics at room temperature (20C, 68F).

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Example 3.12
l1 = 1 m l 2 = 0.3 m

l3 = 0.5 m d = 0.1 m

P1 = 3 kN

Figure 3.16 Rigid beam assembly used in Example 3.12.

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

1000 Diamond SiC Si3N4 Be B Aluminas Sialons BeO ZrO2 Si Glasses Pottery Ti alloys Al alloys Rock, stone Cement, concrete Mo W alloys alloys Ni alloys Cu alloys Zn alloys Tin alloys Lead alloys Engineering alloys Engineering ceramics WC-Co

100

CFRP Uniply KFRP GFRP

Specic Elastic Modulus

()
E __ Modulus of elasticity, E, GPa 10

1/2

(m/s)

Engineering composites

CFRP Laminates GFRP KFRP Mg alloys MEL PC Epoxies PS PMMA PVC Nylon

104 Fir Parallel to grain Balsa

Ash Oak Pine

Porous ceramics

Wood products Woods

1.0

Ash Lower E limit for true solids Oak Pine Fir Perpendicular to grain Spruce Balsa 103

3 103

PP HDPE

Polyesters

Engineering polymers

PTFE LDPE Plasticized PVC

Guidelines for minimumweight design E __ =C

0.1

Polymers, foams Hard butyl Soft butyl 1000 PU

Elastomers

3 10 2 Cork

1/2 E __ =C

Polymers, foams 300

Silicone
1/ 3 E __ =C

Figure 3.17 Modulus of elasticity plotted against density.


(G 3E/ 8; K E ) 10 000 30 000

0.01 100

3000 Density, , kg/m 3

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

10 000 Engineering ceramics B Si

SiC Diamond Si3N4 Sialons ZrO2 Al2O3 Ge MgO

Cermets

Glasses

Engineering alloys

1000

CFRP GFRP Uniply KFRP Pottery Engineering CFRP composites Be Laminates GFRP KFRP Nylons PMMA Mg alloys

Specic Strength

Steels Ti alloys Cast irons Al alloys Zn Stone, alloys rock Engineering alloys

W alloys Mo alloys Ni alloys Cu alloys

100 Strength, S, MPa Fir Parallel to grain Balsa Woods 10

Ash PP Oak Pine Wood products MEL PVC Epoxies PS Polyesters HDPE PTFE PU

Lead alloys

Ash Oak Pine Fir Perpendicular to grain LDPE Soft butyl

Cement, concrete Porous ceramics Guidelines for minimumweight design

Silicone

Balsa

Engineering polymers

Elastomers

Cork

Polymers foams

f __ =C

Figure 3.18 Strength plotted against density.


2/ f 3 __ =C 1/ f 2 __ =C

0.1 100

300

1000 Density, , kg/m 3

3000

10 000

30 000

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

1000 Diamond Minimum energy storage per unit volume Yield before buckling Engineering alloys Mo alloys Beryllium Cermets W WC SiC Boron Si3N4 MgO Al2O3

100

Modulus of elasticity, E, GPa

10

Steels ZrO2 Ni alloys CFRP BeO Uniply Silicon Cu alloys Zn alloys Ti alloys Ge Common rocks GFRP Engineering Al alloys Brick, etc. Glasses ceramics Mg alloys Cement Sn + Engineering Laminates Concrete composites CFRP GFRP Lead Ash Oak Pine Porous Mel ceramics ll to grain Epoxies PMMA Cast irons
4 S __ = 10 E

Modulus of Elasticity vs. Strength

Balsa Woods Wood products Polyester Ash Oak Pine to grain Balsa LDPE HDPE PTFE

PS PVC Nylons PP Design guidelines S __ = 0.1 E

1.0

3 S __ = 10 E

2 S __ = 10 E

Engineering polymers S __ =C E
3/ 2 S __ =C E

Polymers, foams 0.1

Hard butyl Cork Silicone 0.01 0.1 Soft butyl 1 10

PU

Elastomers

S __ =C E

Maximum energy storage per unit volume Buckling before yield

Figure 3.19 Modulus of elasticity plotted against strength.


10 000

100 Strength, S, MPa

1000

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

10 10

10 11 Al Alloys Engineering alloys

Wear Constant
Copper W __ = 10 3 A

10 12

10 13 Archard wear constant, KA, m2/ N

PTFE

Mild steel

Stainless steels Medium-carbon steels High-carbon Tools steels steels

Engineering polymers 10 14 LDPE Unfilled thermoplastics HDPE 10 15 Filled PTFE Nylons Filled thermosets

10 4 Cast irons Nitrided steels Cemented carbides Al2O3 Si3N4 SiC Sailons

10 5 Engineering ceramics

Filled thermoplastics Filled polymides

Bronzes

10 16 Maximum bearing pressure, Pmax

Diamond Engineering composites

10 6

10 7 10 17 Range of K A for p << pmax Rising K A as p nears pmax 10 100 Limiting pressure, pl , MPa 10 8 W __ = 10 9 A 1000 10 000

Figure 3.20 Archard wear constant plotted against limiting pressure.

10 18

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

1000 Engineering ceramics Si C AL7 O3 Mild steel Porous ceramics 100 Stone, brick, and pottery Zn Cast irons Cu alloys AL alloys alloys Mg alloys GFRP Pb alloys Ash, oak Pines Parallel to grain Balsa wood products Ash, oak Perpendicular to grain Pines LDPE Balsa PVC (plasticised) E =C CR PF KFRP Engineering composites Engineering alloys Ni alloys Ti alloys Si3 N4 W alloys Cermets

S alloys Zr O3

CFRP

Modulus of Elasticity vs. Cost

Cement, concrete Brick, stone, concrete 10

Glasses

Modulus of elasticity, E, GPa

PS

PC

PMMA

Polymides

Woods

PVC Epoxies Nylons Polyesters PP HDPE PTFE

Engineering polymers

1.0

Design guidelines

0.1 Polymer foams Hard butyl Elastomers E = C CR Soft butyl 0.01 0.1 1 Silicones
1/2

E = C CR 1000 10 000

1/3

Figure 3.21 Modulus of elasticity plotted against cost times density.

10 100 Relative cost times density, Mg/m3

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Sand Casting

Figure 3.22 Schematic illustration of the sand casting process.

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Forging and Extrusion


Figure 3.23 An example of the steps in forging a connecting rod for an internal combustion engine, and the die used.

Container liner Billet Die Die backer

Container Pressing stem

Extrusion

Dummy block

Figure 3.24 The extrusion process. (a) Schematic illustration of the forward or direct extrusion process; (b) Examples of cross-sections commonly extruded. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

(a)

(b)

Polymer Extruder
Barrel heater/cooler Thrust bearing Hopper Barrel liner Throat Screw Barrel Thermocouples Melt Filter Breaker screen plate thermocouple

Gear reducer box

Throat-cooling channel Feed zone Melting zone

Adapter Melt-pumping zone

Die

Motor

Figure 3.25 Schematic illustration of a typical extruder. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Material Available Aluminum B, F, I, P, S, T, W Ceramics B, p, s, T Copper and brass B, f, I, P, s, T, W Elastomers b, P, T Glass B, P, s, T, W Graphite B, P, s, T, W Magnesium B, I, P, S, T, w Plastics B, f, P, T, w Precious metals B, F, I P, t, W Steels and stainless steels B, I, P, S, T, W Zinc F, I, P, W a B=bar and rod; F = foil; I = ingot; P = plate and sheet; S = structural shapes; T = tubing; W=wire. Lowercase letters indicate limited availability. Most of the metals are also available in powder form, including prealloyed powders.

formsa

Available Forms of Materials

Table 3.8 Commercially available forms of materials.

Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Tolerance vs. Surface Roughness

Figure 3.26 A plot of achievable tolerance versus surface roughness for assorted manufacturing operations. Hamrock Fundamentals of machine Elements

Chapter 4: Stresses and Strains

I am never content until I have constructed a mechanical model of the subject I am studying. If I succeed in making one, I understand; otherwise I do not. William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Centroid of Area
y

dA A C _ y y x _ x x

y =

A y dA

A
A x dA

A1 y 1 + A2y 2 + = A1 + A2 + = A1 x 1 + A2x 2 + A1 + A2 +

x =

Figure 4.1 Centroid of area.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 4.1
y

y a
dA

d b c f e x
0 x y r

Figure 4.2 Rectangular hole within a rectangular section used in Example 4.1.

Figure 4.3 Area with coordinates used in describing area moment of inertia.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 4.2
y

r dy x

Figure 4.4 Centroid of area.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Parallel-Axis Theorem
y

dA
2 Ix = Ix + Ady

y 0 C dy 0 x x
2 Iy = Iy + Adx

Figure 4.5 Coordinates and distance used in describing parallel-axis theorem. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Examples 4.3 and 4.4


y
y y r yc = 4r x

a b 2 cm 60 6 cm 60 1 cm x
dx = 3r xc = 3r x dy = 4r

Figure 4.6 Triangular cross section with circular hole in it, used in Example 4.3.

Figure 4.7 Circular crosssectional area relative to x - y coordinates, used in Example 4.4.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Cross section Circular area y

Centroid _ x =0 x _ y=0

Area moment of inertia _= _ _r4 Ix = Ix 4 _= _ _r 4 Iy = Iy 4 _ r4 J =_ 2 _= _ _ r4 r 4 Ix = Ix i 4 _= _ _ r4 r 4 Iy = Iy i 4 4 4 _ _ J = r ri 2

Area

A = r 2

r Hollow circular area y ri r

_ x =0 x _ y=0

( (

) )

Properties of Cross Sections


)

A = r 2 ri 2

Triangular area a y _ x C b Rectangular area y C _ y h x

_ a+b _ x = ____ 3 _ h y = __ 3

bh bh _3, I _ = ___ _3 Ix = ___ x 12 36 bh b2 + ab + a2 ____________ Iy = ___ 12 bh b2 ab + a2 _ = ___ ____________ Iy 36 _ bh 2 + h2 + a2 + ab) ___ ( b J = 36

( (

) )

bh _ A = __ 2

x b Area of circular sector y r C x _ x Quarter-circular area y _ x r C _ y

_ b x = __ 2 _ __ y= h 2

3 3 bh bh _ , I _ = ___ _ Ix = ___ x 3 12 3 3 hb hb _ , I _ = ___ _ Iy = ___ y 3 12 _ bh J = ___ b 2 + h2 12

A = bh

_ 2 r sin _ ______ x=_ 3

4 r_ _ ( Ix = _ 4 4 r_ _ Iy = _ ( + 4 1 _ r 4 J =_ 2

1 _ _ sin 2) 2 1 _ _ sin 2) 2

A = r 2

_ _ 4 _r _ x =y= _ 3 x _ 4a _ x = __ 3 _ __ _ y = 4b 3

r4 ___ Ix = Iy = _ 16 _ 4 r4 _ = I_ = _ __ __ Ix y 16 9 r4 ___ J = _ 8

r 2 A = ___ 4

Area of elliptical quadrant _ y x b C a _ y

ab3 , I _ = _ _ 4 ab3 ____ __ __ Ix = _ x 16 16 9 a3b , I_ = _ _ 4 a 3b ____ __ __ Iy = _ y 16 16 9 ab _ a2 + b 2 J = ___ 16

( (

) )

ab _ A = ___ 4

Table 4.1 Centroid, area moment of inertia, and area for seven cross sections

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Mass Element
y

x2 + z2

dma

dma x2 + y2 y

z2 + y2
r y

Figure 4.8 Mass element in three-dimensional coordinates and distance from the three axes.

Figure 4.9 Mass element in two-dimensional coordinates and distance from the two axes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shape Rod y d z Disk th x z Rectangular prism y b x z Cylinder c y d z l Hollow cylinder y di do z l Sphere y x x a l x

Equations

d 2l _ ____ ma = 4 2 m ____ al Imy = Imz = _ 12

d 2th _ _____ ma = 4 2 m ____ ad Imx = _ 8 2 m ____ ad Imy = Imz = _ 16 ma = abc 2) ma_ (___ a2_ + b ___ __ Imx = ___ 12 2) ma (___ a2_+ c _ ___ __ Imy = ___ 12 2) ma (___ b2_+ c ___ _ ___ __ Imz = 12 d 2l _____ ma = _ 4 m d2 _ ____ a Imx = 8 2 + 4l 2) (3 d_ ___ a _ ___ ___ ___ __ Imy = Imz = m 48 l (do2 di2) _ __________ ma = 4 2 d 2) m ( d _ __________ a o i Imx = 8 2 + 3d 2 + 4l 2) m_ d a (3 ___ _o ___ ___ __i___ ___ ___ _ Imy = Imz = ___ 48

Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia

d x z

d 3 ____ ma = _ 6

Table 4.2 Mass and mass moment of inertia of six solids.

2 m ___ ad Imx = Imy = Imz = _ 10

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Circular Bar with Tensile Load


P

P Internal load

External load P P

Figure 4.10 Circular bar with tensile load applied. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

z ro

Twist Due to Torque

TL != GJ != Tc J

r T

Figure 4.11 Twisting of member due to applied torque.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Deformation in Bending
M

y Longitudinal lines become curved Transverse lines remain straight, yet rotate (a) (b) M z x

Figure 4.12 Bar made of elastomeric material to illustrate effect of bending. (a) Undeformed bar; (b) deformed bar.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Neutral Surface and Deformation in Bending


0

y Axis of symmetry

z Bending axis

Neutral surface

s = x x
x

Neutral axis y

y
Neutral axis

s x

x (a) (b)

Figure 4.13 Bending occurring in cantilevered bar, showing neutral surface

Figure 4.14 Undeformed and deformed elements in bending.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress in Bending

max c M x

Mc != I

Figure 4.15 Profile view of bending stress variation.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 4.10
8 mm C

Neutral axis 120 mm y 8 mm B 80 mm A x

Figure 4.16 U-shaped cross section experiencing bending moment, used in Example 4.10

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Deformation of Member in Bending


Center of initial curvature

b Centroidal axis
Neutral axis y e CG _ c Centroidal axis

dr Neutral axis r

ri a

d d

_ r rn _ c

M _ r r e

rn

ro

ci co

ro

y Neutral surface Centroidal surface

_ r ri rn

c b (a) d

(b)

Figure 4.17 Curved member in bending. (a) Circumferential view; (b) cross-sectional view

Figure 4.18 Rectangular cross section of curved member

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Transverse Shear
P

(a) P

(b)

Figure 4.19 How transverse shear is developed. (a) Boards not bonded together; (b) boards bonded together. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Deformation Due to Transverse Shear

V (a) (b)

Figure 4.20 Cantilevered bar made of highly deformable material and marked with horizontal and vertical grid lines to show deformation due to transverse shear. (a) Undeformed; (b) deformed. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Moments and Stresses on Element

A M wt dx M M + dM y M + dM

(a)

(b)

Figure 4.21 Three-dimensional and profile views of moments and stresses associated with shaded top segment of element that has been sectioned at y about neutral axis. Shear stresses have been omitted for clarity. (a) three-dimensional view; (b) profile view. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Cross section

Maximum shear stress 3V max = ___ 2A

Rectangular

Maximum Shear Stress for Different Cross Sections

4V max = ___ 3A Circular

2V max = ___ A Round tube

V max = ___ Aweb I-beam

Table 4.3 Maximum shear stress for different beam cross sections.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 4.13
300 lb T = 1000 in-lb 25 lb 5 in. 250 lb 75 lb 5 in. 50 lb 5 in. 200 lb 150 lb T = 1000 in-lb

Figure 4.22 Shaft with loading considered in Example 4.13.

V 50 lb 200 lb x 250 lb

75 lb

M 1000 in-lb 1250 in-lb x x

-25 lb (a) (b) (c)

Figure 4.23 (a) Shear force; (b) normal force and (c) bending moment diagrams for the shaft in Fig. 4.22. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Elements in Example 4.13.


B

Figure 4.24 Cross section of shaft at x=5 in., with identification of stress elements considered in Example 4.13.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shear Stress Distributions

Figure 4.25 Shear stress distributions. (a) Shear stress due to a vertical shear force; (b) Shear stress due to torsion. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Recoiler

Coil Slitter

Two-roll tension stand

Slitter Operator's console

Entry pinch rolls and guide table

Peeler

Pay-off reel (uncoiler)

Coil-loading car

(a)

Slitter blade Set screw Collar

Rubber roller Steel spacers Key Driveshaft Lower driveshaft Rubber rollers

500 lbf

RB

180 lbf

540 lbf

le tab jus Ad eight h

10 in.

10 in.

5 in.

6 in.

RA
Collar Lower slitter blade Steel spacers (behind slitter blade)

(b)

(c)

Figure 4.26 Design of shaft for coil slitting line. (a) Illustration of coil slitting line; (b) knife and shaft detail; (c) free-body diagram of simplified shaft for case study.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Coil Slitter Results

Center at (21,900/d3, 0) V M x 290 lbf 720 lb x 430 lb 4300 in.-lb

Radius =

21,900 + _______ 11,000 = ______ 24,510 ______ d3 d3 d3

) (

(x, xy) = (43,800/d 3, 11,000/d 3 )

Figure 4.27 Shear diagram (a) and moment diagram (b) for idealized coil slitter shaft.

Figure 4.28 Mohr's circle for location of maximum bending stress.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 5: Deformation

Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 5.1

P y x l

Figure 5.1 Cantilevered beam with concentrated force applied at free end. Used in Example 5.1. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Deection by Singularity Functions


1. Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the system. 2. Use force and moment equilibrium to establish reaction forces acting on the system. 3. Write an expression for the load-intensity function for all the loads acting on the system while making use of Table 2.2. 4. Integrate the negative load-intensity function to give the shear force and then integrate the negative shear force to obtain the moment. 5. Make use of Eq. (5.9) to describe the deection at any value. 6. Plot the following as a function of x: (a) Shear (b) Moment (c) Slope (d) Deection

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Force on Simply Supported Beam


y l x a Pb _ RA = __ l P (a) y x x a Pb _ RA = __ l P (b) xa V M b Pa _ RB = __ l

Figure 5.2 Free-body diagram of force anywhere between simplysupported ends. (a) Complete bar; (b) portion of bar.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

y l a b w0 A yl C (a) a b w0 b MA = w0b a + _ 2 x

Cantilever with Step Load

)
RA = w0b (b) a xa w0 V M

b w0b a + _ 2

)
w0b x (c)

Figure 5.3 Cantilevered bar with unit step distribution over part of bar. (a) Loads and deflection acting on cantilevered bar; (b) free-body diagram of forces and moments acting on entire bar; (c) free-body diagram of forces and moments acting on portion of bar.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

y l a A P B C x b

Cantilever with Concentrated Force

(a) a P MC RA (b) a P xa V M RA x (c) RC b

Figure 5.4 Cantilevered bar with other end simply-supported and with concentrated force acting anywhere along bar. (a) Sketch of assembly; (b) free-body diagram of entire bar; (c) free-body diagram of part of bar.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Type of loading Concentrated load at any x y P a b l Unit step distribution over part or all of bar y a b w
0

Deflection for any x

Beam Deections

x yl

P ( x a 3 x3 + 3x2a) y = 6EI

l Moment applied to free end y M l (a)

x yl

w0 bx 3 bx 2 y = a + b EI 6 2 2 1 xa4 24

x yl

Mx 2 y = 2EI

y a

P b x
l P b y = x 6EI l
3

a3x x a 3 + 3a2x 2alx l

Pb l y a b w0 c

Pa l

x
l

w0b l y = 4 c+b x 3 24lEI 2 b

xa 4 xab

+ x b3 + 6bc2 + 4b2c + 4c3 4l 2 c + b 2

Table 5.1 Deflection for three different situations when one end is fixed and one end is free and two different situations of simply supported ends.

w0b c + b 2 l
(b)

w0b a + b 2 l

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

y a P A B C yl Mo l (a) y a P yl, 1 x x

Cantilever with Moment

(b) y Mo yl, 2 x

l (c)

Figure 5.5 Bar fixed at one end and free at other with moment applied to free end and concentrated force at any distance from free end. (a) Complete assembly; (b) free-body diagram showing effect of concentrated force; (c) free-body diagram showing effect of moment.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Elements

dx
dy dz dx

dz

dy dz

Figure 5.6 Element subjected to normal stress.

Figure 5.7 Element subjected to shear stress.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strain Energy
Strain energy for special case where all three factors are constant with x P 2l U= 2EA M 2l U= 2EI T 2l U= 2GJ 3V 2 l U= 5GA

Loading type Axial Bending Torson Transverse shear (rectangular section)

Factors involved P, E, A M, E, I T, G, J V, G, A

General expression for strain energy l P2 U= dx 2 EA 0 U= U= U=


l 0 l 0 l 0

M2 dx 2EI T2 dx 2GJ 3V 2 dx 5GA

Table 5.2 Strain energy for four types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Castiglianos Theorem
Qi

The load Qi is applied to a particular point of deformation and therefore is not a function of x. T !U yi = to Qi before integrating for the general expressio permissible to take the derivative with respect !Q
i

The following procedure is to be employed in using Castiglianos theorem: 1. Obtain an expression for the total strain energy including (a) Loads (P , M , T , V ) acting on the object (use Table 5.2) (b) A ctitious force Q acting at the point and in the direction of the desired deection 2. Obtain deection from y = U/ Q. 3. If Q is ctitious, set Q = 0 and solve the resulting equation.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

y b A x B P C

Cantilever with Concentrated Force

l (a) Q b x l (b) P

Figure 5.8 Cantilevered bar with concentrated force acting distance b from free end. (a) Coordinate system and important points shown; (b) fictitious force shown along with concentrated force.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Linkage System

l, A1, E1 l, A2, E 2 P A

P1 P2 P A Q

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.9 Linkage system arrangement. (a) Entire assembly; (b) free-body diagram of forces acting at point A. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 5.10
C x

B y h A Q P

Figure 5.10 Cantilevered bar with 90 bend acted upon by horizontal force at free end. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 6: Failure Prediction for Static Loading


The concept of failure is central to the design process, and it is by thinking in terms of obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. Henry Petroski Design Paradigms

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Hole


Kc =
a

actual maximum stress average stress

P a (a) max P

a b

(c) (b)

a Kc = 1 + 2 b

Figure 6.1 Rectangular plate with hole subjected to axial load. (a) Plate with cross-sectional plane; (b) one-half of plate with stress distribution; (c) plate with elliptical hole subjected to axial load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Hole


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 P h d b P

P = P Snom= A (b d)h 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Diameter-to-width ratio, d/b

Figure 6.1 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (a) Uniform tension. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Pin-Loaded Hole


11.0 10.0 Stress concentration factor, Kc 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 0.1 c/b 1.0 c/b = 0.50 d c/b = 0.35 P c b P/2 h

P/2 P = P nom= A (b d )h

0.2 0.3 0.4 Diameter-to-width ratio, d/b

0.5

0.6

Figure 6.2 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (b) pin-loaded hole. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Hole in Bending


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 d/h = 0 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 Diameter-to-width ratio, d/b 0.5 0.6 M h d b M

Mc 6M nom= = I (b d )h2

Figure 6.2 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (c) Bending. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Axially Loaded Rectangular Plate with Fillet


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 Radius-to-height ratio, r/h 0.25 0.30 P P b

H r

P P Snom= = A bh H/h = 3 2 1.5 1.15 1.05 1.01

Figure 6.3 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (a) Axial load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Fillet in Bending


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 Radius-to-height ratio, r/h 0.25 0.30 H/h = 6 2 1.2 1.05 1.01 M H r 6M = nom= Mc I bh2 h b M

Figure 6.3 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (b) Bending. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Axially Loaded Rectangular Plate with Groove


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 P h r P H b P P Snom = = A bh H/h = ! 1.5 1.15 1.05 1.01

Radius-to-height ratio, r/h

Figure 6.4 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (a) Axial load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate with Groove in Bending


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 Radius-to-height ratio, r/h (b) 0.25 0.30 H/h = 1.5 1.15 1.05 1.01 M h r 6M = nom= Mc I bh2 H b M

Figure 6.4 Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (b) Bending. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Axially Loaded Round Bar with Fillet


2.6 r 2.4 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 D/d = 2 1.5 1.2 1.05 1.01 P 4P = Snom = A Pd2 P D d P

Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d (a)

Figure 6.5 Stress concentration factors for round bar with fillet. (a) Axial load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Round Bar with Fillet in Bending


3.0 2.8 2.6 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d 0.3 D/d = 6 3 1.5 1.1 1.03 1.01 Mc 32M Snom = = I Pd3 r M D d M

Figure 6.5 Stress concentration factors for round bar with fillet. (b) Bending. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Round Bar with Fillet in Torsion


2.6 r 2.4 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d (c) 0.3 D/d = 2 1.2 1.09 T = 16 nom = Tc J d3 T D d T

Figure 6.5 Stress concentration factors for round bar with fillet. (c) Torsion. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Axially Loaded Round Bar with Groove


3.0 2.8 2.6 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d 0.3 D/d  2 1.1 1.03 1.01 P 4P = Snom = A Pd2 P r D d P

Figure 6.6 Stress concentration factors for round bar with groove. (a) Axial load. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Round Bar with Groove in Bending


3.0 2.8 M 2.6 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d 0.3 D/d > 2 1.1 1.03 1.01 Mc 32 M nom = = I d3 D d M r

Figure 6.6 Stress concentration factors for round bar with groove. (b) Bending. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Round Bar with Groove in Torsion


2.6 2.4 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 D/d 2 1.1 1.01 Radius-to-diameter ratio, r/d Tc 16T = nom = J d3 T D r d T

Figure 6.6 Stress concentration factors for round bar with groove. (c) Torsion. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Round Bar with Hole


3.0 2.8 Stress concentration factor, Kc 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0 0.1 0.2 Hole diameter-to-bar diameter ratio, d/D 0.3
T or

A xia

D d

T Nominal stresses: Axial load: P P = nom = 2 A (D /4) - Dd Bending (plane shown is critical):

Be

n di

ng

sio n

M Mc nom= = 3 I (D /32) - (dD2/6) Torsion: Tc T = nom = J (D3/16) - (dD2/6)

Figure 6.7 Stress concentration factors for round bar with hole. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Contours

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 6.8 Flat plate with fillet axially loaded showing stress contours for (a) square corners; (b) rounded corners; (c) small grooves; and (d) small holes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Modes of Fracture

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 6.9 Three modes of crack displacement. (a) Mode I, opening; (b) mode II, sliding; (c) Mode III, tearing. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fracture Toughness
Kci = Y !nom "a
Material Metals Aluminum alloy 2024-T351 Aluminum alloy 7075-T651 Alloy steel 4340 tempered at 260 C Alloy steel 4340 tempered at 425 C Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V Ceramics Aluminum oxide Soda-lime glass Concrete Polymers Polymethyl methacrylate Polystyrene Yield stress, Sy ksi MPa 47 73 238 206 130 325 505 1640 1420 910 Fracture toughness, Kci ksi in. MPa m 33 26 45.8 80.0 40-60 36 29 50.0 87.4 44-66

2.7-4.8 0.64-0.73 0.18-1.27

3.0-5.3 0.7-0.8 0.2-1.4

0.9 0.73-1.0

1.0 0.8-1.1

Table 6.1 Yield stress and fracture toughness data for selected engineering materials at room temperature. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Failure Prediction for Multiaxial Stresses I. Ductile Materials

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (MSST):


Sy !1 !2 = ns

Distortion-Energy Theory (DET)


1 (!2 !1)2 + (!3 !1)2 + (!3 !2)2 2
1/2

Sy ns

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Failure Prediction for Multiaxial Stresses II. Brittle Materials


Maximum Normal Stress Theory (MNST)
Sut !1 ns Suc or !3 ns

!1 !3 1 If !1 > 0 and !3 < 0, = Sut Suc ns Sut If !3 > 0, !1 = ns Suc If !1 < 0, !3 = ns

Internal Friction Theory (IFT)

Modied Mohr Theory


If !1 > 0 and !3 < Sut , If !3 > Sut If !1 < 0, !1

Sut !3 SucSut = Suc Sut nsSuc Sut Sut !1 = ns Suc !3 = ns

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Three-Dimensional Yield Locus


2 Centerline of cylinder and hexagon

1 2 3 1 DET MSST

Figure 6.10 Three-dimensional yield locus for MSST and DET.

View along axis of cylinder

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

MSST and DET for Biaxial Stress State


+ S2
+ S2

Sy A 45o E S1 Sy H Sy
S2

0.577 Syt

Syt

G Sy B + S1
Shear diagonal
S1 Syt

Syt

0.577 Syt Syt


Syt

D F

45o

Syt

+ S1

Syt Syt

0.577 Syt

0.577 Syt

S2 Shear diagonal

Figure 6.12 Graphical Figure 6.11 Graphical representation of distortion energy representation of maximum-sheartheory for biaxial stress state. stress theory for biaxial stress state. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 6.6

2500 N

Arm Torsion bar Bearing 300 mm

100 mm

Figure 6.13 Rear wheel suspension used in Example 6.6

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Examples 6.7 and 6.8


y T1 S3 z T (a) x (b)

T T1

0 S2

S1

T2 (c)

Figure 6.14 Cantilevered round bar with torsion applied to free end used in Example 6.7.
y T

T1 = Tmax Element Sx d l T x (b) P (a) T2 (c) dx dz Txz Sx S3 S2 4 4 S1 8 12 16 20 24 28 S

Figure 6.15 Cantilevered round bar with torsion and transverse force applied to free end used in Example 6.8. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Maximum Normal Stress Theory


+ 2 Sut

Most suitable for brous brittle materials, glasses, and brittle materials in general.
Sut + 1

Suc 0

Sut !1 ns
Suc

Sut !3 ns

Figure 6.16 Graphical representation of maximum-normal-stress theory (MNST) for biaxial stress state. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Internal Friction and Modied Mohr Theories


Pure shear: 1 = 2 MMT IFT 2 Sut Sut 0 Sut 1

Suc

Figure 6.17 Internal friction theory and modified Mohr theory for failure prediction of brittle materials. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Experimental Verication

2 Steel Cast iron 1 Maximum normal stress Cast iron Steel Copper Aluminum 1.0

2 ult Maximum distortion energy 1.0

Maximum shearing stress 0 1.0 1 ult

1.0

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.18 Experimental verification of yield and fracture criteria for several materials. (a) Brittle fracture; (b) ductile yielding. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Analysis of Articial Hip


0.462 0.38 r 0.59 r 5 1.452 1.06 B 0.90 A

0.500 diam 0.25 r 0.115 0.06 r 0.931 4.54 r 1.255 36.5 2.858 C C A B

5.39

3taper

Figure 6.19 Inserted total hip replacement.

Figure 6.20 Dimension of femoral implant (in inches).

Figure 6.21 Sections of femoral stem analyzed for static failure.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 7: Failure Prediction for Cyclic and Impact Loading


All machines and structural designs are problems in fatigue because the forces of Nature are always at work and each object must respond in some fashion. Carl Osgood, Fatigue Design

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

On the Bridge!

Figure 7.1 On the Bridge, an illustration from Punch magazine in 1891 warning the populace that death was waiting for them on the next bridge. Note the cracks in the iron bridge. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Methods to Maximize Design Life


1. By minimizing initial aws, especially surface aws. Great care is taken to produce fatigueinsusceptible surfaces through processes, such as grinding or polishing, that leave exceptionally smooth surfaces. These surfaces are then carefully protected before being placed into service. By maximizing crack initiation time. Surface residual stresses are imparted (or at least tensile residual stresses are relieved) through manufacturing processes, such as shot peening or burnishing, or by a number of surface treatments. By maximizing crack propagation time. Substrate properties, especially those that retard crack growth, are also important. For example, fatigue cracks propagate more quickly along grain boundaries than through grains (because grains have much more efcient atomic packing). Thus, using a material that does not present elongated grains in the direction of fatigue crack growth can extend fatigue life (e.g., by using cold-worked components instead of castings). By maximizing the critical crack length. Fracture toughness is an essential ingredient. (The material properties that allow for larger internal aws are discussed in Chapter 6.)

2.

3.

4.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Cycle and Test Specimen

max Tension + m

1 cycle

a min
0

3 16

7 __

r
0.30

Stress

Compression

Time

R 97 8

Figure 7.2 Variation in nonzero cyclic mean stress.

Figure 7.3 R.R. Moore machine fatigue test specimen. Dimensions in inches.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Cyclic Properties of Metals


Yield strength Sy , MPa 228 1172 1720 1275 965 2070 1720 1340 1070 900 97 462 379 234 469 Fracture Fatigue strength ductility f coecient, MPa f Steel 827 0.95 1655 0.73 2140 2720 0.07 2275 0.25 1790 0.35 2585 2650 0.07 2170 0.09 2000 0.40 1550 0.45 Aluminum 193 1.80 848 0.42 1103 0.22 724 0.46 1317 0.19 Fatigue strength exponent, a -0.110 -0.076 -0.065 -0.055 -0.080 -0.070 -0.075 -0.076 -0.081 -0.080 -0.080 -0.106 -0.106 -0.124 -0.110 -0.126 Fatigue ductility exponent, -0.64 -0.62 -1.00 -0.60 -0.68 -0.69 -1.00 -0.76 -0.66 -0.73 -0.75 -0.69 -0.65 -0.59 -0.67 -0.52

Material 1015 4340 1045 1045 1045 1045 4142 4142 4142 4142 4142 1100 2014 2024 5456 7075

Condition Normalized Tempered Q&Ta 80 F Q&T 306 F Q&T 500 F Q&T 600 F Q&T 80 F Q&T 400 F Q&T 600 F Q&T 700 F Q&T 840 F Annealed T6 T351 H311 T6

Table 7.1 Cyclic properties of some metals. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fatigue Crack Growth

10-2 2 > 1 Crack length, a 2 da dN 1 Crack growth rate da/dN (mm/cycle) 10


-4

Kc Regime A Regime B Crack growth rate at 50 Hz 1 mm/min da = C(K)m dN m 1 mm/hour 1 one lattice spacing per cycle 1 mm/day Regime C log K (b) 1 mm/week

10-6

Number of cylces, N (a)

10-8

Figure 7.4 Illustration of fatigue crack growth. (a) Size of a fatigue crack for two different stress ratios as a function of the number of cycles; (b) rate of crack growth, illustrating three regimes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fatigued Part Cross-Section

Figure 7.5 Cross-section of a fatigued section, showing fatigue striations or beachmarks originating from a fatigue crack at B.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

High Nominal Stress


No stress concentration Mild stress concentration Severe stress concentration

Low Nominal Stress


No stress concentration Mild stress concentration Severe stress concentration

Tension-tension or tension-compression

Fatigue Fracture Surfaces

Reversed bending

Unidirectional bending

Beachmarks

Fracture surface

Figure 7.6 Typical fatigue fracture surfaces of smooth and notched cross-sections under different loading conditions and stress levels.

Rotational bending

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fatigue Strength of Ferrous Metals

Fatigue stress ratio, Sf /Sut

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 103 Not broken

104

105 Number of cycles to failure, N

106

107

Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading cycles. (a) Ferrous alloys, showing clear endurance limit.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Alloys


80 70 60 50 Alternating stress, sa, ksi 40 35 30 25 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 6 5 103

Wr ou Per

ght

ma nen tm old c San dc ast

ast

104

105 106 107 Number of cycles to failure, N

108

109

Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading cycles. (b) Aluminum alloys, with less pronounced knee and no endurance limit. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fatigue Strengths of Polymers


60 83103 50 Alternating stress, sa, MPa 40 30 20 Nylon (dry) 10 0 103 PTFE Polycarbonate Polysulfone 0 104 105 106 107 Number of cycles to failure, N 2 Phenolic Epoxy Diallyl-phthalate Alkyd 6 Alternating stress, sa, psi

Figure 7.7 Fatigue strengths as a function of number of loading cycles. (c) Selected properties of assorted polymer classes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Endurance Limit vs. Ultimate Strength


1603103 140 120 Endurance limit , S e , psi 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Tensile strength , Sut, psi 200 220 240 260 Carbon steels Alloy steels Wrought irons
.6 _e_ = 0 S _ Su

0.5 0.4
100 x103 psi

280 3003103

Figure 7.8 Endurance limit as function of ultimate strength for wrought steels. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Endurance Limit

Material Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Nickel alloys Titanium Aluminum alloys

Number of cycles 108 108 108 107 5 108

Relation Se = 0.35Su 0.25Su < Se < 0.5Su 0.35Su < Se < 0.5Su 0.45Su < Se < 0.65Su Se = 0.40Su (Su < 48 ksi Se = 19 ksi (Su 48 ksi

Table 7.2 Approximate endurance limit for various materials.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Notch Sensitivity
Use these values with bending and axial loads Steel, Su, ksi (MPa) Use these values with torsion as marked 1.0
180 (1241) 379) 1 ( 0 ) 20 120 (827 ) 965 2) 0( 80 (55 4 1 ) 4) 689 60 (41 0( 0 1 2) (55 4) 0 8 (41 ) 60 (345 50

0.8 Notch sensitivity, qn

0.6

Usage:
K f = 1 + (Kc 1)qn

0.4

Aluminum alloy (based on 2024T6 data)

0.2

0 0

0.5 0.02

1.0 0.04

1.5 2.0 2.5 Notch radius, r, mm 0.06 0.08 0.10 Notch radius, r, in.

3.0 0.12

3.5 0.14

4.0 0.16

Figure 7.9 Notch sensitivity as function of notch radius for several materials and types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Surface Finish Factor


Ultimate strength in tension, Sut , ksi 60 1.0 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Polished

Ground

0.8 Surface finish factor, kf

Machined or cold drawn

f k f = eSut

0.6 Hot rolled 0.4 As forged

0.2

Manufacturing process Grinding Machining or cold drawing Hot rolling As forged

Factor e MPa ksi 1.58 1.34 4.51 2.70 57.7 272.0 14.4 39.9

Exponent f -0.085 -0.265 -0.718 -0.995

0 0.4

Table 7.3 Surface finish factor.


0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Ultimate strength in tension, Sut , GPa

Figure 7.10 Surface finish factors for steel. (a) As function of ultimate strength in tension for different manufacturing processes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Roughness Effect on Surface Finish Factor


1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 40 Surface finish Ra, in. 60 80 2000 1000 500 250 125 63 32 16 8 1 4 2

Surface finish factor, kf

100 120 140 160 180 Ultimate strength in tension, Sut, psi (b)

200

220

240x103

Figure 7.10 Surface finish factors for steel. (b) As function of ultimate strength and surface roughness as measured with a stylus profilometer. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Reliability Factor

Probability of survival, percent 50 90 95 99 99.9 99.99

Relaibility factor, kr 1.00 0.90 0.87 0.82 0.75 0.70

Table 7.4 Reliability factor for six probabilities of survival.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shot Peening
MPa Fatigue strength at two million cycles (MPa) 1380 100 200 300 200 483 Alternating stress, a, MPa 414 Shot peened 345 276 207 Machined 138 Not peened - notched (typical machined surface) 0 690 1380 2170 Ultimate tensile strength, Sut, (MPa) (a) 0 50 40 30 20 ksi Al 7050-T7651 Ti-6Al-4V 70 60

1035

Peened - smooth or notched

150

690 Not peened - smooth

100

ksi

345

50

Polished

104

105 106 107 Number of cycles to failure, N' (b)

108

Figure 7.11 The use of shot peening to improve fatigue properties. (a) Fatigue strength at two million cycles for high strength steel as a function of ultimate strength; (b) typical S-N curves for nonferrous metals. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 7.4

25 mm 25 mm P (a)

r = 2.5 mm 25 mm 25 mm P (b) r = 2.5 mm 30 mm

Figure 7.12 Tensile loaded bar. (a) Unnotched; (b) notched.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Inuence of Non-Zero Mean Stress


Syt Yield line Alternating stress, a

Gerber Line 2 K f ns!a ns!m + =1 Se Sut


Gerber line Goodman line

Se

Goodman Line
K f !a !m + Se Sut
2

Soderberg line 0 Mean stress, m

1 = ns

Syt

Sut

Soderberg Line
K f !a !m + Se Syt
2

1 Figure 7.13 Influence of nonzero = mean stress on fatigue life for tensile ns loading as estimated by four empirical relationships. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Modied Goodman Diagram


Su + Sy B N Se /Kf max H m 45 0 min E Se /Kf Sy b c d A L D M Sy Su m m min C Sy max Su

G a

45

Figure 7.14 Complete modified Goodman diagram, plotting stress as ordinate and mean stress as abscissa.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Modied Goodman Criterion


Line AB max = Equation Se + m Kf 1 Se S u Kf Range Sy Se /Kf 0 m Se 1 Kf S u Se Sy Kf m Sy Se 1 Kf S u Se Sy Kf m Sy Se 1 Kf S u Se Sy Kf 0 m Se 1 Kf S u Se S y m 0 Kf Se S y m Sy Kf Se S y m Sy Kf Se S y m 0 Kf

BC

max = Sy

CD

min = 2m Sy

DE

min =

1+

Se Kf Su Se Kf

Se Kf

Table 7.5 Equations and range of applicability for construction of complete modified Goodman diagram.

EF FG GH HA

min = m min = Sy

max = 2m + Sy max = m + Se Kf

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Modied Goodman Criterion


Region in Fig. 7.14 a b Failure equation max 2m = Sy /ns max m = max + m Se ns Kf 1 =
Se ns Kf

Se Kf Su

max =

Sy ns

Validity limits of equation Se Sy m Sy Kf Se Sy m 0 Kf Se Sy Kf 0 m Se 1 Kf Su Se Sy Kf m Sy Se 1 Kf Su

Table 7.6 Failure equations and validity limits of equations for four regions of complete modified Goodman diagram.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 7.7

90 B A D C

60 Stress, ksi

45 120

30

Mean stress, m, ksi E 45 90

30

Figure 7.15 Modified Goodman diagram for Example 7.7. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Alternating Stress Ratio for Cast Iron

1.5 Alternating stress ratio, a/Su 1.0 0.5 Se (0.4)(0.9) = 0.36 Su 0 0.5 1.0

0 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 Mean stress ratio, m/Su

Figure 7.16 Alternating stress ratio as function of mean stress ratio for axially loaded cast iron.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Properties of Mild Steel


100 Ultimate and yield stresses, Su and Sy, ksi 100

80
/S u Ratio S y gth S u n e r t s e U lti m at

80

60

60

40

Total elongation
Yield strength S y

40 Elongation, percent

20

20

0 6 10

105

104

103

102

101

10

102

103

Average strain rate, s1

Figure 7.17 Mechanical properties of mild steel at room temperature as a function of strain rate. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Sy/Su, percent

Example 7.10

y V 2 ft 1.5 in. 5 ft (a) 18 in. (b) (c) M x P

Figure 7.18 Diver impacting diving board, used in Example 7.10. (a) Side view; (b) front view; (c) side view showing forces and coordinates. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Brake Stud Design Analysis

Sheer force, N Moment, Nm

M Px

Machine frame

AA R = 0.375 in.

(a)

3.0625 in.

1.375 in.

1 in.

2.25 in.

Shoulder

Stress, Pa

a m Time (b)

Figure 7.19 Dimensions of existing brake drum design.

Figure 7.20 Press brake stud loading. (a) Shear and bending-moment diagrams for applied load; (b) stress cycle. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 8: Lubrication, Friction and Wear

...among all those who have written on the subject of moving forces, probably not a single one has given sufficient attention to the effect of friction in machines... Guillaume Amontons (1699)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Conformal and Nonconformal Surfaces


Journal
Outer ring Rolling element

Fluid film

Sleeve

Inner ring

Figure 8.1 Conformal surfaces.

Figure 8.2 Nonconformal surfaces.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Contacting Solids
x

Solid a rax ray y x rbx rby Solid b

Figure 8.3 Geometry of contacting solids.

y W

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Radii of Curvature
Sphere
r

Cylinder rax

Conic frustum
rax

Barrel shape rax

Concave shape rax

rax = r ray = r (a) Thrust


rby

ray

ray

ray

ray

Radial inner
rby

Radial outer
rby

Ri

rbx rbx (b) Thrust rby Ri rbx (c) Cylindrical inner


rby

rbx

Cylindrical outer rby

rbx

rbx

Figure 8.4 Sign designations for radii of curvature of various machine elements. (a) Rolling elements; (b) ball bearing races; (c) rolling bearing races.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Ellipsoidal Contact

D x 2 x

pH = pmax
Dy 2

2x 1 Dx

2y Dy

2 1/2

pmax

p y

pmax =

6W !DxDy

Figure 8.5 Pressure distribution in an ellipsoidal contact.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Elliptic Integrals

5
Elliptic integrals, E and F

Ellipticity parameter, ke

4 3 2 1 0 4

Elliptic integral E Elliptic integral F Ellipticity parameter ke

10 8 6 4 2
Dy 2 x

y Dy 2 x

Dx 2

Dx 2

12 16 20 24 Radius ratio, r

28

32

Figure 8.6 Variation of ellipticity parameter and elliptic integrals of first and second kinds as function of radius ratio.

1 r 100 2 / ke = r F= 2 + qa ln r where qa = 2 1 qa E = 1 + r

0.01 r 1.0 2 / ke = r F= 2 qa ln r where qa = 2 1 E = 1 + qa r

Table 8.1 Simplified equations.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Hydrodynamic Lubrication

W ub h min
(a) W

W wa pa ub ps (b) (c) W

Conformal surfaces pmax 5 MPa h min = f (W, ub, 0, Rx , Ry) > 1 m No elastic effect

Figure 8.7 Characteristics of hydrodynamic lubrication.

Figure 8.8 Mechanism of pressure development for hydrodynamic lubrication. (a) Slider bearing; (b) squeeze film bearing; (c) externally pressurized bearing.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
W

ub

ub

h min Nonconformal surfaces High-elastic-modulus material (e.g., steel) pmax 0.5 to 4 GPa h min = f (W, ub, 0, Rx , Ry , E , ) > 0.1 m Elastic and viscous effects both important

h min Nonconformal surfaces (e.g., nitrite rubber) pmax 0.5 to 4 MPa h min = f (W, ub, 0 , Rx , Ry , E ) 1 m Elastic effects predominate

Figure 8.9 Characteristics of hard elastohydrodynamic lubrication.

Figure 8.10 Characteristics of soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Regimes of Lubrication
Boundary film Bulk lubricant

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 8.11 Regimes of lubrication. (a) Fluid film lubrication surfaces separated by bulk lubricant film. This regime is sometimes further classified as thick or thin film lubrication; (b) partial lubrication - both bulk lubricant and boundary film play a role; (c) boundary lubrication - performance depends essentially on boundary film. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Friction and Lubrication Condition


10

Unlubricated 1

Coefficient of friction,

Boundary 10 1 Elastohydrodynamic

10 2 Hydrodynamic 10 3

10 4

Figure 8.12 Bar diagram showing coefficient of friction for various lubrication conditions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wear Rate and Lubrication

Seizure Severe wear

Wear rate

Hydrodynamic Unlubricated Elastohydrodynamic Boundary Relative load

Figure 8.13 Wear rate for various lubrication regimes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Surface Roughness

Mean reference line

Centerline average roughness


Ra = 1 N |zi| ! N i=1

Root-mean-square roughness Figure 8.14 Surface profile showing surface height variation relative to mean reference line.
Rq = 1 Nz2 ! N i=1 i
1/2

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Typical Surface Roughness


Arithmetic average surface roughness, Ra m in. Processes Sand casting; hot rolling Sawing Planing and shaping Forging Drilling Milling Boring; turning Broaching; reaming; cold rolling; drawing Die casting Grinding, coarse Grinding, ne Honing Polishing Lapping Components Gears Plain bearings journal (runner) Plain bearings bearing (pad) Rolling bearings - rolling elements Rolling bearings - tracks 12.5-25 3.2-25 0.8-25 3.2-12.5 1.6-6.3 0.8-6.3 0.4-6.3 0.8-3.2 0.8-1.6 0.4-1.6 0.1-0.4 0.03-0.4 0.02-0.2 0.005-0.1 0.25-10 0.12-0.5 0.25-1.2 0.015-.12 0.1-0.3 500-1000 128-1000 32-1000 128-500 64-250 32-250 16-250 32-128 32-64 16-64 4-16 1.2-16 0.8-8 0.2-4 10-400 5-20 10-50 0.6-5 4-12

Table 8.2 Typical arithmetic average surface roughness for various manufacturing processes and machine components. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Viscosity
Friction force F ub ub Area A

u z

F /A shear stress != = ub/h shear strain rate

Figure 8.15 Slider bearing illustrating absolute viscosity.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Viscosity Conversion Factors


To convert from cP kgfs/m2 Ns/m2 reyn, or lbs/in.2 To cP 1 9.807 103 103 6.9 106 Ns/m2 Multiply by 1.02 104 103 1 9.807 1 1.02 10 1 7.03 102 6.9 103 kgfs/m2 lbs/in.2 1.45 107 1.422 103 1.45 104 1

Table 8.3 Absolute viscosity conversion factors.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Temperature, tm, F 50 0 100 LB 550 X 103 SAE 10 SAE 70 104 Polypropylene glycol derivatives LB 100 X DC 500 A 102 Polymethyl siloxanes (silicones) Residuum (specific gravity, 0.968) 200 400 600 800 1000

Viscosity Data

105

Fluorolube light grease 101 Di(n-butyl) sebacate Crude oil (specific gravity, 0.855) Kerosene Mercury DC 200 E Halocarbons Fluorolube FCD331 106 Absolute viscosity, , lb-s/in.2

Absolute viscosity, , cP

100

Gasoline (specific gravity, 0.748) Octane

107 Water plus 23% NaCl Water 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) Superheated steam (14.7 psig) Navy Symbol 2135

Gasoline (specific gravity, 0.680) 101

108

Air 102 50 Saturated steam Hydrogen 0 100 Temperature, tm, C 200 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) 300 400 500 109

Figure 8.16 Absolute viscosities of a number of fluids for a wide range of temperatures.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Viscosity of Selected Fluids


Fluid Temperature, tm , C 38 99 149 38 99 149 Absolute viscosity Kinematic viscosity at p = 0 at p = 0, k , 0 , cP m2 /s 25.3 4.75 2.06 2.58 105 0.51 105 0.23 105 27.6 4.96 2.15 2.82 105 0.53 105 0.24 105 25.5 4.08 1.80 3.0 105 0.50 105 0.23 105 414 34.3 10.9 49.3 105 4.26 105 1.4 105 375 34.7 10.1 44.7 105 4.04 105 1.3 105 5 5 370 32.0 9.93 44.2 10 4.00 10 1.29 105 375 29.5 68.1 34.3 181 34.7 4.67 6.86 3.53 20.2 10.1 2.20 2.74 1.62 6.68 44.7 105 2.5 105 7.8 105 3.72 105 9.66 105 4.04 105 0.41 105 0.82 105 0.40 105 1.15 105 1.3 105 0.20 105 0.33 105 0.19 105 0.4 105

Advanced ester Formulated advanced ester Polyalkyl aromatic Synthetic paranic oil (lot 3) Synthetic paranic oil (lot 4) Synthetic paranic oil (lot 2) plus antiwear additive Synthetic paranic oil (lot 4) plus antiwear additive C-ether Superrened napthenic mineral oil Synthetic hydrocarbon (traction uid) Fluorinated polyether

Table 8.4 Absolute and kinematic viscosities of various fluids at atmospheric pressure and different temperatures.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Piezoviscous Properties of Fluids


Fluid Temperature, tm , C 38 99 149 Pressure-viscosity coecient, , m2 /N 1.28 108 0.987 108 0.851 108 1.37 108 1.00 108 0.874 108 1.58 108 1.25 108 1.01 108 1.77 108 1.51 108 1.09 108 1.99 108 1.51 108 1.29 108 1.81 108 1.37 108 1.13 108 1.96 108 1.80 108 2.51 108 3.12 108 4.17 108 1.55 108 0.980 108 1.54 108 1.71 108 3.24 108 1.25 108 0.795 108 1.27 108 0.939 108 3.02 108

Advanced ester Formulated advanced ester Polyalkyl aromatic Synthetic paranic oil (lot 3) Synthetic paranic oil (lot 4) Synthetic paranic oil (lot 2) plus antiwear additive Synthetic paranic oil (lot 4) plus antiwear additive C-ether Superrened napthenic mineral oil Synthetic hydrocarbon (traction uid) Fluorinated polyether

Table 8.5 Pressure-viscosity coefficients of various fluids at different temperatures. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Temperature, F 32 50 10 54 3 2 1 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 .06 .04 .03 .02 SAE 70 .01 60 .005 .004 30 .003 20 10 .002 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Temperature, C 90 100 110 120 130 140 310-7 50 10-6 Absolute viscosity, , reyn 10-5 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 10-3

10-4

Viscosity of Single Grade SAE Oils

Absolute viscosity, , N-s/m2

40

Figure 8.17 Absolute viscosities of SAE lubricating oils at atmospheric pressure. (a) Single grade oils.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Temperature, F 32 50 10 54 3 2 1 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 .06 .04 .03 .02 20W-50 10W-30 20W-40 .01 10-6 .005 .004 .003 20W 5W-30 10W Absolute viscosity, , reyn 10-5 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 10-3

10-4

Viscosity of Multigrade SAE Oils

Absolute viscosity, , N-s/m2

310-7

.002

20

30

40

50

60 70 80 Temperature, C

90 100 110 120 130 140

Figure 8.17 Absolute viscosities of SAE lubricating oils at atmospheric pressure. (b) Multigrade oils.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Viscosity of SAE Single-Grade Oils


C2 ! = C1 exp tF + 95 C2 ! = C1 exp 1.8tC + 127
SAE Grade 10 20 30 40 50 60

(English units) (SI units)

Constant C1 reyn N-s/m2 1.58 108 1.09 104 1.36 108 9.38 105 1.41 108 9.73 105 1.21 108 8.35 105 1.70 108 1.17 104 1.87 108 1.29 104

Constant C2 1157.5 1271.6 1360.0 1474.4 1509.6 1564.0

Table 8.6 Curve fit data for SAE single-grade oils. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Friction

W W

Coulomb Friction Law:


F

F = W
(b)

(a)

Figure 8.18 Friction force in (a) sliding and (b) rolling.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Coefcient of Friction Data


Coecient of friction, Self-mated metals in air Gold Silver Tin Aluminum Copper Indium Magnesium Lead Cadmium Chromium Pure metals and alloys sliding on steel (0.13% carbon) in air Silver Aluminum Cadmium Copper Chromium Indium Lead Copper - 20% lead Whitemetal (tin based) Whitemetal (lead based) -brass (copper - 30% zinc) Leaded / brass (copper - 40% zinc) Gray cast iron Mid steel (0.13% carbon) 2.5 0.8-1 1 0.8-1.2 0.7-1.4 2 0.5 1.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.5 2 1.2 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.8

Table 8.7 Typical coefficients of friction for combinations of unlubricated metals in air. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Abrasive and Adhesive Wear


Archard Wear Law:
k1W L v= 3H

W F L

Small spot welds Transferred surface of softer metal Asperities

Figure 8.19 Conical asperity having mean angle plowing through a softer material. This action simulates abrasive wear.

Intimate contact between metals of two opposing surfaces

Figure 8.20 Adhesive wear model.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wear Coefcient Data

Rubbing materials Gold on gold Copper on copper Mild steel on mild steel Brass on hard steel Lead on steel Polytetrauoroethylene (teon) on steel Stainless steel on hard steel Tungsten carbide on tungsten carbide Polyethylene on steel

Coecient of friction, 2.5 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.35 0.5

Adhesive wear coecient, k1 0.1-1 0.01-0.1 102 103 2 105 2 105 2 105 106 108 107

Table 8.8 Coefficients of rubbing friction and adhesive wear constant for selected rubbing materials.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a) Periodic applied load

(b) Subsurface defects

Fatigue Wear

(c) Coalescence of defects

(d) Fatigue spall

Wear particle

Figure 8.21 Fatigue wear simulation. (a) Machine element surface is subjected to cyclic loading; (b) defects and cracks develop near the surface; (c) the cracks grow and coalesce, eventually extending to the surface until (d) a wear particle is produced, leaving a fatigue spall in the material

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 9: Columns

And as imagination bodies forth the forms of things unknown, The poets pen turns them to shapes And gives to airy nothingness a local habitation and a name. William Shakespeare A Midsummer Nights Dream Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Equilibrium Regimes

P P 0 Re 0 We (a) (b) 0 P Re

We (c)

We

Figure 9.1 Depiction of equilibrium regimes. (a) Stable; (b) neutral; (c) unstable.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 9.1
l

P mag

Figure 9.2 Pendulum used in Example 9.1.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Column with Pinned Ends


P x P

y l dx y dy ds P M V

y P P (a) (b) (c) P

Figure 9.3 Column with pinned ends. (a) Assembly; (b) deformation shape; (c) load acting.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

P y x

Buckling of Columns

Euler Equation:

n2!2EI Pcr = l2

Figure 9.4 Buckling of rectangular section. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Column Effective Lengths


End condition description Both ends pinned One end pinned and one end fixed Both ends fixed One end fixed and one end free P

le = 0.7l Illustration of end condition l = le l l le = 0.5l le = 2l

Theoretical effective column length AISC (1989) recommended effective column length

le = l le = l

le = 0.7l le = 0.8l

le = 0.5l le = 0.65l

le = 2l le = 2.1l

Table 9.1 Effective length for four end conditions. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Buckling for Different Slenderness Ratio


Critical Slenderness Ratio
Yielding Yield strength A Buckling Normal stress, Johnson equation T Safe AISC Equations (le /rg) T Slenderness ratio, le /rg Euler equation

Cc =

le rg

=
E

2E ! 2 Sy

Euler Equation
(Pcr )E "2 E (!cr )E = = A (le/rg)2

Johnson Parabola
2 Sy (Pcr )J (!cr )J = = Sy 2 A 4" E

Figure 9.5 Normal stress as a function of slenderness ratio.

le rg

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

AISC Buckling Criterion


12"2E 23 (le/rg)2
(le /rg )2 2 2Cc

Elastic Buckling Inelastic Buckling

!all =

!all =

Sy

n!

Allowable Stress Reduction

5 3 (le/rg) (le/rg)3 n! = + 3 3 8Cc 8Cc

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

50 mm 27.6 mm

Example 9.3

41.7 mm

Pcr = 738.6 N Pcr = 4094 N (a) 50 mm 24.5 mm (b)

43.6 mm

Pcr = 773.5 N Pcr = 5672 N (c) (d)

Figure 9.6 Cross-sectional areas, drawn to scale, from results of Exampe 9.3, aas well as critical buckling load for each cross-sectional area.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

P e A x y l l x

P M = Pe y x y

P e

Eccentrically Loaded Column

M y P (c)

Secant Equation:
le ymax = e sec 2 P EI 1

B e P x (a) x (b)

M = Pe P

Figure 9.7 Eccentrically loaded column. (a) Eccentricity; (b) statically equivalent bending moment; (c) free-body diagram through arbitrary section.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 10: Stresses and Deformations in Cylinders

In all things, success depends on previous preparation. And without such preparation there is sure to be failure. Confucius, Analects

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Classes of Fit
Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description Loose Free Medium Snug Wringing Tight Medium Type Clearance Clearance Clearance Clearance Interference Interference Interference Applications Where accuracy is not essential, such as in building and mining equipment In rotating journals with speeds of 600 rpm or greater, such as in engines and some automotive parts In rotating journals with speeds under 600 rpm, such as in accurate machine tools and precise automotive parts Where small clearance is permissible and where moving parts are not intended to move freely under load Where light tapping with a hammer is necessary to assemble the parts In semipermanent assemblies suitable for drive or shring ts on light sections Where considerable pressure is needed to assemble and for shrink ts of medium sections; suitable for press ts on generator and motor armatures and for car wheels Where considerable bonding between surfaces is required, such as locomotive wheels and heavy crankshaft disks of large engines

Heavy force or shrink

Interference

Table 10.1 Classes of fit. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Recommended Tolerences for Classes of Fit

Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Allowance, a 0.0025d2/3 0.0014d2/3 0.0009d2/3 0.000

Interference, 0.000 0.00025d 0.0005d 0.0010d

Hub tolerance, tlh 0.0025d1/3 0.0013d1/3 0.0008d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3

Shaft tolerance, tls 0.0025d1/3 0.0013d1/3 0.0008d1/3 0.0004d1/3 0.0004d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3 0.0006d1/3

Table 10.2 Recommended tolerances in inches for classes of fit.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Recommended Tolerances for Classes of Fit

Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Allowance, a 0.0073d2/3 0.0041d2/3 0.0026d2/3 0.000

Interference, 0.000 0.00025d 0.0005d 0.0010d

Hub tolerance, tlh 0.0216d1/3 0.0112d1/3 0.0069d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3

Shaft tolerance, tls 0.0216d1/3 0.0112d1/3 0.0069d1/3 0.0035d1/3 0.0035d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3 0.0052d1/3

Table 10.3 Recommended tolerances in millimeters for classes of fit.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Maximum and Minimum Shaft and Hub Diameters

Type of t Clearance Interference

Hub diameter Maximum, Minimum dh.max dh,min d + tlh d d + tlh d

Shaft diameter Maximum Minimum ds,max ds,min da d a tls d + + tls d+

Table 10.4 Maximum and minimum diameters of shaft and hub for two types of fit.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Internally Pressurized Thin-Walled Cylinder


Stresses in ThinWalled Cylinders:
S1 th r z Q l (a)
di pi

S2 z

!r = 0 pi r !" = th pi r !z = 2th

r (b)

Figure 10.1 Internally pressurized thinwalled cylinder. (a) Stress element on cylinder; (b) stresses acting on element.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thin-Walled Cylinder - Front View


SQthdl dQ piri dQdl pi ri ro th dQ/2

Figure 10.2 Front view of internally pressurized, thin-walled cylinder. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thick-Walled Cylinder - Front View

SQ dQ/2 dQ Sr

Sr + dSr SQ dQ/2 dr dQ/2 (b) po dQ/2

SQ r

SQ sin dQ/2 SQ dQ/2

ro

ri pi

(a)

Figure 10.3 Complete front view of thick-walled cylinder internally and externally pressurized. (a) With stresses acting on cylinder; (b) with stresses acting on element. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

dDQ dr

Cylindrical Element
$Dr Dr + $r dr

1 $Dr r $Q DQ dr Dr

rdQ
Q dQ DQ + $D $Q

r dQ

dQ

Initial element Deformed element

Figure 10.4 Cylindrical polar element before and after deformation.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pressurized Cylinders
Normal stress, S
Normal stress, S

po

SQ
ri Tension Sr Radius, r

ri Tension Compression pi Sr Radius, r

Compression

ro SQ po

ro

Figure 10.5 Internally pressurized, thick-walled cylinder showing circumferential (hoop) and radial stresses for various radii.

Figure 10.6 Externally pressurized, thick-walled cylinder showing circumferential (hoop) and radial stresses for various radii.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rotating Cylinders
Normal stress, S

Normal stress, S

SQ
SQ Tension Sr Radius, r Compression

Sr ri ro

Radius, r
ro

Figure 10.7 Stresses in rotating cylinder with central hole and no pressurization.

Figure 10.8 Stresses in rotating solid cylinder and no pressurization.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Press Fit - Side View

ri rs rs

rh
rf

rh ro

Figure 10.9 Side view showing interference of press fit of hollow shaft to hub. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

rf ri

ro

Press Fit - Front View

(a)

pf

rf

rf ri

pf ro

(b)

Figure 10.10 Front view showing (a) cylinder assembled with an interference fit and (b) hub and hollow shaft disassembled (also showing interference pressure).

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 11: Shafts

When a man has a vision, he cannot obtain the power from that vision until he has performed it on the Earth for the people to see. Black Elk Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shaft Design Procedure


1. Develop a free-body diagram by replacing the various machine elements mounted on the shaft by their statically equivalent load or torque components. To illustrate this, Fig. 11.1(a) shows two gears exerting forces on a shaft, and Fig. 11.1(b) then shows a free-body diagram of the gears acting on the shaft. Draw a bending moment diagram in the x-y and x-z planes as shown in Fig. 11.1(c). The resultant internal moment at any section along the shaft may be expressed as

2.

Mx =
3.

2 + M2 Mxy xz

4. 5. 6.

Develop a torque diagram as shown in Fig. 11.1(d). Torque developed from one power-transmitting element must balance the torque from other power-transmitting elements. Establish the location of the critical cross-section, or the x location where the torque and moment are the largest. For ductile materials use the maximum-shear-stress theory (MSST) or the distortion-energy theory (DET) covered in Sec. 6.7.1. For brittle materials use the maximum-normal-stress theory (MNST), the internal friction theory (IFT), or the modied Mohr theory (MMT), covered in Sec. 6.7.2.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

z Az A P1 B Ay x T P2 (a) My Mz (b) P2 By

y T P1 Bz

Shaft Assembly

x Moment diagram caused by loads in x-z plane (c) Tx Moment diagram caused by loads in x-y plane

T x (d)

Figure 11.1 Shaft assembly. (a) Shaft with two bearings at A and B and two gears with resulting forces P1 and P2; (b) free-body diagram of torque and forces resulting from assembly drawing; (c) moment diagram in xz and xy planes; (d) torque diagram.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

160 mm

40 mm

Example 11.1
Chain

(a) y

RA

160 mm

40 mm

M x

RB
P (b)

Figure 11.2 Illustration for Example 11.1. (a) Chain drive assembly; (b) free-body diagram; (c) bending moment diagram.

80 N-m (c)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

z 0.250 m 0.250 m A y 0.050 m C 0.150 m 300 N B 200 N x 550 N 400 N 0.075 m D

z 0.250 m 150 N y 475 N 950 N 650 N 475 N 0.250 m 7.5 N-m

0.150 m 500 N x 7.5 N-m

Example 11.2

(a) A C B D A C

(b) B D

0.250 m 0.250 m 0.150 m 475 N 950 N 475 N My(N-m) My = 118.75 N-m

0.250 m 150 N Mz (N-m)

0.250 m 0.150 m 650 N 500 N

Mz = 37.5 N-m x(m) (c) A C 7.5 N-m B D (d)

My = 75 N-m x(m)

7.5 N-m 0.250 m Tx(N-m) 0.250 m 0.150 m

x(m) 7.5 (e)

Figure 11.3 Illustration for Example 11.2. (a) Assembly drawing; (b) free-body diagram; (c) moment diagram in xz plane; (d) moment diagram in xy plane; (e) torque diagram.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fluctuating Stresses on Shafts


TFa
Sm pKfSa Tm pKfsTa

Tm pKfsTa

Sm pKfSa

Se/2ns D G

(a) y

SF

A sin F
Sm +KfSa

F Sy/2ns

TFm

TF F

Tm +KfsTa

x (b)

A cos F

Tm +KfsTa

Figure 11.5 Soderberg line for shear stresses.

Figure 11.4 Fluctuating normal and shear stresses acting on shaft. (a) Stresses acting on rectangular element; (b) stresses acting on oblique plane at angle . Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Derivation in Eq. (11.29)

sin 2! A = tan 2! = cos 2! 2B

4( ~ B) 2

2 ~ 2B

Figure 11.6 Illustration of relationship given in Eq. (11.29). Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(A ~ )2 +

~ A

Shaft Design Equations


Using DET and Soderberg Criteria
ns = 32 !d 3Sy Sy Mm + K f Ma Se
2

Sy 3 + Tm + K f sTa 4 Se

32ns d= !Sy

Sy Mm + K f Ma Se

Sy 3 + Tm + K f sTa 4 Se

1/3

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 11.4

d3 d1

d2

Figure 11.7 Section of shaft in Example 11.4.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Critical Frequency of Shafts


Single Mass
!= k = ma W /y = W /g g "

Multiple Mass - Raleigh Equation


ma y W(t)
!cr = g "i=1,...,n Wi#i,max "i=1,...,n Wi#2 i,max

Figure 11.8 Simple singlemass system.

Multiple Mass - Dunkerly Equation


1 1 1 1 = 2 + 2 ++ 2 2 !cr !1 !2 !n

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 11.5

y x1

PA x2 A

PB x3 B R2 x

R1

Figure 11.9 Simply supported shaft arrangement for Example 11.5.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Keys and Pins

Figure 11.10 Illustration of keys and pins. (a) Dimensions of shaft with keyway in shaft and hub; (b) square parallel key; (c) flat parallel key; (d) tapered key; (e) tapered key with Gib head, or Gib-head key. The Gib head assists in removal of the key; (f) round key; (g) Woodruff key with illustration of mountingl (h) pin, which is often grooved. The pin is slightly larger than the hole so that friction holds the pin in place; (i) roll pin. Elastic deformation of the pin in the smaller hole leads to friction forces that keep the pin in place. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

w w

Plain Parallel Keys


d

w 2 w w l

Shaft diameter in. 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 1.500 1.675 1.750 1.875

Key width in. 0.125 0.1875 0.1875 0.1875 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.3125 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.50

Distance from keyseat to opposite side of shaft, in. 0.430 0.517 0.644 0.771 0.859 0.956 1.112 1.201 1.289 1.416 1.542 1.591

Shaft diameter in. 2.000 2.250 2.500 2.750 3.000 3.250 3.500 3.750 4.000 4.500 5.000 6.000

Key width in. 0.50 0.50 0.625 0.625 0.75 0.75 0.875 0.875 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.50

Distance from keyseat to opposite side of shaft, in. 1.718 1.972 2.148 2.402 2.577 2.831 3.007 3.261 3.437 3.944 4.296 5.155

Table 11.1 Dimensions of selected square plain parallel stock keys.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Tapered Keys

Shaft diameter in.

0.5-0.5625 0.625-0.875 0.9375-1.25 1.3125-1.375 1.4375-1.75 1.8125-2.25 2.3125-2.75 2.875-3.25 3.375-3.75 3.875-4.5 4.75-5.5 5.75-6

Square type Width Heighta w h in. in. 0.125 0.125 0.1875 0.1875 0.25 0.25 0.3125 0.3125 0375 0.375 0.5 0.5 0.625 0.625 0.75 0.75 0.875 0.875 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.25 1.50 1.50

Flat type Width Heighta w h in. in. 0.125 0.09375 0.1875 0.125 0.25 0.1875 0.3125 0.25 0.375 0.25 0.5 0.375 0.625 0.4375 0.75 0.50 0.875 0.625 1.00 0.75 1.25 0.875 1.50 1.00

Available lengths, l Minimum Maximum Available in. in. increments in. 0.50 2.00 025 0.75 3.00 0.375 1.00 4.00 0.50 1.25 5.25 0.625 1.50 6.00 0.75 2.00 8.00 1.00 2.50 10.00 1.25 3.00 12.00 1.50 3.50 14.00 1.75 4.00 16.00 2.00 5.00 20.00 2.50 6.00 24.00 3.00

Table 11.2 Dimensions of square and flat taper stock keys.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Woodruff Keys
Key No. Suggested shaft sizes, in. 0.3125-0.375 0.4375-0.50 0.6875-0.75 0.8125-0.9375 0.875-0.9375 1.00-1.1875 1.25-1.3125 1.25-1.75 1.25-1.75 1.25-1.75 1.8125-2.5 1.875-2.5 Nominal key sizea , in. wl 0.062 0.500 0.094 0.625 0.125 0.625 0.156 0.750 0.156 0.875 0.188 1.000 0.250 0.875 0.250 1.125 0.250 1.250 0.250 1.500 0.312 1.500 0.375 1.500 Height of key, in. h 0.203 0.250 0.250 0.313 0.375 0.438 0.375 0.484 0.547 0.641 0.641 0.641 Shearing Area, in.2 0.030 0.052 0.072 0.109 0.129 0.178 0.198 0.262 0.296 0.356 0.438 0.517

204 305 405 506 507 608 807 809 810 812 1012 1212

Table 11.3 Dimensions of selected Woodruff keys.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Set Screws

Screw Diameter (in.) 0.25 0.375 0.50 0.75 1.0

Holding Force (lb) 100 250 500 1300 2500

Table 11.4 Holding force generated by setscrews.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Flywheel

Tl

Tm

Figure 11.11 Flywheel with driving (mean) torque Tm and load torque Tl.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Coefcient of Fluctuation
Type of equipment Crushing machinery Electrical machinery Electrical machinery, direct driven Engines with belt transmissions Flour milling machinery Gear wheel transmission Hammering machinery Machine tools Paper-making machinery Pumping machinery Shearing machinery Spinning machinery Textile machinery Coecient of uctuation, Cf 0.200 0.003 0.002 0.030 0.020 0.020 0.200 0.030 0.025 0.030-0.050 0.030-0.050 0.010-0.020 0.025

Table 11.5 Coefcient of uctuation for various types of equipment.


!max !min 2 (!max !min) Cf = = !avg !max + !min

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Design Procedure for Sizing a Flywheel


1. Plot the load torque Tl versus for one cycle. 2. Determine Tl,avg over one cycle. 3. Find the locations max and min. 4. Determine kinetic energy by integrating the torque curve. 5. Determine avg. 6. Determine Im from Eq. (11.72).
Ke Im = C f !2 ave

7. Find the dimensions of the ywheel.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 11.7

160 Torque, T, N-m 120 80 40 0 0 12 N-m


144 N-m

12 N-m

3 2

Figure 11.12 Load or output torque variation for one cycle used in Example 11.7.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Materials for Flywheels


Performance index, Mf kJ/kg 200-2000 (compression only) 200-500 100-400 300 100-200 100-200 100-200 100-200 3 8-10

Material Ceramics Composites: Ceramic-ber-reinforced polymer Graphite-ber-reinforced polymer Berylium High-strength steel High-strength aluminum (Al) alloys High-strength magnesium (Mg) alloys Titanium alloys Lead alloys Cast iron

Comment Brittle and weak in tension. Use is usually discouraged The best performance; a good choice. Almost as good as CFRP and cheaper; an excellent choice. Good but expensive, dicult to work, and toxic All about equal in performance; steel and Al-alloys less expensive than Mg and Ti alloys High density makes these a good (and traditional) selection when performance is velocity limited, not strength limited.

Table 11.6 Materials for ywheels.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 12: Hydrodynamic and Hydrostatic Bearings


A cup of tea, standing in a dry saucer, is apt to slip about in an awkward manner, for which a remedy is found in introduction of a few drops of water, or tea, wetting the parts in contact. Lord Rayleigh (1918)

A Kingsbury Bearing.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Density Wedge and Stretch


p

ub

ub(x)

Figure 12.1 Density wedge mechanism.

Figure 12.2 Stretch mechanism.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Physical Wedge and Normal Squeeze

wa

ub

wb

Figure 12.3 Physical wedge mechanism.

Figure 12.4 Normal squeexe mechanism.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Translation Squeeze and Local Expansion


p

p ua

ub

Heat

Figure 12.5 Translation squeeze mechanism.

Figure 12.6 Local expansion mechanism.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

ua Aa E Ca

Moving

Ba

ua Da

Velocity Proles in Slider Bearings

B A Stationary (a)

Aa

Ba B

A (b)

ua
A B
L Aa ua H

Wz
Ca Ja ua

M Ka Ba ua Da I B

z
A Stationary

h
B

Figure 12.7 Velocity profiles in a parallel-surface slider bearing.

A (c)

Figure 12.8 Flow within a fixed-incline slider bearing (a) Couette flow; (b) Poiseuille flow; (c) resulting velocity profile. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Slider Bearing


Bearing pad Wt A A

ro ri Thrust bearing Lubricant

Bearing pad

Figure 12.9 Thrust slider bearing geometry. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Force and Pressure Proles for Slider Bearing


Film pressure distribution

Wz

& sh

Wa
ub q

Wxa z Wza Wzb ub Fa ho Fb


sh

ho q qs qs (both sides)

Figure 12.10 Force components and oil film geometry in a hydrodynamically lubricated thrust slider bearing.

Figure 12.11 Side view of fixedincline slider bearing.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Design Procedure for Fixed-Incline Thrust Bearing


1. Choose a pad length-to-width ratio. A square pad ( = 1) is generally thought to give good performance. If it is known whether maximum load or minimum power loss is more important in a particular application, the outlet lm thickness ratio Ho can be determined from Fig. 12.13. Once and Ho are known, Fig. 12.14 can be used to obtain the bearing number Bt. From Fig. 12.15 determine the temperature rise due to shear heating for a given and Bt. The volumetric specic heat Cs = Cp, which is the dimensionless temperature rise 4. 6 2 parameter, is relatively constant for mineral oils and is equivalent to 1.36 10 N/(m C). Determine lubricant temperature. Mean temperature can be expressed as

2. 3.

where tmi = inlet temperature, C. The inlet temperature is usually known beforehand. Once the mean temperature tm is known, it can be used in Fig. 8.17 to determine the viscosity of SAE oils, or Fig. 8.16 or Table 8.4 can be used. In using Table 8.4 if the temperature is different from the three temperatures given, a linear interpolation can be used. (continued)

!tm m = tmi + t 2

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Design Procedure for Fixed-Incline Thrust Bearing


5. Make use of Eqs. (12.34) and (12.68) to get the outlet (minimum) lm thickness h0 as

h0 = Hol

!0ubwt WzBt

Once the outlet lm thickness is known, the shoulder height sh can be directly obtained from sh = ho/Ho. If in some applications the outlet lm thickness is specied and either the velocity ub or the normal applied load Wz is not known, Eq. (12.72) can be rewritten to establish ub or Wz. 6. Check Table 12.1 to see if the outlet (minimum) lm thickness is sufcient for the pressurized surface nish. If ho from Eq. (12.72) ho from Table 12.1, go to step 7. If ho from Eq. (12.72) < ho from Table 12.1, consider one or both of the following steps: Increase the bearing speed. Decrease the load, the surface nish, or the inlet temperature. Upon making this change return to step 3. 7. Evaluate the other performance parameters. Once an adequate minimum lm thickness and a proper lubricant temperature have been determined, the performance parameters can be evaluated. Specically, from Fig. 12.16 the power loss, the coefcient of friction, and the total and side ows can be determined. a. b.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

1.0

Dimensionless minimum film thickness, Ho = ho /sh

Slider Bearings: Conguration and Film Thickness


Sliding surface or runner ri Na

.8
Maximum normal load

.6

.4

Minimum power consumed

ro

.2

Length-to-width ratio, = l /wt

Figure 12.13 Chart for determining Pads minimum film thickness corresponding to maximum load or Figure 12.12 Configuration of minimum power loss for various multiple fixed-incline thrust slider pad proportions in fixed-incline bearing bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Film Thickness for Hydrodynamic Bearings


Surface nish (centerline average), Ra m in. 0.1-0.2 4-8 Examples of manufacturing methods Grind, lap, and supernish Grind and lap Approximate relative costs 17-20 Allowable outlet (minimum) lm thicknessa , ho m in. 2.5 100

Description of surface Mirror-like surface without toolmarks; close tolerances .2-.4 8-16 Smooth surface with17-20 6.2 250 out scratches; close tolerances .4-.8 16-32 Smooth surfaces; close Grind, le, 10 12.5 500 tolderances and lap .8-1.6 32-63 Accurate bearing surGrind, precision 7 25 1000 face without toolmarks mill, and le 1.6-3.2 63-125 Smooth surface withShape, mill, 5 50 2000 out objectionable toolgrind and marks; moderate turn tolerances a The values of lm thickness are given only for guidance. They indicate the lm thickness required to avoid metal-to-metal contact under clean oil conditions with no misalignment. It may be necessary to take a larger lm thickness than that indicated (e.g., to obtain an acceptable temperature rise). It has been assumed that the average surface nish of the pads is the same as that of the runner.

Table 12.1 Allowable outlet (minimum) film thickness for a given surface finish. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Bearing - Film Thickness


10 6

Dimensionless minimum film thickness, Ho = ho /sh

4 2

Length-towidth ratio, 0
1/2

1
1

2 3 4

.6 .4 .2 .1

10

20

40

60

100

200

400

1000

Bearing number, Bt

Figure 12.14 Chart for determining minimum film thickness for fixed-incline thrust bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Bearings - Temperature Rise


1000 600

Dimensionless temperature rise, 0.9 Cs wt l t m /Wz

400 200

Length-towidth ratio, 4 3 2 1

100 60 40 20 10 6 4 0 1 2 4 6 10 20 40

1/2

60

100

200

400

1000

Bearing number, Bt

Figure 12.14 Chart for determining dimensionless temperature rise due to viscous shear heating of lubricant for fixed-incline thrust bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Bearings - Friction Coefcient


1000 600 Dimensionless coefficient of friction, l / sh 400 200 100 60 40 20 10 6 4 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

Length-towidth ratio,

1/2

10

20

40

60

100

200

400

1000

Bearing number, Bt

Figure 12.16a Chart for determining friction coefficient for fixedincline thrust bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Bearings - Power Loss


1000 600 Power loss variable, 1.5 hpl / Wz ub sh, W-s/N-m 400 200 4 100 60 40 20 10 6 4 2 1 1
1/2

Length-towidth ratio, L

10

20

40 60

100

200

400

1000

Bearing number, Bt

Figure 12.16b Chart for determining power loss for fixed-incline thrust bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(b)

Thrust Bearings - Lubricant Flow


4

q qs (both sides)

q qs Length-towidth ratio, L
1/2

Dimensionless flow, q/wt ub sh

4
1

3 2

10

20

40

60

100

200

400

1000

Bearing number, Bt
(c) Figure 12.16c Chart for determining lubricant flow for fixedincline thrust bearings.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Bearings - Side Flow


1.0

.8

Volumetric flow ratio, qs /q

Length-towidth ratio,
.6

4 3
.4 .2

1
1/2

0
0 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 200 400 1000

Bearing number, Bt

Figure 12.16d Chart for determining lubricant side flow for fixedincline thrust bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wr

Journal Bearing Pressure Distribution


e 0a 0 Wb hmin

F0

& Film pressure, p Fmax

Figure 12.17 Pressure distribution around a journal bearing.

pmax

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Concentric Journal Bearing

u Na r

Figure 12.18 Concentric Journal Bearing

c wt

2r u u Bearing h=c Journal

Figure 12.19 Developed journal bearing surfaces for a concentric journal bearing. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Typical Radial Load for Journal Bearings


Average radial load per area, Wr psi MPa

Application Automotive engines: Main bearings Connecting rod bearing Diesel engines: Main bearings Connecting rod bearing Electric motors Steam turbines Gear reducers Centrifugal pumps Air compressors: Main bearings Crankpin Centrifugal pumps

600-750 1700-2300 900-1700 1150-2300 120-250 150-300 120-250 100-180 140-280 280-500 100-180

4-5 10-15 6-12 8-15 0.8-1.5 1.0-2.0 0.8-1.5 0.6-1.2 1-2 2-4 0.6-1.2

Table 12.2 Typical radial load per area Wr* in use for journal bearings. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Film Thickness

Figure 12.20 Effect of bearing number on minimum film thickness for four diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearings - Attitude Angle


100 Diameter-towidth ratio, j 0 60 40 1 2 4

Attitude angle, , deg

80

20

10 2

10 1 Bearing number, Bj

100

101

Figure 12.21 Effect of bearing number on attitude angle for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Friction Coefcient


2 102 102 Dimensionless coefficient of friction variable, rb /c

Diameter-towidth ratio, j
10
1

2 0 1

100 0 10 2 10 1 Bearing number, Bj 100 101

Figure 12.21 Effect of bearing number on coefficient of friction for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Flow Rate


8 Diameter-towidth ratio, j 4 2 4 1 0

Dimensionless volumetric flow rate, Q = 2q /rbcwt b

10 2

10 1 Bearing number, Bj

100

101

Figure 12.23 Effect of bearing number on dimensionless volume flow rate for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Side Flow


1.0

Side-leakage flow ratio, qs /q

.8 .6 .4

Diameter-towidth ratio, j

1 .2

10 2

10 1 Bearing number, Bj

100

101

Figure 12.21 Effect of bearing number on side-flow leakage for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Maximum Pressure


1.0
Dimensionless maximum film pressure, Pmax = Wr /2rb wt pmax

.8 .6

Diameter-towidth ratio, j

1 .4 .2 2 4

10 2

10 1 Bearing number, Bj

100

101

Figure 12.25 Effect of bearing number on dimensionless maximum film pressure for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Maximum and Terminating Pressure Location


Location of maximum pressure, max, deg Location of terminating pressure, 0, deg

Diameter-towidth ratio, j 100 0 80 60 40 1 20 0


10 2 10 1 Bearing number, Bj 100

0 max

25 1 2 4 20 4 15 10 5 0
101

Figure 12.21 Effect of bearing number on location of terminating and maximum pressure for four different diameter-to-width ratios. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Journal Bearing - Effect of Radial Clearance


Minimum film thickness, h min; power loss, hp; outlet temperature, tmo; volumetric flow rate, q

hmin hp

t mo

.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0 103

Radial clearance, c, in.

Figure 12.27 Effect of radial clearance on some performance parameters for a particular case. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Squeeze Film Bearing


w = h t

l z

ho

Surface b x

Surface a Figure 12.21 Parallel-surface squeeze film bearing


Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wz Bearing runner

Wz

Bearing pad Bearing recess Manifold (a) Wz (b) Wz Recess pressure, pr = 0 Supply pressure, ps = 0 pr > 0 ps > 0

Restrictor

Flow, q=0

Fluid Film in Hydrostatic Bearing

ho

q=0

p = pl p = pl

p = pr p = ps

(c) Wz + Wz

(d) Wz Wz ho + ho

ho ho

p = pr + pr p = ps

p = pr pr p = ps

Figure 12.29 Formation of fluid film in hydrostatic bearing system. (a) Pump off; (b) pressure buildup; (c) pressure times recess area equals normal applied load; (d) bearing operation; (e) increased load; (f) decreased load.

(e)

(f)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wz

Radial Flow Hydrostatic Bearing


ro ri

p=0

pr

sh

ho

Figure 12.30 Radial flow hydrostratic thrust bearing with circular step pad.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 13: Rolling Element Bearings


Since there is no model in nature for guiding wheels on axles or axle journals, man faced a great task in designing bearings - a task which has not lost its importance and attraction to this day.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Radial Ball Bearings


Type Approximate range of bore sizes, mm Mini- Maximum mum 3 1060 Relative capacity Radial Thrust Limiting speed factor Tolerance to misalignment 0 15 0 3 2 30 High

Conrad or deep groove Maximum capacity or lling notch Self-aligning, internal Self-aligning, external Double row, maximum Double row, deep groove

1.00

a 0.7

1.0

10

130

1.2-1.4

a 0.2

1.0

120

0.7

b 0.2

1.0

1.0

a 0.7

1.0

110

1.5

a 0.2

1.0

0 3 0

110

1.5

a 1.4

1.0

Table 13.1 Characteristics of representative radial ball bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Angular-Contact Ball Bearings


Type Approximate maximum bore size, mm 320 Relative capacity Radial Thrust
b 1.00-1.15 a,b 1.5-2.3

Limiting speed factor


b 1.1-3.0

Tolerance to misalignment 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0

One-directional thrust Duplex, back to back Duplex, face to face Duplex, tandem

320

1.85

c 1.5

3.0

320

1.85

c 1.5

3.0

320

1.85

a 2.4

3.0

Two directional or split ring Double row

110

1.15

1.5

3.0

140

1.5

1.85

0.8

Table 13.2 Characteristics of representative angular-contact ball bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Thrust Ball Bearings

Type

One directional, at race One directional, grooved race Two directional, grooved race

Approximate range of bore sizes, mm Minimum Maximum 6.45 88.9

Relative thrust
a 0.7

Limiting speed 0.10

Tolerance to misb 0

6.45

1180

a 1.5

0.30

15

220

c 1.5

0.30

Table 13.1 Characteristics of representative thrust ball bearings.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Cylindrical Roller Bearings


Type Approximate range of bore sizes, mm MiniMaximum mum 10 320 Relative capacity Radial thrust Limiting speed factor Tolerance to misalignment 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5

Separable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Separable inner ring, nonlocating (NU) Separable inner ring, one-direction locating (NJ) Separable inner ring, two-direction locating

1.55

1.20

12

500

1.55

1.20

12

320

1.55

a Locating

1.15

20

320

1.55

b Locating

1.15

Table 13.1 Characteristics of representative cylindrical roller bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Spherical Roller Bearings


Type Approximate range of bore sizes, mm MiniMaximum mum 20 320 Relative capacity Radial Thrust Limiting speed factor Tolerance to misalignment 2

Single row, barrel or convex

2.10

0.20

0.50

Double row, barrel or convex

25

1250

2.40

0.70

0.50

1 30

Thrust

85

360

a 0.10 b 0.10

a 1.80 b 2.40

0.35-0.50

Double row, concave


a Symmetric

50

130

2.40

0.70

0.50

1 30

b Asymmetric

rollers. rollers.

Table 13.5 Characteristics of representative spherical roller bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Radial Single-Row Ball Bearings


bw cd

da de di

db

do

Figure 13.1 (a) Cross section through radial single-row ball bearings; (b) examples of radial single-row ball bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Race Conformity and Axial Shift


f cd 4

r d

x ro

ri

d 2 cd 4

ro

cr ri

cd cr 2

Figure 13.2 Cross section of ball and outer race, showing race conformity.

Axis of rotation (a)

ce 2 Axis of rotation (b)

Figure 13.1 Cross section of radial bearing, showing ball-race contact due to axial shift of inner and outer races. (a) Initial position; (b) shifted position.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

48 44 40 36 Free contact angle, f 32 28 24

Total conformity ratio, B 0.02

Free contact angle Dimensionless endplay

Free Contact Angle and Endplay

.04 .06 Dimensionless endplay, ce/2d

20 16 12 8 4 0

.08

.040 .032

.08 .06 .04 .02

.024 .016 .008

0 .001 .002 .003 .004 .005 .006 .007 .008 .009 Dimensionless diametral clearance, cd /2d

Figure 13.4 (a) Free contact angle and endplay as function of cd/2d for four values of total conformity ratio.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Ball Bearing

r d

de + d cos 2

sh

de d cos 2 C L i

de /2 o

Figure 13.5 Shoulder height in a ball bearing.

Figure 13.6 Cross section of ball bearing.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Spherical, Cylindrical and Toroidal Bearings

lt

le

ll d rr
rr

ll d

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.7 (a) Spherical roller (fully crowned) and (b) cylindrical roller; (c) section of toroidal roller bearing. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Spherical Roller Bearing

Outer ring

cd 2

ce 2

rr

ri

rr

ro cd /2
ro

de

ro

Axis of rotation

Figure 13.8 Geometry of spherical roller bearing.

Figure 13.9 Schematic diagram of spherical roller bearing, showing diametral play and endplay. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Contact Angle and Angular Velocity of Ball


Pzo

ro

o so

Centrifugal force

i si
i

Pzi

ri i o

Figure 13.10 Contact angles in ball bearing at appreciable speeds.

Figure 13.11 Angular velocities of ball

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Ball Spin Orientations


b

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.12 Ball-spin orientations for (a) outer-race and (b) inner race control. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Tapered Roller Bearing

de /2

Figure 13.13 Tapered-roller bearing. (a) Tapered-roller bearing with outer race removed to show rolling elements; (b) simplified geometry for tapered-roller bearing. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

di

di + 2d cd /2

do

Radially Loaded Rolling Element Bearing

c cd /2 (a)

(b)

cd /2 m max

max (c)

Figure 13.14 Radial loaded rollingelement bearing. (a) Concentric arrangement; (b) initial contact; (c) interference.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Contact Ellipse and Angular Contact Ball Bearing

Outer race

P sh f

r s

ro f ri Inner race

t m cr cr cd /2
ce /2

t cr

cr cd /2 f

Dy D x
t
P C L

cr + m

Figure 13.15 Contact ellipse in bearing race under load.

Figure 13.16 Angular-contact ball bearing under thrust load.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Back-to-Back Arrangement

Stickout (a) Pa

Stickout

Bearing a (b)

Bearing b

Pa

Figure 13.17 Angular-contact bearings in back-to-back arrangement, shown (a) individually as manufactured and (b) as mounted with preload.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Load-Deection Curve

Bearing b load Applied thrust load, Pa System thrust load, Pt Preload

Bearing a load

Stickout Axial deflection, a

Figure 13.18 Thrust load-axial deflection curve for typical ball bearing. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Principal dimensions db mm in. 15 0.5906 da bw

Basic load ratings Dynamic Static C N lb 5590 1260 5590 1260 7800 1750 11,400 2560 6890 1550 9360 2100 12,700 2860 15,900 3570 30,700 6900 11,200 5520 14,000 3150 22,500 5060 35,800 8050 13,300 2990 19,500 4380 28,100 6320 43,600 9800 15,900 3570 25,500 5370 33,200 7460 55,300 12,400 16,800 3780 30,700 6900 41,000 9220 63,700 14,300 C0

20 0.7874

25 0.9843

30 1.1811

35 1.3780

40 1.5748

32 1.2598 32 1.2598 35 1.3780 35 1.3780 42 16535 42 1.6535 47 1.8504 52 2.0472 72 2.8346 47 1.8504 52 2.0472 62 2.4409 80 3.1496 55 2.1654 62 2.4409 72 2.8346 90 3.5433 62 2.4409 72 2.8346 80 3.1496 100 3.9370 68 2.6672 80 3.1496 90 3.5433 110 4.3307

8 0.3510 8 0.3543 11 0.4331 13 0.5118 8 0.3150 12 0.4724 14 0.5512 15 0.5906 19 0.7480 12 0.4724 15 0.5906 17 0.6693 21 0.8268 15 0.5118 16 0.6299 19 0.7480 23 0.9055 14 0.5512 17 0.6693 21 0.8268 25 0.9843 15 0.5906 18 0.7087 23 0.9055 27 1.0630

2850 641 2850 641 3750 843 5400 1210 4050 910 5000 1120 6550 1470 7800 1750 15,000 3370 6550 1470 7800 1750 11,600 2610 19,300 4340 8300 1870 11,200 2520 16,000 3600 23,600 5310 10,200 2290 15,300 3440 19,000 4270 31,000 6970 11,600 2610 19,000 4270 24,000 5400 36,500 8210

Allowable load limit wall N lb 120 27.0 120 27.0 160 36.0 228 51.3 173 38.9 212 47.7 280 62.9 335 75.3 640 144 275 61.8 335 75.3 490 110 815 183 355 79.8 475 107 670 151 1000 225 440 98.9 655 147 815 183 1290 290 490 110 800 147 1020 229 1530 344

Speed ratings Grease Oil

Mass

Designation

Bearing Ratings

rpm 22,000 22,000 19,000 17,000 17,000 17,000 15,000 13,000 10,000 15,000 12,000 11,000 9000 12,000 10,000 9000 8500 10,000 9000 8500 7000 9500 8500 7500 6700

28,000 28,000 24,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 13,000 18,000 15,000 14,000 11,000 15,000 13,000 11,000 10,000 13,000 11,000 10,000 8500 12,000 10,000 9000 8000

kg lbm 0.025 0.055 0.030 0.066 0.045 0.099 0.082 0.18 0.050 0.11 0.090 0.15 0.11 0.15 0.14 0.31 0.40 0.88 0.080 0.18 0.13 0.29 0.23 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.12 0.26 0.20 0.44 0.35 0.77 0.74 1653 0.16 0.35 0.29 0.64 0.46 1.00 0.95 2.10 0.19 0.42 0.37 0.82 0.63 1.40 1.25 2.75

16002 6002 6202 6302 16004 6004 6204 6304 6406 6005 6205 6305 6405 6006 6206 6306 6406 6007 6207 6307 6407 6008 6208 6308 6408

Table 13.1 Single-row, deepgroove ball bearings.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Principal dimensions db mm in. 15 0.5906 da bw

Basic load ratings Dynamic Static C N lb 12,500 2810 19,400 4360 25,100 5640 30,800 6920 28,600 6430 40,200 9040 38,000 8540 51,200 11,500 48,400 10,900 64,400 14,500 53,900 12,100 80,900 18,200 60,500 13,600 99,000 22,300 64,400 14,500 110,000 24,700 C0

20 0.7874

25 0.9843

30 1.811

35 1.3780

40 1.5748

45 1.7717

50 1.9685

35 1.3780 42 1.6535 47 1,8504 52 2.0472 52 2.0472 62 2.4409 62 2.4409 72 2.8346 72 2.8346 80 3.1496 80 3.1496 90 3.5433 85 3.3465 100 3.9370 90 3.5433 110 4.3307

11 0.4331 13 0.5118 14 0.5512 15 0.5906 15 0.5906 17 0.6693 16 0.6299 19 0.7480 17 0.693 21 0.8268 18 0.7087 23 0.9055 19 0.7480 25 0.9843 20 0.7874 27 1.0630

10,200 2290 15,300 3440 22,000 4950 26,000 5850 27,000 6070 36,500 8210 36,500 8210 48,000 10,800 48,000 10,800 63,000 14,200 53,000 11,900 78,000 17,500 64,000 14,400 100,000 22,500 69,500 15,600 112,000 25,200

Allowable load limit wall N lb 1200 274 1860 418 2750 618 3250 731 3350 753 4550 1020 4450 1020 6200 1390 6100 1390 8150 1830 6700 1510 10,200 2290 8150 1830 12,900 2900 8800 1980 15,000 3370

Speed ratings Grease Oil

Mass

Designation

Bearing Ratings

rpm 18,000 16,000 13,000 12,000 11,000 9500 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 6700 6700 6300 6300 5000

22,000 19,000 16,000 15,000 14,000 12,000 12000 11,000 10,000 9500 9000 8000 8000 7500 7500 6000

kg lbm 0.047 0.10 0.086 0.19 0.11 0.24 0.15 0.33 0.13 0.29 0.24 0.53 0.20 0.44 0.36 0.79 0.30 0.66 0.48 1.05 0.37 0.82 0.65 1.05 0.43 0.95 0.90 2.00 0.48 1.05 1.15 2.55

NU 202 EC NU 302 EC NU 204 EC NU 304 EC NU 205 EC NU 305 EC NU 206 EC NU 306 EC NU 207 EC NU 307 EC NU 208 EC NU 308 EC NU 209 EC NU 309 EC NU 210 EC NU 310 EC

Table 13.7 Singlerow cylindrical roller bearings.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Combined Load
P Pr = Pcosp

P0 = X0 Pr + Y0 Pa
Bearing type Radial deep-groove ball Radial angular-contact ball = 20 = 25 = 30 = 35 = 40 Single row X0 Y0 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.42 0.5 0.38 0.5 0.33 0.5 0.29 0.5 0.26 0.5 0.22 cot 0.5 0.22 cot 0.5 0.22 cot Double row X0 Y0 0.6 0.5 1 0.84 1 0.76 1 0.66 1 0.58 1 0.52 1 0.44 cot 1 0.44 cot 1 0.44 cot

p Pa = Psinp

Radial self-aligning ball Radial spherical roller Radial tapered roller

Table 13.8 Radial factor X0 and thrust factor Figure 13.19 Combined load acting Y0 for statically stressed radial bearings. on radial deep-groove ball bearing. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Fatigue Spall

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.20 Typical fatigue spall (a) Spall on tapered roller bearing; (b) detail of fatigue spall. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Fatigue Failure
4

Life

2
S1 = 1 M1 S2 = 1 M2 S3 = 1 M3 Sm = 1 Mm

~ L ~ L = 0.2

20

40 60 Bearings failed, percent

80

100

Figure 13.22 Representation of m similar stressed volumes.

Figure 13.21 Distribution of bearing fatigue failures. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Bearing Fatigue Failures


95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5

Specimens tested, percent

4 6 10 20 40 60 100 Specimen life, millions of stress cycles

1000

Figure 13.23 Typical Weibull plot of bearing fatigue failures. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Capacity Formulas
Bearing type e Deep-groove ball bearings Pa /C0 = 0.025 Pa /C0 = 0.04 Pa /C0 = 0.07 Pa /C0 = 0.13 Pa /C0 = 0.25 Pa /C0 = 0.50 Angular = 20 contact ball = 25 bearings = 30 = 35 = 40 = 45 Self-aligning ball bearings Spherical roller bearings Tapered-roller bearings 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44 0.57 0.68 0.80 0.95 1.14 1.33 1.5 tan 1.5 tan 1.5 tan Single-row bearings Pa Pa e >e Pr Pr X Y X Y 1 0 0.56 2.0 1 0 0.56 1.8 1 0 0.56 1.6 1 0 0.56 1.4 1 0 0.56 1.2 1 0 0.56 1 1 0 0.43 1 1 0 0.41 0.87 1 0 0.39 0.76 1 0 0.37 0.66 1 0 0.35 0.57 1 0 0.33 0.50 Double-row bearings Pa Pa e >e Pr Pr X Y X Y

0.40

0.4 cot

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1.09 0.92 0.78 0.66 0.55 0.47 0.42 cot 0.45 cot 0.42 cot

0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.65 0.67 0.67

1.63 1.41 1.24 1.07 0.93 0.81 0.65 cot 0.67 cot 0.67 cot

Table 13.9 Capacity formulas for rectangular and elliptical conjunctions for radial and angular bearings. Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Radial and Thrust Factor for Thrust Bearings

Bearing type e = 45 = 60 = 75 Spherical roller thrust Tapered roller Thrust ball 1.25 2.17 4.67 1.5 tan 1.5 tan

Single acting Pa >e Pr X Y 0.66 1 0.92 1 1.66 1 tan 1 tan 1

Double acting Pa Pa e >e Pr Pr X Y X Y 1.18 0.59 0.66 1 1.90 0.55 0.92 1 3.89 0.52 1.66 1 1.5 tan 0.67 tan 1 1.5 tan 0.67 tan 1

Table 13.10 Radial factor X and thrust factor Y for thrust bearings.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Material Factors
Material 52100 M-1 M-2 M-10 M-50 T-1 Halmo M-42 WB 49 440C Material factor, D 2.0 0.6 0.6 2.0 2.0 0.6 2.0 0.2 0.6 0.6-0.8

Table 13.11 Material factors for through-hardened bearing materials.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Lubrication and Bearing Life


3.5
300 Region of lubrication-related surface distress

From Skurka (1970) Mean curve recommended for use

3.0 2.5

250

200

Lubrication factor, Fl

~ L10 life, percent

150

Region of possible surface distress

2.0 1.5 1.0 .5 From Tallian (1967)

~ L10 life

100

Calculated from AFBMA

50

0 .6

.8

2 4 6 Dimensionless film parameter,

10

0 .6

.8

2 4 6 Dimensionless film parameter,

10

Figure 13.24 Group fatigue life L10 as a function of dimensionless film parameter.

Figure 13.25 Lubrication factor as a function of dimensionless film parameter.

Hamrock Fundamentlas of Machine Elements

Chapter 14
Just stare at the machine. There is nothing wrong with that. Just live with it for a while. Watch it the way you watch a line when fishing and before long, as sure as you live, youll get a little nibble, a little fact asking in a timid, humble way if youre interested in it. Thats the way the world keeps on happening. Be interested in it. Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spur Gears

Figure 14.1 Spur gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing spur gears; (b) a collection of spur gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Gears

Figure 14.2 Helical gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing helical gears; (b) a collection of helical gears. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bevel Gears

Figure 14.3 Bevel gear drive. (a) Schematic illustration of meshing bevel gears; (b) a collection of bevel gears. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Worm Gears

(a)

(b)

Figure 14.4 Worm gear drive. (a) Cylindrical teeth; (b) double enveloping; (c) a collection of worm gears. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pinion Line of action

Ou ts P iid te ch (
Base circle

r bp rp r op
pdd )iam

Spur Gear Geometry

ete

r, d

Pitch circle

op

Pressure angle, F

Tooth profile Pitch circle Whole depth, ht Addendum, a

Center distance, cd

Working depth, hk Clearance, cr Base diameter, dbg Ro ot dia me ter Circular tooth thickness Chordal tooth thickness

Dedendum, b

Root (tooth) Fillet Top land

r bg
rg

rog
me te r, d
g

Circular pitch, pc

Gear

Figure 14.5 Basic spur gear geometry.

Pit ch

dia

Pitch point

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gear Teeth
id th Fa c To p ew la nd

Addendum

Circular pitch

Dedendum

Tooth thickness

Width of space

Pitch circl e

Fa c Fl a Bo tto m la nd

Outside c

ircle

Clearance

Fillet radius

Dedendum circle

Clearance circle

Figure 14.6 Nomenclature of gear teeth. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

nk

Standard Tooth Size

21 2

Class Coarse Medium coarse Fine Ultrane

Diametral pitch, pd , in1 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 12, 14, 16, 18 20, 24, 32, 48, 64 72, 80, 96, 120, 128 150, 180, 200

10

12

14

16

Figure 14.7 Standard diametral pitches compared with tooth size.

Table 14.1 Preferred diametral pitches for four tooth classes

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

200
h;
d
it c

=8

n (m .00 i

= 8; d

= 20 0

100 70 50 30 Power transmitted, hp 20

3p

Data for all curves: gr = 4, NP=24 Ka = 1.0 20 full depth teeth

150 100

Power vs. Pinion Speed

70 60 =4.00 in (m=4; d=100 mm) 50 6 pi tc h ; d 40 30 20 15


(m=2; d 00 in . 2 = d
) =50 mm

10.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0

10.0 7.0 5.0 3.0 2.0

12 p

i tc h ;

24

;d p i t ch

= 1. 0 0

m) d=25 m ; 1 = m in (

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.7 0.5

Power transmitted, kW

1.0 0.7 0.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000

Figure 14.8 Transmitted power as a function of pinion speed for a number of diametral pitches.

3600

Pinion speed, rpm

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gear Geometry Formulas

Parameter Addendum Dedendum Clearance

Symbol a b c

Coarse pitch (pd < 20 in.1 ) 1/pd 1.25/pd 0.25/pd

Fine pitch (pd 20 in.1 ) 1/pd 1.200/pd + 0.002 0.200/pd + 0.002

Metric module system 1.00 m 1.25 m 0.25 m

Table 14.2 Formulas for addendum, dedendum, and clearance (pressure angle, 20; full-depth involute).

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pitch and Base Circles


Base circle Pitch circle Pinion

rbp rp

a Pitch point, pp Pitch circle b g

Base circle rbg Gear rg

Figure 14.9 Pitch and base circles for pinion and gear as well as line of action and pressure angle.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Involute Curve

Base circle A4 A3 A2 A1 Involute C4 B4 C3 C2 C1 A0 B1 B2 B3

Figure 14.10 Construction of the involute curve.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Construction of the Involute Curve


1. Divide the base circle into a number of equal distances, thus constructing A0, A1, A2,... 2. Beginning at A1, construct the straight line A1B1, perpendicular with 0A1, and likewise beginning at A2 and A3. 3. Along A1B1, lay off the distance A1A0, thus establishing C1. Along A2B2, lay off twice A1A0, thus establishing C2, etc. 4. Establish the involute curve by using points A0, C1, C2, C3,... Gears made from the involute curve have at least one pair of teeth in contact with each other.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Contact Parameters
Arc of approach qa Arc of recess qr

Line o f actio n
a A P B b

Outs

ide c ircle

Outside circle

Pitc h ci rcle

Motion
Lab

Figure 14.11 Illustration of parameters important in defining contact. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Line of Action

Length of line of action:


Lab =
2 r2 + rop bp 2 r 2 c sin ! rog d bg

Contact ratio:
1 Cr = pc cos !
2 r2 + rop bp 2 r2 rog bg

cd tan ! pc

Figure 14.12 Details of line of action, showing angles of approach and recess for both pinion and gear. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Backlash

P itc

h ci

ci ase

r cle

rcle

0
Base circle

Pitch

circl e Pressure line

Backlash

Backlash

Diametral pitch pd , in. 1 18 12 8 5 3 2 1.25

Center distance, cd , in. 2 4 8 16 32 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.008 0.010 0.014 0.010 0.012 0.016 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.028 0.021 0.025 0.033 0.034 0.042

Figure 14.13 Illustration of backlash in gears.

Table 14.3 Recommended minimum backlash for coarsepitched gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Meshing Gears
Gear 2 (N2 teeth)

Gear 1 (N1 teeth)

W2

r2 W1
r1 r2

Gear 1 (N1) r1

Gear 2 (N2)

W1

(+)

()

W2

Figure 14.14 Externally meshing gears.

Figure 14.15 Internally meshing gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gear Trains
N2

Figure 14.16 Simple gear train.


N1

N2 N1

N5 N6

Figure 14.17 Compound gear train.

N3

N4

N7

N8

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 14.7
Input Shaft 1 A NA = 20 A Only pitch circles of gears shown

B NB = 70 Shaft 2 NC = 18 C D ND = 22 C D

Shaft 3 E N = 54 E

Shaft 4 Output

Figure 14.18 Gear train used in Example 14.7.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Planetary Gear Trains


Important planet gear equations:
R P A Ring Planet Arm Sun S R P

!ring !arm Nsun = !sun !arm Nring


S

! planet !arm Nsun = !sun !arm Nplanet Nring = Nsun + 2Nplanet

(a)

(b)

Figure 14.19 Illustration of planetary gear train. (a) With three planets; (b) with one planet (for analysis only).

Zp =

!L !A !F !A

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gear Quality
AGMA quality index (16) (6) 14 (17) 9 8 (7) 15 13 12 11 10 (4)(5) 100

Gear shaper-hobbing Shaving Production grinding Special methods

10 Relative cost

1 0.5

1 2

4 5

6 7

8 9 10 11 12

DIN quality number

Application Cement mixer drum driver Cement kiln Steel mill drives Corn pickers Punch press Mining conveyor Clothes washing machine Printing press Automotive transmission Marine propulsion drive Aircraft engine drive Gyroscope Pitch velocity ft/min m/s 0-800 0-4 800-2000 4-10 2000-4000 10-20 > 4000 > 20

0.0005

0.0010

Quality index, Qv 3-5 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-7 5-7 8-10 9-11 10-11 10-12 10-13 12-14 Quality index, Qv 6-8 8-10 10-12 12-14

 0.00005 in.

0.00010

0.010

Figure 14.20 Gear cost as a function of gear quality. The numbers along the vertical lines indicate tolerances.

0.015

Table 14.4 Quality index Qv for various applications.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Form Cutting

Form cutter

Gear blank

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 14.21 Form cutting of teeth. (a) A form cutter. Notice that the tooth profile is defined by the cutter profile. (b) Schematic illustration of the form cutting process. (c) Form cutting of teeth on a bevel gear. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pinion-Shaped Cutter

Figure 14.22 Production of gear teeth with a pinion-shaped cutter. (a) Schematic illustration of the process; (b) photograph of the process with gear and cutter motions indicated. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gear Hobbing
Top view

Gear blank

(b) Helical gear

Hob rotation Hob Hob

Gear blank

(a)

(b)

Figure 14.23 Production of gears through the hobbing process. (a) A hob, along with a schematic illustration of the process; (b) production of a worm gear through hobbing. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Allowable Bending Stress

Allowable bending stress number, Sb, MPa

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 120 150 200
r Th
e ne

Grade 2
ed trid Ni
rd -h a
d

60

50

Material Through-hardened steels


ksi

Grade 1 2 1 2

Allowable bending stress number MPa 0.703 HB + 113 0.533 HB + 88.3 0.0823 HB + 12.15 0.1086 HB + 15.89 ksi 0.0773 HB + 12.8 0.102 HB + 16.4 0.568 HB + 83.8 0.749 HB + 110

ou

gh

ided Nitr

40 Grade 1

Th

ro

-h u gh

d ene ard

30

Nitriding throughhardened steels


20 10 450

250 300 350 Brinell hardness, HB

400

Figure 14.24 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress number for steel gears. (a) Through-hardened steels. Note that the Brinell hardness refers to the case hardness for these gears. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Allowable Bending and Contact Stress


Material designation Steel Through-hardened Carburized & hardened Grade Typical Hardnessa 55-64 HRC 58-64 HRC 58-64 HRC 83.5 HR15N 87.5 HR15N 87.5 HR15N 87.5 HR15N 87.5 HR15N 87.5 HR15N 174 HB 201 HB 140 HB 179 HB 229 HB 269 HB Allowable bending stress, all,b lb/in.2 MPa See Fig. 14.24a See Fig. 14.24a 55,000 380 65,000b 450b 75,000 515 See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b See Fig. 14.24b 5000 8500 13,000 22,000-33,000 22,000-33,000 27,000-40,000 31,000-44,000 5700 23,600 34.5 59 90 150-230 150-230 185-275 215-305 39.5 165 Allowable contact stress, all,b lb/in.2 MPa See Fig. 14.25 See Fig. 14.25 180,000 1240 225,000 1550 275,000 1895 150,000 1035 163,000 1125 170,000 1170 183,000 1260 155,000 1070 172,000 1185 189,000 1305 50,000-60,000 65,000-75,000 75,000-85,000 77,000-92,000 77,000-92,000 92,000-112,000 103,000-126,000 30,000 65,000 345-415 450-520 520-585 530-635 530-635 635-770 710-870 205 450 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 Class 20 Class 30 Class 40 60-40-18 80-55-06 100-70-03 120-90-02

Nitrided and throughhardened Nitralloy 135M and Nitralloy N, nitrided 2.5% Chrome, nitrided

Cast Iron ASTM A48 gray cast iron, as-cast ASTM A536 ductile (nodular) iron

Bronze Sut > 40, 000 psi (Sut > 275GP a) Sut > 90, 000 psi (Sut > 620GP a)

Table 14.5 Allowable bending and contact stresses for selected gear materials. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Allowable Bending Stress

500
Allowable bending stress number, Sb, MPa
me 2.5% Chro Grade 3 

70 60 Material Grade Allowable bending stress number MPa 50


2.5% Chro

400


2 Grade

Grade lloy - Nitra

hrome 2 - 2.5% C

ksi 0.0862 HB + 12.73 0.1138 HB + 16.65 0.1052 HB + 9.28 0.1052 HB + 22.28 0.1052 HB + 29.28

Niralloy ksi 2.5% Chrome


Grade 1 -

1 2 1 2 3

0.594 HB + 87.76 0.784 HB + 114.81 0.7255 HB + 63.89 0.7255 HB + 153.63 0.7255 HB + 201.91

300
Grade 1
Nitrallo

me

40 30

200

20
100 250

275

300 Brinell hardness, HB

325

350

Figure 14.24 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable bending stress number for steel gears. (b) Flame or induction-hardened nitriding steels. Note that the Brinell hardness refers to the case hardness for these gears. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Allowable Contact Stress


1400 Allowable contact stress number, Sc, MPa 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 150 200 250 300 350 Brinell hardness, HB 400 450 75 100 Grade 1: Sc = 2.41 HB +237 (MPa) 0.349 HB + 34.3 (ksi) Grade 2: Sc = 2.22 HB +200 (MPa) 0.322 HB + 29.1 (ksi)

{ {

e2 d ra
e1 d a Gr

175

150 ksi 125

Figure 14.25 Effect of Brinell hardness on allowable contact stress number for two grades of through-hardened steel. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Cycle Factor


4.0 3.0 Stress cycle factor, Yn 400 HB: YN = 9.4518 N-0.148 Case Carb.: YN = 6.1514N-0.1192 250 HB: YN = 4.9404 N-0.1045 2.0 Nitrided: YN = 3.517 N-0.0817

1.0 160 HB: YN = 2.3194 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 102 103

N-0.0538

YN = 1.3558 N-0.0178

YN = 1.6831 N-0.0323

104

105

106

107

108

109

1010

Number of load cycles, N

Figure 14.26 Stress cycle factor. (a) Bending stress cycle factor YN. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Cycle Factor


2.0

1.5 Zn = 2.466 N-0.056 Stress cycle factor, Zn 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 102 Nitrided Zn = 1.249 N-0.0138 Zn = 1.4488 N-0.023

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

1010

Number of load cycles, N

Figure 14.26 Stress cycle factor. (a) pitting resistance cycle factor ZN. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Reliability Factor

Probability of Reliability factora , survival, percent KR 50 0.70b 90 0.85b 99 1.00 99.9 1.25 99.99 1.50 a Based on surface pitting. If tooth breakage is considered a greater hazard, a larger value may be required. b At this value plastic ow may occur rather than pitting.

Table 14.6 Reliability factor, KR.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Hardness Ratio Factor


1.16 1.14 1.12 1.10 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.00 180 200 For Rap > 1.6, use CH = 1.0 250 300 350 400
R
R
R
a, p

0. 4

a,p

0. 8

(1 6

Hardness ratio factor,CH

(3 2

i n. )

ap

=1

in. )

.6

(64

in

.)

Brinell hardness of gear, HB

Figure 14.27 Hardness ratio factor CH for surface hardened pinions and through-hardened gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Loads on Gear Tooth


Wr W Wt Pitch circle

Figure 14.24 Loads acting on an individual gear tooth.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Loads and Dimensions of Gear Tooth


Wr Wt Wt l bw W

rf a x l t (a) (b)

Figure 14.29 Loads and length dimensions used in determining tooth bending stress. (a) Tooth; (b) cantilevered beam. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bending and Contact Stress Equations Lewis Equation AGMA Bending Stress Equation Hertz Stress AGMA Contact Stress Equation
Wt pd !t = bwY Wt pd KaKsKmKvKiKb !t = bwY j
1/2

pH = E

W 2!

!c = pH (KaKsKmKv)1/2

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Lewis Form Factor


Number of teeth 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Lewis form factor 0.176 0.192 0.210 0.223 0.236 0.245 0.256 0.264 0.270 0.277 0.283 0.292 0.302 0.308 0.314 0.318 0.322 Number of teeth 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 150 200 300 Lewis form factor 0.325 0.329 0.332 0.336 0.340 0.346 0.352 0.355 0.358 0.360 0.361 0.363 0.366 0.368 0.375 0.378 0.382

Table 14.7 Lewis form factor for various numbers of teeth (pressure angle, 20; full-depth involute). Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spur Gear Geometry Factors


.50
1000 170 85 50 35 25 17

.40 Geometry factor, Yj

Number of teeth in mating gear. Load considered applied at highest point of single-tooth contact.

.30 Load applied at tip of tooth .20

.10

0 12

125 15 20 25 30 40 60 80 275 Number of teeth, N

Figure 14.30 Spur gear geometry factors for pressure angle of 20 and full-depth involute profile. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Application and Size Factors


Power source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Uniform 1.00 1.20 1.30 Driven Machines Light shock Moderate shock Application factor, Ka 1.25 1.50 1.40 1.75 1.70 2.00 heavy shock 1.75 2.25 2.75

Table 14.8 Application factor as function of driving power source and driven machine.

Diametral pitch, pd , in.1 5 4 3 3 1.25

Module, m, mm 5 6 8 12 20

Size factor, Ks 1.00 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.40

Table 14.9 Size factor as a function of diametral pitch or module. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Load Distribution Factor


Km = 1.0 + Cmc(Cp f Cpm + CmaCe)

where
Cmc = 1.0 for uncrowned teeth 0.8 for crowned teeth

0.80 when gearing is adjusted at assembly Ce = 0.80 when compatability between gear teeth is improved by lapping 1.0 for all other conditions

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Face width, bw (in.) 0.70 0.60 Pinion proportion factor, Cpf 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Face width, b (mm)
.00 2 = 0 /d p 1.5 0 bw 1 .0 0 0.5 For bw/dp < 0.5 use curve for bw/dp = 0.5

10

20

30

40

Pinion Proportion Factor

Figure 14.31 Pinion proportion factor Cpf.

Cp f

w bw 0.025 bw 25 mm 10d b p w 0.0375 + 0.000492bw 25 mm < bw 432 mm = 10d p bw 0.1109 + 0.000815bw (3.53 107)b2 w 432 mm < bw 1020 mm 10d p

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pinion Proportion Modier

1.0,(S1/S) < 0.175 Cpm = 1.1,(S1/S) 0.175


S1 S S/2

Figure 14.32 Evaluation of S and S1.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Mesh Alignment Factor


Face width, bw (in) 0 0.90 0.80 Mesh alignment factor, Cma 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 0
e Op

10

20

30

40 Cma = A + Bbw + Cbw If bw is in inches: Condition Open gearing Commercial enclosed gears Precision enclosed gears Extraprecision enclosed gears A 0.247 0.127 0.0675 0.000380 B 0.0167 0.0158 0.0128 0.0102 C -0.765 s 10-4 -1.093 s 10-4 -0.926 s 10-4 -0.822 s 10-4
2

i ear ng

ng
se
ea dg

r un

its

i ts r un gea m d it s e o C los ar un enc ed g e s n o l o c n cisi ion e Pr e recis p a E x tr

me

o ncl al e i c r

If bw is in mm: Condition Open gearing Commercial enclosed gears Precision enclosed gears Extraprecision enclosed gears 800 1000 A 0.247 0.127 0.0675 0.000360 B 6.57 s 6.22 s 10-4 5.04 s 10-4 4.02 s 10-4 10-4 C -1.186 s 10-7 -1.69 s 10-7 -1.44 s 10-7 -1.27 s 10-7

200

400 600 Face width, bw (mm)

Figure 14.33 Mesh alignment factor.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Dynamic Factor
Pitch line velocity, ft/min 0 1.8 1.7 1.6 Dynamic factor, Kv 1.5 1.4 Qv = 10 1.3 1.2 1.1 "Very accurate" gearing 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Qv = 11 2500 Qv = 5 5000 Qv = 6 Qv = 7 Qv = 8 Qv = 9 7500

Pitch line velocity, m/s

Figure 14.34 Dynamic factor as a function of pitch-line velocity and transmission accuracy level number. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 15: Helical, Bevel and Worm Gears

The main object of science is the freedom and happiness of man.

Thomas Jefferson

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Summary of Gear Design

Gear type Spur

Helical

Bevel

Advantages Inexpensive, simple to design, no thrust load is developed by the gearing, wide variety of manufacturing options. Useful for high speed and high power applications, quiet at high speeds. Often used in lieu of spur gears for high speed applications. High eciency (can be 98% or higher), can transfer power across nonintersecting shafts. Spiral bevel gears transmit loads evenly and are quieter than straight bevel. Compact designs for large gear ratios. Eciency can be 90% or higher.

Disadvantages Can generate signicant noise, especially at high speeds, and are usually restricted to pitch-line speeds below 20 m/s (4000 ft/min). Generate a thrust load on a single face, more expensive than spur gears. Shaft alignment is critical, rolling element bearings are therefore often used with bevel gears. This limits power transfer for high speed applications (where a journal bearing is preferable). Can be expensive. Wear by abrasion is of higher concern than other gear types, can be expensive. Generate very high thrust loads. Worm cannot be driven by gear; worm must drive gear.

Worm

Table 15.1 Design considerations for gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Gear

Tangent to helical tooth

Pitch cylinder

Element of pitch cylinder (or gear's axis)

Helix angle,

(a)

(b)

Figure 13.1 Helical gear. (a) Front view; (b) side view.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Gear Pitches

cn

pc

pa (a) (b)

Figure 15.2 Pitches of helical gears. (a) Circular; (b) axial.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

AGMA Equations for Helical Gears

Bending Stress:
Wt pd KaKsKmKvKiKb !t = bwYh

Pitting Resistance:
!c = pH KaKsKmKv Ih
1 2

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 20, " = 10
Gear teeth 12 14 17 21 Ih Yh 26 Ih Yh 35 Ih Yh 55 Ih Yh 135 Ih Yh 12 P Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua G P 14 G P 17 G P 21 G Pinion Teeth 26 35 P G P G 55 P G P 135 G

0.127 0.46 0.46 0.143 0.47 0.49 0.164 0.48 0.52 0.195 0.49 0.55 0.241 0.50 0.60

0.131 0.49 0.49 0.153 0.50 0.53 0.186 0.52 0.56 0.237 0.53 0.61

0.136 0.54 0.54 0.170 0.55 0.57 0.228 0.57 0.62

0.143 0.59 0.59 0.209 0.60 0.63

0.151 0.65 0.65

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 20, " = 20
Gear teeth 12 14 17 Ih Yh 21 Ih Yh 26 Ih Yh 35 Ih Yh 55 Ih Yh 135 Ih Yh 12 P Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua 0.125 0.44 0.44 0.140 0.45 0.46 0.156 0.45 0.49 0.177 0.46 0.51 0.205 0.47 0.54 0.245 0.48 0.58 G P 14 G P 17 G P 21 Pinion Teeth 26 G P G 35 P G P 55 G P 135 G

0.129 0.47 0.47 0.145 0.48 0.49 0.167 0.49 0.52 0.197 0.50 0.55 0.242 0.51 0.59

0.133 0.50 0.50 0.155 0.51 0.53 0.188 0.52 0.56 0.238 0.54 0.60

0.138 0.54 0.54 0.172 0.55 0.57 0.229 0.57 0.61

0.144 0.58 0.58 0.209 0.60 0.62

0.151 0.64 0.64

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 20, " = 30
Gear 12 14 17 teeth P G P G P G a 12 U 14 Ih Ua 0.125 a Yh U 0.39 0.39 a 17 Ih U 0.139 0.128 Yh Ua 0.39 0.41 0.41 0.41 21 Ih Ua 0.154 0.144 0.132 Yh Ua 0.40 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.44 26 Ih Ua 0.169 0.159 0.148 Yh Ua 0.41 0.44 0.43 0.45 0.45 0.46 35 Ih Ua 0.189 0.180 0.170 a Yh U 0.41 0.46 0.43 0.47 0.45 0.48 55 Ih Ua 0.215 0.208 0.200 a Yh U 0.42 0.49 0.44 0.49 0.46 0.50 135 Ih Ua 0.250 0.248 0.245 a Yh U 0.43 0.51 0.45 0.52 0.47 0.53 a A U indicates that this geometry would produce an undercut Pinion Teeth 21 26 P G P G 35 P G P 55 G P 135 G

0.135 0.46 0.46 0.158 0.139 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.190 0.174 0.145 0.48 0.50 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.52 0.240 0.231 0.210 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.54 0.53 0.55 tooth form and should be avoided.

0.151 0.56 0.56

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 25, " = 10
Gear teeth 12 14 Ih Yh 17 Ih Yh 21 Ih Yh 26 Ih Yh 35 Ih Yh 55 Ih Yh 135 Ih Yh 12 P Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua Ua 0.129 0.47 0.47 0.144 0.48 0.51 0.159 0.48 0.55 0.175 0.49 0.58 Ua 0.50 0.61 0.221 Ua 0.257 0.52 0.70 G P 14 G P 17 G Pinion Teeth 21 26 P G P G 35 P G P 55 G P 135 G

0.133 0.52 0.52 0.149 0.52 0.55 0.165 0.53 0.58 0.195 0.54 0.62 0.215 0.51 0.65 0.255 0.56 0.71

0.136 0.56 0.56 0.152 0.57 0.59 0.186 0.57 0.63 0.206 0.55 0.66 0.251 0.60 0.72

0.139 0.60 0.60 0.175 0.61 0.64 0.195 0.58 0.67 0.246 0.63 0.73

0.162 0.64 0.64 0.178 0.62 0.68 0.236 0.67 0.74

0.148 0.65 0.69 0.215 0.71 0.75

0.70 0.70 0.154 0.76 0.76

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 25, " = 20
Gear teeth 12 Ih Yh 14 Ih Yh 17 Ih Yh 21 Ih Yh 26 Ih Yh 35 Ih Yh 55 Ih Yh 135 Ih Yh 12 G 0.128 0.47 0.47 0.140 0.47 0.50 0.154 0.48 0.53 0.169 0.48 0.56 0.184 0.49 0.59 0.202 0.49 0.62 0.227 0.50 0.66 0.258 0.51 0.70 P P 14 G P 17 G Pinion Teeth 21 26 P G P G 35 P G P 55 G P 135 G

0.131 0.50 0.50 0.145 0.51 0.54 0.161 0.51 0.57 0.176 0.52 0.60 0.196 0.53 0.63 0.222 0.53 0.67 0.257 0.54 0.71

0.134 0.54 0.54 0.150 0.55 0.58 0.166 0.55 0.60 0.187 0.56 0.64 0.215 0.57 0.67 0.255 0.58 0.72

0.137 0.58 0.58 0.153 0.59 0.61 0.176 0.60 0.64 0.206 0.60 0.68 0.251 0.62 0.72

0.140 0.62 0.62 0.163 0.62 0.65 0.196 0.63 0.69 0.246 0.65 0.73

0.144 0.66 0.66 0.178 0.67 0.70 0.236 0.68 0.74

0.148 0.71 0.71 0.214 0.72 0.75

0.153 0.76 0.76

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry Factors for Helical Gears


! = 25, " = 30
Gear teeth 12 Ih Yh 14 Ih Yh 17 Ih Yh 21 Ih Yh 26 Ih Yh 35 Ih Yh 55 Ih Yh 135 Ih Yh 12 P G P 0.130 0.46 0.46 0.142 0.47 0.49 0.156 0.47 0.51 0.171 0.48 0.54 0.186 0.48 0.56 0.204 0.49 0.58 0.228 0.49 0.61 0.259 0.50 0.64 14 G P 17 G Pinion Teeth 21 26 P G P G 35 P G P 55 G P 135 G

0.133 0.49 0.49 0.147 0.50 0.52 0.163 0.50 0.54 0.178 0.51 0.56 0.198 0.51 0.59 0.223 0.52 0.61 0.257 0.53 0.64

0.136 0.52 0.52 0.151 0.53 0.55 0.167 0.53 0.57 0.188 0.54 0.59 0.216 0.54 0.62 0.255 0.55 0.65

0.138 0.55 0.55 0.154 0.56 0.57 0.176 0.56 0.60 0.207 0.57 0.62 0.251 0.58 0.66

0.141 0.58 0.58 0.163 0.58 0.60 0.196 0.59 0.63 0.245 0.60 0.66

0.144 0.61 0.61 0.178 0.62 0.64 0.234 0.62 0.67

0.147 0.64 0.64 0.212 0.65 0.68

0.151 0.68 0.68

Table 15.2 Geometry factors Yh and Ih for helical gears loaded at tooth tip.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bevel Gears
Pitch apex to back Crown to back Pitch apex to crown Crown

Pitch apex Face width Face angle Dedendum angle Shaft angle Pitch angle Back angle Front angle Root angle Uniform clearance Gear

Pinion

Pitch diameter Outside diameter Back cone


Ba
an

on

ed

ist

ce

Figure 15.3 Terminology for bevel gears.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

ck c

Bevel Gears

Figure 15.4 Bevel gears with curved teeth. (a) Spiral bevel gears; (b) Zerol. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bevel Gear Forces

Wt T W= = cos ! r cos ! Wa = Wt tan ! sin " Wr = Wt tan ! cos "

Figure 15.5 Forces acting on a bevel gear Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Design of Bevel Gears

Bending Stress:

Pitting Resistance:

2Tp pd KaKvKsKm English units bwd p KxYb !t = 2T K K K K p a v s m SI units bwd p m pKxYb TpE KaKvKmKsKx 2 "bwd pIb English units

!c =

Cp

2TpE KaKvKmKsKx SI units "bwd 2 I p b

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Load Distribution Factor for Bevel Gears


Kmb + 0.0036b2 w English units Km = Kmb + 5.6b2 SI units w

where Kmb = 1.00 for both gear and pinion straddle mounted (bearings on both sides of gear) = 1.10 for only one member straddle mounted = 1.25 for neither member straddle mounted

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Size Factor for Bevel Gears


Outer transverse module, met 20 30 Face width, bw, mm 50 75 100

1.0 0.9 Size factor, Ks 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

1.6 5

10

40

50 1.00

25

125

Ks = 1.0 for bw > 114.3 mm (4.5 in.)

Size factor, Ks

Ks = 0.4867 + 0.2133/pd = 0.4867 + 0.008399 met

0.75

0.50

Ks = 0.00492 bw + 0.4375 (bw in mm) = 0.125 bw + 0.4375 (bw in in.) Ks = 0.5 for bw < 12.7 mm (0.5 in.)

Ks = 0.5 for met < 1.6 (pd < 16 in. ) 0.4 16 5 2.5 1.25 0.8 0.6 -1 Outer transverse pitch, pd, in. (a) 0.5

-1

0.25

1.0

2.0 3.0 Face width, bw, in. (b)

4.0

5.0

Figure 15.6 Size factor for bevel gears. (a) Size factor for bending stress; (b) size factor for contact stress or pitting resistance. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Straight Bevel Gear Geometry Factor for Contact Stess

Figure 15.7 Geometry factor for straight bevel gears with pressure angle = 20 and shaft angle 90. (a) Geometry factor for contact stress, Ib. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Straight Bevel Gear Geometry Factor for Bending


100 Number of teeth on gear for which geometry factor is desired 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 Geometry factor, Yb 0.32 0.36 0.40 60 70 80 13 15 20 Number of teeth in mate 25 30 35 40 45 50 90 100

Figure 15.7 Geometry factor for straight bevel gears with pressure angle = 20 and shaft angle 90. (b) Geometry factor for bending, Yb. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spiral Bevel Gears Geometry Factor for Contact Stress


Number of teeth in gear 50 Number of pinion teeth
50 45 60 70 80 90 100

40

40 35

30

30 25

20
15

20

10 0.04

0.06

0.08 0.10 0.12 Geometry factor, Ib

0.14

0.16

Figure 15.8 Geometry factor for spiral bevel gears with pressure angle = 20, spiral angle = 25, and shaft angle 90. (a) Geometry factor for contact stress, Ib. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spiral Bevel Gears Geometry Factor for Bending


Number of teeth in mate 100 90 Number of teeth on gear for which geometry factor is desired 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 Geometry factor, Yb 0.32 0.36
60708090 100 12 20 30 40 50

Figure 15.8 Geometry factor for spiral bevel gears with pressure angle = 20, spiral angle = 25, and shaft angle 90. (a) Geometry factor for bending, Yb. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Zerol Bevel Gears Geometry Factor for Contact Stress


Number of gear teeth 50
50 45 60 70 80 90 100

Number of pinion teeth

40

40 35

30
25

30

20
15

20

10

0.04

0.05

0.06 0.07 0.08 Geometry factor, Ib

0.09

0.10

0.11

Figure 15.9 Geometry factor for Zerol bevel gears with pressure angle = 20, spiral angle = 25, and shaft angle 90. (a) Geometry factor for contact stress, Ib. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Zerol Bevel Gears Geometry Factor for Bending


Number of teeth in mate 100 Number of teeth in gear for which geometry factor is desired 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.16 0.20 0.32 0.28 0.24 Geometry factor, Yb 0.36 0.40
60 70 80 90 100 13 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Figure 15.9 Geometry factor for Zerol bevel gears with pressure angle = 20, spiral angle = 25, and shaft angle 90. (a) Geometry factor for bending, Yb. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Worm Gear Contact

Figure 15.10 Illustration of worm contact with a worm gear, showing multiple teeth in contact. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Minimum Number of Worm Gear Teeth

Pressure angle, deg 14.5 17.5 20 22.5 25 27.5 30

Minimum number of wormgear teeth 40 27 21 17 14 12 10

Table 15.3 Suggested minimum number of worm gear teeth for customary designs.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Forces on a Worm Gear

Figure 15.11 Forces acting on a worm. (a) Side view, showing forces acting on worm and worm gear. (b) Three-dimensional view of worm, showing worm forces. The worm gear has been removed for clarity. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

AGMA Equations for Worm Gears


The rated input power is
vtW f NWt dg + English units h pi = (126, 000)Z 33, 000 !Wt dg + vtW f SI units 2Z

where
!Ndwm English units cos " vt = 12 #d wm SI units 2 cos "

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

AGMA Equations for Worm Gears (cont.) Tangential Force


0.8 Csdgm bwCmCv English units 0.8 Wt = Csdgm bwCmCv SI units 75.948

where

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

0.5 2 + 0.463 Z < 20 0.0200 Z + 40Z 76 Cm = 0.0107 Z 2 + 56Z + 5145 0.5 20 Z < 76 1.1483 0.00658Z 76 Z 0.659 exp (0.0011vt )0 < vt 700 ft/min (0.571) 700 ft/min < vt 3000 ft/min Cv = 13.31vt 65.52v(0.774) 3000 ft/min < vt t

AGMA Equations for Worm Gears (cont.) Friction Force

Wt Wf = cos ! cos "n

where
vt = 0 ft/min 0.150 0 < vt 10 ft/min = 0.124 exp 0.074vt0.645 0.103 exp 0.110vt0.450 + 0.01210 ft/min < vt

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Materials Parameter for Worm Gears


Mean gear pitch diameter, d (mm)
1000II 70 100

111

I 200 I

900

I 500 I I I Ill 1000 I Ce n tr ifu gal ly

I 2500 I

1IO00 1000

12

20 20

Center distance, cd (mm)


30 30

40 40

50 50

60 60

70 70

75 75

cas t

S ta

Materials factor, Cs

Materials factor, Cs

I i i i i 1i i i i i i i i i
900

i i i 3 i in
I I I CALlbN A. .-..a. r*al m-r A ..IlT
1 HIWJ

ti c

ch
ill

Sa

c as

800 800

nd
t cas

ed org rf to

700

IIIIII II
800 800 1-i

I i i i i i i

Y
/

C;HtC;K I-ItiUHt

USE THE LOWER OF THE TWO VALUES

600 600
FACTORFOR CENTER t DISTANCESc 3.00 IN (76 mm) I I 500 500 1 I I I I III ! I I Y I I I I

I I

2.5 3 2.5

90 5 6 7 8910 20 25 30 30 40 40 50 60 60 70 160 90 10 15 20 4 5 MEAN GEAR DIAMETER, Dm -INCHES Mean gear pitch diameter, d (in.)

700 0.5 0.5

1.0 1.0

1.5 2.0 DISTANCET:NCHES Center C::TER distance, cd (in.) (b)

2.5 2.5

3.0 3.0

Figure 15.12 Materials parameter Cs for bronze worm gears and worm minimum surface hardness of 58 Rc. (a) Materials factor for center distances cd greater than 76 mm (3 in); (b) Materials factor for center distances cd less than 76 mm (3 in). When using the figure in (b), the value from part (a) should be checked and the lower value used. See also Table 15.4. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a)

Materials Factor for Worm Gear

Manufacturing Process Sand casting Static chill cast or forged Centrifugally cast

Pitch diameter d 64 mm (2.5 in.) d 64 mm d 200 mm (8 in.) d > 200 mm d 625 mm (25 in.) d > 625 mm

Units for pitch diameter in. mm 1000 1000 1189.6365 476.5454 log d 1859.104 476.5454 log d 1000 1000 1411.6518 455.8259 log d 2052.012 455.8259 log d 1000 1000 1251.2913 179.7503 log d 1503.811 179.7503 log d

Table 15.4 Materials factor Cs for bronze worm gears with worm having surface hardness of 58 Rc.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Food Mixer Gear Train Case Study

Speed

Torque

Tmax= 20 ft-lbf Maximum current

Motor current, A

Table 15.13 The gears used to transmit power from an electric motor to the agitators of a commercial mixer. Hamrock Fundamentals

Table 15.14 Torque and speed of motor as a function of current for the industrial mixer used in the Case Study. of Machine Elements

Chapter 16: Fasteners and Power Screws

Engineers need to be continually reminded that nearly all engineering failures result from faulty judgments rather than faulty calculations. Eugene S. Ferguson, Engineering and the Minds Eye

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thread Geometry
p Crest d dc dp dr Root
(a) (b) (c)

l p

l p p

ht

Figure 16.1 Parameters used in defining terminology of thread profile.

Figure 16.2 (a) Single-, (b) double-, and (c) triple-threaded screws.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Acme, UN, and M Threads


29 60

Figure 16.3 Thread profiles. (a) Acme; (b) UN.

(a)

(b)

0.125 ht 0.125 p 0.5 p 0.625 ht 0.375 ht Pitch diameter

0.5 p

Figure 16.4 Details of M and UN thread profiles.

0.25 ht 0.25 p

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Equivalent Threads and Acme Prole


Inch series Bolts Nuts 1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B Metric series Bolts Nuts 8g 7H 6g 6H 8h 5H

Table 16.1 Inch and metric equivalent thread classifications.

p p 2.7

Figure 16.5 Details of Acme thread profile. (All dimensions are in inches.)

= 29 dp

0.5p + 0.01 p 0.052 2.7

dc

dr

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Crest diameter, dc , in. 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5

Number of threads per inch, n 16 14 12 12 10 8 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2

Acme Threads
Tensile stress area, At , in.2 0.02632 0.04438 0.06589 0.09720 0.1225 0.1955 0.2732 0.4003 0.5175 0.6881 0.8831 1.030 1.266 1.811 2.454 2.982 3.802 4.711 5.181 7.338 9.985 12.972 16.351 Shear stress area, As , in.2 0.3355 0.4344 0.5276 0.6396 0.7278 0.9180 1.084 1.313 1.493 1.722 1.952 2.110 2.341 2.803 3.262 3.610 4.075 4.538 4.757 5.700 6.640 7.577 8.511

Table 16.2 Crest diameters, threads per inch, and stress areas for Acme threads.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Power Screws
Load, W (Screw is threaded into W) dp/2 /2 /2 Pitch, p Thrust collar

(d p/2)(cos !n tan " + ) Tr = W + rcc cos !n tan "

(d p/2)( cos !n tan ") Tl = W + rcc cos !n + tan "

Equal rc

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

C D B A B Axis of screw A

Forces on Power Screw


Pn cosn cos

Pn

n /2 H 0 dp/2 E

/2

0 Pn cosn cos tan(/2)


(b)

E
(a)

Pn cosn cos Pn cosn

Pn cosn sin H 0

Pn sin P n Pn cos

W
(c)

cW

Figure 16.7 Forces acting in raising load of power screw. (a) Forces acting on parallelepiped; (b) forces acting on axial section; (c) forces acting on tangential plane.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Types of Threaded Fasteners

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 16.8 Three types of threaded fastener. (a) Bolt and nut; (b) cap screw; (c) stud.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Illustration

Type Hex-head bolt

Description An externally threaded fastener with a trimmed hex head, often with a washer face on the bearing side.

Application notes Used in a variety of general purpose applications in dierent grades depending on the required loads and material being joined. Used in slots where the square neck keeps the bolt from turning when being tightened.

Carriage bolt

A round head bolt with a square neck under the head and a standard thread.

Types of Bolts and Screws

Elevator bolt or belt bolt

A bolt with a wide, countersunk at head, a shallow conical bearing surface, an integrally-formed square neck under the head and a standard thread. A hex bolt with integrated washer, but wider than standard washers and incorporating serrations on the bearing surface side. A at, countersunk screw with a at top surface and conical bearing surface.

Used in belting and elevator applications where head clearances must be minimal.

Serrated ange bolt

Used in applications where loosening hazard exists, such as vibration applications. The serrations grip the surface so that more torque is needed to loosen than tighten the bolt. A common fastener for assembling joints where head clearance is critical.

Flat cap screw (slotted head shown)

Buttunhead cap screw (socket head shown)

Dome shaped head that is wider and has a lower prole than a at cap screw.

Designed for light fastening applications where their appearance is desired. Not recommended for high-strength applications.

Lag screw

A screw with spaced threads, a hex head, and a gimlet point. (Can also be made with a square head.)

Used to fasten metal to wood or with expansion ttings in masonry.

Step bolt

A plain, circular, oval head bolt with a square neck. The head diameter is about three times the bolt diameter.

Used to join resilient materials or sheet metal to supporting structures, or for joining wood since the large head will not pull through.

Table 16.3 Common types of bolts and screws.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Types of Nuts
Illustration Nuts Type Hex nut Description A six-sided internally threaded fastener. Specic dimensions are prescribed in industry standards. A nut with a hex prole and an integral nylon insert. Application notes The most commonly used generalpurpose nut. The nylon insert exerts friction on the threads and prevents loosening due to vibration or corrosion. Used to cover exposed, dangerous bolt threads or for aesthetic reasons. Used for general purpose fastening and locking. A cotter pin or wire can be inserted through the slots and the drilled shank of the fastener. Used to join two externally threaded parts of equal thread diameter and pitch. Used in combination with a hex nut to keep the nut from loosening. A popular lock nut because of ease of use and low cost.

Nylon insert stop

Cap nut

Similar to a hex nut with a dome top.

Castle nut

A type of slotted nut.

Coupling nut

A six-sided double chamfered nut.

Hex jam nut K-lock or keplock nut

Wing nut

A six-sided internally threaded fastener, thinner than a normal hex nut. A hex nut preassembled with a free spinning external tool lock washer. When tightened, the teeth bite into the member to achieve locking. An internally threaded nut with integral pronounced at tabs. A hex nut with integrated washer, but wider than standard washers and incorporating serrations on the bearing surface side.

Used for applications where repetitive hand tightening is required. Used in applications where loosening hazard exists, such as vibration applications. The serrations grip the surface so that more torque is needed to loosen than tighten the bolt.

Serrated nut

Table 16.4 Common nuts and washers for use with threaded fasteners. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Types of Washers
Washers Flat washer A circular disk with circular hole, produced in accordance with industry standards. Fender washers have larger surface area than conventional at washer. A conical disk spring. A coiled, hardened, split circular washer with a slightly trapezoidal cross-section A hardened circular washer twisted teeth or prongs. with Designed for general-purpose mechanical and structural use.

Belleville washer Split lock washer

Used to maintain load in bolted connections. Preferred for use with hardened bearing surfaces. Applies high bolt tension per torque, resists loosening caused by vibration and corrosion. Internal teeth are preferred fro aesthstics since the teeth are hidden under the bolt head. External teeth give greater locking eciency. Combination teeth are used for oversized or out-ofround holes or for electrical connections.

Tooth lock washer

Table 16.4 (cont.) Common nuts and washers for use with threaded fasteners. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bolt and Nut Forces


Pj (compression)
b (extension)
(a)

Pb (tension)
0b

kb kj
Pi Pb

j (contraction)

0j

Pj

0b

Extension
(b)

0j

Figure 16.9 Bolt-andnut assembly modeled as bolt-and-joint spring.

Figure 16.10 Force versus deflection of bolt and member. (a) Separated bolt and joint; (b) assembled bolt and joint. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Force vs. Deection


Pb Pi + kbek Pi P = increase in Pb plus decrease in Pj Load Pi kjek Pj

0b Deflection

0j ek (extension of bolt = reduction in contraction of joint)

Figure 16.11 Forces versus deflection of bolt and joint when external load is applied. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Bolt Stiffness

dc Ls Lse = Ls + 0.4dc

1 4 = kb !E
Lt dr Lte = Lt + 0.4dr

Ls + 0.4dc Lt + 0.4dr + 2 2 dc dr

Figure 16.12 Bolt and nut. (a) Assembled; (b) stepped-shaft representation of shank and threaded section. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Member Stiffness as Conical Frustum


dw

dc

Figure 16.13 Bolt and nut assembly with conical frustum stress representation of joint. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Member Stiffness Equations


Decription Single member, general case Member stiness, km Ej dc tan f kji = (2Li tan f + di dc )(di + dc ) ln (2Li tan f + di + dc )(di dc ) 1.813Ej dc kji = (1.15Li + di dc )(di + dc ) ln (1.15Li + di + dc )(di dc ) Ej dc tan f kj = (2Li tan f + di dc )(di + dc ) 2 ln (2Li tan f + di + dc )(di dc ) 1.813Ej dc kj = (2.885Li + 2.5dc ) 2 ln (0.577Li + 2.5dc )

Single member, f = 30

Two members, same Youngs modulus, E , back-to-back frustaa Two members, same Youngs modulus, back-to-back frusta, = 30 , di = dw = 1.5dc a

Two members, same material, Wileman kj = Ei dc Ai eBi dc /Li methoda,b a Note that this is stiness for the complete joint, not a member in the joint. b See Table 16.6 for values of A and B for various materials. i i

Table 16.5 Member stiffness equations for common bolted joint configurations. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wileman Member Stiffness


k j = EidcAieB j dc/L

Material Steel Aluminum Copper Gray cast iron

Poissons ratio, 0.291 0.334 0.326 0.211

Modulus of elasticity, E , GPa 206.8 71.0 118.6 100.0

Numerical Ai 0.78715 0.79670 0.79568 0.77871

constants, Bi 0.62873 0.63816 0.63553 0.61616

Table 16.6 Constants used in joint stiffness formula.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 16.6
3/2 dc

15

30

dc

1 2 12.5

25

3 8 10 10

d2

(a)

(b)

Figure 16.14 Hexagonal bolt-and-nut assembly used in Example 16.6. (a) Assembly and dimensions; (b) dimensions of frustrun cone. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strength of Steel Bolts


SAE grade 1 2 4 5 5.2 7 8 8.2 Head marking Range of crest diameters, in. 1/4 1 1/2 1/4 3/4 > 3/4 1 1/2 1/4 1 1/2 1/4 1 >1 - 1 1/2 1/4-1 1/4 1 1/2 1/4 1 1/2 1/4 -1 Ultimate tensile strength Su , ksi 60 74 60 115 120 105 120 133 150 150 Yield strength, Sy , ksi 36 57 36 100 92 81 92 115 130 130 Proof strength, Sp , ksi 33 55 33 65 85 74 85 105 120 120

Table 16.7 Strength of steel bolts for various sizes in inches.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strength of Steel Bolts


Metric grade 4.6 4.8 5.8 8.8 9.8 10.9 12.9 Head marking
4.6 4.8 5.8 8.8 9.8
10.9 12.9

Crest diameter, dc , mm M5 M36 M1.6 M16 M5 M24 M17 M36 M1.6 M16 M6 M36 M1.6 M36

Ultimate tensile strength, Su , MPa 400 420 520 830 900 1040 1220

Yield strength, Sy , MPa 240 340a 415a 660 720a 940 1100

Proof strength, Sp , MPa 225 310 380 600 650 830 970

Table 16.8 Strength of steel bolts for various sizes in millimeters.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

UN Coarse and Fine Threads


Crest diameter, dc , in. 0.0600 0.0730 0.0860 0.0990 0.1120 0.1250 0.1380 0.1640 0.1900 0.2160 0.2500 0.3125 0.3750 0.4750 0.5000 0.5625 0.6250 0.7500 0.8750 1.000 1.125 1.250 1.375 0.500 1.750 2.000 Coarse threads (UNC) Number of Root Tensile stress threads per, diameter, area, At , inch, n dr , in. in.2 64 0.05609 0.00263 56 0.06667 0.00370 48 0.07645 0.00487 40 0.08494 0.00604 40 0.09794 0.00796 32 0.1042 0.00909 32 0.1302 0.0140 24 0.1449 0.0175 24 0.1709 0.0242 20 0.1959 0.0318 18 0.2523 0.0524 16 0.3073 0.0775 14 0.3962 0.1063 13 0.4167 0.1419 12 0.4723 0.182 11 0.5266 0.226 10 0.6417 0.334 9 0.7547 0.462 8 0.8647 0.606 7 0.9703 0.763 7 1.095 0.969 6 1.195 1.155 6 1.320 1.405 5 1.533 1.90 4.5 1.759 2.5 Fine threads (UNF) Number of Root Tensile stress threads per, diameter, area, At , inch, n dr , in. in.2 80 0.04647 0.00180 72 0.05796 0.00278 64 0.06909 0.00394 56 0.07967 0.00523 48 0.08945 0.00661 44 0.1004 0.00830 40 0.1109 0.01015 36 0.1339 0.01474 32 0.1562 0.0200 28 0.1773 0.0258 28 0.2113 0.0364 24 0.2674 0.0580 24 0.3299 0.0878 20 0.4194 0.1187 20 0.4459 0.1599 18 0.5023 0.203 18 0.5648 0.256 16 0.6823 0.373 14 0.7977 0.509 12 0.9098 0.663 12 1.035 0.856 12 1.160 1.073 12 1.285 1.315 12 1.140 1.581

Table 16.9 Dimensions and tensile stress areas for UN coarse and fine threads. Root diameter is calculated from Eq. (16.2) and Fig. 16.4. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

M Coarse and Fine Threads


Crest diameter, dc , mm 1 1.6 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 30 36 42 48 Coarse threads (MC) Root Tensile Pitch, diameter, stress area, p, mm dr , mm At , mm2 0.25 0.7294 0.460 0.35 1.221 1.27 0.4 1.567 2.07 0.45 2.013 3.39 0.5 2.459 5.03 0.7 3.242 8.78 0.8 4.134 14.2 1.0 4.917 20.1 1.25 6.647 36.6 1.5 8.376 58.0 1.75 10.11 84.3 2.0 13.83 157 2.5 17.29 245 3.0 20.75 353 3.5 26.21 561 4.0 31.67 817 4.5 37.13 1121 5.0 42.59 1473 Fine threads (MF) Root Tensile Pitch, diameter, stress area, p, mm dr , mm At , mm2 0.20 1.383 1.57 0.25 1.729 2.45 0.35 2.121 3.70 0.35 2.621 5.61 0.5 3.459 9.79 0.5 4.459 16.1 0.75 5.188 22 1.0 6.917 39.2 1.25 8.647 61.2 1.25 10.65 92.1 1.5 14.38 167 1.5 18.38 272 2.0 21.83 384 2.0 27.83 621 3.0 32.75 865

Table 16.10 Dimensions and tensile stress areas for M coarse and fine threads. Root diameter is calculated from Eq. (16.2) and Fig. 16.4. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pj

Separation of Joint

Pj

Figure 16.15 Separation of joint.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Threads in Fatigue Loading


Pb Pb, max Pi Load on bolt Pj Load on joint Pi Pj, min

Figure 16.16 Forces versus deflection of bolt and joint as function of time.

0b

Deflection

0j

SAE grade 0-2 4-8

Metric grade 3.6-5.8 6.6-10.9

Rolled threads 2.2 3.0

Cut threads 2.8 3.8

Fillet 2.1 2.3

Table 16.11 Fatigue stress concentration factors for threaded elements.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Gaskets

Gasket

Figure 16.17 Threaded fastener with unconfined gasket and two other members.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Failure Modes for Fasteners in Shear

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 16.18 Failure modes due to shear loading of riveted fasteners. (a) Bending of member; (b) shear of rivet; (c) tensile failure of member; (d) bearing of member on rivet. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 16.9
P = 1000 lb 7 2 3 3 2 C A y x rC D C D rD B 8 A rA rB B

(a) tA 3 A d B tB d

(b)

rC 4.635

7 8

3 3 5

rD 2.365 (c)

tC C d (d) tD D d

7 8

1 2

(e)

Figure 16.19 Group of riveted fasteners used in Example 16.9. (a) Assembly of rivet group; (b) radii from centroid to center of rivets; (c) resulting triangles; (d) direct and torsional shear acting on each rivet; (e) side view of member. (All dimensions in inches.)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Weld Symbols
Bead Basic arc and gas weld symbols Plug Groove Fillet or Bevel V slot Square Basic resistance weld symbols U J Spot Projection Seam Flash or upset

Finish symbol Contour symbol Root opening, depth of filling for plug and slot welds Effective throat Depth of preparation or size in inches Reference line Specification, process or other reference T Tail (omitted when reference is not used) Basic weld symbol or detail reference

Groove angle or included angle of countersink for plug welds Length of weld in inches Pitch (center-to-center spacing) of welds in inches Field weld symbol Weld-all-around symbol L@P A B

F A R S(E) (Both sides) (Other (Arrow side) side)

Arrow connects reference line to arrow side of joint. Use break as at A or B to signify that arrow is pointing to the grooved member in bevel or J-grooved joints.

Figure 16.20 Basic weld symbols. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Fillet Weld
1 16

in. Actual weld configuration

he

Assumed weld configuration te he (a) Shear plane of weld at throat

Load
1 16 1

in. clear for plates 4 in. thick

Shear stress Shear stress L te te Shear planes L

Figure 16.21 Fillet weld. (a) Cross-section of weld showing throat and legs; (b) shear planes.

(b)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry of Welds
Dimensions of weld Bending Torsion P a Weld x d x x A=d x a P Iu = d 2/6 M = Pa Weld Ju = d 3/12 T = Pa c = d/2

b Weld d x x x A = 2d Iu = d 2/3 P a d(3b2 + d 2) Ju = 6 a x P Weld P

b Weld d x x x A = 2b Iu = bd P a b3 + 3bd2 Ju = 6 a x P Weld P

Table 16.12 Geometry of welds and parameters used when considering various types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry of Welds
b x x x = 2(b + d ) d2 y = 2(b + d ) b2 x x 4bd + At top Iu = 6 d 2(4 b + d ) At bottom Iu = 6(2b + d ) d2 Weld a x P P

y d x

a Weld

(b + d )4 6b2d2 Ju = 12(b + d )

A = b+ d

b x d x A = d + 2b x b2 x = 2(b + d ) x Weld Weld a x P Iu = bd + d 2/6 x

a Weld x

Weld

(2b + d )3 b2(b + d )2 Ju = 12 (2 b + d )

Table 16.12 (cont.) Geometry of welds and parameters used when considering various types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry of Welds
Dimensions of weld y d x A = b + 2d b Weld x d2 y = (b + 2d ) x Weld 2bd + d2 At top Iu = 3 2 d (2b + d ) At bottom Iu = 3(b + d ) x a P Weld x x Weld P a (b + 2d )3 d2(b + d )2 Ju = 12 (b + 2d ) P P Bending Torsion

b d x A = 2b + 2d x

Weld all around x

a x

Weld all around Iu = bd + d 2/3 P a

( b + d)3 Ju = 6

Table 16.12 (cont.) Geometry of welds and parameters used when considering various types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Geometry of Welds

b d x A = 2b + 2d x

Weld x x Weld

P Iu = bd + d 2/3

Weld x x Weld P a

b 3 + 3bd 2+ d 3 Ju = 6

d x A = b

Weld all around x x

Weld all around x Iu = (d 2/4)

Ju = (d 3/4)

Table 16.12 (cont.) Geometry of welds and parameters used when considering various types of loading. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Electrode Properties
Ultimate tensile strength, Su , ksi 62 70 80 90 100 120 Yield strength, Sy , ksi 50 57 67 77 87 107 Elongation, ek , percent 17-25 22 19 14-17 13-16 14

Electrode number E60XX E70XX E80XX E90XX E100XX E120XX

Table 16.13 Minimum strength properties of electrode classes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 16.10
y 100 300 A tx ty A 45 l1 y x B (a) B (b) 150 20 kN tx ty x 80

l2

Figure 16.22 Welded bracket used in Example 16.10. (a) Dimensions, load and coordinates; (b) torsional shear stress components at points A and B. (All dimensions in millemeters.) Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Welds in Fatigue

Type of weld Reinforced butt weld Tow of transverse llet weld End of parallel llet weld T-butt joint with sharp corners

Fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf 1.2 1.5 2.7 2.0

Table 16.14 Fatigue strength reduction factors for welds.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Adhesive Joints
(a) b L

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 16.23 Four methods of applying adhesive bonding. (a) Lap; (b) butt; (c) scarf; (d) double lap.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

tm

Scarf Joint
n

(a)

A tm A
(b)

x l

ro ri

T
(c)

Figure 16.24 Scarf joint. (a) Axial loading; (b) bending; (c) torsion.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Integrated Snap Fasteners

h 2 h

Deflected (a) (b)

Rigid

(c)

Figure 16.25 Common examples of integrated fasteners. (a) Module with four cantilever lugs; (b) cover with two cantilever and two rigid lugs; (c) separable snap joint for chassis cover. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Snap Joint Design


Shape of cross section

A
c c b Type of design
l y P h h _ 2

B
a h c2 c1 b h

Rectangle

Trapezoid

P h y l2 y = 0.67 ___ h a + b(1) ___ l2 y = _______ 2a + b h

(Permissible) deflection

Cross section constant over length h _ 2

h All dimensions in direction y (e.g., h) decrease to one-half b _ 4

y l2 y = 1.09 ___ h

a + b(1) ___ l2 y = 1.64 _______ 2a + b h

Figure 16.26 Cantilever snap joint.

All dimensions in direction z (e.g., b and a) decrease to one-quarter

l2 y = 0.86 ___ h

a + b(1) ___ l2 y = 1.28 _______ 2a + b h

Figure 16.27 Permissible deflection of different snap fastener cantilever shapes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Friction for Integrated Snap Fastener Mateirals

Material Polytetrauoroethylene PTFE (teon) Polyethylene (rigid) Polyethylene (exible) Polypropylene Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Polystyrene Polycarbonate

Coecient of friction On self-mated On steel polymer 0.12-0.22 0.20-0.25 0.40-0.50 0.55-0.60 0.66-0.72 0.25-0.30 0.38-0.45 0.50-0.60 0.60-0.72 0.50-0.65 0.60-0.78 0.55-0.60 0.55-0.60 0.40-0.50 0.48-0.60 0.45-0.55 0.54-0.66

Table 16.15 Coefficients of friction for common snap fastener polymers

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Hydraulic Baler Case Study

End cap Seal

Cylinder flange

Figure 16.28 End cap and cylinder flange.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 17: Springs

Entia non multiplicantor sunt prater necessitatum. (Do not complicate matters more than necessary.) Galileo Gallilei

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Cycle
Stress

Strain

Figure 17.1 Stress-strain curve for one loading cycle.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Spring Materials
Modulus of elasticity, E , psi 30 106 20 106 29 106 28 106 Shear modulus of elasticity, G psi 11.5 106 11.5 106 11 106 10 106 Density, , lb/in.3 0.283 0.283 Maximum service temperature, F 250 250 Principal characteristics High strength; excellent fatigue life General purpose use; poor fatigue life Unsatisfactory for subzero applications Good strength at moderate temperatures; low stress relaxation Low cost; high conductivity; poor mechanical properties Ability to withstand repeated exures; popular alloy High elastic and fatigue strength; hardenable Good strength; high corrosion resistance Precipitation hardening; for high temperatures Constant modulus over a wide temperature range

Common name Specication High-carbon steels Music wire ASTM A228 Hard drawn Stainless steels Martensitic Austenitic ASTM A227

AISI 410, 420 AISI 301, 302

0.280 0.282

500 600

Copper-based alloys Spring brass ASTM B134 Phosphor bronze Beryllium copper ASTM B159 ASTM B197

16 106 15 106 19 106 31 106 31 106 27 106

6 106 6.3 106 6.5 106 11 106 11 106 9.6 106

0.308 0.320 0.297

200 200 400

Nickel-based alloys Inconel 600 Inconel X-750 Ni-Span C

0.307 0.298 0.294

600 1100 200

Table 17.1 Typical properties of common spring materials. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strength of Spring Materials


Ap Sut = m d

Material Music wirea Oil-tempered wireb Hard-drawn wirec Chromium vanadiumd Chromium siliconee

Size range in. mm 0.004-0.250 0.10-6.5 0.020-0.500 0.50-12 0.028-0.500 0.70-12 0.032-0.437 0.80-12 0.063-0.375 1.6-10

Exponent, m 0.146 0.186 0.192 0.167 0.112

Constant, Ap ksi MPa 196 2170 149 1880 136 1750 169 2000 202 2000

Table 17.2 Coefficients used in Equation (17.2) for five spring materials.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Coil
P R P d

l = 2 RN

P R (a) P

D R P

T = PR
P

R (c)

(b)

Figure 17.2 Helical coil. (a) Straight wire before coiling; (b) coiled wire showing transverse (or direct) shear; (c) coiled wire showing torsional shear.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Shear Stresses on Wire and Coil


Spring axis

(a)

(c)

D/2 Spring axis

(b)

(d)

D/2

Figure 17.3 Shear stresses acting on wire and coil. (a) Pure torsional loading; (b) transverse loading; (c) torsional and transverse loading with no curvature effects; (d) torsional and transverse loading with curvature effects. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Compression Spring End Types

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 17.4 Four end types commonly used in compression springs. (a) Plain; (b) plain and ground; (c) squared; (d) squared and ground. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Compression Spring Formulas

Term Number of end coils, Ne Total number of coils, Nt Free length, lf Solid length, ls Pitch, p

Plain 0 Na pNa + d d(Nt + 1) (lf d)/Na

Type of spring end Plain and ground Squared or closed 1 2 Na + 1 Na + 2 p(Na + 1) pNa + 3d dNt d(Nt + 1) lf /(Na + 1) (lf 3d)/Na

Squared and ground 2 Na + 2 pNa + 2d dNt (lf 2d)/Na

Table 17.3 Useful formulas for compression springs with four end conditions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Lengths and Forces in Helical Springs


(P = 0) Pr

Po Ps lf li ga lo ls

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 17.5 Various lengths and forces applicable to helical compression springs. (a) Unloaded; (b) under initial load; (c) under solid load.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Force vs. Deection


lf li lo ls Ps Spring force, P Length, l 0

Po

Pi 0 0 i o s

Figure 17.6 Graphical representation of deflection, force and length for four spring positions.

Deflection,

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Buckling Conditions
0.80 Ratio of deflection to free length, /l f Stable 0.60 Unstable

0.40

Stable

Unstable Parallel ends

0.20 Nonparallel ends 0

4 5 6 7 8 9 Ratio of free length to mean coil diameter, lf /D

10

Figure 17.7 Critical buckling conditions for parallel and nonparallel ends of compression springs. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Extension Spring Ends


d

r3 r1

A r2 r4 B

(a) P

(b) P

d d r3 r1 A r2 r4 B

Figure 17.8 Ends for extension springs. (a) Conventional design; (b) Side view of Fig. 17.8(a); (c) improved design; (d) side view of Fig. 17.8(c).

(c)

(d)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Extension Springs


do

200 175
di

30 28 26 24 22 Preferred range 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 4 6 8 10 12 Spring index 14 16 Preload stress, ksi 20

Preload stress, MPa

150 125 100 75 50 25

ll

lf

lb

lh ga

Figure 17.10 Preferred range Figure 17.9 Dimensions of of preload stress for various helical extension spring. spring indexes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Helical Torsion Spring

P d

a D

Figure 17.11 Helical torsion spring.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Leaf Spring
b 2 b 2

nb b
b 2 b 2

P l (a) l (b) P x x

Figure 17.12 Leaf spring. (a) Triangular plate, cantilever spring; (b) equivalent multiple-leaf spring. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Belleville Springs
200

160 Percent force to flat

2.275

Height-tothickness ratio, 2.828

1.000

120 1.414 80

Di h

40

0.400

20

40

60

t Do

80 100 120 Percent deflection to flat

140

160

180

200

Figure 17.13 Typical Belleville Spring.

Figure 17.14 Force-deflection response of Belleville spring.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stacking of Belleville Springs

(a)

(b)

Figure 17.15 Stacking of Belleville springs. (a) in parallel; (b) in series.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Dickerman Feed Case Study


600 Maximum force, Pmax, lbf 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 Wire diameter, d, in. 0.20

Cam

Gripping unit (sliding) S-ring

Gripping unit (fixed) Fixed rear guide


Safety factor, ns 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Figure 17.16 Dickerman feed unit.

0.04

0.08 0.12 0.16 Wire diameter, d, in.

0.20

Figure 17.17 Performance of the spring in the case study. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 18: Brakes and Clutches

Nothing has such power to broaden the mind as the ability to investigate systematically and truly all that comes under thy observation in life. Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Brake and Clutch Types


(a) P P P (d) P (b) P P P P

P (e) (c) P

Figure 18.1 Five types of brake and clutch. (a) internal, expanding rim type; (b) external contracting rim type; (c) band brake; (d) thrust disk; (e) cone disk. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thrust Disk
0.6 Dimensionless torque, T = T/2Pro

0.5

ro

r ri

dr

0.4

Tp

0.3 Tw 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Radius ratio, = ri / ro 1.0

Figure 18.2 Thrust disk clutch surface with various radii.

Figure 18.3 Effect of radius ratio on dimensionless torque for uniform pressure and uniform wear models.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Properties of Common Friction Materials

Friction materiala Molded Woven Sintered metal Cork Wood Cast iron; hard steel

Coecient of friction, 0.25-0.45 0.25-0.45 0.15-0.45 0.30-0.50 0.20-0.30 0.15-0.25

Maximum contact pressure,b pmax psi kPa 150-300 1030-2070 50-100 345-690 150-300 1030-2070 8-14 55-95 50-90 345-620 100-250 690-1720

Maximum bulk temperature, tm,max F C 400-500 204-260 400-500 204-260 400-1250 204-677 180 82 200 93 500 260

Table 18.1 Representative properties of contacting materials operating dry.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Friction for Wet Clutch Materials

Friction materiala Coecient of friction, Molded 0.06-0.09 Woven 0.08-0.10 Sintered metal 0.05-0.08 Paper 0.10-0.14 Graphitic 0.12 (avg.) Polymeric 0.11 (avg.) Cork 0.15-0.25 Wood 0.12-0.16 Cast iron; hard steel 0.03-0.16 a When rubbing against smooth cas iron or seel.

Table 18.2 Coefficient of friction for contacting materials operating in oil.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Cone Clutch
dr sin rd dP dr

dA

dw r D d d

Figure 18.4 Forces acting on elements of cone clutch. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Short-Shoe Brake
d4 d3 C D d2 B P P d1 W

Figure 18.5 Block, or short-shoe brake, with two configurations. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 18.3

14 in.

1.5 in.

14 in. 36 in.

Figure 18.6 Short-shoe brake used in Example 18.3.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Long-Shoe, Internal Expanding Rim Brake


W W Rotation

d6

2 1 r A

d7

Drum Lining

d5

d5

Figure 18.7 Long-shoe, internal, expanding rim brake with two shoes.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Forces and Dimensions


y dP dP dP cos dP sin W Wy 1 d6 d7 Rotation r Rx Ry 2 A r d7 cos x d7 sin dP sin

dP cos Wx

Figure 18.8 Forces and dimensions of long-shoe, internal, expanding rim brake. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 18.4
y 15 15

W W d a A r d d b d b 10 10 a B 10 10 x

W W 15 15

Figure 18.9 Four-long-shoe, internal expanding rim brakes used in Example 18.4.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Long-Shoe, External, Contracting Rim Brake


Wx Wy W y dP sin dP d6

dP cos

dP 2

dP sin

dP cos 1 Rx A d7 Ry x

r Rotation

Figure 18.10 Forces and dimensions of long-shoe, external, contracting rim brake. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pivot-Shoe Brake
y Rotation dP dP cos d7 cos r dP sin

2 dP cos 1 r cos

dP sin

dP

Rx

Ry

d7

Figure 18.11 Symmetrically loaded pivot-shoe brake.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Band Brake
d 0 d (F + dF ) cos 2 F + dF d (F + dF ) sin 2 d 2 dP d F1 F2 0 (a) (b) r d d 2 d F cos 2 F

d F sin 2

dP

Drum rotation

Figure 18.12 Band brake. (a) Forces acting on band; (b) forces acting on element. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 18.7

Rotation

Cutting plane for free-body diagram W F2 F1 d10 d8

Figure 18.13 Band brake used in Example 18.7.

d9

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Capacities of Brake and Clutch Materials

Operating condition Continuous: poor heat dissipation Occasional: poor heat dissipation Continuous: good heat dissipation as in oil bath

pu (kPa)(m/s) (psi)(ft/min) 1050 30,000 2100 60,000 3000 85,000

Table 18.3 Product of contact pressure and sliding velocity for brakes and clutches.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Hydraulic Crane Brake Case Study


W

17.5 in.

30

30

18 in.

Figure 18.14 Hoist line brake for mobile hydraulic crane. The crosssection of brake with relevant dimensions is given.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 19: Flexible Machine Elements

Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been. Theodore von Karmen

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Flat Belt

B A 1 01 D1 D2 02 D 2

cd

Figure 19.1 Dimensions, angles of contact, and center distance of open flat belt. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Weighted Idler

Idler Pivot Weight Tight side

Figure 19.2 Weighted idler used to maintain desired belt tension. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Synchronous Belt
Tooth included angle Circular pitch Backing A Neoprene-encased tension member

Facing A Neoprene tooth cord

Section AA

Pulley face radius Pulley pitch radius

Figure 19.3 Synchronous, or timing, belt. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

V-Belt in Groove
wt dN/2 sin ht

dN 2

2 36

Figure 19.4 V-belt in sheave groove.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Driven unit Agitators Liquid Semisolid Compressor Centrifugal Reciprocating Conveyors and elevators Package and oven Belt Fans and blowers Centrifugal, calculating Exhausters Food machinery Slicers Grinders and mixers Generators Farm lighting and exciters Heating and Ventilating Fans and oil burners Stokers Laundry machinery Dryers and ironers Washers Machine tools Home workshop and woodworking Pumps Centrifugal Reciprocating Refrigeration Centrifugal Reciprocating Worm gear speed reducers, input side

Overload factor 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.0

Overload Service Factors

Table 19.1 Overload service factors f1 for various types of driven unit.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Pulley Design Considerations

Belt type 2L 3L 4L

Size of belt, in. 1 1 4 8


3 8 1 2

Minimum pitch diameter, in. Recommended Absolute 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 1.8

7 32 5 16

Table 19.2 Recommended minimum pitch diameters of pulley for three belt sizes.

Table 19.3 Recommended pulley dimensions in inches for three electric motor sizes.

Motor horsepower, hp 0.50 0.75 1.00

Motor speed, rpm 575 695 870 1160 1750 Recommended pulley diameter, in. 2.50 2.50 2.50 3.00 2.50 2.50 2.50 3.00 3.00 2.50 2.50 2.25

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Loss in arc of contact, deg. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Correction factor 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.92 0.89 0.89 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69

Arc Correction Factor

Table 19.4 Arc correction factor for various angle of loss in arc of contact.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Power Ratings for V-Belts


Speed of faster shaft rpm 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Pulley eective outside diameter, in. 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Rated horsepower, hp 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.05 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.21 0.06 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.25 0.30 0.08 0.15 0.23 0.28 0.32 0.39 0.10 0.18 0.27 0.34 0.39 0.44 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.35 (a) 0.31 0.35 0.38 0.42 0.40 0.44 0.46 0.31 0.44 0.47

Table 19.5 Power ratings for light-duty V-belts. (a) 2L section with wt = 1/4 in and ht=1/8 in. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Power Ratings for V-Belts (cont.)


Speed of faster shaft rpm 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Pulley eective outside diameter, in. 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.7 3.00 Rated horsepower, hp 0.04 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.14 0.17 0.19 0.07 0.12 0.16 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.34 0.09 0.15 0.22 0.29 0.35 0.41 0.47 0.10 0.19 0.27 0.35 0.43 0.51 0.59 0.11 0.21 0.31 0.41 0.51 0.60 0.69 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.23 0.25 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.42 (b) 0.45 0.50 0.54 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.62 0.66 0.68 0.69 0.68 0.74 0.78 0.80 0.80 0.78 0.84 0.88 0.90 0.89

Table 19.5 Power ratings for light-duty V-belts. (b) 3L section with wt = 3/8 in and ht=1/4 in. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Power Ratings for V-Belts (cont.)

Speed of faster shaft rpm 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

2.00 0.08 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.06 0.02

Pulley eective outside diameter, in. 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 Rated horsepower, hp 0.14 0.19 0.24 0.29 0.34 0.39 0.44 0.21 0.31 0.41 0.50 0.60 0.69 0.78 0.26 0.40 0.54 0.67 0.81 0.94 1.07 0.30 0.47 0.65 0.82 0.99 1.15 1.31 0.31 0.53 0.73 0.94 1.13 1.32 1.51 0.31 0.30 0.27 0.22 0.15 0.56 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.47 0.79 0.83 0.83 0.81 0.75 (c) 1.02 1.07 1.09 1.07 1.01 1.24 1.31 1.33 1.30 1.23 1.45 1.53 1.55 1.51 1.41 1.65 1.73 1.75 1.69 1.66

4.00 0.49 0.87 1.20 1.47 1.69 1.84 1.92 1.92 1.84 1.65

Table 19.5 Power ratings for light-duty V-belts. (c) 4L section with wt = 1/2 in and ht=9/32 in. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Center Distance for V-Belts


Pulley combination Driver Driven pitch pitch diameter, diameter, in. in. 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 3.0 3.0 4.5 2.0 2.0 2.25 2.5 3.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 5.0 6.0 9.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 Nominal center distance Short center Medium center Center Center Belt distance, Belt distance, number in. number in. 3L200 6.4 3L250 9.4 3L250 7.4 3L310 10.4 3L210 6.6 3L270 9.6 3L220 6.7 3L280 9.7 3L290 8.2 3L350 11.2 3L240 3L250 3L270 3L290 3L330 3L250 3L310 3L410 3L340 3L390 3L420 3L390 (a) 7.3 7.2 7.7 8.1 8.9 8.0 8.6 10.3 9.2 9.9 10.4 10.1 3L300 3L310 3L330 3L350 3L390 3L340 3L370 3L470 3L400 3L450 3L480 3L450 10.3 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.9 11.0 11.6 13.4 12.2 13.0 13.6 13.3

Table 19.6 Center distances for various pitch diameters of driver and driven pulleys. (a) 3L type of V-Belt. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Center Distance for V-Belts (cont.)


Pulley combination Driver Driven pitch pitch diameter, diameter, in. in. 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.5 4.0 6.0 3.0 6.0 3.5 7.0 3.0 7.5 4.0 10.0 3.0 9.0 3.5 10.5 4.0 12.0 3.0 10.5 4.0 14.0 3.0 12.0 3.5 14.0 2.0 9.0 4.0 18.0 2.4 12.0 2.5 18.0 2.8 14.0 2.0 11.0 2.0 12.0 2.5 15.0 3.0 13.0 2.0 14.0 Minimum center Center Belt distance, number in. 4L170 4.0 4L200 4.8 4L240 5.5 4L300 6.5 4L280 6.2 4L320 7.0 4L320 6.8 4L410 8.5 4L360 7.5 4L420 8.8 4L470 9.6 4L410 8.6 4L530 10.5 4L450 9.1 4L520 10.4 4L350 7.5 4L650 12.8 4L440 8.9 4L480 9.3 4L510 10.3 4L400 8.0 4L430 8.5 4L530 10.3 4L630 12.2 4L490 9.5 Nominal center distance Short center Medium center Center Center Belt distance, Belt distance, number in. number in. 4L150 8.0 4L330 12.0 4L280 8.8 4L360 12.8 4L320 9.6 4L400 13.6 4L380 10.6 4L460 14.5 4L360 10.3 4L440 14.3 4L400 11.1 4L480 15.1 4L400 11.0 4L480 15.0 4L490 12.5 4L570 16.7 4L440 11.7 4L520 15.8 4L500 13.0 4L580 17.1 4L550 13.8 4L630 18.0 4L490 12.9 4L570 17.0 4L610 15.0 4L690 19.1 4L530 13.4 4L610 17.6 4L600 14.8 4L680 19.0 4L430 11.8 4L510 15.9 4L730 17.3 4L810 21.6 4L520 13.3 4L600 17.5 4L560 14.3 4L640 18.5 4L590 14.7 4L670 19.0 4L480 12.5 4L560 16.7 4L510 13.0 4L590 17.3 4L610 14.9 4L690 19.2 4L710 16.8 4L790 21.2 4L570 14.1 4L650 18.4

Table 19.6 Center distances for various pitch diameters of driver and driven pulleys. (b) 4L type of V-Belt. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(b)

Wire Rope

Figure 19.5 Cross-section of wire rope.

(a)

(b)

Figure 19.6 Two lays of wire rope. (a) Lang; (b) regular. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Wire Rope Data


Rope 6 7 Haulage Material Monior steel Plow steel Mild plow steel 1 3 2 6 19 Standard 1.60d 26d 34d 24 Monior steel 4 hoisting Plow steel Mild plow steel 1 6 37 Special 1.55d2 18d 31 Monior steel 4 2 exible Plow steel 1 1 2 8 19 Extra 1.45d 21d 26d 12 Monior steel 4 exible Plow steel 1 3 2 7 7 Aircraft 1.70d 8 Corrosion-resistant 16 steel Carbon steel 124 103 1 3 2 7 9 Aircraft 1.75d 18 Corrosion-resistant 135 103 8 steel Carbon steel 143 103 1 5 2 19-Wire aircraft 2.15d 16 Corrosion-resistant 165 103 32 steel Carbon steel 165 103 a The modulus of elasticity is only approximate; it is aected by the loads on the rope and, in general, increases with the life of the rope. b The strength is based on the nominal area of the rope. The gures given are only approximate and are based on 1-in. rope sizes and 1/4-in. aircraft cable sizes. Weight per height, lb/ft 1.50d2 Minimum sheave diameter in. 42d Rope diameter, d, in. 1 11 4 2 Size of outer wires d/9 d/9 d/9 d/13 d/16 d/13 d/16 d/13 d/16 d/22 d/22 d/15 d/19 d/15 d/19 Modulus of elasticity,a psi 14 106 14 106 14 106 12 106 12 106 12 106 11 106 11 106 10 106 10 106 Strength,b psi 100 103 88 103 76 103 106 103 93 103 80 103 100 103 88 103 92 103 80 103 124 103

Table 19.7 Wire rope data. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Application Safety factor,a ns Track cables 3.2 Guys 3.5 Mine shafts, ft Up tp 500 8.0 1000-2000 7.0 2000-3000 6.0 Over 3000 5.0 Hoisting 5.0 Haulage 6.0 Cranes and derricks 6.0 Electric hoists 7.0 Hand elevators 5.0 Private elevators 7.5 Hand dumbwaiters 4.5 Grain elevators 7.5 Passenger elevators, ft/min 50 7.60 300 9.20 800 11.25 1200 11.80 1500 11.90 Freight elevators, ft/min 50 6.65 300 8.20 800 10.00 1200 10.50 1500 10.55 Powered dumbwaiters, ft/min 50 4.8 300 6.6 800 8.0 a Use of these factors does not preclude a fatigue failure

Minimum Safety Factors

Table 19.8 Minimum safety factors for a variety of wire rope applications.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Effect of D/d Ratio


100 Relative service life, percent 80 60 40 20

50 Strength loss, percent 40 30 20 10

0
0 10 20 D/d ratio 30 40

10

20

30 D/d ratio

40

50

60

Figure 19.7 Percent strength loss in wire rope for different D/d ratios.

Figure 19.8 Service life for different D/d ratios.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Allowable Bearing Pressures


Material Cast Cast Chilled Manganese Wooda iron b steelc cast irond steele Allowable bearing pressure, pall , psi 150 250 300 350 165 275 330 300 480 585 680 350 550 660 550 900 1075 1260 600 1000 1180 650 1100 1325 1550 715 1210 1450 1470 2400 3000 3500 1650 2750 3300

Rope Regular lay 67 6 19 6 37 8 19 Lang lay 67 6 19 6 37

Table 19.9 Maximum allowable bearing pressures for various sleeve materials and types of rope. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rolling Chains
pt /2 pt A r Pitch circle

Roller link Roller

Link plate

Pin link

Pin

rc

Bushing Pitch Pitch

Figure 19.9 Various parts of rolling chain.

Figure 19.10 Chordal rise in rolling chains.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Strength of Rolling Chains


Roller Diameter, Width, in. in. 0.130 1/8 0.200 3/16 0.306 1/4 5/16 5/16 2/5 3/8 15/32 1/2 5/8 5/8 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1 18 11 4 13 13 1 32 1 32 9 1 16 11 2 7 17 1 8 8 Pin diameter, d, in. 0.0905 0.141 0.141 0.156 0.200 0.234 0.312 0.375 0.437 0.500 0.562 0.687 0.781 0.937 Link plate thickness, a, in. 0.030 0.050 0.050 0.060 0.080 0.094 0.125 0.156 0.187 0.219 0.250 0.281 0.312 0.375 Average ultimate strength, Su , lb 875 2100 2000 3700 6100 8500 14,500 24,000 34,000 46,000 58,000 76,000 95,000 130,000 Weight per foot, lb 0.084 0.21 0.28 0.41 0.68 1.00 1.69 2.49 3.67 4.93 6.43 8.70 10.51 16.90

Chain number a 25 a 35 a 41 40 50 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 240

Pitch, pt , in. 1/4 3/8 1/2 1/2 5/8 3/4 1 11 4 11 2 13 4 2 21 4 21 2 3

Table 19.10 Standard sizes and strengths of rolling chains.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chain Power Ratings


Table 19.11: Transmitted power of single-strand, No. 25 rolling chain.
Number of teeth in small sprocket 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 30 32 35 40 45 50 55 60 100 0.054 0.059 0.064 0.070 0.075 0.081 0.086 0.097 0.097 0.103 0.108 0.114 0.119 0.125 0.131 0.148 0.159 0.170 0.188 0.217 0.246 0.276 0.306 0.336 500 900 Type I 0.23 0.39 0.25 0.43 0.27 0.47 0.30 0.50 0.32 0.54 0.34 0.58 0.37 0.62 0.39 0.66 0.41 0.70 0.44 0.74 0.46 0.78 0.48 0.82 0.51 0.86 0.53 0.90 0.56 0.94 0.63 1.07 0.68 1.15 0.73 1.23 0.80 1.36 0.92 1.57 1.05 1.78 1.18 1.99 1.30 2.21 1.43 2.43 Type II 1200 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.96 1.01 1.06 1.12 1.17 1.22 1.38 1.49 1.60 2.76 2.03 2.31 2.58 2.96 3.15 1800 0.73 0.80 0.87 0.94 1.01 1.09 1.16 1.23 1.31 1.38 1.46 1.53 1.61 1.69 1.76 1.99 2.14 2.30 2.53 2.93 3.32 3.72 4.12 4.53 III 2500 0.98 1.07 1.17 1.27 1.36 1.46 1.56 1.66 1.76 1.86 1.96 2.06 2.16 2.26 2.37 2.67 2.88 3.09 3.40 3.93 4.46 5.00 5.54 6.09 3000 1.15 1.26 1.38 1.49 1.61 1.72 1.84 1.95 2.07 2.19 2.31 2.43 2.55 2.67 2.79 3.15 3.39 3.64 4.31 4.63 5.26 5.89 6.53 7.18 3500 1.32 1.45 1.58 1.71 1.85 1.98 2.11 2.25 2.38 2.52 2.65 2.79 2.93 3.07 3.20 3.62 3.90 4.18 4.62 5.32 6.04 6.77 7.51 8.25 Small sprocket speed, rpm 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 Type II lubrication 1.42 1.19 1.01 0.88 0.77 0.68 1.62 1.36 1.16 1.00 0.88 0.78 1.78 1.53 1.30 1.13 0.99 0.88 1.93 1.71 1.46 1.26 1.11 0.94 2.06 1.89 1.62 1.40 1.23 1.09 2.23 2.08 1.78 1.54 1.35 1.20 2.38 2.28 1.95 1.69 1.48 1.31 2.53 2.49 2.12 1.84 1.52 1.43 2.69 2.70 2.30 2.00 1.75 1.55 2.84 2.91 2.49 2.16 1.89 1.68 2.99 3.13 2.68 2.32 2.04 1.80 3.15 3.36 2.87 2.49 2.18 1.93 3.30 3.59 3.07 2.66 2.33 2.07 3.46 3.83 3.27 2.83 2.48 2.20 3.61 4.07 3.48 3.01 2.64 2.34 4.28 4.54 4.12 3.57 3.13 2.78 4.40 4.89 4.57 3.96 3.47 3.08 4.71 5.24 5.03 4.36 3.83 3.39 5.19 5.78 5.76 4.99 4.38 3.88 6.00 6.67 7.04 6.10 5.35 4.75 6.81 7.58 8.33 7.28 6.39 5.66 7.64 8.49 9.33 8.52 7.48 6.63 8.46 9.41 10.3 9.83 8.63 7.65 9.30 10.3 11.3 11.2 9.83 8.72 Type IV lubrication 7000 0.61 0.70 0.79 0.88 0.96 1.07 1.18 1.28 1.39 1.50 1.61 1.73 1.85 1.97 2.10 2.49 2.76 3.04 3.48 4.25 5.07 5.93 6.85 7.80 7500 0.55 0.63 0.71 0.79 0.88 0.97 1.06 1.16 1.25 1.35 1.46 1.56 1.67 1.78 1.89 2.24 2.49 2.74 3.13 3.83 4.57 5.35 6.17 7.03 8000 0.50 0.57 0.64 0.72 0.80 0.88 0.96 1.05 1.14 1.23 1.32 1.42 1.51 1.61 1.72 2.04 2.26 2.49 2.85 3.48 4.15 4.96 5.60 6.38 8500 0.46 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.73 0.80 0.88 0.96 1.04 1.12 1.21 1.29 1.38 1.47 1.52 1.86 2.06 2.27 2.60 3.17 3.79 4.44 5.12 5.83 9000 0.42 0.48 1.54 0.60 0.67 0.74 0.81 0.88 0.96 1.03 1.11 1.19 1.27 1.35 1.44 1.71 1.89 2.06 2.38 2.91 3.48 4.07 4.76 5.35 10000 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.81 0.88 0.95 1.01 1.06 1.16 1.23 1.46 1.62 1.78 2.04 2.49 2.97 3.48 4.01 4.57

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rolling Chain Data

Table 19.12 Service factors for rolling chains.


Type of input power Internal combustion Electric motor Internal combustion engine with or engine with hydraulic drive turbine mechanical drive 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.7

Type of driven load Smooth Moderate shock Heavy shock

Table 19.13: Multiple-strand factors for rolling chains.


Number of strands 2 3 4 Multiple-strand factor, a2 1.7 2.5 3.3

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Dragline

Hoist rope Gantry line system

Drag rope

Mast (20 ft) Multi-part line

5 ft

15 ft

Figure 19.11 Typical dragline.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Chapter 20: Elements of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

There is plenty of room at the bottom. Richard Feynman

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a)

Mirror

(b)

Mirror support post Landing tips Torsion hinge

Mirror -10

Mirror +10

DPT Device

Address electrode Electrode Yoke support post Hinge support post Metal 3 address pads Landing sites

Hinge Yoke Landing tip CMOS substrate

Bias/Reset Bus (c)

To SRAM (d)

Figure 20.1 The Texas Instruments digital pixel technology (DPT) device. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Lithography

Figure 20.2 Pattern transfer by lithography. Note that the mask in step 3 can be a positive or negative image of the pattern. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Etching Directionality

(a)

undercut
Mask layer

(b)

(c)

{111} face Etch front Etch material (e.g. silicon) 54.7 Etch front Final shape Etch front

Figure 20.3 Etching directionality. (a) Isotropic etching: etch proceeds vertically and horizontally at approximately the same rate, with significant mask undercut. (b) Orientation-dependant etching (ODE): etch proceeds vertically, terminating on {111} crystal planes with little mask undercut. (c) Vertical etching: etch proceeds vertically with little mask undercut. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

(a)

Bulk Micromachining

Diffused layer (e.g. p-type Si)

Substrate (e.g. n-type Si) (b) Non-etching mask (e.g. silicon nitride)

(c) Freestanding cantilever

(111) planes

Figure 20.4 Schematic illustration of bulk micromachining. (a) Diffuse dopant in desired pattern. (b) Deposit and pattern masking film. (c) Orientation-dependant etch (ODE), leaving behind a freestanding structure.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Surface Micromachining

Figure 20.5 Schematic illustration of the steps in surface micromachining. (a) deposition of a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) spacer layer; (b) etching of spacer layer; (c) deposition of polysilicon; (d) etching of polysilicon; (e) selective wet etching of PSG, leaving the silicon substrate and deposited polysilicon unaffected. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Micromirror
(a) (b)

Figure 20.6 (a) SEM image of a deployed micromirror. (b) Detail of the micromirror hinge. (Source: Sandia National Laboratories.)

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Micro-Hinge Manufacture
(a) (b) (c)

Poly1

Spacer layer 1

Spacer Layer 2

Silicon

(d) Poly2

(e)

Figure 20.7 Schematic illustration of the steps required to manufacture a hinge. (a) Deposition of a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) spacer layer and polysilicon layer. (b) deposition of a second spacer layer; (c) Selective etching of the PSG; (d) depostion of polysilicon to form a staple for the hinge; (e) After selective wet etching of the PSG, the hinge can rotate. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

LIGA

Figure 20.8 The LIGA (lithography, electrodeposition and molding) technique. (a) Primary production of a metal final product or mold insert. (b) Use of the primary part for secondary operations, or replication Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Beams in MEMS

Table 20.1 Summary of important beam situations for MEMS devices. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Atomic Force Microscope Probe

(a)

(b)

Figure 20.9 Scanning electron microscope images of a diamond-tipped cantilever probe used in atomic force microscopy. (a) Side view with detail of diamond; (b) bottom view of entire cantilever. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rectangular Plate
a/b 1.0 0.0138 0.3078 1.2 0.0188 0.3834 1.4 0.0226 0.4356 1.6 0.0251 0.4680 1.8 0.0267 0.4872 2.0 0.0277 0.4974 0.0284 0.5000

Table 20.2 Coefficients and for analysis of rectangular plate pressure sensor.
pb4 !max = " 3 Et pb2 !max = " 2 t

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Electrostatic Actuation
Fy a y x h V (volts) Stationary comb Moving comb Beam spring suspension

Fy (a)

a y x h V (volts)

Anchors

(c) (b)

Figure 20.10 Illustration of electrostatic actuatuation. (a) Attractive forces between charged plates; (b) forces resulting from eccentric charged plate between two other plates; (c) schematic illustration of a comb drive. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Comb Drive

Figure 20.11 A comb drive. Note the springs in the center provide a restoring force to return the electrostatic comb teeth to their original position. From Sandia National Laboratories. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Rotary Electrostatic Motor

Rotor Stator 12 18

27

(a)

(b)

Figure 20.12 (a) Schematic illustration of a rotary electrostatic motor, sometimes called a slide motor; (b) scanning electron microscope image of a rotary micromotor. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Capilary Tube for Microow

Piezoelectric coating with transducer

Flow Traveling wave direction

Flexible tube wall

Figure 20.13 Capilary tube for microflow. (a) Schamitic illustration of tube construction; (b) induced traveing wave and fluid flow. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Thermal Inkjet Printer


a) Actuation Bubble Ink Heating element b) Droplet formation

c) Droplet ejection

d) Liquid refills

Satellite droplets

Figure 20.14 (a) Sequence of operation of a thermal inkjet printer. (a) Resistive heating element is turned on, rapidly vaporizing ink and forming a bubble. (b) Within five microseconds, the bubble has expanded and displaced liquid ink from the nozzle. (c) Surface tension breaks the ink stream into a bubble, which is discharged at high velocity. The heating element is turned off at this time, so that the bubble collapses as heat is transferred to the surrounding ink. (d) Within 24 microseconds, an ink droplet (and undesirable satellite droplets) are ejected, and surface tension of the ink draws more liquid from the reservoir.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Piezoelectric Inkjet Mechanism

PZT actuator Teflon coating

Ink reservoir

Nozzle

Ink droplet Paper Ink dot

Figure 20.15 Schematic illustration of a piezoelectric driven inkjet printer head. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Metal Oxide Sensors

Metal Coating BaTiO3 /CuO SNO2 SNO2 SNO2 SNO2 WO3 Fe2 O3 Ga2 O3 MoO3 In2 O3

Catalyst La2 O3 , CaCO3 Pt + Sb Pt Sb2 O3 CuO Pt Ti-doped Au Au

Detected gas CO2 CO Alcohols H2 , O2 , H2 S H2 S NH3 CO CO NO2 , CO O3

Table 20.4 Common metal oxide sensors.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Accellerometer
Stationary polysilicon fingers Spring (beam) Direction of acceleration

Suspended inertial mass

C1 Anchor to substrate C2

(a)

(b)

Figure 20.16 (a) Schematic illustration of accellerometer; (b) photograph of Analog Devices ADXL-50 accelerometer with a surface micromachined capacitive sensor (center), on-chip excitation, self-test and signal conditioning circuitry. The entire chip measures 0.500 by 0.625 mm. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements