TNO report

Crash Safety Centre Schoemakerstraat 97 P.O. Box 6033 2600 JA Delft The Netherlands www.tno.nl

Literature survey on in-vehicle safety devices

T +31 15 2696900 F +31 15 2624321 Rekveldt@wt.tno.nl

Date Author(s)

May 9, 2003 M.G.C. Rekveldt, MSc. K. Labibes, Ph.D.

Sponsor

Swedisch National Road Administration (SNRA) SE-78187 Borlänge Sweden

Approved by M.G.C. Rekveldt (Project Leader) Also seen by H.G. Mooi, Ph.D. Project code 009.01345 Research period January - April 2003 Number of pages 68 Number of appendices A-C Number of figures 30 Number of tables 6

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced and/or published by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without the previous written consent of TNO. In case this report was drafted on instructions, the rights and obligations of contracting parties are subject to either the Standard Conditions for Research Instructions given to TNO, or the relevant agreement concluded between the contracting parties. Submitting the report for inspection to parties who have a direct interest is permitted. © 2003 TNO

TNO report 03.OR.BV.037.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003

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Summary
This report presents a literature survey on in-vehicle safety devices. The study was split into two parts, from which the first part was focussed on restraint systems and the second on intelligent vehicle systems. This study aimed to give an overview of potentials for safety of current technologies available and trends in in-vehicle safety devices. The literature survey showed that the effectiveness of wearing seat belts in reducing injury risk (up to 60%) is much higher than effectiveness of airbags only. Effectiveness of the seat belts in combination with airbags is 10-20% higher than effectiveness of only belts. Only very limited information on effectiveness of side- and curtain airbags was available. New seat concepts were shown to claim a reduction of Whiplash injury risk and also a reduction of fatality risk. Side effects of restraints systems were described, including the risks for out-of-position occupants. Current trends indicated the increasing importance of the use of adaptive systems, in which occupant characteristics can be taken into account to reach optimal restraint performance. These adaptive systems include various sensors. Another important trend is to cover safety aspects for all occupants (front and rear occupants) and in all accident configurations, including multiple impacts. Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS) can be used for comfort or/and for Safety. IVS for Safety were mentioned in this report as IVSS. Intelligence is already introduced in nowadays cars like ABS (Anti locking Brake System) and more recently ESP (Electronic Stability Program). Estimations from in depth accidents analysis showed that ESP could have reduced the likelihood or avoided the accident in 18% of all injury accidents and in 34% of fatal accidents. The new challenge is to introduce remote sensing for avoiding or mitigating a crash. ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) is an example of this technology, other systems will follow. An overview on IVS and more details on IVSS was provided in this literature survey including the estimated potential of the systems to increase vehicle safety. This potential is obtained mainly from simulation and experts opinions and the obtained numbers have to be taken cautiously. It is agreed that IVSS tackle the first cause of accidents, which is driver errors.

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Sammanfattning
Den här rapporten presenterar en litteraturöversikt över säkerhetsutrustning i fordon. Studien delades upp i två delar, där den första delen fokuserade på skyddssystem och den andra på moderna så kallade Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS). Syftet med den här studien var att ge en översikt av säkerhetspotentialen i aktuella tillgängliga tekniker och trender för säkerhetsanordningar i fordon. Litteraturöversikten visade att säkerhetsbältets effektivitet att minska skaderisken (upp till 60%) är mycket högre än endast krockkuddens skadereducerande effekt. Säkerhetsbältets effekt tillsammans med krockkudden är 10-20% högre än endast säkerhetsbältets. Endast begränsad information om sidokrockkuddars och skyddsgardiners effektivitet finns idag tillgänglig. Nya bilstolar visade sig minska risken för pisksnärtskador och resulterade även i en minskning av dödsriskerna. Säkerhetssystemens bieffekter beskrevs, inklusive riskerna för passagerare utan säkerhetsbälte. Utvecklingen visade den ökade betydelsen av användningen av adaptiva system där passagerarnas egenskaper tas hänsyn till för att nå optimal säkerhet. Dessa adaptiva system inkluderar olika sensorer. En annan viktig trend är att beakta säkerhetsaspekterna för samtliga passagerare (passagerare fram och bak) och i samtliga olyckstyper. IVS kan användas för komfort och/eller för säkerhet. IVS för säkerhet kallas i den här rapporten IVSS (Intelligent Vehicle Safety System). Intelligens finns redan i dagens bilar i och med ABS (Låsningsfria bromsar) och nyare ESP (antisladd-system). Beräkningar från olycksanalyser visar att ESP kunde ha minskat sannolikheten eller undvikit olyckan i 18% av samtliga skadeolyckor och i 34% av dödsolyckorna. Den nya utmaningen är att presentera nya sensorer för att undvika eller minska våldet i en kollision. ACC (Adaptiva konstantfarthållare) är ett exempel på sådan teknologi. Andra system kommer inom kort. En översikt av IVS och mer information om IVSS ges i den här litteraturöversikten, inklusive uppskattade systemmöjligheter för att öka fordonssäkerheten. Potentialen beräknas i huvudsak från simuleringar och expertomdömen och de erhållna potentialerna måste tas med en nypa salt. Man är överens om att IVSS kan adressera den största olycksorsaken, som är förarfel.

.............................. 18 Description of airbag systems .................................... 35 Trends in restraint systems . 22 Special head protection airbags and curtain airbags................................................3 4...............4 2..................... 10 Load limiter................7 Introduction..5 4........ 19 Potential of frontal airbags to increase safety.................1.................................. 8 Safety belt systems............3........ 36 General trends ............ 18 Frontal airbags... 40 Potential effectiveness of adaptive restraint systems ........................ 37 Safety of rear occupants ...................3.............................................6 2......................................................................................................................................................................................................2............................3.................................................................................................................1 4........................................................2 4..............................1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 4 / 68 Contents 1 2 2................................................................................................3................... 38 Four point belt .......................................................................1 4.............. 42 ...........................................7 2..............2 4................................................................................................................................1 4................. 32 Effects of restraint systems on elderly ............................. 9 Pretensioners ..........2 3...................................................................TNO report 03........................ 20 Side airbags for chest and head & curtain airbags ..................4 3.........................................................1 3...................... 11 Seats ................ 40 Inflator technology ..........1 2................................ 10 Potential of belts to increase safety ....................................................................6 4 4......................................................................................................... 34 Effect of occupant characteristics on injury risk .1..............................................................................3................................................OR...........................................................4 2......................2....1 2.4....... 36 Trends in tools for restraint system development.2 2................................................................................2 4..................1 4..................................................................4 2...................................3.........3 2....................1....... 14 Potential of seats to increase safety........1 2........................................................................................................................1 2............3 3..........................................................4 4..................5...............................................3......................................................................8 2....... 25 Integration of safety concepts . 6 Restraint systems..................1........................................................ 22 Potential of head airbags and curtain airbags to increase safety ....5 3 3............................3 4...................................................................................................................................5 2...............................037............................................................................................. 39 New belt pretensioners.....4............BV..... 24 Interior panels and retractable steering columns .................. 31 Injuries caused by belts ...................................2 2.......................................... 16 Airbags ...................................................................................6 4................................................................................................ 40 Airbag design .............3 2................ 34 Effects of restraint systems on small children and child restraints............ 37 Investigation of multiple impacts .............................3........... 31 Injuries caused by airbags . 9 Description of belt systems .................... 40 Sensors ........................................................... 39 Trends in airbags ................................2 2..............................................................................5 3........................... 36 Trends in safety ..........................3............................................................2 4................5.......................... 14 Seat design aspects...................... 31 Out-of-position (OOP) .................. 21 Potential of side airbags to improve safety............................................... 38 New belt concept – inflatable belt.................... 24 Other airbags ....4.........................................................2 2.............. 27 Side effects of restraint systems ......3........................................................................................................................................................................................ 38 Trends in belt design ............................3 2......

......... 57 Artificial vision : (video pattern recognition)............................5 6 6........................ 52 Remote sensor technology ........4 5.........3 5.... 50 Discussion ....................... 59 Intelligent Vehicle Systems........................................................................................ 54 Radar ................ 43 IVS in vehicle safety applications ............................... 47 Example project: Chameleon t[29] ............................................................................................................. 61 Appendices A Glossary B List of relevant IVS related EC projects C Overview actual regulations and consumer tests .............................1 5.......................TNO report 03.....6 7 7...................... 44 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)....................................4 5........................................ 55 Lidar ...........................................................................................................................................3............................. 54 Ultrasonic sensors ..... 54 Infrared sensors .......................3......................................................................................2 5...........1 6.................... 46 Pre-Crash Sensing (PCS) systems...................................................................2 6..................................4 6.........................1 5.........................1 7.................................................................................................................................................................................................3 5.............................................................. 57 Data sensor fusion ..................................... 45 IVS potential to integrate Passive safety and active safety ......................................... 49 Trends in IVS for safety................2 5..1......3 6. 44 ESP Electronic Stability Program ..............................037........OR...........................................................................................2 5.............2 8 Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS).................................................................................................. 59 Restraint systems........................................ 58 Conclusions ......................... 43 ABS Anti locking Brake System or Antilock Brake System ...................................1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 5 / 68 5 5......................................................BV...................................... 59 References ............... 44 ASR Acceleration Slip Regulation .......1......................................................5 6................1 5.....................................................................................1...................................................................................................................................... 48 Pre-crash sensing potential and limitations to increase safety ..1....

What potential lies in other in-vehicle systems. An inventory of current and future active systems will be made as well as an overview of the most relevant components for such systems. out-of-position situations in which an occupant is interacting with a deploying airbag will be taken into account. These studies will be extended with the latest developments for sensors as well as actuators. ABS brakes and traction control?’ The successful submission of TNO included: The study on in-vehicle safety devices will be split into two parts. Sources used in the literature survey included: − Proceedings of conferences like STAPP. retractor etc.037. The exact formulation of the call was: ‘The effect and potential in using different modern safety systems in vehicles. ESP. modern safety belt system (safety belt pretensioner. AIRBAG 2002. What needs to be improved and developed? Examples of systems to describe are: airbags. The second part of the in-vehicle safety study will focus more on the new trends including the link between active and passive safety via the use of anticipatory sensors to make restraint systems more efficient. The basis for this work will be studies into sensor technologies and sensor algorithms performed by TNO in 2001. a description will be given of current restraint systems in cars. The basis for this work will be studies into sensor technologies and sensor algorithms performed by TNO in 2001. knee airbags. Autoliv. curtain airbags) and belts (including pre-tensioner. Attention will also be paid to the possible negative effects of these restraint systems. Apart from technical aspects legal factors and other deployment related aspects will be considered as well. Siemens This report can be divided in two main subjects: ‘Restraint Systems’ and ‘Intelligent Vehicle Systems’. sensor manufacturers like Bosch.OR. TRW. An inventory of current and future active systems will be made as well as an overview of the most relevant components for such systems. This report presents the results of the literature survey. IRCOBI.BV. polytechnics and research institutes around the world to carry out literature studies on several subjects related to road safety including the subject ‘in-vehicle safety devices’.) will be considered. such as intelligent cruise control. developed for frontal. Transport Canada website − Studies into sensor technologies and sensor algorithms by TNO in 2001 − Websites of restraint system manufacturers like Breed. Apart from technical aspects legal factors and other deployment related aspects will be considered as well.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 6 / 68 1 Introduction At the end of December 2002. The second part of the in-vehicle safety study will focus more on active safety including use of anticipatory sensors to make restraint systems more efficient. force limiter etc). In the first part.TNO report 03. SAE − Scientific journals − SAE global mobility database − NHTSA website. For example. Swedish National Road Administration invited universities. side and rollover impact situations. Different types of airbags (driver & passenger frontal. side-impact airbags for chest and head. side airbags. .

The AIS.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 7 / 68 These studies will be extended with the latest developments for sensors as well as actuators. the term Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is used for injury assessment. the AIS level (i. is a consensus-derived. The AIS is intended as a measure of the severity of the injury itself and not as a measure of impairments or disabilities that may result from the injury. These sensors will be increasingly implemented in future vehicles. the content of this report includes: − Chapter 2: Restraint systems This chapter will describe current systems and will indicate its potential. 4=severe. anatomically based system that ranks individual injuries by body region on a scale of 1 to 6 (1=minor. This report aims to give an overview of restraint systems and technologies available in the current fleet and potentials for safety. A list of European projects in the field of IVS for safety is given in Appendix B. This chapter gives an overview of the problems. The AIS was revised and updated several times.OR. − Chapter 7: Conclusions This chapter shortly summarises the most important findings from this literature survey. In more detail. − Chapter 3: Current drawbacks of restraint systems Although restraint systems have positive effects (will be shown in chapter 2) also less positive second order effects are observed. It does not assess the combined effects of multiple injuries to a patient.. Some information on regulations involving restraint systems or intelligent vehicle systems is provided in Appendix C. − Chapter 5: Intelligent vehicle systems (IVS) Chapter 5 describes the new trends in vehicles like ACC emphasising the potential of Intelligent Vehicle Systems for enhancing safety. In this study. AIS of 2 or more) refers to the maximum AIS level for that injury suffered by a vehicle occupant. and 6=maximum/currently untreatable). The MAIS refers to the maximum AIS level (the most severe injury) for all injuries. 3=serious. 5=critical. The glossary describing all abbreviations used in this report is given in Appendix A. − Chapter 4: Trends in restraint systems Chapter 4 describes the trends observed from literature. . This also connects the first part of the literature survey with the second part since future trends in restraint systems include the use of adaptive. A chapter is dedicated to this technology. 2=moderate.TNO report 03. Also expected effects of integrated safety systems is discussed.BV. − Chapter 6: Remote sensor technology IVS are based on remote sensors. first developed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine in 1971. In this report.037. smart restraint systems. with the most recent revision in 1990.e.

Social costs related to these deaths and casualties are estimated to be over 160 billion Euro [60]. Limitations or drawbacks of current restraint systems are given in the next chapter. considerably reduced the number of fatalities and casualties worldwide. This chapter describes the current (adults’) restraint systems and its benefits. Despite of the increasing number of vehicles on the roads.BV. Korea. The EU intends to contribute to this goal with actions on two levels: 1. USA. The introduction of restraints systems like airbags. The number of fatalities in road accidents in Europe.OR. [144]. in the European Union.TNO report 03. The European guideline for cost effectiveness of safety measures is that a measure is cost effective if one fatality (and a particular number of (severe) injured people and material damage) is prevented at maximum cost of 1 million Euro [94]. 220000 fatalities world wide 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Figure 1. Decreasing the fatalities and injuries would reduce these costs enormously.Fatalities in road accidents ‘world wide’ from 1965 until 2000. Children require special restraint systems and for protection of these child occupants. still approximately 40.000 people are killed in road traffic accidents and 1. Japan.5 millions casualties are reported each year.037. child restraint systems are used in conjunction with adults’ restraint systems. Nowadays. This guideline is based on accident statistics for the complete European Union. The European Union set an ambitious goal to halve the number of people killed annually by 2010 [144]. cars are equipped with several restraint systems to prevent the occupant from being injured during a crash. data from [95] However. Harmonisation of penalties and 2. the number of fatalities is still decreasing.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 8 / 68 2 Restraint systems Restraint systems are systems that restraint the occupant and protect the occupant in case of crash. . Australia and New Zealand for the last decades is shown in Figure 1 [95]. seatbelts and energy absorbing interiors. Promotion of new technologies to improve road safety. Canada.

TNO report 03. which is attached to one end of the webbing.g.3.OR. Adding a shoulder belt to the lap belt contributed to achieve this second goal. Figure 2 – Conventional three.1 Description of belt systems Initially the only goal of seatbelts was to prevent total ejection of occupants from a car during a crash [23]. The next additional goal of seatbelts was to protect the occupants from violent impacts against interior structures. different types of belts were introduced in private cars (for example Volvo and Saab in 1956). Seat belts are multi-functional. For well functioning of the belt. in which the shoulder belt upper anchor is mounted to the vehicle body (B-pillar). Current belt systems include [24] • Retractor.2.1. the geometry of the belt and hence the location of the anchorage points was shown to be important.1. This was achieved with a single lap belt. Current conventional seat belt systems are the three-point belts. introduced in car racing just after 1900. see Figure 2.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 9 / 68 2. Inside the retractor. hips and shoulders. see section 2. work in all different types of accidents like frontal. seat belts were enhanced by additional features like force limiters and pretensioners.1 Safety belt systems 2. The location of the belt at the occupant’s body during a crash is essential for proper functioning of the belt. belt systems are integrated in the seats. which must be able to withstand high forces as well as open easily even upon heavy loading. if the lap belt is located too high. side. • Buckle. which is called ‘sub-marining’.point belt system [96] Properly fastened safety belts distribute the forces of rapid deceleration over larger and stronger parts of the person’s body like chest.BV. the occupant can slip under a loosely tightened seat belt. More and more. see Figure 3. a spring applies a rotation force to the spool to rotate the spool so it winds up any loose webbing. The safety belt stretches slightly to slow the body down and to increase its stopping distance. • Height adjuster to achieve correct belt geometry (manual or automatic).037. For example. a spool. e.1.2 and 2. The last decades. rear end and rollover. After the Second World War. . see section 2.

TNO report 03.3 Load limiter Load limiters were introduced in 1995 [24] and keep the belt force at predefined. Figure 3 – Left panel: drawing of retractor. The potential for dual belt pretension was investigated by Renault [20].1. The buckle pretensioner is fired first. the end of the bar turns and reduces the load on the occupant’s chest. Pretensioners can tighten the belt up to 15 cm by pulling the seatbelt buckle towards the floor (Buckle pretensioner) or by operating the retractor (Roto pretensioner) [24]. and reduction of passenger compartment deformation. see Figure 4. Normally a pre-set limit of 4 kN is used. Benefit of the dual belt pretension system over single pretension in terms of reduced pelvis acceleration and velocity (peak velocity from 3.5 m/s to 2 m/s) was presented.BV. right panel. .2 Pretensioners Pretensioners were introduced in 1984 [25] and remove slack from the belt (tighten the belt) early in the crash event using a small pyrotechnic charge to push the occupants to their seat during the crash. Modern pretensioners typically use the same sensor as the airbag. • Pretensioner to tighten the belt during the very first fractions of a crash.OR. Accident analysis of LAB data in this study showed improvements for the protection of the upper body of belted occupants as a result of improved restraint systems (load limited belts & airbags). A typical solution is provided by a bar holding the spindle with the webbing within the retractor. controlled level. However. controlled level. consisting of a buckle lap-belt pretensioner and an outer lap-belt pretensioner.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 10 / 68 • Load limiter integrated in the retractor to keep the maximum belt force at a predefined. If the force from the webbing exceeds the limit. a few ms later the outer belt pretensioner is fired with a typical time interval of 10 ms in an offset frontal crash situation. A mechanism in the retractor allows webbing to be pulled out slightly when belt loads become too high. drawing of pretensioner [97] Some details on pretensioners and load limiters are given in the next sub-sections. a dual belt system is proposed. 2. There are several technical solutions to achieve the load limiting. leg protection of front seat occupants still could be improved and therefore.1. 2.037.

Comfort and usability was. it is also known that in about 50% of severe crashes. 2. The most significant problems were found as belt trapping in the door. see Table 2. studied by Delphi Automotive Systems [48] by means of a questionnaire study (194 respondents). modern seat belts have been shown to reduce injury risk in frontal crashes with about 50% [61]. Main reason for the Dutch drivers in 2000 not to wear a belt is simply ‘forgot’. Autoliv introduced 2-stage load limiters to keep the load on the occupant’s chest constant during the whole crash [24]. The institute for road safety research in the Netherlands (SWOV) published the reasons not to wear the seat belt amongst Dutch drivers [137]. The major excuse of non-belt usage is discomfort and inconvenience in using the belt. From this study it was concluded that the basic attitude of these drivers to seat belts was in most cases positive. the belt’s load limit is reduced since the airbag takes over part of the occupant’s load. A recent study published in the Journal of Accident Analysis and Prevention estimated that seat belt use by front-seat passengers reduced the risk of death in a crash even by about 61% [139].4 Potential of belts to increase safety In several studies. belt twisting. Results for this particular question are summarised in Table 1. Drivers not using the seat belt (435 drivers) were interviewed and.1. initially the occupant is only restraint by the belt. A more extensive study about non-user’s reasons for not wearing the seat belt was performed by VTI [136]. awkward negotiating with clothes. However. indicating that seat wear reminder systems could reduce the amount of non-wearing seat belt drivers. amongst others. .OR. since the main reasons not to wear the seat belt were not very principle. seat belts are not worn [47]. As soon as the occupant moves forward into the airbag.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 11 / 68 Figure 4 – Load limiter [24] In 2000. amongst others.BV.037.TNO report 03. During a crash. belts locking up and difficulty to locate the buckle. which demands a relatively high belt force. asked for the reason not to wear the seatbelt.

9 0.7 Table 2: Results Dutch study: reasons not to wear the belt [137] Reason Forgot Uncomfortable Unnecessary Dangerous % 1998 31 31 9 3 % 2000 46 20 10 3 Seat belt wear percentage for several countries around the world is presented in Figure 5 [98]. .6 1.5 3. Dependent on the road type.7 0.4 0.8 1.OR.9 23. different improvement of sear wear rates is possible.BV. % 34. forgetfulness Stressed.5 32.5 4.037.7 0.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 12 / 68 Table 1: Results Swedish interview: ‘why did you not use the seat belt on this occasion? [136] Reason Only a short trip Carelessness Forgot.3 1.4 3. in a hurry Professional driving.0 10.8 2. no answer Drives (drove) slowly Avoids accidents Interference with clothes Tired Usually “always” wears belt Bold lines represent the ‘hard resistance’ group.TNO report 03.6 4. job Had no time to put it on yet Habit. “bad habit” Uncomfortable to wear Do not use as a matter of principle Feel locked in Only urban trip Frequent stops Cumbersome to put on Belt is / can be dangerous Belt is not necessary Restricts reach Don’t know.7 0.7 0.9 0.4 2.6 10.9 0.

One of the recommendations of the EEVC working group for seat belt reminder systems was that a seat belt reminder system should not affect drive-ability of the vehicle and should consist of a progressive reminder system with audible and visual signals. An observational survey was conducted to compare driver belt use in 2000-2002 models with belt reminders with belt use in 1998-2001 models without reminders. or reduce the severity of such impact. From impact biomechanics it is known that belts prevent the occupant from hitting the interior of the vehicle. averaged for all types of crashes.1.OR. EEVC working group 16. The overall use rates were estimated as 71% for drivers of vehicles without belt reminders and 76% for drivers of vehicles with reminders. It was also recommended that the seat belt reminder systems should have disconnection possibilities.4]. Effectiveness of Ford’s belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use in the US was investigated by IIHS [138]. the belt is 80% effective in preventing driver fatalities if rollover is the first event.TNO report 03. The belt effectiveness at reducing driver fatality risk.BV. Also the effect of the belt wearing law in the UK was described: a 23% decrease of fatalities was reported in the 11 months after the law [146]. In case of rollover.037. is in the range 38% to 46%. belts prevent ejection from the vehicle. . studied the potential of technical means to increase the use of seat belts in cars and proposed specifications for such systems with special interest for reminder systems [47]. seat belt reminder systems are currently on the market as an addition to the ‘conventional belt systems’ described in section 2. Currently seat belt reminder systems are taken into account with EuroNCAP tests on voluntary base [appendix C. Forces on the occupant are spread over a larger body area and the deceleration is spread over a longer time. Seat use detection was recommended also for other seats than the driver seat with a lower limit of a 5th % female to avoid false signals by small luggage or ISOFIX child restraint systems. This increase in belt wearing was statistically significant. Evans summarised technical evidence for the effectiveness of safety belts in [117]. Advanced Frontal Crash Protection.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 13 / 68 Figure 5 – Seat belt wearing rates for car drivers in 2000 [98] To increase the seat belt wear percentage. Besides.

Rollover restraint performance with and without seat belt pretensioner was investigated in [120].TNO report 03. For side impact protection.2. [130]. the geometrical properties of the head restraint considerably more influence the occupant kinematics and thus whiplash associated disorder potential than seat foam properties. Whereas these devices used to consist of metal pressings that absorb impact energy by controlled deformation.2. The rollover test method resulted in unrepeatable vehicle dynamics. Also the strength of the seat adjustment is important for side impact protection. seats have an important function in energy absorption.2 Seats 2. it was concluded that shoulder belts reduce the risk of death compared to lap belts without shoulder belts. also in frontal impact. A new generation of yielding seats was described by Viano. compared to the tests without pretensioners. Besides importance in case of rear and side impact. In particular anti-submarining pans are used to control the pelvis motion in the seat and to prevent the occupant from submarining under the lap belt. . Geometry and material of the side bolsters influence seat–occupant interaction in a crash event. the seat plays an important role in occupant prevention [1].1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 14 / 68 Reduced fatalities related to rear seat shoulder belts were reported in [143].BV. It was concluded that for the three seats being subject of investigation in this study.1 Seat design aspects In the past. see also Figure 6. The influence of seat foam and geometrical properties on a dummy’s kinematic response to rear impacts was studied in [99]. the occupant moves rearward relative to the vehicle and the seat back provides the primary ‘restraint system’ for the occupant.037. For the influence of seat foam properties. Therefore. contradictory conclusions were reported and the influence of the material properties compared to the geometrical characteristics was limited. It was concluded that the maximum occupant injury values did not indicate any improved protection for the tests with pretensioners activated. It was noted that the pretensioners used in this study were not designed for rollover application. 2. the seats were particularly important as far as comfort was concerned. Therefore seat design influences the injury potential. It was shown that death rates in cars equipped with shoulder belts in rear seats were substantially lower that in cars equipped with lap belts at prevalent use rates. proper restraint performance was shown. This conclusion confirms other (previous) studies in which reduced distance between head restraint and the back of the head and increased height of the head restraint were shown to be important for injury reduction [100]. Seat development was mainly comfort focussed. see section 2. During rear impact.OR. The compliance of the high retention (HR) seat is an important factor in the reduction of whiplash risks.2. [102]. [101]. was introduced by Autoliv [22]. Research tests according to a modified FMVSS 208 dolly rollover test were conducted in which driver’s and front seated passenger’s restraint performance were analysed. but nevertheless. nowadays a more variable anti-submarining device. an airbag within the seat.

The recliner of WHIPS was designed to give a controlled rearward motion of the backrest in a rear-end impact. Minimise the relative movement between adjacent vertebrae in the occipital joint 3. providing earlier neck support.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 15 / 68 Figure 6 – New generation of yielding seats. also called Saab-Active Head Restraint) was designed to move upward and forward by occupant motion in a rear crash.SAHR mechanism [147]. This holistic approach was needed because the injury mechanisms for whiplash are still not fully clarified. Minimise the forward rebound into the seat belt. which has a yieldable backrest that will be tilted in a controlled way in a rear-end collision. example of high retention seat [130].BV. .037. condensed into guidelines and requirements. Also Autoliv introduced an Anti-Whiplash Seat (AWS) for front seat occupants. absorbing energy and reducing the occupant’s forward rebound. from accident research and biomechanical knowledge. improving the closeness to the occupant’s head and back. Figure 7. towards interpretation of the knowledge. even when the head restraint is positioned low [147]. The aim is to absorb energy and reduce the forward rebound of the occupant [24]. resulting in seat development and validation. The following guidelines for dealing with the Whiplash problem were identified: 1.OR. Volvo developed and published the WHIPS seat concept [141].TNO report 03. A Self-Aligning Head Restraint (SAHR). [142]. The WHIPS project followed the whole chain. Reduce occupant acceleration 2. thereby.

2. equipped with belt pretensioner and load limiting retractor and additional dual stage driver airbags.2. see Figure 8. Also in case of a seat-integratedrestraint (SIR). About 50% of these neck injuries occur in rear-end impacts. Proper selection of belt retractor. Since seat excursion is also dependent on vehicle pulse and pitch. the design targets of seat/floor stiffness can not be generic for all types of vehicles. airbag vent size and dual stage inflator’s lag time contribute to lower injury values. more than one million European citizens suffer neck injuries from car collisions.OR. SIR systems provide better belt fit. 2. the stiffness of the seat and the floor underneath the seat play a significant role in protection for frontal impact situations.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 16 / 68 SAHR uses the momentum of the occupant pressing into the seatback in a rear crash to raise and move the restraint forward.2 Potential of seats to increase safety The potential of seats to increase occupant safety lie both in the head restraint and the seat structure itself. . providing earlier head neck support and lowering loads causing neck extension. Proper structural design of the seat. A Seat Integrated Restraint (SIR) system has the shoulder belt upper anchor mounted on the top of the seat back frame. Seat excursion. Yearly. better belt access and greater comfort to the occupants and therefore add to customer satisfaction. seat attachment and structural design of the floor were indicated as the key parameters to influence seat excursion. When choosing seat excursion as a design parameter.BV. Design targets for seat integrated restraint systems for optimal occupant protection were amongst others studied by Ford Motor Company [10]. Working of a prototype SIR system. The 5th framework European project WHIPLASH-2 [134] aims to reduce the risk and societal costs of low-severity neck injuries in car collisions by at least 40%. referred to as the total forward displacement of the shoulder belt upper anchor relative to the vehicle.2. by means of the introduction of safer vehicle designs. it is important to make a distinction between the contribution to excursion of the seat and its underlying structure. although for the latter different opinions were found in literature.TNO report 03. Figure 8 – Examples of seat integrated belt system. was shown to be an important parameter to optimise the SIR system and should be limited. right panel [10].037. was investigated by computer simulation with the simulation package MADYMO [10]. Better head restraint systems could contribute to reduction of the neck injuries in rear impacts [134]. Potentials are described in section 2. left panel [24].

Results of sled tests suggested considerable potential for improved neck injury protection in rear-end impacts. The most sensitive response to seat design and crash severity was the lower neck extension moment. indications were found that stiffer seats could increase the incidence of neck injuries in real world. The risk of whiplash injury in the rear seat compared to the front seat in rear impacts was investigated by Folksam Research et al. This (more recent) study showed more clearly benefits of a yielding seat back over a stiff seat on occupant dynamics in rear crashes.2. medium fixation (in between low & high) and no head restraint.037. Results of these tests indicated no consistent advantage of stiffer seats over yielding seats for the complete range of speeds tested. Often. The effect of stiff and yielding seats and energy transfer to an occupant in rear crashes was also described in [130]. Several seats with different seat back stiffness and geometry were evaluated in dynamic Hyge rear impact sled tests. In total 195 cases with both frontand rear seat passengers in the struck car were analysed with at least one occupant who sustained permanent disability. in which soft tissue neck injuries after rear-end collisions were reported. highest fixation. The risk of permanent disability was four times higher for females in the rear seat. Relationships between passenger car seat back strength and occupant injury severity in rear end collisions were. The cases were divided into 4 groups. [135]. adjustable head restraints were left in lowest position. This difference was caused by the fact that adjustable restraints were not always used properly.BV. It was concluded that there was a significantly higher disability risk for the female rear seat occupant compared to the mail driver. lowest fixation. 245 accident cases from the GDV 1990 database (Germany) were analysed with the following characteristics: rear-end collision. studied in [126]. claimed cervical spine injury and good documentation. Moreover. It was concluded that SAHR reduced whiplash injury risks by 75±11%. from an 18±5% occurrence out of 85 occupants with standard head restraints to 4±3% occurrence out of 92 occupants with SAHR. Only limited scientific information is available on claims of injury risk reduction in rear impact due to new seat concepts. Effectiveness of a Self-Aligning Head Restraint (SAHR) in preventing Whiplash was investigated in [147].1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 17 / 68 Identification of issues relevant to regulation in the US. Some indication on positive effects of the correct use of head restraints were found in [125].OR. see section 2. design and effectiveness of head restraints was given by NHTSA [127]. No concrete numbers were given. [142]. amongst others. The yielding . compared to males in the rear seat. single impact.1. In 1982. Volvo developed and published the WHIPS seat concept [141].TNO report 03. For drivers. phone interviews and reviewing of insurance and medical records. 85 with standard head restraint and 92 with SAHR were included. effectiveness of integral restraints (seat with non-adjustable ‘integrated’ head restraint) was estimated about 17% and for adjustable head restraints about 10%. A high head restraint position was found to reduce the cervical spine injury risk. The study evaluated the field performance of SAHR by means of questionnaire mailing to the occupants involved in rear crashes. Also higher risks for the female rear-seat occupant were found compared to the female front-seat passengers. the risk of permanent disability was three times higher for female drivers than for male drivers. It was concluded that it is better to have no head restraint than having one that is too low adjusted. 177 cases.

side etc) with different deployment times are developed for the . For two vehicle rear impact crashes. the airbag pressure has to be carefully controlled by vents and outflow through the airbag fabric (permeability of the fabric material).1 Description of airbag systems Airbags are inflatable restraints. High severity crashes require higher airbag pressure to prevent the occupant from hitting the vehicle interior.3 Airbags 2. Different types of inflators are used.3.OR. Different types of airbags (frontal. whereas in case of a high severity crash. The main challenge for airbag systems is that they have to satisfy all protection requirements in different vehicle crash scenarios and for different occupant sizes. The sensor that sends this information into a microprocessor continuously monitors the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle. the HR seat reduced the risk of driver fatality by 54% and the front occupant fatality risk by 35%. the initial trends showed that high-retention seats are effective in reducing the risk of fatal injury in single vehicle and light vehicle-to-vehicle rear impacts. However. Airbags were introduced in 1973 by General Motors [25]. the occupant should be optimally protected and hard contact of the occupant with the car interior should be avoided. only the first stage is fired. The electronic control unit is usually located in the middle of the car or mounted in the steering wheel (in case of a driver airbag). accident analysis with FARS data was undertaken to determine the initial field performance of the HR seats in preventing fatalities.037. In case of a low severity crash. Airbags systems consist of an electronic control unit and the airbag module itself. both stages are fired. In the microprocessor. found in [2] and [3]. It was noted that more field data is needed to increase the confidence in the results. the crash algorithm (different for each specific car model) is stored and continuously compared to the sensor signal. Single stage inflators fill air bags with the same level of power in all crashes. A general description of airbag working principles was. If the microprocessor recognises the specific crash pulse. which are connected to sensors that detect certain sudden deceleration. Therefore. amongst others. Effectiveness of High-Retention (HR) seats (see also Figure 6) in preventing fatality was studied in [140]. The airbag fabric material is nylon. In case of activation of the airbag. The fatal crash information consisted of samples from FARS from 1991-2000.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 18 / 68 seat back developed about 15% lower forces on the occupant and a more gradual forward acceleration of the occupant was observed. After 5 years of phase-in of HR seats. For both high-severity crashes (fast airbag deployment demanded) and low severity crashes (gentle airbag deployment demanded). an electrical signal is given and the airbags are fired. 2. The propellant (inflator) produces gas that inflates the airbag. FARS data analysis showed 50% reduction of the risk of driver fatalities in single-vehicle rear crashes and 59% reduction of the risk of front occupant fatalities using the HR seat. regardless of whether the crash is a relatively low or highspeed crash.TNO report 03. Multi-stage inflators (mostly dual stage) consist of multi (two) independent inflators and enable a more controlled airbag deployment.BV. Enough gas is needed to prevent the airbag from “bottoming out” against the vehicle interior when an occupant is hitting the airbag. the sensor ignites a chemical propellant by means of an electrical signal.

Typical airbag sizes for the US are 65-80 litre for driver airbags (fitted in the steering wheel) and 150-160 litre for passenger airbags (fitted in the interior panel at passenger side). wearing belts is not compulsory and a larger volume within the car has to be filled by the airbag. The airbag should therefore be properly positioned between the occupant and the car interior. see Figure 9. depending on seat belt wear obligation.2 Frontal airbags Frontal airbags protect the head and the upper body of the occupant in frontal crashes.BV. where wearing belts is compulsory. A smart driver airbag concept called ‘ring-airbag’ was presented by Audi in 2002 [15]. Airbag deployment takes about 30-50 ms. The new Audi A8 contains a fixed airbag module centre together with a ring-airbag. . For Europe and Japan.OR. smaller airbags are appropriate (35-60 litre for driver airbags and 80-120 litre for passenger airbags) [4]. scenario with an airbag(right) [148].5th percentile dummy in frontal crash test: scenario without an airbag (left).TNO report 03.037. The main function of frontal airbags is to prevent hard contact between the occupant and the steering column / interior panel / windshield during a crash. 2. see Figure 10. Figure 10 – Ring-airbag concept [15].3. Figure 9 .1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 19 / 68 different types of crashes. In the US. The following subsections will describe the different types of airbags an their effects in more detail. Typical sizes of frontal airbags vary for cars in different countries. This ‘ring-airbag’ was developed to meet all requirements of consumer protection and legislation taking into account sophisticated styling freedom.

these were not severe injuries (AIS 1). In total about 2300 cases were evaluated. This can be reached for example by avoiding contact between module flap and occupant.2. Frontal airbag benefits/dis-benefits in European vehicles were evaluated with a combined statistical and case study approach by VSRC Loughborough University [40]. For the belted drivers. burns and contusions were found for belted drivers in equipped cars. 32% of the non-equipped drivers had MAIS ≥2. non-equipped and belted/unbelted. but some examples were reported in the case review (see section 3. collected within the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study. Airbag effectiveness in preventing fatalities was estimated as 18±4% for drivers and 13±4% for passengers. It was suggested that airbag systems might have difficulty in sensing impacts to narrow objects. The smart ring-airbag concept includes all these measures. and interaction with heavier vehicles or poles. reduced injuries in case of equipped cars were observed for both belted and unbelted drivers. The maximum AIS (MAIS) of each occupant was used to compare overall injury severity between the non-equipped and the equipped samples for the belted and unbelted driver groups. It was assumed that frontal airbags protect only in frontal or near frontal crashes and do not affect the ejection probability. Differences in car performance due to improved seat belt systems and structural changes in newer cars were taken into account.037.3. For lower arms and hands significant increases of rate of abrasions. under-run. for equipped drivers only 24% had a MAIS ≥2.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 20 / 68 On the one hand. 2. Statistically no increase was found in the rate of burns. from which . For head injury. airbags have to be positioned in time and should have enough energy absorbing capabilities to protect the occupant. Lap/shoulder belted drivers who stop wearing belts because of airbag presence would increase their fatality risk by over 40%. Airbag benefits were confirmed also by a recent study of the Institute for Vehicle Safety in Germany.OR. For the unbelted group. GDV [46]. since absence of the seat belt allows forward excursion into the airbag deployment zone.3 Potential of frontal airbags to increase safety Frontal airbags have been shown to be highly effective in saving lives.2 on injuries). see section C.BV. Generally it was concluded that airbags are more effective in preventing injury when worn in conjunction with the seatbelt. occupants in out-ofposition require limited inflation pulse through the airbag. Effectiveness of airbags in preventing fatalities was already studied in 1990 by Evans [75]. About 700 cases involving airbag-equipped cars.TNO report 03. Tests showed that the ring-airbag fulfils all safety requirements and improves results for ‘low risk deployment’ FMVSS 208 tests (for information on fmvss208. less severe injuries are reported for equipped vehicles with respect to non-equipped vehicles for both belted and unbelted drivers. Previous studies identified an increased injury risk for head injuries for short stature drivers but this trend was confirmed in this study for nonequipped cars only. However.2). or controlled unfolding. Only the reduction for the belted group was statistically significant. A small (statistically insignificant) increase in the rate of neck strain (AIS 1 injury) was observed for equipped belted drivers with respect to non equipped belted drivers and a decrease for unbelted drivers. improved folding. abrasions or contusions to face or neck for belted and unbelted drivers in airbag equipped vehicles. For thoracic injury. divided in equipped. The statistical evaluation was based on accident cases from 1996-2001. the difference was much smaller (40% non-equipped to 37% equipped). Crash circumstances in which AIS ≥ 2 head injury occurred in airbag equipped vehicles included high equivalent test speed (ETS). On the other hand. radial deployment.

TNO report 03. The first step was to raise the stiffness of the car’s side structure to reduce the collision speed between door and occupant. The goal of this bag is to keep the occupant away from the impact zone and to damp the slap from the intruding side of the vehicle. With the first generation airbags unexpected fatalities were reported. Autoliv introduced thorax airbags for side-impact protection in 1994 [24]. To improve side impact occupant protection several steps were taken in the past. Side protection systems for today and near future are described by Volkswagen [17]. In this study.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 21 / 68 92% since 1997. but also for the front seat passenger the study confirmed major safety benefits of airbags. Volkswagen introduced a fault-tolerant side-bag module. Installation in the seat back has the advantage that passengers of all sizes are protected regardless of seat position. that has two functions: equal pressure distribution and early contact between door and occupant to accelerate the occupant at the lowest possible risk. Disposal of airbag modules is mentioned as an important aspect. These systems provide additional occupant protection of head. were studied. much energy is absorbed by bumper. the intruding door closes vent holes. which influences for example gas generator types (preferably without azide). The performance of these depowered airbags was investigated by William Lehman Injury Research Center [5]. After the standardisation of frontal airbags. The proportion of severe and fatal injuries both to driver and front passenger is about 20% lower than without airbags.037. the occupant is much closer to the incoming vehicle and only the door and some additional space is in between [16]. Development of side-airbags is more complex than development of frontal airbags since in frontal impacts. As a result. The second step was to optimise the contact area between door and passenger to distribute the force and avoid localised loads.BV. The next step was the introduction of a side airbag system. which covers the chest area as well as the head area. vehicle manufacturers started developing dynamically deploying upper-interior head and thorax protection systems (introduction started in 1994). Installation in the door has the advantage that within the door. 2. whereas in side-impact.OR. which is much lower than for frontal airbags [62]. The electronic control unit is located in the backrests of the front seats and the sensor is located in the sill or the B-pillar. is inflated within 12 ms and typical volumes are about 12 litre. In case of intrusion.4 Side airbags for chest and head & curtain airbags Side impacts represent the second greatest cause of fatalities in passenger car incidents [62]. The thorax bag. it is concluded that the performance of the depowered airbags has been very good. there is enough space to enable acceptable coverage.3. particularly in low speed crashes [2]. vent holes at the backside are not closed and the airbag is not deployed. . High-speed protection at crash severities > 40 mph has been observed for both restrained and unrestrained occupants. depowered airbags (less power when inflating) were developed from 1997 on. in case of no-intrusion. typical inflating times are 7-15 ms. despite of the depowered airbags. Not only for the driver. The mounting location of side airbags is different for different types of cars. neck and thorax area and also prevent the occupant being ejected from the vehicle during lateral crashes. hood and engine. An extension from the regular thorax bag is the head thorax bag. like a combined thorax pelvis airbag. Therefore for sideairbags. mounted in the seat.

3. with respect to the cases with HPS/TA. which emerges from the roof rail and protects the head of the occupant from the windows [17]. It was found that passenger compartment intrusion is the primary contributor to fatalities in side impact. Note that no statistically valid statement was permitted with these available data. 2.3. consists of a nylon tube that inflates to a diameter of about 15 cm. The objective was to quantify the relative severity of various hand. Furthermore it was concluded that head injuries were reduced by the head protection side airbag.6 Special head protection airbags and curtain airbags Curtain airbags were introduced from 1998 onwards. due to the small number of cases the results can not be called statistically significant. a curtain-shaped inflatable structure.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 22 / 68 Interaction of the hand and wrist with a door handgrip during static side airbag deployment using CVS/ATB multi-body simulation program was studied by University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory [12]. called the Inflatable Tubular Structure (ITS). ‘Comparison of real world side impact/rollover collisions with and without thorax airbag/head protection system: a first field experience study’ was published by BMW [149].5 Potential of side airbags to improve safety Because the accident statistics are always some years behind and side and curtain airbags are not included in each vehicle on the road. Some additional safety benefit was observed for side head and thorax airbags in a German study [46]. Autoliv [24] also introduced the first airbag for specific head protection on BMW cars (1997).BV. No serious injuries were reported in side impacts in case of HPS/TA. Furthermore. The study concluded that no fatalities have been attributed to the deployment of a side airbag. handgrip length. except for the upper extremities (reduction by 4%) in case of HPS/TA. see Figure 11. 55 side airbag cases were analysed. but no estimation in percentages was given. The ITS.TNO report 03. Sensitivity of the results to initial hand position and wrist orientation with respect to the handgrip was shown. 2. 24 side collisions were evaluated. and spacing and initial position and orientation of the distal forearm and hand were varied.and handgrip positions to select a general test matrix for laboratory testing.OR. An increase in AIS 1 injuries was reported (head by 29%. amongst others Volkswagen introduced the head-bag.037. However. concerns about bio-fidelity of the current ATDs (in particular shoulder region) were expressed.. angle. Only one case was reported in which the occupant was seriously injured by a door mounted side airbag. neck by 6%). . To prevent head and neck injuries. Amongst others. a recent ‘Powerpoint’ presentation was obtained (October 2001) on real world experience of side impact airbags in the special crash investigations [118]. not much accident data is available showing benefits of these airbags by accident statistics. thorax by 3%. Via the NHTSA Website. 14 without and 10 with head protection system / thorax airbag (HPS/TA) of BMW. installed in the head-liner above the front doors.

incorrect deployment could result in occupant’s injuries as well. A DCI approach enables reduction of inflator package size and enables faster filling of the airbag without increasing risk for injuries in case of OOP situations. Several rollover initiation types are distinguished from which tripping is the most occurring type (according to NASS data US). The Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS) was used to perform 9 dynamic rollover tests in which side-window position (up/down). deployment-time and “g”-level (height of curbs) were varied.1.TNO report 03. The Distributed Charge Inflator (DCITM) contains a small flexible pyrotechnic cord (the linear charge) which ignites through the length of the airbag within 2 ms and a sustainer charge at the beginning of the airbag that maintains bag pressure for protection in secondary crash events or rollovers. At the same time. Results of the dynamic test were used to define a new static test. curtain airbag systems were developed. and the time the airbag stays inflated during side impact and rollover crashes [13]. Simula Automotive Safety Devices [43] presented an innovative inflator. knowledge of occupant kinematics prior to the rollover is required to be sure on correct timing of bag deployment. Deployment timing of side airbags is determined by airbag configuration. Injuries in rollover accidents are mainly caused by ejection of the occupant through the side panel and head contact to exterior objects and interior surfaces. To reduce injuries in rollover impacts. particularly important are system parameters like inflation time. designed to reduce inflation time for roof-rail airbags by means of using a linear charge in longitudinal direction within the airbag. Due to changing fleet composition and possibly related to the introduction of ABS systems. Ford and TRW [44] presented a study on dummy head kinematics in tripped rollover tests and a new test method to evaluate the effect of curtain airbag deployment. For correct functioning of these systems. without associated OOP injury risk Ö reduced deployment timing with new distributed inflation system was reached without increasing OOP injury risk. It was shown that the bag inflates faster with the DCI system.037. It was concluded .1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 23 / 68 Figure 11 – ITS (left panel) and curtain airbag (right panel) [24] For development of curtain airbags.BV. indicating that the time-to-position the airbag is smaller. to study interaction of the curtain airbag with the dummy without performing full scale tests. the injury risk in case of OOP did not increase.OR. fill capacity.1. see also section 5. referred to as Head On Glass test (HOG). It was concluded in this study that: Ö ‘time to position’ is not an accurate predictor of OOP injury Ö new distributed inflation approach results in higher mass flow rate than conventional systems. the number of rollover accidents increases. distance of inflator to airbag and inflator mass flow characteristics. Although curtain airbag systems should protect the occupant.

However. Faurecia developed a pyrotechnic knee bolster and investigated its contribution to car drivers safety by means of virtual testing [49]. Autoliv [24] introduced knee airbags in 1996. upper extremities by 7%). Knee airbags belong to the standard equipment of 2003s Toyota Avensis. The airbag is mounted in the lower part of the instrument panel and deploys towards the occupant’s legs. avoiding contact between the knees and rigid parts of steering column and dashboards. but only 1 AIS2+ injury was reported.3.OR.8 Other airbags This subsection describes airbag systems that are currently on the market but not included yet in most ‘standard’ car equipment.BV. CAE based development of head protection systems was described using advanced simulation tools to mesh. The airbag model was used to investigate and optimise interaction between the curtain and the upper interior trim parts as well as the system restraint performance for both in-position and out-ofposition load cases. It was concluded that AIS 1 injuries increased using HPS/TA (head by 45%. The field experience study cited in the section ‘potential of side airbags to improve safety’ also investigated rollover collisions with and without Head Protection Systems / Thorax Airbag (HPS/TA) [149]. the use of simulation techniques for investigations towards effectiveness of restraint systems is reported more and more in literature.037. A virtual approach to develop inflatable curtains was presented by Autoliv [45].7 Potential of head airbags and curtain airbags to increase safety No real world accident statistics on effectiveness of head airbags and curtain airbags were found because of the relatively recent introduction of these protection systems. After implementation of such systems. It was stated that the HPS was responsible to a greater extent than the TA for the reduction of serious injuries. It is noted that no statistically valid statements were permitted because of the currently available data. will run 3 years in total) has the objective to assist European restraint and vehicle manufacturers to develop effective rollover systems in a cost efficient manner. increased protection to members of European society who travel by car is expected [152]. fold and reintegrate the inflatable curtain in the vehicle roof structure.3. and 40 did not. 2. hence preventing hard contact between the knee and the interior panel / steering column. 49 rollover crashes with BMW’s were analysed from which 9 included a HPS/TA. thorax by 8%. compared to no HPS/TA. Future research directions were suggested in the field of improved dummy models and improved airbag gas dynamics to take into account gas flow effects. The EU rollover project (started July 2002. . Knee airbags & pyrotechnic knee bolster Leg injuries are the most frequent problem in frontal crashes for occupants who are protected by airbags and wearing seat belts (about 40% of the injuries are leg injuries) [57]. This pyrotechnic knee bolster improves car driver safety because of reduction of sub-marining risk.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 24 / 68 that this new static test successfully could be used to measure the risk of injury during airbag deployment. 2. To keep the clearance space between the legs and the dashboard as small as possible to limit impact velocity.TNO report 03. reduction of pelvis and chest acceleration. the knee padding is moved as close as possible to the knees in case of a frontal crash by means of a pyrotechnic activator.

the foot airbag demonstrated a reduction of lower extremity injuries by as much as 70%. ‘soft’ knee bolsters are applied in the dashboard or steering column to absorb kinetic energy of impact and to avoid contact between the knees and rigid parts of the interior. For this second impact.4 Interior panels and retractable steering columns In crash terminology. Siemens states that in sled tests.BV. no further scientific publications or references could be found to confirm this statement.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 25 / 68 Footwell airbags Footwell deformation during accidents can cause lower leg injuries and therefore. Siemens developed a foot airbag to be placed underneath the driver’s side carpet to reduce lower leg injuries [63]. In the current study. It was shown that stiffer IP’s resulted in higher peak loads and lower contact areas. Sled tests were performed at a velocity of 56 km/h with a belted hybrid III occupant and a simulated knee bolster and steering wheel airbag. The restraint systems as described in the previous sections. design optimisation is needed to enable optimal handling of both translational and combined translational and rotational toepan motion. However.g. For the soft type. whereas dummy instrumentation may have different orientations. PVC dominated the market for the skin layer but PVC is being eliminated due to . foam and core. There are two types of automotive instrument panels. they try to prevent the occupant from hitting the car interior. Lower limb injury mitigation from this inflatable carpet was evaluated in sled tests with intrusion by the University of Virginia [64]. The soft type consists of three layers. sled tests were performed with similar impact velocities for different knee bolster materials. The 5th % female Hybrid III dummy was equipped with an electronic pressure mat over the anterior surface of the knee to measure temporal pressure distribution as a result a knee-IP contact. ankles and lower legs from the intruding footwell of a vehicle during crash. from PVC. A new toepan intrusion system was successfully built to produce repeatable intrusion. hard and soft.037. Also femur and tibia loads were recorded. 2. skin. Further the pressure mat generates a discontinuous signal. PU. e. materials for car interiors also can contribute to reduction of injuries by softening the contact between the occupant and vehicle interior.OR. However. For example. in this specific case the spacing between the sensing elements was about 7 mm. Autoliv [63] is currently developing an inflatable carpet to protect car occupants’ feet. femoral shaft and hip. Kettering University presented high-speed measurement of contact pressure and area during knee-to-instrument-panel (IP) impact events suffered from frontal crashes [66]. amongst others. try to reduce the negative effects of the ‘second impact’. whereas the ‘second impact’ is defined as the occupant hitting the car interior.TNO report 03. the ‘first impact’ is often defined as the real crash event. The aim of the study was to present a new methodology to study contact mechanisms of the knee – IP contact event (measure the pressure distribution in time instead of a cumulative pressure distribution measurement as normally used before). Previous human cadaver impact studies showed that increasing the contact area of the anterior (front) surface of the knee may significantly reduce injuries to knee. PC. A limitation of this study is that the pressure mat sensors are designed to measure loads normal to the surface of contact. or ABS [69]. It was concluded that the inflatable carpet has the potential to reduce lower limb injury risk from footwell intrusion for low severity injuries. The hard type is a mono-layer type and consists mostly of polypropylene.

viscosity and types of rubber were studied as well as vacuum thermoforming and physical properties (thermal and light resistance) of TPO.037.BV. the rib patterns used for reinforcement in the passenger-airbag region were optimised. Solvay Engineered Polymers investigated the performance of thermoplastic polyolefins in automotive roof-pillar covers involved with interior head impact and roof-rail or side airbag deployment [14].21.OR.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 26 / 68 environmental reasons and poor low temperature resistance in long term performance. From this study. A PP rubber modified compound filled with 15% talc was used. Materials used for upper interior-trim components must meet ECE/R. head impact tests required a strong enough tear seam to prevent any panel cracking/sharp edges exposed after impact. To meet the ECE/R. see also section 3. Requirements for seamless airbags are on the one hand correct deployment performance over a wide range (-30 to 85 ºC) of temperatures and on the other hand comply government regulations on interior head impact. In traditional instrument panel (IP) constructions.2. Traditional interior resins include engineering alloys. aesthetics and costs. Several articles on ‘new’ interior panel (materials) design were found of which a few with focus on safety issues are discussed below. invisible passenger airbag door systems have been widely introduced the last years and these increase the risk of small particles to be released from the dashboard with high velocity. polypropylene (PP) and PVC.TNO report 03. It was concluded that TPO must have over 50% of rubber and in that case showed the wanted ductile fracture. Hyundai Motor Company and Honam Petrochemical investigated the characteristics of soft thermoplastic olefin (TPO) to replace PVC in the skin of instrument panels [69]. Dow Chemical described engineering development of a fully integrated polypropylene (PP) instrument panel concept [68]. IP’s without a cross-car beam. acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Typically. Another trend in automobile industry was to integrate the airbag door as part of the instrument panel by using the seamless airbag door technology. molded-in ribs are used for energy absorbing in the B-pillar.2. More recently (from 1994 on). a metal cross-car beam and steel reinforcement parts were providing the stiffness of the structure. Whereas correct deployment required a weak seam to enable correct airbag deployment even at low temperatures.2 on airbag induced injuries. were introduced. The molded-in-color seamless passenger airbag subject of this specific study is currently on the market. In the integrated IP’s the stiffness and strength are provided by the plastic IP. called fully integrated structural IP. which results in weight and cost savings. equivalent to FMVSS 201U targets for energy absorption (see appendix C. but must also be ductile at low temperatures for proper performance during low temperature airbag deployment. The integrated IP concept was tested successfully using computer-aided-engineering in an EuroNCAP ODB test scenario. Visteon developed seamless airbag technology for a hard molded-in-color polypropylene (PP) instrument panel [67]. Other critical factors for the material to be used include the ease of processing.2 for some details on ECE/R. it was concluded that compounded thermoplastic polyolefins offer a good balance of stiffness and low-temperature ductility in roof-rail airbag head impact and seat airbag applications.21 and FMVSS 201u). The effects on melt strength.21 requirements. More generally. . with improved moldability and cost savings.1 and C. a side impact situation and head impact interior tests.

OR. How good this interaction works will strongly influence the total restraint systems performance.5 Integration of safety concepts Thusfar. The stiffer front structure is. amongst others. which is demanding for the safety systems and their interaction. which enables the upper and lower steering column telescoping together.TNO report 03. In particular modern cars have a stiffer front structure and a very rigid passenger cell. government and academia’ [104]. The distance to the occupant is then increased and OOP injury risk reduced. Relations between some systems as described in this chapter are summarised by [103] and given in Figure 12. The objective is to generate steering column motion away from the occupant and synchronize it with the airbag deployment. 2. crash tests with higher velocities that have to be passed). The idea is to release a steering column pin upon airbag deploying. airbag and airbag + belt was presented in the book titled ‘Airbag development and performance – new perspectives from industry. Daimler Crysler presented a pyrotechnic-assist collapsible steering column [9]. a result of more stringent regulations (i.BV. A summary of restraint system performance in the field. It was demonstrated that 50-75 mm collapsing distance can significantly reduce OOP injury. In particular important is improvement of discrimination between crashes that require airbag deployment and crashed that do not. this study focussed on functioning of the different restraint systems separately but this section will focus on integration of the different safety concepts. see Figure 13.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 27 / 68 Amongst others.e. Increasing the deployment threshold is suggested to improve the performance. . Figure 12 – Schematic diagram of current production restraint system [103] From Figure 12 it is clear that there is interaction between the control/diagnostics system of the airbag module and the firing of the pretensioners. divided in belt. The authors’ most important conclusion is that there is room for airbag performance improvement.037.

TNO report 03.OR.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 28 / 68 Figure 13 – Summary of restraint performance in the field [104] .BV.037.

037. Figure 14 shows that improvement of the vehicle crashworthiness in group 2.OR. in frontal collisions [20] Figure 15 – Risk of minor to severe injury for abdomen and lower limbs. belted front seat occupants (LAB data 2002) [20] . see Figure 15. Only the risk of moderate to severe lower limb injury is still very high. Accidents involving cars model year after 1990. 3point belt with pre-tensioner +4kN belt load limitation + airbag (approved in combination with the load limiting belt) Some results of the study are shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15. Figure 14 – Variation of risk of fatality and severe injury to front seat occupants as a function of car generations.BV.TNO report 03.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 29 / 68 An attempt to answer the question whether the new restraint systems result in limiting the risk for occupants involved in real crash conditions was done by [20] analysing the LAB database in frontal impact. This is not the case for the driver. Accidents involving cars model year after 1997. 3point belt + driver airbag (‘Eurobag’) 3. related to model year and safety equipment were identified: 1. with structural enhancement. resulting in less intrusion to the passenger compartment and higher occupant deceleration. Three groups of samples. From group 2 to 3. a significant reduction of risk to both front seat occupants is observed as a result of the combination of belt load limitation and head and thorax airbag. 3point belt 2. Accidents involving cars model year 1980-1990. with structural enhancement. because of the driver airbag involved in group 2 vehicles. increased the injury risk for the thorax region of the passenger occupant. no structural enhancement.

Only neck injuries were considered in this study.BV.OR. The German Insurance Association. i. In lower severity crashes.037. 158 frontal impacts were analysed from which the crash pulse was available from a crash recorder.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 30 / 68 Influences of airbags in combination with seat belt pretensioners on AIS1 neck injuries for belted occupants in frontal impacts were studied in [123]. Better optimisation of belt and airbag performance as an integrated system could reduce injury risk. It was concluded that airbags in combination with seat belt pretensioners resulted in a reduction of AIS1 neck injuries in frontal impacts of 41% (± 15. .2%).6% was found for airbag and seat belt pretensioner equipped cars.TNO report 03. In particular aggressive impact of the knee against the dashboard was shown to be important. reduction of the AIS1 neck injury risk with 59% ± 18. for impacts with ∆V between 1 km/h and 30 km/h. Institute for Vehicle Safety [46] concluded that optimisation of the interaction between belt/airbag regarding the restraint of pelvis and chest could reduce severe injuries in thorax region and lower extremities.e.

1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 31 / 68 3 Side effects of restraint systems In the previous chapter it was shown that improved restraint systems are responsible for a reduction of the number of fatalities due to road accidents in the last decade. like children.1 Injuries caused by belts Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal and serious injuries by about 45% [61]. Head and neck injuries 2. rib and abdominal injuries may occur in particular if the seat belt is not correctly positioned. However. these injuries are just ‘side-effects’ compared to the alternative situation (without airbags). fat or short people are described. 3. this kind of injury would not be identified in crash tests using current test dummies.2 Injuries caused by airbags Typical injuries caused by airbags reported in literature may be categorised as follows: 1.037. VSRC Loughborough University reported three fatal head injuries associated with airbag deployment [40] with a high degree of certainty. It is important to be informed on possible injury risks due to restraint systems as reported in literature. 3. two . Thoracic injuries 3.0-6. burns. Finally injuries to specific groups of occupants. According to VSRC. Although seat belts have been shown to be effective in reducing the number of serious injuries in car crashes. post mortem human subjects (14) were used to study abdominal injury response and injury thresholds. which is currently an important research topic in crash safety. However.TNO report 03. Abrasions. However. Amongst others. This means that the cost-benefit of airbag systems is positive. each restraint system may also introduce a certain risk of injury caused by the system itself [40]. the authors suggest that the ratio between subject weight and size affects the injury results.6 to 4. Injuries were reported for peak lap loads varying between 6. However.OR.BV. ìf injuries are caused by the airbag. contusions Only limited fatal injuries were reported in literature. This section first describes injuries caused by belts and airbags. complicated fracture of the skull was observed as cause for fatal injury. steering wheel interaction and airbag deployment.1 kN. in high-speed collisions. also ‘new’ types of injuries have been reported as a result of ‘submarining’. elderly and extreme tall. Based on the experiments. Therefore a separate subsection is dealing with OOP. Next the risks of an occupant being out-of-position are described.8 kN with a subsequent stable lap load of 3. Mostly. antropometric test devices (ATD) are used in seatbelt tests. From this study it could not be determined whether the injuries were caused by the peak load or later in the stable load period. Abdominal responses to dynamically lap belt loading were studied in [18]. in this study. VSRC noticed that it was difficult to separate injuries from seat belt loading. ATD responses and human tolerance levels related to amount of allowable tensioning are not yet well correlated and therefore. Generally. For thoracic injury case review. A strong blow of the airbag against the front of the head (being at close proximity of the airbag) caused the fatal fracture. The additional risk induced by (in particular) airbag systems should be weighed against their benefits.

BV. steering wheel or dashboard. Occupant – airbag interaction would only take place with a completely deployed airbag and generic. The reason of increased risk for females was not explained in this study. causing ocular injuries to the occupant without touching the airbag. mean size males were used as a reference occupant. Fatalities were reported using rear-facing infant seats or . As of November 1. In case of OOP. NHTSA reported 87 crashes in the US in which the deployment of an air bag resulted in fatal injuries [76]. Analysis showed that airbag deployment increases the risk of forearm fracture as a proportion of all upper extremity fractures and that females are at increased risk of such injury.TNO report 03. the interaction of the OOP occupant with the airbag during deployment may even cause extra injuries to the occupant. As described in the previous chapter as well. in which the occupant is interacting with the deploying airbag. Traditionally. This enables small foam particles to be released from the dashboard with high velocity. Abrasions. Movement of airbag across the occupant surface material causes abrasions. This was particularly the case when both driver and passenger airbag had been fired. airbags were only developed for use with normal seated occupants (so called ‘in-position’ occupants).OR. a recent trend involves eliminating the door and deploying the airbag through a seamless panel.3 Out-of-position (OOP) In the past. Material properties were taken from literature and experiments on eyes ‘in situ’ will be developed to further refine the model. 3. A finite element eye model was used to investigate ocular injuries and it was concluded that the model was effective at simulating ocular impacts from various particles in the event of an automobile accident. Among these fatalities. 49 were children and 38 were adults. Contusions can be the result of the airbag striking the occupant.e. 1997.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 32 / 68 cases with fatal thoracic injuries were reported that were caused by the fact that the chest was in very close proximity to the steering wheel at time of airbag deployment. Ocular injuries from high velocity objects were studied by Virginia Tech Impact Biomechanics Laboratory [6]. From the 57 cases in which impaired hearing was reported. Detailed injury level information was obtained for a limited set of recent cases in which the driver or frontseat passenger suffered from fracture level injuries of the upper extremity as a result of a crash including airbag deployment. Institute for Vehicle Safety [46] in about 10% of 564 vehicles in which at least one airbag was deployed. Burns are caused by the hot gases coming through the ventholes (sodium azide burns extremely rapidly to provide the nitrogen gas to inflate the airbag) and by airbag material that slides. the occupant is in close proximity to the airbag. Impaired hearing was reported by the German insurance Association. Whereas airbags are developed to reduce injuries. Recent (1997-2000) accidents involving upper extremity fracture associated with airbag deployment were analysed by Kettering University [7]. Simulation results agreed well with experimental results. Currently the eye model included material properties up to rupture and large deformation could be taken into account accurately. The opposite of ‘in-position’ is out-of-position (OOP). burns and contusions to the hands and arms were observed by VSRC.037. in 11 cases the impaired hearing was permanent. i. airbag designs included a door with an opening seam to release the airbag.

Figure 16 – OOP injury danger for ‘head centred on module’ position for different folding methods [8] (limit values are indicated in lowest two rows) The study also showed the success of a combined design. Also misuse of belts was reported. It was illustrated that for accurate computer simulation of a static OOP tests. the children sustained fatal head or neck injuries from the deploying passenger air bag. very detailed information about the initial dummy position and accurate mathematical dummy models are needed. ‘L’). Only part of the simulated design proposals was verified with laboratory tests.OR. Because of their proximity. in particular for smaller children. OOP countermeasures were illustrated by a combination of computer simulation using coupled structural/computational fluid dynamics scheme and laboratory tests. stochastical folding (‘S’) and z-folding (comes from the ‘peter patent’. test and simulation approach as a tool to investigate the influence of airbag design parameters on OOP injury and develop advanced airbags.BV. Driver out-of-position injuries mitigation was studied by Daimler Crysler [9]. Most of the crashes occurred at relatively low speed. outof-position situations as a result of ‘black-out’ were reported at the time of the crash. − Reversible multi-stage and variable output inflator − Pyrotechnic-assist collapsible steering column − Recess airbag module cover with ‘I’ tear seams − Flexible airbag mounting with petal cover seams − Airbag with hood/band and dual tear seams These measures did not compromise the high-speed crash performance.037.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 33 / 68 using no restraint at all for child or adult occupants. The influences of leporello folding (conventional folding. For some drivers. Four different folding patterns for a driver airbag were studied by means of simulation techniques using Pam-Crash. see Figure 16. . the conventional folding pattern turned out to be the most ‘critical’ pattern for OOP injuries. The influence of airbag folding pattern on out-of-position (OOP) injury potential was studied by the Institute of Automotive Technology (TU Berlin) [8]. ‘R’). In all cases. the occupants were very close to the dashboard when the airbag deployed. The following OOP countermeasures were discussed. ‘Z’) were studied.TNO report 03. Compared to the other folding patterns. raff folding (also known as petri folding. It was concluded that the folding pattern strongly influences the OOP injury danger.

the range of joint motion decreases and the location of the shoulder belt height adjustment may become a problem because of ‘stiffness’ of the elderly. some attention will be paid towards interaction of airbags with child restraints. Improvement in chest protection systems is therefore particularly important for elderly. Also neck injuries could be possible but these are difficult to diagnose to infants and were not reported.037.OR. The problem was split into rear facing infants and forward facing children at the front passenger position.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 34 / 68 For details on inclusion of OOP situations in regulations. This caused fatal skull fractures and associated brain injuries to infant. the reader is referred to appendix C. The modified FMVSS 208 includes the use of small dummies to represent small stature drivers and child dummies to limit the risk of injuries by airbags to children.2. During the crash. In particular elderly are at much increased risk to sustain rib fractures. neck and face. which are highly associated with fatality (whereas for young people.TNO report 03. and government in the US. the risk to life is significantly larger for a given injury severity. 3. The new additional tests include several static airbag tests (with infants and child dummies) to limit the risk of .restrained children who are in close proximity to the airbag (due to pre-impact braking) at the moment of the crash. see appendix C. bruising and laceration of the spinal cord and brain stem injuries. rear facing infant seats were located at the front passenger seat in the fatality cases reported (11 cases in the US as of December 1996). recently modifications were made to the FMVSS 208 (frontal impact regulation in the US. Although it is generally recommended to place infants in rear-facing seats in the back seat if the vehicle has a passenger side airbag. It was found that elderly (>60) are more likely to obtain more serious injury and besides.4 Effects of restraint systems on elderly Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network ‘CIREN’ is a multi-center research program involving a collaboration of clinicians and engineers in academia. The Third report to Congress on Effectiveness of Occupant Protection Systems and their Use [114] of NHTSA (USA) included investigation towards child – airbag interaction during crash. A study of Delphi Automotive Systems [48] investigating comfort and usability of seat belts showed that drivers over 40 years have more complaints regarding to comfort and usability of seat belts than younger drivers.2. As a result of airbag cover contact. For older people. The University of Michichan Trauma Center is involved in CIREN and studied mechanisms and patterns of traumatic injuries sustained by the elderly in motor vehicle crashes [106]. causing fractures including fractures in cervical spine.or improperly. To decrease airbag aggressiveness.2). high belt pulling force and inappropriate and loose fitting of the belt on the body was shown to be a problem.5 Effects of restraint systems on small children and child restraints Although child restraints are not the main subject of this study. the deploying passenger airbag interacts with the back of the rear-facing infant seat causing to crack or break the plastic shell.BV. fractured ribs have little impact). industry. The airbag then deploys into the child’s chest. also knocked-out teeth and jawbone fractures were reported.2. The crash scenario for forward facing children assumes un. 3. For drivers over 55 years old.

The new FMVSS 208 will be effective from September 2003 on (for 20% of yearly vehicle production. could have potential in reducing injury risk. The main injury regions for frontal and side impacts were head and chest regions.037. for all OEM’s selling on the US market). Related to the conclusions as mentioned before. The main conclusions of this study were . Female occupants were about 40% of the whole sample.A greater proportion of older occupants sustain serious injuries . phase 4 and 5) were analysed to establish the injury risk for front seat occupants in frontal and side impacts. .Some evidence was found that a greater proportion of heavier male drivers and male drivers with high BMI sustains serious injuries . it was also concluded that occupant groups that differ most from 50th percentile could benefit most from adaptive airbags. . In frontal impact. pretensioners and airbag) focused also on women’s characteristics. of which one third of the drivers involved and over half of the passengers involved.BV.OR. The occupant characteristics focussed at were the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the age.TNO report 03. 3. A comparison of injury risk and pattern of injury for male and female occupants of modern European passenger cars was made by VSRC [133].1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 35 / 68 OOP related injuries.Some evidence was found that lighter female drivers and a greater proportion of female drivers with low BMI values sustain more serious injuries. Accident injury data from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) was analysed for differences between male and female occupants in accident circumstances and injury outcomes. female occupants appeared to be more vulnerable for skeletal chest injury and leg injuries. The objective was to identify specific occupant characteristics for which active-adaptive restraint systems might contribute the most to injury reductions. 12605 car occupant records from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS. side and rear impacts.Some evidence was found that taller males and shorter females sustain more serious injuries.6 Effect of occupant characteristics on injury risk The effect of occupant characteristics on injury risk and the development of activeadaptive restraint systems was studied by TRL and VSRC [77]. Soft tissue neck injury (like Whiplash) was reported more frequently amongst women across front. Therefore restraint system design (including the seat belt.

coupling between MADYMO software that has specific occupant protection features and the finite element crash program LS-DYNA 2. • Whiplash protection for rear seats by means of the self inflating head restraint that presses air in a bag in the headrest.OR. This study showed two approaches for simulation: 1. Virtual testing could be a way to investigate the potential of the systems.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 36 / 68 4 Trends in restraint systems This chapter describes current and future trends in the field of restraint systems. modeling the vehicle and occupant in the combined FE-Multibody code MADYMO Both approaches were shown to be successful for a sled test model with a 50th percentile dummy under NCAP conditions. destructive testing can be limited and costs are saved. however.BV. • More attention is paid towards the safety of rear occupants. These systems can be adaptive to take into account occupant characteristics during deployment. .TNO report 03. • Allow for automatically seat movement to reduce the delta v: − in frontal crashes for passenger seats. In automotive crash safety. Using virtual simulation techniques.1 General trends The general trend in nowadays occupants’ safety clearly is the development of ‘smart’ restraint systems. − side movement of the seat (about 100 mm) in side impact. • Improved seats with side wings for better performance in lateral impact. • Integrated systems with airbag design integrated in design of the vehicle instead of attaching some sensors to the steering column (late firing of the airbag). Some of the systems described are already introduced in so called ‘concept cars’. Potential effects of these new ideas are difficult to quantify as long as these are not actually included in vehicles on the road. Tools for occupant protection analysis were described in [124].2 Trends in tools for restraint system development A clear trend is the introduction of more and more virtual testing in restraint system development. • Integration of advanced airbag and belt systems. 4. Also injury risks for arbitrary sized people could be taken into account easily.037. 4. moving the headrest to reduce the gap between head and headrest. CPU times were higher in case of the coupling. the use of structural vehicle models in combination with multi-body based occupant models is common practice. Some other general trends from the field are summarised below: • More attention is paid to development of occupant specific systems and prevention of lower extremity injuries.

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The European project Proposed Reduction of car crash Injuries through improved Smart restraint development technologies (PRISM) is a 3-years project that started December 2002. PRISM has the following primary research objectives [109]: - To review existing European accident data and current "state of art" smart technologies, to assess the potential effects of smart restraints on the European accident statistics. - To obtain European statistical data regarding the actual locations of occupants within vehicles, to allow determination of realistic worst case occupant "event start positions" for impact events. - To investigate the effects of pre-impact occupant kinematics, (for example under pre-impact braking) to determine worst case occupant "impact start positions" - To identify impact / occupant scenarios worthy of detailed study and to evaluate the issues and likely effects of smart restraints on those scenarios. - To identify, create and use advanced computer models that allow the effective evaluation of such scenarios. - To generate standard guidelines to define and evaluate the functional requirements of smart restraints. Equipment of all vehicles with ‘black boxes’, that give the crash pulse data and the deployment characteristics of any multistage restraint system, could improve accident analysis. With the improved accident analysis, effectiveness of the latest airbag designs could be estimated easier and in that way, accident analysis facilitates future restraint system development.

4.3

Trends in safety

4.3.1

Investigation of multiple impacts In the past, the focus in safety was on single accident modes like frontal impact, rear impact, side impact and rollover. However, often accidents on the road are a combination of these accident modes. For future safety research, the focus will also be on the multiple impact problem. Irreversible restraint systems work in the first impact. When a second impact takes place, the restraint systems ‘did their job already’ and can not be effective a second time. Therefore reversible restraint systems could contribute highly to improvement of occupant safety. Consequences for occupant protection measures in multiple impact crashes were studied in [122]. Two databases were used: the CCIS (UK, cases from 1992-2000) and the MHH/GIDAS (Germany, cases from 1996-2000). The following impact types were distinguished: single front, single side, single rear, single rollover and multiple impact (i.e. accident sequences in which vehicles undergo more than one impact). Multiple impacts were, after frontal impacts (43.6-45%), the second common impact configuration (26.5-29 %). Multiple impacts represented an increasing proportion of accidents for higher injury severity cases. It was concluded that the head is the body region that is most frequently injured in multiple impacts, but also injuries to the neck, chest and upper extremities were reported. Some consequences for occupant restraint systems were considered. • Phased deployment of different protection systems in the different impacts • Increased duration of inflation

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Multiple inflation of airbags (re-inflating) Position of occupants as a result of first impact (may be different from ‘normal’ seating position) • Time period covered by sensors, control modules and deployment algorithms The importance of multiple impacts in terms of frequency and injury risk was shown. 4.3.2 Safety of rear occupants Safety of rear occupants becomes more important since more occupants are using rear seats of vehicles [132]. In this reference, the distribution of serious injuries was assessed for belted and unbelted rear occupants for various impact directions. Lapshoulder belted rear occupants experienced injuries of the thorax related to the shoulder belt. The lap belted rear occupants, the lap belt was the most common source of abdominal injury, as well as the spine (secondary). For unbelted rear occupants, the extremities and the head were injured by the B-pillar, seatback and other interior parts. This field data analysis of rear occupant injuries resulted in the following priorities for rear occupant protection, see Table 3. Table 3: Priorities for rear occupant protection according to [132]. For belted occupants
Provide load-limiting belts Cinch occupants to the seats Improve restraint geometry Reduce contact with and pad the seatback Inflatable belts

• •

For belted & unbelted occupants
Energy absorbing (EA) material for seatback Reduce contact with side interior and B-pillar EA material for side and interior structures Inflatable side curtains, laminated side glass Improved containment in the rear seat area

Effects of optimised restraint systems for rear seat passengers were studied by means of virtual testing [119]. A MADYMO model was validated with sled tests. With the validated model, parameter studies were performed to determine the parameters influencing dummy loading, like anchor fitting buckle, upper fastening point shoulder belt, belt slack, foot position, seat ramp, load limiter, crash pulse, pretensioner. Chest deflection was reduced with 10 mm using force limiters, 6 mm using a softer vehicle pulse and approximately 5 mm using a pretensioner. For the chest injury criterion ‘V*C’, the use of pretensioners resulted in largest reduction. The optimal force level for the load limiters was shown to be dependent on space for the rear seat passenger to move without touching the interior of the vehicle. For further studies, the inclusion of 5th % and 95th % dummies was suggested.

4.4

Trends in belt design Some trends in belt design are described below.

4.4.1

Four point belt The traditional three-point belt system has drawbacks in the field of ease of use, belt fit and comfort for elderly or ‘non-average’ sized persons. An alternative is found in a four-point belt system. The optimal location and acceptability of a suspender style fourpoint safety belt system to help improve fit, comfort and safety was identified by Ford Motor Company and Lear [19]. In total 44 volunteers were involved. Acceptability of the new system was improved by avoiding an interaction between the shoulder belts and

TNO report 03.OR.BV.037.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003

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the volunteer’s neck. The interaction between the shoulder belts and the volunteer’s neck was dependent on the horizontal and vertical position of the shoulder belts and the occupant’s gender, weight and cloths. 4.4.2 New belt concept – inflatable belt A historical overview of inflatable belts and the benefits of inflatable belts in reducing serious injuries to vehicle occupants during crashes was presented by Goodrich [21]. Development of inflatable belts started in early 1970’s but many concerns (including comfort and packaging) held back incorporation in passenger vehicles. Since then, much progress was made in the technical field and according to technology, introduction of inflatable belts is possible. Inflatable belts provide protection to vehicle occupants during multi crash modes (frontal, side, and rollover). Since the belt is already positioned at the occupant, it provides quick restraint in case of a crash. Belt loads are distributed over a larger contact area, which reduces the probability of localised load presence. In particular elderly benefit from inflatable belts. In case of side impact or rollover, the inflated belt on the shoulder supports the head and neck to reduce the lateral movement. Also out-of-position studies with children and the inflatable belt were performed and it was concluded that all injury limits are met easily. Using inflatable belts in combination with the airbag could enable changing of energy absorbing capabilities of the airbag (reduction of aggressiveness). New belt pretensioners Similar development were reported by different manufacturers: • Reversible pre-tensioning seat belt (retractor with electronic motor), (TRW system). • Reversible pre-pre-tensioning (Autoliv system), to give a more gentle load distribution on the occupants chest in the event of a car crash. The first tightening is done with an electrical motor, and this eliminates the slack in the belt system earlier than with the normal pretensioner. This process can be reversible. Only in case of a crash event the ‘normal’ pretensioner is activated. The new system is expected to be effective in preventing occupants from being thrown forward during severe braking. Human tolerance levels of pretension for reversible seatbelt tensioners in the pre-crash phase were studied in [131]. Effects of the reversible seatbelt tensioners that generate lower belt forces and velocities but show performance characteristics over a longer period of time in contrast to pyrotechnic seatbelt tensioners were studied. Volunteer tests were performed, using a stationary vehicle fitted with a prototype of a reversible belt pretension system. It was concluded that the loading applied by the prototype of the belt pretensioner was tolerable / acceptable for the test persons. However, risk groups like pregnant women or elderly) would need separate assessment of their potential injury risk. It was emphasised that the research is on-going, amongst others with driving tests and repeated examination through volunteers.

4.4.3

• Hybrid inflators which use high pressure stored gas in conjunction with pyrotechnic charge.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 40 / 68 4. Current limitations of airbag performance are a result of insufficient information about the crash event and the occupant characteristics.2 Inflator technology For inflator technology the following trends were found in literature: • Variable inflators – the control module simply requests a certain power level (out of a continuous range) instead of making a choice between 2 or 3 prescribed levels [104]. front airbags for rear seated passengers.037. • Multiple compartment airbags [103].BV. New 4.1 Airbag design Trends in airbag design are strongly related to so-called ‘smart’ airbags using anticipatory sensors (see also chapter 5 and 6). • Cover properties. • Folding patterns to focus on radial expansion. Sensors Sensors are needed to enable development of adaptive restraints systems that can really act dependent on the specific situation. • Modules located in top mounted position for passenger side [115] • Active module that moves ‘backwards’ in the dashboard upon firing [115] 4. • Introduction of new airbags like centre curtains.5.6 .5. • New airbag venting systems. These have lower variability in performance [103].TNO report 03. including multilevel venting systems to better control the airbag pressure [103]. Current sensors in airbag systems are only crash severity sensors [103]. These inflators are cleaner and environmentally friendly and also permit the use of lighter airbag fabric [103]. These sensors detect changes in velocity and acceleration of the vehicle and decide to deploy restraints (airbag. Trends include: • Adaptive airbags which are variable in airbag size and airbag firing time. like cover stiffness.5 Trends in airbags Some trends in airbag design are described below. 4. • Firing of curtain airbags in frontal crashes as well. The new propellants have lower temperature gas with no particles and therefore permit for example the use of lighter weight airbag fabrics [103]. belt pretensioner) or not.OR. • Further introduction of non-azide propellants to replace the sodium azide propellants. opening geometry. etc. rotation points that are located deep in the steering wheel [115]. • Heated gas inflators with a mixture of dry air and hyrogen gas under high pressure. • New airbag materials with controlled fabric porosity so that discrete ventholes could be eliminated [103].

The sensors will be developed for measuring occupant weight and size and the output is to be used to control the airbag deployment.2).Belt spool-out sensors to assist occupant size detection For airbag systems: . These new safety systems are part of Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS) and will be addressed in the next chapter in more details. In response to the new FMVSS 208 (see appendix C.Sensors to measure proximity of the occupant to the airbag module Seat (position) sensors could be used to assist estimation of driver characteristics and proximity.BV.Crash severity sensors to determine the type and severity of a crash .OR.2.Belt use sensors to determine if the belt is used . size.037. In relation to belts. seat suppliers will have to deal with the increasing design complexity and .TNO report 03. The reliability of the sensors during the entire life of a vehicle is essential for the vehicle’s safety performance. Figure 17 – Advanced safety restraint system schematic diagram [103] One promising trend to enhance the capabilities of restraint systems is to implement “intelligence” by using anticipatory sensors to be able to start acting earlier in the crash event. sensors can be used to obtain the following information .1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 41 / 68 sensors and integration of information from different sensors can be applied to improve restrain systems performance. Since sensors are also added to the seats. How advanced airbag regulations will effect non-FMVSS test procedures for vehicle seats is described by MGA Research Corporation [74]. see Figure 17 for an overview. vehicles in future will have electronic sensors located in the seat and could also be equipped with other advanced sensor systems. age and gender . Decision algorithms should be suited to deal with all this new information. weight.Occupant classification like presence.

Figure 18 – Potential effectiveness adaptive restraint systems [121] The overall effectiveness of adaptive restraint systems for MAIS 3 injuries was estimated between 14% and 25% and for MAIS 2 injuries between 33% and 41%.TNO report 03. moderate energy & high intrusion. based on a range of possibilities. moderate energy & low intrusion. high energy & low intrusion.OR. is ‘subjective’. 4. Both pessimistic and optimistic potential reductions in the severity of injury to any body region were assigned. given the crash severity and type of injury. These matrices were then applied to CCIS accident data from 1992-2000. older drivers and all other drivers) and all crashes (all low energy.BV.037. high energy & high intrusion). was estimated by logical progression. including the Injury Severity Reduction Matrices. providing a (by nature subjective) range. UK).7 Potential effectiveness of adaptive restraint systems Potential effectiveness of adaptive restraint systems was predicted by Automotive Safety Centre (University of Birmingham. [121]. Potential injury reduction for a certain group of drivers. heavier drivers. . The method used. UK) and Vehicle Safety Research Centre (Loughborough University. New test procedures for seat durability testing were proposed. The potential effectiveness is given in Figure 18. but it was intended to calculate a range of results. taking into account avoiding damage to seat-mounted airbags and its wiring. ‘Injury Severity Reduction Matrices’ were produced for each driver group (shorter drivers.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 42 / 68 extended validation testing. for a future theoretical adaptive restraint system.

. In this report the focus will be on safety. technology is taking over tasks of drivers in order to increase the level of safety and comfort. ITS are the systems used to achieve mobile and safer traffic conditions by providing a link between the drivers. 5. a study performed by Indian University showed that driver errors contribute to 93 % of the accidents [129].1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 43 / 68 5 Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS) In passenger cars.BV. vehicles and the infrastructure. Passive safety measures allow the mitigation of crash effects during the accident and tertiary safety involves rescue measures. Figure 19 – Different type of actions performed by IVS [145] Figure 19 provides an overview on the measures that can be performed for comfort or for safety purpose in the frame of IVS. Intelligent Vehicle Systems (IVS) are part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). “Intelligent Vehicle Systems” are the key to achieve this task. Figure 19 provides an overview of the possible actions performed in the field of IVS. namely. Electronic communication and computer-controlled technology [41] provide this link. Each system including sensing of the outside and/or inside vehicle environment and lead to an action for driver safety or driver comfort after that the sensor data have been processed is called Intelligent Vehicle System or IVS. The requirements for safety are more complex and difficult to fulfil than the requirements for comfort. driver errors.1 IVS in vehicle safety applications The applications covered nowadays by the intelligent vehicle systems involve both comfort and safety applications.TNO report 03. The active safety measures reduce the probability of an accident to occur. Already in 1979. One rising question is: ‘What is the added value of IVS systems for safety?’ A key answer to this question is that Intelligent Vehicle Systems for Safety (IVSS) tackle the first well-known cause of road accidents.037.OR.

The aim of using ESP is to reduce the risk of skid. 5.OR. ESP Electronic Stability Program ESP is based on other electronic braking systems like ABS and ASR. The ASR allows an efficient acceleration allowing the driver to remain in control of the vehicle in wet conditions. Some active safety systems like ABS and ESP (described below) include intelligence and can also be considered as IVSS. A February 1996 study found ABS to be associated with approximately a 10 percent overall reduction in crashes [50].TNO report 03.2 5. Kahane found that." The system was first patented in the 1936.3 .1. The analysis is based on experts’ opinion and is illustrated in Figure 20.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 44 / 68 In a study on driver behaviour NHTSA found that 99% of the accidents investigated were caused by driver errors [93]. Sensors provide information of locking to the controller. Moreover. which releases the brakes momentarily. involvement in multi-vehicle crashes involving fatalities on wet roads were significantly reduced by 24 %. with the introduction of ABS.1 ABS Anti locking Brake System or Antilock Brake System The original acronym ABS is derived from the German term "antiblockiersystem. ABS was designed to decrease the probability of crashes by increasing deceleration and controllability and is then considered as an active safety system. Some statistics shown however an increase of rollover crashes after the introduction of ABS. and non fatal crashes by 14 % [79] [80]. These “conventional” IVSS take into account parameters concerning the driver and/or the vehicle behaviour. drift or slide. Many of the principles of the ABS are used for this technique. In some references. The study was performed on information obtained from 1674 accident in Europe. According to the manufacturers one of the strengths of the Electronic Stability Program is the speed with which it works providing high potential for safety [81] [82]. IVSS allows an integrated approach for safety creating a link between active and passive safety.037. The potential of IVSS to integrate both passive and active safety will be described in this report. The different sensors records are monitored and compared to a reference model. It is too early to provide realistic numbers on the effect of ESP on traffic accidents. 5. ABS prevents the locking of the brakes.1. ABS is described as a crashavoidance technology [51] [83]. The ASR can be seen like an ABS working in the accelerating phase or an inverted ABS. The first series production started by Bosch in 1978. The errors can be of different types like delay to recognise potential risks. An analysis of the European Accident Causation Survey (EACS) [128] shown that ESP would have reduced the likelihood or avoided the accident in 18% of all injury accidents and in 34% of fatal accidents.BV.1. This last side effect could not be demonstrated by controlled experimental research [50] [51] [52]. ASR Acceleration Slip Regulation Also called Electronic Traction Control (ETC). misinterpretation of the traffic situation. The modulation of the brake pressure level improves the efficiency for deceleration. errors during a manoeuvre etc… In any case the misperception is a major factor.

This is made possible by the use of remote sensing technology (the sensors used in automotive applications are described in chapter 6).OR. The results of two driving simulator experiments using ACC [78] showed limitations to the introduction of ACC' s to road types other than the motorway. the test scenario included one ACC equipped vehicle following a vehicle decelerating harshly with in a stream of vehicles. Instead of static speed control with an ordinary cruise control.TNO report 03. For this case. In Figure 21. Safety improvement in the case of rear impact was studied in the European project DIATS [84].BV.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 45 / 68 Figure 20 – Potential of ESP for collision avoidance from Reference [128] 5.037. .1.4 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) The new features concerning IVS is that the ‘far’ environment around the vehicle is also taken into account. Mercedes launched the first European ACC system in the new S-Class model at the end of 1998. A promising IVS system introduced in the market and described sometimes as active safety system is the Advanced (or Adaptive) cruise control ACC. ACC adjusts the speed by detecting the distance and the relative speed of a vehicle ahead using an onboard radar system (radar sensors are described in chapter 6). the comparison of simulation results obtained by three partners is shown. ACC is presented by car manufacturers to their clients as an IVS for comfort but it can be considered as being at the edge with IVSS.

037.TNO report 03. • There may be added value to smoothing flow with Variable Speed Limits when significant ACC penetration exists. • The effects of further penetration of ACC will depend upon the time headway selected by drivers. In addition. headways of 1. • A long term monitoring study should be undertaken to examine potential changes in driver motivation and driver skill on the network brought about by ACC. reducing acceleration variation by about 45% compared to normal following.BV. Penetration rates below 20% have been shown to have little impact.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 46 / 68 [Km/h] [m] Figure 21 – Safety benefits of ACC during emergency braking by simulation [84] It appears that no accidents due to ACC malfunction or driver misunderstanding have been reported until now. some concerns exist regarding driver’s ability to resume control in an emergency situation and the potential for drivers to recognise these situations later. VSL reduces lane changing and creates smoother driving conditions better suited to ACC. it seems likely that drivers will choose not to use ACC systems near intersections when lane changing is frequent as first generation ACC systems will not satisfactorily respond to cut-in manoeuvres. 5. Currently. It may not be desirable to encourage long platoons of vehicles with an inhomogeneous mix of vehicles. Safety benefits are estimated due to the improvement in reaction times that ACC will offer. Some conclusions on ACC potential and effects on regulations obtained from a study performed in the frame of the EC funded project DIATS [84] are reported hereafter: • ACC is unlikely to have significant impacts on the traffic efficiency of motorways in the near future. which will establish environmental benefits. The figure provides a holistic approach to . • ACC greatly enhances the longitudinal control of the driver. It is again too early to take conclusions on the effects of ACC on safety because of the short time in which the systems are used and the limited number of vehicles using it.2 seconds and below are estimated to be required to avoid reducing capacity.2 IVS potential to integrate Passive safety and active safety Figure 22 is obtained from the EC funded project ADASE [54] (more European projects related to this issue are listed in Appendix B). with different levels of maintenance and different control algorithms to operate in the fast lane. However. • It may be necessary for national administrations to modify the driving code of practice to take account of the improved vehicle and control technology.OR.

• rear impact and • rollover Daimler Chrysler developed a so-called “pre-crash sensing system” and implemented it in the Mercedes S class.BV.3 Pre-Crash Sensing (PCS) systems Pre-Crash Sensing (PCS) systems are based on the three functions of IVS: • Sensing: To detect the relevant obstacle into the traffic and the infrastructure. Note that the precrash phase in this case includes both collision avoidance and occupant protection.037. • side impact. Pre-crash sensing is related to all the crash modes • frontal impact. which is activated by the information provided by the ABS (Anti locking brake System) and ESP (Electronic Stability Program) sensors and emergency braking. • Monitoring: To inform the vehicle of the obstacle characteristics and • Acting: To take decision for automatic deployment of passive safety devices and/or active safety devices to mitigate and/or to avoid the crash. Figure 22 – Holistic view on safety [54] The Pre-Crash phase is related to a new field in automotive applications: Pre-crash sensing. 5. The PCS includes a belt retractor developed by TRW.g.OR. most of passive safety devices could be deployed before the crash occurrence in combination with active safety actions by the use of the so-called pre-crash sensing systems. The system is aimed to enhance . padding). Pre-crash sensing systems (branch of IVSS) are described in more detail in the next section.TNO report 03. Besides that.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 47 / 68 safety in which the overlap of passive and active safety is shown. Current passive safety devices can be subdivided in systems that are deployed in the initial stage of the crash like restraint systems (details are given in the first part of this report) and systems that do not need activation (e. These two active safety systems are activated in the collision avoidable state.

Figure 23 – Pre-crash sensing in the chameleon project [29] The relevancy of obstacles for pre-crash sensing applications was studied within the project. Toyota developed a similar pre-crash sensing system activating pre-crash seatbelts and braking.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 48 / 68 the functioning of passive safety systems like airbag in case of accident by avoiding OOP occurrence (see chapter 3). It is interesting to note that this pre-crash sensing project does not include the avoidable phase (for the ADASE project mentioned above pre-crash sensing includes the avoidable phase). 5. A European project “Chameleon” [29] performed in the frame of the 5th framework programme was dedicated entirely to PCS systems. According to accident statistics and their own (passive) protection requirements.037. The system in this case uses millimetre-wave radar to sense the vehicle environment and determine the possibility of collision with potential obstacles [150].OR. It is interesting to highlight some output of this project.BV.3. the 5 car manufacturers involved in this project have given their detection priorities (Table 4). .1 Example project: Chameleon t[29] Figure 23 shows the intervention safety areas covered by chameleon compared to other EC projects (see Appendix B for more information on other related EC projects).TNO report 03.

obstacles which must be absolutely detected . PCS facilitate both post-impact and pre-impact countermeasures [83]. In the Chameleon project described above. In many accidents a relatively long time (in the range of seconds) passes from the accident-causing event to the actual impact [55]. pole and tree.TNO report 03. ditch. the level of false alarms and the new type of risks generated. PCS have great opportunities for protection of vulnerable road users. Pre-crash sensing systems can be used in both self-protection and partner-protection (e. bicycle. 5 → less important) Table 4: Obstacle detection priorities in the chameleon project [30] The types of obstacles were then classified into three categories: .obstacles out of CHAMELEON interest → car. for cars compatibility purpose). . motorcycle.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 49 / 68 Criteria Infrastructure Fixed obstacles into the environme nt Type PSA Renault Porsche Volvo CRF Rank 1 2 1 1 1 2 (6) Pole/Tree 2 4 2 2 1 3 (11) Wall 2 4 2 2 1 3 (11) Security 4 5 3 3 4 7 (19) Rail Ditch Traffic Potentially Car moving Truck. 5.g. security rail.037. A resuming evaluation is shown in Figure 24. Note that Pre-crash sensing systems for pedestrian protection were taken out of this project.2 Pre-crash sensing potential and limitations to increase safety Pre-crash sensing systems are introduced in the market since short. → wall. truck. In the “conventional” passive safety systems this time is not used at all to mitigate the crash.obstacles interesting to be detected . the potential of passive safety systems deployed by pre-crash sensors has been investigated on the basis of simulation studies and experts opinion. obstacles bus Pedestrian Bicycle Motorcycl e Animal 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 4 1 1 4 3 2 3 1 1 4 3 2 3 1 (5) 2 (6) 5 (15) 4 (13) 3 (11) 6 (16) (1 → most important.3. The social cost benefits depend on many factors like the type of safety measure to be deployed.OR.BV. The main recognised benefit of pre-crash sensing systems is definitely “time”. pedestrian. The reasons for this decision were not described in the documents used for this survey. → animal.

Unnecessary deployment of passive safety measures. It is foreseen therefore that reversible safety systems will be used at a first stage with limited or no consequences on driver safety. 5. As for all IVSS. On the other hand one driver may not want to be warned until the . as airbags etc. The responsibility (driver/manufacturer) in case of system failure is also an important concern.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 50 / 68 Figure 24 – Potential of Pre-Crash Sensing systems References [29] The main apprehension of these systems is false alarm and missing alarm risks: associated active safety measures such.TNO report 03. could also be dangerous for the occupants. Even if false and missing alarms have less influence on safety. Warning systems are already used for parking aid. These issues are addressed in the European projects RESPONSE and RESPONSE2 (see appendix). A first step to be taken is to use the obstacle detection systems for driver warning. it is vital that warnings not distract or confuse the driver during an impending collision.BV. This issue (passive-active safety interaction) is under study by the European Enhanced Vehicle Committee: EEVC WG19 (See appendix C). Many European research projects besides the ones described above provided studies on the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance (ADAS) systems to improve safety. an important potential of Pre-crash sensing is that the systems allows an integrated approach for safety linking passive safety measures and active safety measures. Audible or visible signals are used to warn the driver on the proximity of danger.037. as breaking unnecessarily could be dangerous for the driver. ACC systems are described as “comfort IVS” but proper knowledge of the vehicle surroundings can result in the following (future) applications: • Stop&go cruise control in a city environment • Country road ACC (automatic speed adaptation for curves) • Collision warning (forward and sideways) • Collision avoidance • Lane departure warning • Automatic lane-keeping / lane-change These IVS are part of the so-called Advanced Driver Assistance ADAS (note that ACC is also an ADAS). efficiency and minimise the environmental impacts of road traffic was addressed (see Appendix B for a list of some of these EC-projects).4 Trends in IVS for safety The implementation of advanced cruise control is a bigger step than it might seem for IVSS developments.OR.

Note that most of IVS systems for safety like ACC are depicted as active safety systems. The figure provides an overview of the complexity of technological issues and also expected safety enhancements. an attempt to provide the trends of safety systems is shown.BV. In this figure ADAS have a great potential of penetration in the automotive market. Rohr et Al from Delphi [56]. A road map for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe is presented in Figure 25 obtained from the ADASE2 EC project [85].OR. The reliability and the potential of the state of the art obstacle detection systems (sensors) is too small to be used in an unstructured environment like roads.037.TNO report 03. . A fully automated CAS is not foreseen to be introduced in the market in the next future. Figure 25 – Road map for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe [89] In Figure 26 [110] [111]. the collision avoidance systems (CAS) will evolve into three modes: • Driver initiated • Vehicle initiated • A blend of both The actions concerned by collision avoidance are: steering and automatic stopping. According to Stephen N.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 51 / 68 threat is severe while another driver may want to be notified at the slightest hint of trouble [83]. The best protection is of course to avoid the accident.

see Figure 27. The engineers involved in the design of the upcoming systems should have a multidisciplinary background to understand the requirements.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 52 / 68 Figure 26 – Safety systems an their trends from reference [110] A rather equivalent figure is provided by Themic [112] in which the ADAS are shown separately.037.BV.TNO report 03. In order to get precise overview on IVSS potential. New tools and/or links should be created between the design tools developed for passive safety (FE codes and . Figure 27 – Trends in safety systems from reference [112] 5. the capability of the used sensor should be addressed first.5 Discussion IVSS have a great potential to enhance vehicle safety.OR.

Regulations are also an issue for remote sensing use in automotive application. New testing procedures should be developed for the design and validation of IVS. which can be used for safety purpose. The EEVC WG19 (see Appendix C) addresses this issue. this frequency it is not “yet?” allowed in automotive applications (see information on the SARA group in appendix C). The combination of different sensors would probably be the ideal solution (see next chapter). One obstacle to the introduction of IVS used for safety purpose is the difficulty of assessment of the false and missing alarm rate. 24 GHz radar can cover a larger angle with a higher accuracy and resolution and lower production costs than 77Ghz radar. Nowadays radar appears to be the most promising sensing technology. . In the Netherlands a large testing facility called VEHIL is under development to test IVS [151].OR. New design and validation tools should be developed for this purpose (which could also be used to demonstrate the potential of these systems).TNO report 03. the use of any remote sensor for safety applications is tricky for several reasons like driver acceptability. Artificial vision provided also promising results. More details on radar and other types of remote sensors used in automotive applications are provided in the next chapter.BV. This facility is aimed to be an intermediate step between simulation and full-scale road test. The information obtained from the sensors should be more reliable and complete than its actual state. The actual radar used for ACC use a 77 GHz frequency. In the chameleon project (see appendix B) a simulation tool called EICAS was used for design and analysis of PCS purpose. More details on sensor technology can be found in the next chapter. However.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 53 / 68 Multibody dynamics for passive safety) and the ones developed for active safety. The sensors are the key element for developing IVS for automotive applications.037. There is a clear need to define the interconnections between passive and active safety via IVS and their influence on actual vehicle safety standards. responsibilities in case of system failure and the limitations of the actual sensors to cover a large angle. However.

parking aid). Each sensor provides partial information of the surrounding world.g.BV.35-2. 6.TNO report 03.5 µm).2 Infrared sensors There are two types of infrared sensors: 1 Near infrared sensors (laser radar. The enhanced visibility in fog and heavy rain condition is dependent on droplet size. providing thermal images of the scenario independently from any light conditions. like darkness and fog [59]. infrared sensors) which do not offer a sensible benefit in fog (0. 2 Far infrared sensors (sensitive in the range of 8-14 µm). Different types of sensors are (or can be) used to obtain information about the surrounding environment of the driver and/or the vehicle. The anticipatory sensors used in automotive industry are: • Ultrasonic sensors • Infrared sensors • Radar • Lidar • Artificial vision Each type of sensor operate in a frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum (apart from the ultrasonic sensors) shown in Figure 28. For this reason the ultrasonic sensors are restricted to low speed manoeuvres (e. In this chapter the sensors mentioned above are described and also the so-called sensor fusion.OR. The main advantage of the device is their low costs. 6. Figure 28 – Classification of the electromagnetic spectrum [26] .1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 54 / 68 6 Remote sensor technology Roughly 37% of serious road accidents (with injuries) occur in conditions of limited visibility. The combination of these sensors could give better results than using them separately.1 Ultrasonic sensors Ultrasonic devices work with sound waves with a frequency higher than human ear perception (20 kHz).037. The limitation is the low scan rate (10 Hz) which is proportional to the sound speed.

The object in this case is called target.truck 200 Table 5: Typical RCS values It can be seen that a radar system can detect a truck at a greater distance than it can detect a pedestrian. If an object is moving. Radar systems rely upon a portion of the transmitted radar energy being reflected off of targets or obstacles to be detected. An other type of radar is the 24 GHz radar.TNO report 03. which has units of m². ACC systems available on the European market are based on pulsed radar devices or frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) operating within the frequency range 76 – 77 GHz. The reflective strength of a radar target is a measure. the distance from the radar to an object is called range. As opposed to pulsed radar systems.3 Radar The radar appears to be the most promising remote sensing technology for automotive applications. However.037. The RCS depends on shape. Since radar waves travel at the speed of light. the energy reflected from an object is called echo.OR. An advantage of FMCW radar systems in comparison with classical pulse radar is the low measurement time. Radar is a device that detects the presence. One advantage for automotive applications is that radar is unaffected by darkness and is able to look through fog. it is possible to calculate the range from the travelling time of the returning signal. by manipulating the frequency of the radar over time (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave –FMCW). and the position of objects by using reflected electromagnetic energy. clouds and snow to some degree. Typical values for the radar cross section for different objects in square meters is shown in the Table 5: pedestrian 1 cyclist 2 car 100 Pickup. The maximum range for this type of radar is about 150 meters.BV. One limitation of pure CW radar is that the range to the object cannot be determined. which is not used in Europe because it is not allowed . Radar is an acronym made up of the words radio detection and ranging. the object’s range can also be calculated from a CW radar. Two types of radar are generally used in automotive applications: The pulse radar: transmits very short bursts or pulses. Measuring this so-called Doppler Shift the speed of the object can be determined. The Continuous wave (CW) radars: transmit a constant beam of radar energy. size. the radar waves returns to a separate antenna with a frequency that is slightly different than the original transmitted pulse frequency. This ability to reflect energy is called Radar Cross Section or RCS. The experts in Radar field use a specific terminology. material properties and aspect angle. the direction. each pulse being followed by a relatively long resting period during which the transmitter is switched off and the receiver is operating.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 55 / 68 6. continuous wave (CW) radar systems emit a continuous electromagnetic radiation. for instance.

OR..BV.TNO report 03. Bosch point of view concerning the use of radar for automotive applications in function of the used frequency is shown in Figure 29.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 56 / 68 by legislation (see info on the SARA group in appendix C).+240km/h Relative speed resolution 2..037. Parameter Angular coverage in Azimuth Minimum range 1m Maximum range 150 m Range resolution 1m Relative speed interval -80km/h. [38]. In Table 6 some characteristics of the two radar are shown [35].5 km/h 77 GHz radar Value 10° 24 GHz radar Value 50° 0.03 m 0 to 216 km/h 0. Figure 29 – Possibilities of using radar in automotive applications in function of the used frequency from [39].1 m/s (closing velocity) Time for complete scan 30 ms Table 6: Comparison of 77GHz radar and 24 GHz radar .3 m 20m 0. The motivation provided by car manufacturers and sensor providers for using this technology is that it will enable mass-production (cost effective) and also that the 24 GHz radar allows both large angle and near field detection (needed for pre-crash sensing applications).

A truck driving 3 m ahead of the test-vehicle is detected by more than 40 measurement points. Artificial vision does not provide the range or the speed of the potential obstacles but can be used for the recognition of the surrounding environment.037.OR. that means a measurement point every 5 cm on the outline of the truck’s back. For pre-crash application a high dynamic Laserscanner for near field scanning was developed in the frame of the European project Chameleon [29].5 Artificial vision : (video pattern recognition) Reliable obstacle detection is one of the most important issues for pre-crash sensing and collision avoidance systems. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) or LADAR (LAser Detection And Ranging) can be used for automotive applications like ACC and pre-crash sensing. The built-in DSP allows a high-speed object detection and the use of a high performance object tracking algorithm for real-time tracking.BV. velocity. The advantage of analysing stereo images instead of a monocular sequence lies in the possibility of directly detecting the presence of obstacles. The update rate is of 25 ms with a viewing angle of up to 270°. IBEO Automobile Sensor GmbH of Germany is actually the only supplier of such devices for the automotive market. which is. The Laserscanner creates a 2-dimensional range profile of the environment.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 57 / 68 Figure 30 – Example of an ACC scan characteristics from [38] More details on Radar applied to automotive applications can be found in references [30][33] [31] [33] [32] [37]. The main limitation for the use of Lidar in automotive applications is that weather conditions affect its potential. Other advantage of using a camera is that it can provide information on the infrastructure and be used for lane keeping (follow the road and keep within the correct lane). direction and outline of the obstacle with 40 Hz scan frequency and an angular resolution of 1. otherwise. 6. The Pre-Crash Laserscanner measures distance. The Laserscanner is eye-safe (laser class 1) and has a single shot measurement accuracy of ± 5 cm (1 Sigma) with a max. . 6. range of 20 m.4 Lidar The radar principle is also used in optics. Two techniques can be used: The monocular vision and the stereo vision.TNO report 03.0°.

The sensor data fusion is foreseen to be used in future cars equipped by both radar and artificial vision systems for target detection. or the fuzzy logic method [27] [87] [105] [113].037.OR. Use of sensor data fusion generates however new problems. The techniques will not be described in this report. each of the sensor technologies listed above has its advantages and inconvenient.6 Data sensor fusion The ideal solution to contain the production costs would be to use the same sensor for different applications (e. The literature shows many projects in which artificial vision is used for automatic vehicle guidance and/or obstacle detection [88] [89] [90] [91]. In a project called Urban Traffic Assistant (UTA and UTA2) a stereo vision camera is developed by Daimler Chrysler which is able to recognise pedestrians. The obtained data obtained from each sensor are processed together to increase the level of understanding of the surrounding world.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 58 / 68 indirectly derived.BV. However. For instance.g. More details can be found in a survey on artificial vision performed on this item by M. The data obtained by a single sensor give only incomplete information.TNO report 03. and tracking. lanes and can be used for stop and go applications [92]. Bertozzi et Al [87]. identification. the data can be redundant or obtained at different time step. The artificial vision combined with other remote sensing techniques like radar would provide promising results (see Data sensor fusion) 6. traffic signs. the Artificial Neural Networks. The driver uses simultaneously different sensors (in particular his eyes and his ears) to understand its environment. . In order to take over some tasks of the driver the technology should imitate the human way of sensing. The technology is not ready yet to be used in commercial vehicles. A combination of sensors data allows a better understanding of the surrounding world. In sensor technology the simultaneous use of different sensors is known as sensor data fusion. classification. The system developed by mobileye [116] for driving assistance systems on basis of monocular vision can detect and track other vehicles on the road and includes egomotion estimation and road geometry analysis. ACC and pre-crash sensing). The literature shows that different techniques can be used like Bayesian methods. .

IVS in general and IVSS particularly introduce a new perspective on safety. However. 7. The “conventional” IVSS provide have a high potential on vehicle safety. even when wearing seatbelts. more stringent airbag regulations will be included in the USA. Not much literature was available about field performance of side and curtain airbags. these trends are important for Europe as well. Sensed information of the upcoming crash can effectively be used to perform actions for the mitigation of the crash.TNO report 03. Since also in Europe close proximity to the airbags as a result of pre-crash braking may occur.BV.2 Intelligent Vehicle Systems There have been large reductions in fatalities in the last decade. The so-called out-of-position situation will be included in the new FMVSS 208. regardless of impact situation. However. some preliminary field studies and numerical simulations seem to show benefits of new systems.037. The remote sensing technology will play an important role in the development of IVS in general. New simulation tools and testing procedures are needed for . The use of seat belts in combination with airbags reduces the injury risk for frontal impact little more (plus 10-20%. A lot of research work was done on IVSS in the frame of European projects. Estimations from in depth accidents analysis showed that ESP could have reduced the likelihood or avoided the accident in 18% of all injury accidents and in 34% of fatal accidents. IVSS will enhance safety also by permitting an integrated approach to safety issues. For example. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to develop IVSS. To prevent occupants from being injured by the airbag instead of being protected.1 Restraint systems This literature study showed the benefits of current restraint systems.OR. Current trends indicate the increasing importance of the use of adaptive systems. More attention is paid towards safety of rear passengers. Only limited serious injuries due to restraint systems were reported. IVSS offers new solutions to tackle road safety problems. IVSS tackle the first cause of accidents which is driver errors. Future trends also include more focus on the second and later impacts in multiple impact events. Side effects of restraint systems were investigated in literature. The devices for obstacle detection used for ADAS and pre-crash sensing systems in particular are foreseen to play an important role in the next generation of vehicles. Some ‘recent’ seat concepts claim reduction of Whiplash injury risk in case of (low severity) rear impacts and also reduction of fatality risk for high severity impacts. 7. the belt is often not worn in case of a crash. compared to belt-only). as current systems protect reasonably well during the first impact. for frontal impact injury risk reduction up to 60%. It was shown that for the population that differs most from the standard 50th % the improvement potential might be the biggest. Still. still the number of fatalities unacceptable. Wearing seat belts still offers the biggest reduction of injury potential during a crash.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 59 / 68 7 Conclusions This chapter shortly presents the most important findings from this literature survey. These systems were introduced only recently and very limited accident cases were available in literature.

1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 60 / 68 the design and validation of the systems but also to show the potential of this relatively new automotive application.037.TNO report 03. .BV.OR. Finally regulations will probably be modified because of the introduction of these tools.

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2000. Traffic Safety and the Driver. Injury Prevention 2002. Volvo Car Corp. Leonard Evans. Norin H. B. ProBiomechanics LLC and General Motors Corporation.BV. Jakobsson.A car seat for improved protection against neck injuries in rear-end impact. The WHIPS seat . [www.P. van der Knaap & D. Infection and Critical Care Volume 51.. 98-S7-O-08. J. Effectiveness of Active Head Restraint in Preventing Whiplash. Page 263. Isaksson-Hellman. P..1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 68 / 68 [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] Williams. Lundell B. F... June 18 – 20. Georg Messner. Verburg “ATS/AGV..doc.M. Dpeartment of Traumatology. L. PhD. Wolfgang Lange.S. .TNO report 03. Viano. Accident Analysis and Prevention 32 (2000) 307319. BS.. 5:62-64. Lundell. BMW of North America Inc.. Journal of accident analysis and prevention 35 (2003) 143-149. Dr. Autoliv. Yale University and Nanlee Research. L. Interim report of the AV3 TNO project.. European Commission. number 5. ESV conference 1998. “The world’s fastest Pre-Crash System” AutoTechnology 2/2003 J. “Automatic Safety in traffic and transport” 2002. I. BMW group Germany. A. USA.. http://www. Design.C.M.. M. David C. Journal of Trauma Injury. Effectiveness of Ford’s belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use. Wells...D. J. C. Rivara.. D. page 959-969. ISBN 92-894-0341-1. Injury Prevention 1999. New York. Chigago. Reduced fatalities related to rear seat shoulder belts. Insurance Institue for Highway Safety (IIHS). Ludwig-Maximilians University. J. Jakobsson. Viano. Stafan Rauscher.gov/airbags/abvideos. Cummings.OR.html] Peter Baur.com/documents/02_docs_projects/ tf_projects_ongoing/tf_rollover. L.. Germany. Farmer. Alfredsson. Estimating seat belt effectiveness using matched-pair cohort methods. L. Stefan Olsen. White paper European transport policy for 2010: time to decide. med. Munich. 1991. 44th Annual Proceedings Association for the advancements of automotive medicine. Ploeg.passivesafety.037. WHIPS – Volvo’s whiplash protection study. Effectiveness of High-Retension seats in preventing fatality: initial results and trends. Linström. C.K. A. Robertson. Implementation and Evaluation of a High Performance AGV” Proceedings IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium (IV’2002) Versailles.nhtsa. October 2-4. France. Van Nostrand Reinhold.F.. Illinois. Oliver Pieske. November 2001. 8:293-296. Comparison of real world side impact / rollover collisions with and without thorax airbag / head protection system: a first field experience. USA. 2002. Wells. SAE paper 2003-01-1351. Simonsson. B.

037. (Automatically Guidance of Vehicles) (Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control) The concept of AICC is similar to a conventional cruise control system. (Adaptive Cruise Control ): Maintain both the required cruising speed and the headway between the vehicles acting on the accelerator and the braking system. (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) Examples of ADA systems : ACC.g. which is now an accepted feature of most vehicles.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix A. (Collision Avoidance Systems) (Differential Absorption LIDAR) (Design and Validation Environment) CAS DIAL DVE . A group of systems under the AVCS umbrella is known as Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control or AICC ACC ADAS AGV AICC ATD ASR ATT AVCS AVG (Automatic or Convoying Vehicle Guidance ) AVG requires advanced environment sensing (e. It is this group of systems that are likely to have the most tangible effect upon vehicle safety and the avoidance of accidents.OR. Single forward looking radar.BV.1/1 A Glossary ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) ABS keeps the wheels from fully locking up while braking to allow the driver to maintain steering control. This system has the potential to reduce rear-end accidents in both city and highway conditions . also called ‘test dummies’.TNO report 03. These devices represent occupants in crash testing (Acceleration Slip Regulation) (Advanced Transport Telematics) (Automated Vehicle Control Systems ) Refer to the group of ITS (or IVHS) concepts that actually control a vehicle. The maximum force on the brake pedal slows each wheel to the point of maximum braking without skidding. The AICC system controls the speed of a vehicle with reference to the speed of other vehicles on the road. radar) with vehicle-to-vehicle communication. lane departure warning and collision warning.particularly those caused by driver inattentiveness (Anthropometric Test Device).

2/2 ECU ESP FAST FAV’s (Electronic Central Unit) (Electronic Stability Programme) (Fully Automated Sensor Triggered actions) (Fully Automated Vehicles) FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) or (Frequency Modulated Carrier Wave) radar HMI HMIX (Human Machine Interface ) (Harmonic Mixer) HUD ISA ISS (Head Up Display) (Intelligent Speed Adaptation) (Integrated Safety System) ITS IVS IVSS LAB (Intelligent Transportation Systems) (Intelligent Vehicle Systems) (Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems) (Accidentology and Biomechanics Laboratory .BV.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix A.PSA France) LASER (Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation) LIDAR MPA OA OD OEM (Light Detection And Ranging) (Medium Power Amplifier) (Obstacle Avoidance) (Obstacle Detection) (Original Equipment Manufacturer) PCS TTC VCO (Pre Crash Sensing) (Time To Collision) (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) It is an oscillator designed so applying a voltage to its control port or tuning port can change the output frequency .TNO report 03.OR.037.

efficiency and environmental performance of the road transport system. Standardisation. a set of Innovative Methods in the fields of Human Factors. implementation scenarios is developed in order to help introducing appropriate ADAS.BV.1/1 B List of relevant IVS related EC projects ADASE: • • • • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Europe ADASE is an EC IST funded thematic network that will help to introduce and implement active safety systems. The final expected outcome is a safer and more comfortable driving EUCLIDE Enhanced hUman machine interface for on vehiCLe Integrated Driving support systEms EUCLIDE will develop a new reliable integrated driver assistance support system. a methodology is developed to assess the impact of different types and different levels of penetration of ADAS in terms of the safety. which will monitor the area ahead of the driver and will .1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix B.OR. To reach such a goal. to organise in-depth expert workshops on selected topics . CHAMELEON Pre-crash Application All Around The Vehicle The main objective of the Chameleon project is to support. Multimedia Design. ADVISORS: Action for advanced Driver assistance and Vehicle control systems Implementation. and Technological Devices for automotive applications are explored and developed.037. Based on test site demonstrations.TNO report 03. direct and validate the development of pre-crush sensorial system to detect imminent impact in all type of scenarios (urban. AWAKE: System for effective Assessment of driver vigilance and Warning According to traffic risK Estimation The objective of AWAKE is to increase traffic safety by reducing the number and the consequences of traffic accidents caused by driver hypovigilance. rural and motorway) COMUNICAR: COmmunication Multimedia UNit Inside CAR The main goal is to design. The objectives are: to use the state-of-the-art knowledge to generate corresponding road maps and guidance. Such HMI will manage the communicative exchange with the driver taking into account his/her workload. to facilitate the information exchange within the cluster of projects related to ADA systems and transport. Furthermore. Optimum use of the Road network and Safety. the different environment conditions and traffic scenarios. develop and test an easy-to-use on-vehicle multimedia Human-Machine Interface (HMI). and to disseminate the resulting findings and information to all relevant users and user groups and the general public.

curves. .The main aim of the project is to address the strong societal needs of reducing the total number of accidents. led by 18 European automobile companies.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix B. IN-ARTE Integration of Navigation and Anticollision for Rural Traffic Environment The aim of IN-ARTE is to develop an integrated autonomous on-board system to be able to build an extended view of the environment in front of the vehicle. such as intersection handling. and over 40 research institutions with a budget of about 900 million euros. At the same time a new enhanced HMI. The proposed system is expected to the market stepwise within the next 5 years . state authorities.037. Response 2 is the contimuation of RESPONSE: Project developed in the frame of the 4th framework programme “Telematics Applications Programme” from 1998 to 2001.BV. The work willl continue in the frame of a new project Response II. speed selection while negotiations. based on the state of the art at EU level. will be developed. The objectives fall in the following categories: − Improved driver information − Active driver support − Cooperative driving − Traffic and fleet management RESPONSE II Advanced driveR assistance systEmS: from introduction scenarios towards a code of Practice fOr developmeNt and tESting. road recognition CCD sensors and navigation map. in order to guide and warn the driver through an optimum HMI in a series of rural areas related traffic tasks. Project financed in the 5th FP in the IST. In this project legal issues regarding ADAS market introduction were adressed. This system will integrate the functionalities of radar and far infrared sensors resulting to a highly reliable and efficient system.OR. This is done by integrating signals from anticollision radar.TNO report 03. etc… PROMETHEUS Programme for a European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety Started in 1986. obstacle detection. So the proposed project will strongly address human factor issues.2/2 provide an effective support especially in cases of night and adverse weather conditions.

biomechanics and intelligent transportation systems. The EEVC works via technical working groups. pedestrian protection. carried out in a hierarchy of some 2 850 technical committees. compatibility & frontal impact. The EEVC provides the link between government. working party 29. A steering committee (composed of representatives of the members) directs the technical work of the EEVC. government authorities. which is organised in working groups. administration and regulation in the quest for safer road vehicles. IHRA (International Harmonized Research Activities) The International Harmonized Research Activities (IHRA) were established under the ESV Programme in 1996.TNO report 03.1 ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) Different Technical Committees can be identified within ISO.5 . the Netherlands.1 Introduction of organisations The most important organisations working on and assisting regulation and standardisation activities in the automotive field are described below. research and development.1.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix C. interchangeability and safety.1. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) The International Electrotechnical Commission is the leading global organisation that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical. responsible for specific sectors of investigation.4 C.1.1. The Steering Committee is composed of two representatives of all members.1/1 C Overview actual regulations and consumer tests This chapter provides a brief overview of the current or near future regulations and consumer tests that are related to restraint systems and IVS. It is not the role of the EEVC to develop vehicle regulations. Spain.OR. directed by the Steering Committee. qualified representatives of industry. Italy. ISO The technical work of ISO is highly decentralised.1. one person from the government and one person from a governmental research organisation involved in vehicle research. EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee) The EEVC was founded in 1970 in response to the US Department of Transportation’s initiative for an international programme on Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESV) [65].BV. TC 22 is concerned with road vehicles. C. Governments of France.037. consumer bodies. subcommittees and working groups. with particular reference to terminology and test procedures (including the characteristics of C.2 C. the United Kingdom and Poland are members of the EEVC. C. but to act as technical advisor to the regulatory bodies like UN Economic Commission for Europe. In these committees. electronic and related technologies and has an important role in the standards concerning IVS. and international organisations from all over the world come together as equal partners in the resolution of global standardisation problems [108].3 C. industry. Sweden. TC 22 investigates all questions of standardisation concerning compatibility. IHRA aims to conduct world-wide harmonised research to establish global regulations in the filed of side impact. Germany. research institutes.

• motor cycles (item n). belted and unbelted… while minimising the risk to infants. There are large differences between the US and the EU and although our main focus is the EU situation. C. the ECE regulations do not include airbag requirements. if the vehicle complies the ECE regulations. vehicles have to comply ECE regulations.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix C. • combination vehicles (item t).2 Regulations related to restraint systems Most important in this field are the regulations related to airbags and seat belts.1 EU requirements In the EU. C.TNO report 03. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published an amended version of the Federal Motor Vehicle Standard (FMVSS) 208 for occupant safety in motor vehicles on May 2000. • motor vehicles (item p). attention is paid towards the stronger US regulations as well since these may be followed in Europe as well in future.2.037. The ECE regulations include: • ECE/R12 for steering column behaviour during a crash • ECE/R14 for attachment points of safety belts • ECE/R16 for safety belts and attachment systems • ECE/R17 for seat strength and attachment • ECE/R21 for sharp interior parts • ECE/R25 for head restraint systems • ECE/R32 for rear end crashes (deformation of passenger compartment) • ECE/R33 for front end crashes (deformation of passenger compartment) • ECE/R35 foot well intrusion • ECE/R94 protection for frontal crash • ECE/R95 protection for side crash Note that currently. In general.OR. • semi-trailers (item r).BV.2. . • light trailers (item s). by means that include advanced airbags” [2]. there are EU directives which are often equal to the ECE regulations.2/2 instrumentation) for evaluating the performance of the following types of road vehicles and their equipment: • mopeds (item m). • articulated vehicles (item u).2 US requirements FMVSS 208 The purpose of the FMVSS 208 is to reduce the number of deaths of vehicle occupants and severity of injuries by specifying vehicle crashworthiness requirements and specifying equipment requirements for active and passive restraint systems. • trailers (item q). Changes in the FMVSS 208 were needed because of the Transportation Equity for the 21st Century “to improve occupant protection for occupants of different sizes. also the EUdirectives are fulfilled. Besides the ECE regulations. children and other occupants from injuries and deaths causes by airbags. C.

Therefore. FMVSS 201 Requirements for instrument panels. Transport Canada suggested that the procedure described for the static out-of-position tests for the 5th percentile female dummy may not be representative for the worst case condition [73]. seat backs. Both airbag component testing and full scale testing (pole impact) are described. along with manual lap and shoulder belt. The procedure also positions the steering wheel in a location that is compatible with the visibility and comfort requirements of a 5th percentile driver. 1997.3/3 Previously.7 kg. the FMVSS 208 required all passenger cars manufactured after September 1. Advancements in testing methodologies in response to the FMVSS 201U requirements for curtain-type side airbags are studied by MGA Research Corporation [13]. interior compartment doors. a modified chin on hub procedure is proposed which prioritises chest placement. It was concluded that the requirements for the labels developed by NHTSA addressed the respective injury prevention policies. suppress the airbag deployment in presence of a child. 165 mm) impacts the IP with 6.7 m/s. The need for occupants to be properly restrained and positioned as a primary prevention strategy should be clear from the labels. The introduction of an airbag-warning standard had to balance between informing people on minimising possible risk and avoiding alarm that could stop the acceptance and use of airbags. Dorris and Associates [72] reviewed and analysed NHTSA’s activities on airbag labels related to Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and warning literature. current Human Factor Engineering literature is found to inadequately meet the needs of regulatory agencies involved in precautionary labelling. In 1995. armrests and sun visors were specified by NHTSA in the FMVSS 201 (‘Occupant protection in interior impact’). IHRA side impact working group on OOP procedures . The recent modifications to the FMVSS 208 include the use of small dummies to represent small stature drivers and child dummies to limit the risk of injuries to children. Note that the FMVSS 201 has similarities with ECE-21 head impact tests. or suppress the deployment if the child moves close to the airbag during an impact [70]. the FMVSS 201U was created which also included requirements for a head striking pillars. headers and the roof. to be equipped with driver and passenger airbags including sun visor warning labels. the system must inflate at a low-speed impact inflation rate. The new additional tests include several static airbag tests to limit the risk of OOP related injuries. However. For vehicles to be certified a 48 km/h frontal barrier test or a sled test with 48km/h generic sled pulse (unbelted) and 48 km/h frontal and oblique belted barrier tests with instrumented dummies had to be performed. For the passenger side.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix C. An update of the FMVSS201 in 1998 allows the presence of dynamically deployed upper-interior head protection systems.TNO report 03.BV. in which a rigid sphere (6. The new FMVSS 208 will be effective from September 2003 on (for 20% of vehicle production). side rails.OR. The airbag systems must either inflate in a low risk manner or suppress the deployment of the airbag if an out-of-position driver were detected. responding to Human Factors Engineering criteria.037. Warning labels for airbags were specified by NHTSA in 1995 and were updated in the new FMVSS 208 proposal.

sensors providers) in which the members wish to obtain a license for the frequency allocation at 24-GHz.eevc. C.1/MRE | Literature survey ‘In-vehicle safety devices’ | 09 May 2003 Appendix C. The motivation for using this technology is that it will enable mass-production (cost effective) and also that the 24 GHz radar allows both large angle and near field detection (needed for pre-crash sensing applications).4 Consumer tests: EuroNCAP The EuroNCAP program is designed to provide a fair. are of particular interest for the definition of a pre-crash standard. Association of International Automobile Manufacturers (AIAM). C.4/4 The side airbag OOP injury technical working group (TWG) was sponsored by the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Alliance). so providing an incentive to manufacturers as well as giving credit to those who excel at occupant and pedestrian protection [107]. Regulations authorities in Europe do actually not allow this frequency for automotive radar applications. addressing safety issues in the automotive field. the back or cushion. The SARA (Short-range Automotive Radar frequency Allocation) group is an initiative taken from commercial companies (car manufacturers. The objective was to develop a common understanding of the risks associated with side airbag deployments and ways to minimize those risks.3 Regulations related to intelligent vehicle systems The technology developed in the field of IVS starts to emerge but it is not foreseen to be well implemented in the market in 5 to 10 years. .OR. EuroNCAP strongly influences car design because typically the severity levels in EuroNCAP test are higher than in regulatory tests.BV. This results in stronger demands on the restraint systems. Automotive Occupant Restraints Council (AORC). Technical Committee TC 22 and TC 204 activities. A set of recommended procedures on side airbag OOP testing was the result. meaningful and objective assessment of the impact performance of cars.org): − Overview of existing and future techniques and how this is coordinated by existing organisations − Effect of these techniques on priorities for injury prevention − Effect of these techniques on existing regulations • ISO and in particular. EuroNCAP ‘promotes’ introduction of new features like seat belt reminders by including it in their test program although these features are not necessarily included in current regulatory. The terms of reference of this group are listed below (see: www. The main reason is possible interference with other applications. the roof support pillars or roof rail area and occupants ranging from young children to adults. It is intended to inform consumers. The side OOP test procedures proposed by the TWG cover airbags which deploy from the door or side trim panel.037. and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Regulations actions fall in the following categories • The EEVC created a new working group to study the effects of active-passive interaction on new legislation/.TNO report 03.

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