INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF HAND TOOLS, MAQSUDAN,JALANDHAR

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Introduction
The aim is to provide technology support services and trained manpower to engineering industry in general and the hand tools industries in particular to achieve global standards. • CIHT is an autonomous organization. • CIHT is a National Institute. • CIHT was established in 1983 with assistance from UNDP, Government of India and Government of Punjab.

CIHT is aspiring for latest technology to be a leader in region.

Organizational Profile
Hand Tools Industry consists of organized, small scale and cottage sector. About 80 % of small scale and cottage sector is located in and around Jalandhar in Punjab, Nagaur in Rajasthan and Purulia in West Bengal. The Hand Tools Industries are playing a vital role in economic development and earning valuable foreign exchange for the country. With a view to provide technology support services to engineering industry in general and the hand tools industries in particular, the Government of India has set up Central Institute of Hand Tools as a National Institute in Jalandhar, in the state of Punjab as an autonomous organization with the assistance of U.N.D.P and Govt. of Punjab. The management of the institute rests with the Governing Council appointed by the Govt. of India , with Development Commissioner, small scale industries as ex-officio chairman of the institute. The Principal Director is the Chief Executive Officer of the Institute. Other members include the Govt. officials and the industrialists from the industry.

CIHT can offer services to local as well as industries in Developing Countries.
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Consultancy • Design & Manufacture of various toolings, jigs, fixtures and gauges used in hand tool and other Engineering industry. • Induction Hardening processes applicable to various hand tools i.e Pipe Wrenches, Pliers, all type of hammers and other engineering items. • Forging of various hand tools i.e. Spanners, Wrenches, Pliers, Claw Hammers, Pipe Wrenches and other commercial forgings. • Chemical and Physical testing of ferrous material and calibration of gauges. • Certificate Courses and Short Term Courses in Tool & Die Making. • Establishment of Tool Rooms & Production Shops as per product mix. • Selection of Machine Tools ( New & Modern) apart from existing infrastructure. • Training Personnel in available fields of testing and quality control. • Similar Testing Laboratories / Standards rooms can be developed in those countries.

Tool Room Services
The Tool Room is equipped with following indigenous as well as imported machinery: • CNC Wire Cut Machine • CNC Machining Centre (VMC-800) HMT • CNC Turning CL 2050 Make Batliboi • CNC Vertical Machining Centre, DAEWOO • CNC Turner Lathe Machine • CNC Trainer Milling Machine • 3D Co-ordinate Measuring Machine • Injection Moulding Machine • Spark Erosion Machine • Lathe HMT NH-22/1500
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3 Nos. • High Speed Steel Electrode Type Salt Bath Furnace • Hydraulic Straightening Press • Gas Carburizing Furnace The department is also providing assistance by way of doing quality Heat Treatment on: • Blanking Dies • Trimming Dies • Hand Tools • Gears for Automobiles etc. • Mild Steel 4 .• Lathe HMT NH-26/3000 • Vertical Milling Machine (HMT) . • Band Saw • Power Hacksaw The Tool Room is providing assistance to the industries by way of making: • Forging Dies • Trimming Dies • Blanking Dies • Broaches • Gauges Heat Treatment Shop The Heat Treatment Shop is equipped with the following indigenous as well as imported machinery/equipment to undertake training and heat treatment of various Hand Tools and other engineering industries.2 Nos.2 Nos.2 Nos. • Universal Milling Machine (HMT) . • Induction Heater (High Frequency). 20 KW • Salt Bath Furnace (Neutral) • Electric Tempering Furnace . 60 KW • Induction Heater (High Frequency). • Cylindrical Grinding Machine • Horizontal Surface Grinding Machine • Tool & Cutter Grinder • Copy Milling Machine • Shaper Machine .

e. chemical composition. Capacity 120 Ton (Italy) • Power Press. Capacity 600 Ton (Imported) • Belt Drop Hammer. physical properties etc.2 Ton • Belt Drop Hammer. • Induction Heater 125 KW This department is providing common facility services by way of forging following Hand Tools: • Claw Hammer • Open End Spanner • Brick Blaster • Masson Hammer • Pipe Wrench • Bearing Puller • Ring Spanner • Pipe Fittings TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL This department is providing assistance to the industry by way of testing various materials i. Capacity . Capacity . Capacity 200 Ton • Billet Shearing Machine.Forge Shop The Forge Shop is equipped with the following hammers and presses to provide technical training and common facilities services to the industries: • Forging Press. Testing & Quality Control Section has the following main equipments: • Equipment for chemical testing for iron. steel brass and bronze etc. Capacity 100 MM • Oil Fired Furnaces . Capacity 100 Ton • Power Press.2 Nos. • Salt spray test apparatus • Bursting Strength Testing Machine • Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Tester 5 . The section is also carrying out the inspection of various screw gauges and measuring instruments. Capacity 50 Ton • Power Press.1 Ton • Power Press.

N.• Metallurgical Micro-scope for Testing Micro Structure • Ultrasonic Flaw Detector • Proving rings for calibration of Universal Testing Machines • Universal Testing Machine • Torque Testing Equipment and Hand Load Testing Fixture • Vickers / Rockwell Hardness Tester • Tool Makers Micro-scope • PVC Insulation Testing Equipment • Monometer Thickness Gauge • B. CNC MACHINES(Computer Numeric Control) CNC LATHE: 6 .F. Jet Test Apparatus • Multi Product Calibrator • Profile Projector • Slip Gauge Comparator • Screw Thread Measuring Machine • Spectrometer for Analysis of Metals This section is providing assistance to the industry by way of testing various materials i.: • Chemical Composition • Physical Properties etc.e. • Inspection of various screw gauges and measuring instrument.

Electric discharge machining: 7 . etc. They are designed to use modern carbide tooling and fully use modern processes. the program may be modified and displayed at the machine. however the knowledge base is broader compared to the older production machines where intimate knowledge of each machine was considered essential.CNC lathes are rapidly replacing the older production lathes (multispindle. These machines are often set and operated by the same person. The machine is controlled electronically via a computer menu style interface. along with a simulated view of the process. and the resulting file uploaded to the machine.) due to their ease of setting and operation. where the operator will supervise a small number of machines (cell). The setter/operator needs a high level of skill to perform the process. and once set and trialled the machine will continue to turn out parts under the occasional supervision of an operator. The part may be designed and the toolpaths and the toolpaths programmed by the CAD/CAM process.

die sinking or wire erosion. after a current flow. Material is removed from the workpiece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes. Adding new liquid dielectric in the inter-electrode volume is commonly referred to as flushing.depending on the type of generator). One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode. or ‘workpiece’. or simply the ‘tool’ or ‘electrode’. material is removed from both the electrodes. 8 . a difference of potential between the two electrodes is restored to what it was before the breakdown. while the other is called the workpiece-electrode. sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining. spark eroding. allowing current to flow between the two electrodes. the intensity of the electric field in the volume between the electrodes becomes greater than the strength of the dielectric (at least in some point(s)). is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). When the distance between the two electrodes is reduced. burning. which breaks. so that a new liquid dielectric breakdown can occur. As a result. Also. Once the current flow stops (or it is stopped .Electric discharge machining (EDM). separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. This phenomenon is the same as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser) (see also breakdown voltage). new liquid dielectric is usually conveyed into the inter-electrode volume enabling the solid particles (debris) to be carried away and the insulating proprieties of the dielectric to be restored.

grinding.Generalities: Electrical discharge machining is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be very difficult to machine with traditional techniques. EDM is often included in the ‘non-traditional’ or ‘non-conventional’ group of machining methods together with processes such as electrochemical machining (ECM). and inconel. EDM typically works with materials that are electrically conductive. applications of this process to shape polycrystalline diamond tools have been reported. In Sinker EDM. This method can be used with any other metal or metal alloy such as titanium. EDM can cut intricate contours or cavities in prehardened steel without the need for heat treatment to soften and re-harden them. a graphite. Advantages and disadvantages: Some of the advantages of EDM include machining of: 9 . drilling and any other process whose material removal mechanism is essentially based on mechanical forces). hastelloy. the positive master may be made from sterling silver. kovar. This type of EDM is usually performed submerged in an oil-based dielectric. or low proof gold alloy. but is becoming a common method of making prototype and production parts. Applications: Prototype production The EDM process is most widely used by the mould-making tool and die industries. silver. AWJ). The finished object may be further refined by hard (glass) or soft (paint) enameling and/or electroplated with pure gold or nickel. water jet cutting (WJ. The resultant negative die is then hardened and used in a drop hammer to produce stamped flats from cutout sheet blanks of bronze. Also. laser cutting and opposite to the ‘conventional’ group (turning. especially in the aerospace. although methods for machining insulating ceramics with EDM have also been proposed. Softer materials such as silver may be hand engraved as a refinement. milling. automobile and electronics industries in which production quantities are relatively low. since (with appropriate machine settings) the master is significantly eroded and is used only once. For badges these flats may be further shaped to a curved surface by another die. Coinage die making For the creation of dies for producing jewelry and badges by the coinage (stamping) process. copper tungsten or pure copper electrode is machined into the desired (negative) shape and fed into the workpiece on the end of a vertical ram.

• Complex shapes that would otherwise be difficult to produce with conventional cutting tools • Extremely hard material to very close tolerances • Very small work pieces where conventional cutting tools may damage the part from excess cutting tool pressure. • Reproducing sharp corners on the workpiece is difficult due to electrode wear. • The additional time and cost used for creating electrodes for ram/sinker EDM. Some of the disadvantages of EDM include: • The slow rate of material removal. • Specific power consumption is very high WIRE EDM: 10 . Therefore delicate sections and weak materials can be machined without any distortion. • There is no direct contact between tool and work piece.

typically deionized water. submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid.335 mm using Ø 0. and can have a cutting path or kerf as small as 0. is fed through the workpiece.004 mm. is held between upper and lower diamond guides. a thin single-strand metal wire. The guides.1 mm wire. and dies from hard metals that are difficult to machine with other methods. tools.25 brass wire. move in the x–y plane.12 mm using Ø 0. The reason that the cutting width is greater than the width of the wire is because sparking occurs 11 . giving rise to the ability to cut tapered and transitioning shapes (circle on the bottom square at the top for example). The upper guide can control axis movements in x–y–u–v–i–j–k–l–. the upper guide can also move independently in the z–u–v axis. On most machines. usually CNC-controlled.[20] Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates as thick as 300mm and to make punches. This allows the wire-cut EDM to be programmed to cut very intricate and delicate shapes. though the average cutting kerf that achieves the best economic cost and machining time is 0. The wire. which is constantly fed from a spool.In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). also known as wire-cut EDM and wire cutting. The upper and lower diamond guides are usually accurate to 0. usually brass.

from the sides of the wire to the work piece. little change in the mechanical properties of a material is expected due to these low residual stresses. and programmable machining strategies to optimize the operation. multiaxis EDM wire-cutting machining center have added features such as multiheads for cutting two parts at the same time. Such thermal cycles may cause formation of a recast layer on the part and residual tensile stresses on the workpiece. Wire-cutting EDM is commonly used when low residual stresses are desired. Wire diameter can be as small as 20 micrometres and the geometry precision is not far from +/. its severity depending on the technological parameters used. controlling its resistivity and other electrical properties with filters and de-ionizer units. automatic self-threading features in case of wire breakage. The workpiece may undergo a significant thermal cycle. 12 . although material that hasn't been stress-relieved can distort in the machining process. The water flushes the cut debris away from the cutting zone. This "overcut" is necessary. causing erosion.1 micrometre. for many applications it is adequately predictable and therefore can be compensated for (for instance in micro-EDM this is not often the case). If the energy/power per pulse is relatively low (as in finishing operations). Flushing is an important factor in determining the maximum feed rate for a given material thickness. controls for preventing wire breakage. because it does not require high cutting forces for removal of material. The wire-cut process uses water as its dielectric fluid. Along with tighter tolerances.25 mm wire is just over 19 kilometers in length. Spools of wire are long—an 8 kg spool of 0.

tooling. 13 . the hammer and anvil are not obsolete. 500 lb (230 kg) or less reciprocating weight. electricity. and though the use of water power in the production and working of iron dates to the 12th century. Some steam hammers remain in use. The smithy or forge has evolved over centuries to become a facility with engineered processes. and hydraulic presses are common in art smithies as well. but they became obsolete with the availability of the other. production equipment. more convenient. raw materials and products to meet the demands of modern industry. power sources.FORGING PROCESS: Forging is one of the oldest known metalworking processes.[1] Traditionally. These hammers may have reciprocating weights in the thousands of pounds. industrial forging is done either with presses or with hammers powered by compressed air. forging was performed by a smith using hammer and anvil. In modern times. hydraulics or steam. Smaller power hammers.

14 . other methods of hardening the piece. while work hardening may be desirable in some circumstances. Some metals may be forged cold. As a result. provisions must be made to absorb the shock and vibration generated by the hammer. can be hot forged. a high temperature furnace (sometimes referred to as the forge) will be required to heat ingots or billets. In the case of drop forging operations. Hot forging prevents the work hardening that would result from cold forming. as well as the dangers inherent in working with hot metal. giving rise to a piece with improved strength characteristics. such as most aluminium alloys and titanium.Advantages and disadvantages: Forging can produce a piece that is stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. Alloys that are amenable to precipitation hardening. are generally more economical and more controllable. which would increase the difficulty of performing secondary machining operations on the piece. Owing to the massiveness of large forging hammers and presses and the parts they can produce. as well as to withstand the tremendous forces involved. As the metal is shaped during the forging process. however iron and steel are almost always hot forged. the grain is continuous throughout the part. In the case of hot forging. a special building is frequently required to house the operation. tooling. Also. such as heat treating. facilities and personnel. Production forging involves significant capital expenditure for machinery. Most forging operations will require the use of metal-forming dies. its internal grain deforms to follow the general shape of the part. followed by hardening. which must be precisely machined and carefully heat treated to correctly shape the workpiece.

open-die forging. press forging.[1] 15 . automatic hot forging and upsetting. impression-die forging. cogging. however they can be grouped into three main classes: Drawn out: length increases. cross-section increases Squeezed in closed compression dies: produces multidirectional flow Common forging processes include: roll forging.Processes: A cross-section of a forged connecting rod that has been etched to show the grain flow. cross-section decreases Upset: Length decreases. There are many different kinds of forging processes available. swaging.

if the temperature is below the material's recrystallization temperature but above 3/10ths of the recrystallization temperature (on an absolute scale) it is deemed warm forging. Drop forging: There are two types of drop forging: open-die drop forging and closed-die drop forging. The main advantage of hot forging is that as the metal is deformed work hardening effects are negated by the recrystallization process. As the names imply. while the latter does.Temperature: Hot working and Cold working All of the following forging processes can be performed at various temperatures. however they are generally classified by whether the metal temperature is above or below the recrystallization temperature. with the former not fully enclosing the workpiece. 16 . the difference is in the shape of the die. Cold forging typically results in work hardening of the piece. The similarity between the two is that a hammer is raised up and then dropped onto the workpiece to deform it according to the shape of the die. if below 3/10ths of the recrystallization temperature (usually room temperature) then it is deemed cold forging. If the temperature is above the material's recrystallization temperature it is deemed hot forging.

Open-die forging lends itself to short runs and is appropriate for art smithing and custom work. or convex surface or be a tool to form holes or be a cut-off tool. Open-die forging gets its name from the fact that the dies (the surfaces that are in contact with the workpiece) do not enclose the workpiece. The process is called edging. It is commonly used to work a piece of raw material to the proper thickness. concave. Open-die forging may also orient the grain to increase strength in the required direction. The dies are usually flat in shape. Fullering is a similar process that thins out sections of the 17 . open-die forging may be employed to roughshape ingots to prepare them for subsequent operations. Once the proper thickness is achieved the proper width is achieved via edging. Therefore the operator needs to orient and position the workpiece to get the desired shape. Cogging is successive deformation of a bar along its length using an open-die drop forge.Open-die drop forging: Open-die forging is also known as smith forging. a die may have a round. In open-die forging. which is placed on a stationary anvil. For example. In some cases. allowing it to flow except where contacted by the dies. but some have a specially shaped surface for specialized operations. because it is usually carried out on the ends of the workpiece. a hammer strikes and deforms the workpiece. Edging is the process of concentrating material using an concave shaped open die.

or bending impression. this cool metal is stronger than the metal in the die so it helps prevent more flash from forming. These processes prepare the workpieces for further forging processes. in which the piece is working into a shape that more closely resembles the final product. The hammer is then dropped on the workpiece. Edging Fullering Impression-die drop forging: Impression-die forging is also called closed-die forging. The flash cools more rapidly than the rest of the material. This also forces the metal to completely fill the die cavity. The following cavities are called blocking cavities. These stages usually impart the workpiece with generous bends and 18 . this impression is called an edging. The hammer is generally in contact with the workpiece on the scale of milliseconds. which is attached to the anvil. fullering. forming what is referred to as flash. In impression-die work metal is placed in a die resembling a mold. Depending on the size and complexity of the part the hammer may be dropped multiple times in quick succession. In commercial impression-die forging the workpiece is usually moved through a series of cavities in a die to get from an ingot to the final form.forging using a convex shaped die. Excess metal is squeezed out of the die cavities. causing the metal to flow and fill the die cavities. The first impression is used to distribute the metal into the rough shape in accordance to the needs of later cavities. Usually the hammer die is shaped as well. After forging the flash is removed.

thus forgings become more economical with more volume. In order to produce a better. The flash is trimmed. There are other variations of part formation that integrate impression-die forging. then the part is quench hardened. Closed-die forging has a high initial cost due to the creation of dies and required design work to make working die cavities. The final shape is forged in a final or finisher impression cavity. or true closed-die forging.[2] Impression-die forging has been further improved in recent years through increased automation which includes induction heating. Another reason forgings are common in these industrial sectors is because forgings generally have about a 20 percent higher strength-to-weight ratio compared to cast or machined parts of the same material. Flash can account for 20 to 45% of the starting material. except the preform is produced by the spraying deposition of metal droplet into shaped collectors (similar to the Osprey process). The disadvantages of this process include additional cost due to a more complex die design and the need for better lubrication and workpiece placement. It is then finished in a single cavity die. but while still hot. Dies must be impact resistant. The major advantage to this process is that less metal is lost to flash. Another variation follows the same process as outlined above. One variation of impression-die forging is called flashless forging. Design of impression-die forgings and tooling Forging dies are usually made of high-alloy or tool steel. positioning and manipulation. more economical die the following rules should be followed: 19 . it has low recurring costs for each part. If there is only a short run of parts to be done it may be more economical for the die to lack a final impression cavity and instead machine the final features. The casting is removed after it has solidified. and have the ability to withstand cycles of rapid heating and cooling. and the direct heat treatment of parts after forging. maintain strength at high temperatures. In this type of forging the die cavities are completely closed. This is one of the major reasons closed-die forgings are often used in the automotive and tool industry. mechanical feeding. wear resistant. One method incorporates casting a forging preform from liquid metal. which keeps the workpiece from forming flash. However.large fillets.

28 (0.84 (0.15 (0.54 (10) 0. a good guideline is at least 3° for aluminum and 5° to 7° for steel  Generous fillets and radii should be used  Ribs should be low and wide  The various sections should be balanced to avoid extreme difference in metal flow  Full advantage should be taken of fiber flow lines  Dimensional tolerances should not be closer than necessary 1.018) 0.  The parting surface should be a plane through the center of the forging and not near an upper or lower edge.  Adequate draft should be provided. If not the parting plan should follow the contour of the part.27 (5) 4.030) 0.91 (2) 2. The dimensional tolerances of a steel part produced using the impression-die forging method are outlined in the table below.024) 0.033) 20 .45 (1) 0.48 (0.011) 0. The dies should part along a single.76 (0.20 (0.006) 0. 2. flat plane if at all possible.008) 0. It should be noted that the dimensions across the paring plane are affected by the closure of the dies. and are therefore dependent die wear and the thickness of the final flash.61 (0.25 (0. Dimensional tolerances for impression-die forgings Mass [kg (lb)] Minus tolerance [mm (in)] Plus tolerance [mm (in)] 0.010) 0. Dimensions that are completely contained within a single die segment or half can be maintained at a significantly greater level of accuracy.

21 . the lubricant acts as a parting compound to prevent the part from sticking in one of the dies.68 (50) 45. which differs from the near-instantaneous impact of drop-hammer forging.48 (0.039) 1.07 (20) 22.057) 2. Press forging: Press forging works slowly by applying continuous pressure or force.9.21 (0. The amount of time the dies are in contact with the workpiece is measured in seconds (as compared to the milliseconds of drop-hammer forges). The press forging operation can be done either cold or hot. Finally.087) A lubricant is always used when forging to reduce friction and wear.99 (0.029) 0.36 (100) 0. It is also used to as a thermal barrier to restrict heat transfer from the workpiece to the die.74 (0.013) 0.33 (0.019) 0.45 (0.

Therefore heated dies are usually used to reduce heat loss. As the workpiece cools it becomes stronger and less ductile. The operation is a time consuming process due to the amount of steps and how long each of them take. We specifically know what kind of strain can be put on the part. because the compression rate of the press forging operation is controlled. The workpiece will cool faster because the dies are in contact with workpiece. promote surface flow. the dies facilitate drastically more heat transfer than the surrounding atmosphere.The main advantage of press forging. as compared to drop-hammer forging. Another advantage to the process includes the knowledge of the new parts strain rate. most stemming from the workpiece being in contact with the dies for such an extended period of time. There are a few disadvantages to this process. and enable the production of finer details and closer tolerances. The workpiece may also need 22 . which may induce cracking if deformation continues. Drop-hammer forging usually only deforms the surfaces of the workpiece in contact with the hammer and anvil. the interior of the workpiece will stay relatively undeformed. is its ability to deform the complete workpiece.

By the constraint of oxidation to the outer most layers of the part material.8 in) in diameter and a capacity of over 1000 tons. the greater percentage of work is used in the work piece. the dies then close and the heading tool. In hammer forging a lot of the work is absorbed by the machinery. Impression-die press forging usually requires less draft than drop forging and has better dimensional accuracy. but some machines can accept bars up to 25 cm (9. couplings. when in press forging. then moves longitudinally against the bar. Press forging can be used to perform all types of forging. The standard upsetting machine employs split dies that contain multiple cavities. upsetting it into the cavity. screws. 23 .[11] A few examples of common parts produced using the upset forging process are engine valves. If all of the cavities are utilized on every cycle then a finished part will be produced with every cycle. Upset forging is usually done in special high speed machines called crank presses. Also. The initial workpiece is usually wire or rod. Upset forging: Upset forging increases the diameter of the workpiece by compressing its length. to facilitate the quick exchange of workpieces from one station to the next. press forging is more economical than hammer forging.[11] Based on number of pieces produced this is the most widely used forging process. Another advantage is that the operation can be used to create any size part because there is no limit to the size of the press forging machine. but upsetting can also be done in a vertical crank press or a hydraulic press.to be reheated. or ram. press forgings can often be done in one closing of the dies. including open-die and impression-die forging. When done in high productivity. reduced levels of microcracking take place in the finished part. The operation also creates closer tolerances. New press forging techniques have been able to create a higher degree of mechanical and orientation integrity. which is why this process is ideal for mass production. The machines are usually set up to work in the horizontal plane. and other fasteners. The dies open enough to allow the workpiece to move from one cavity to the next. allowing for easy automation. bolts.

The parts can be solid or hollow. so large quantities are required to justify this process.5 times the diameter of the stock. This all occurs very quickly. It is then descaled with rollers. and draft angles are 0.200 to 1. Lengths of stock greater than three times the diameter may be upset successfully provided that the diameter of the upset is not more than 1. and up to 18 cm (7. The downside to the process is it only feasible on smaller symmetric parts and cost.192 to 2. and transferred several successive forming stages.050 °C (1. final forged. There is no flash produced so material savings are between 20 and 30% over conventional forging.1 in) in diameter.920 °F) so air cooling will result in a part that is still easily machinable (the advantage being the lack of annealing required after forging).The following three rules must be followed when designing parts to be upset forged: The length of unsupported metal that can be upset in one blow without injurious buckling should be limited to three times the diameter of the bar. sheared into blanks. and where the diameter of the cavity is not more than 1. Tool life is nearly double that of conventional forging because contact times are on the order of 6/100 of a second. the initial investment can be over $10 million.372 °F) in less than 60 seconds using high power induction coils. round or symmetrical. surfaces are clean. small parts can be made at a rate of 180 parts per minute (ppm) and larger can be made at a rate of 90 ppm. Tolerances are usually ±0. The final product is a consistent 1.012 in). during which it is upset. and pierced 24 . preformed. Little labor is required to operate the machinery.5 to 1°. the length of unsupported metal beyond the face of the die must not exceed the diameter of the bar.3 mm (0.300 °C (2. The process starts by heating up the bar to 1. The main advantages to this process are its high output rate and ability to accept low cost materials.5 times the diameter of the stock. up to 6 kg (13 lb). In an upset requiring stock length greater than three times the diameter of the stock. Automatic hot forging: The automatic hot forging process involves feeding mill-length steel bars (typically 7 m (23 ft) long) into one end of the machine at room temperature and hot forged products emerge from the other end.

each containing one or more shaped grooves. stainless steel coupling flanges. This continues until the desired shape and size is achieved. and neck rings for LP gas cylinders. Cost implications: 25 . while maintaining the high speed of automatic hot forging. The downside of this process is its cost. the overall decrease in energy used. Examples of products produced using this method include axles. Roll forging: Roll forging is a process where round or flat bar stock is reduced in thickness and increased in length. therefore it is only implemented if significant cost reduction can be achieved. The work piece is then transferred to the next set of grooves or turned around and reinserted into the same grooves. Precision forging also requires less of a draft. Net-shape and near-net-shape forging: This process is also known as precision forging.(if necessary). the cold forming operation will do the finishing stage so that the advantages of cold-working can be obtained. and the reduction or elimination of machining. Roll forging is performed using two cylindrical or semi-cylindrical rolls. The advantage of this process is there is no flash and it imparts a favorable grain structure into the workpiece. tapered roller bearing races. This process was developed to minimize cost and waste associated with post forging operations. A heated bar is inserted into the rolls and when it hits a stop the rolls rotate and the bar is progressively shaped as it is rolled out of the machine. Generally. This process can also be couple with high speed cold forming operations. Manual transmission gears are an example of automatic hot forging used in conjunction with cold working. the final product from a precision forging needs little to no final machining. Examples of parts made by this process are: wheel hub unit bearings. 1° to 0°. transmission gears. Therefore. Cost savings are gained from the use of less material. tapered levers and leaf springs. and thus less scrap.

Induction forging: Unlike the above processes. there is a high probability that subsequent material removal operations will be necessary to remove material defects found at non-destructive testing inspection. If the basic disciplines are not met. induction forging is based on the type of heating style used. Many of the above processes can be used in conjunction with this heating method.To achieve a low cost net shape forging for demanding applications that are subject to a high degree of scrutiny. Hence low cost parts will not be achievable. it is crucial that basic forging process disciplines are implemented. Equipment 26 . amount and placement of lubricant).e. Example disciplines are: die-lubricant management (Use of uncontaminated and homogeneous mixtures. Tight control of die temperatures and surface finish / friction. i. non-destructive testing by way of a diepenetrant inspection technique.

(b) Material flow of an impactor forged disc. The most common type of forging equipment is the hammer and anvil.Hydraulic drop-hammer (a) Material flow of a conventionally forged disc. Principles behind the hammer and anvil are still used today in drop-hammer 27 .

Due to the nature of this type of system. It also produces a distinctly different flow pattern. larger. Here excess energy becomes recoil. The main variations between drop-hammers are in the way the hammer is powered. In case of impression die forging flashes are produced and these flashes are removed by punching or mechanical press. heat and vibration. Other advantages include less noise. Scrap:Scrap is the material which is formed after forging as shown in fig. We can melt this scrap for forming ingots by continuous casting process. Hydraulic presses use fluid pressure and a piston to generate force. And these removed material referred to as a scrap. Drop-hammers usually operate in a vertical position. which rests on the anvil. Mechanical presses are faster than their hydraulic counterparts (up to 50 strokes per minute).000 short tons-force). To overcome some of the shortcomings of the drop-hammer. This allows the machine to work horizontally and consist of a smaller base. a large machine base is needed to absorb the impacts. The roll forging. upsetting. Moreover. different forces are available at different stroke positions. And we can avoid the wastage of material. The principle behind the machine is very simple—raise the hammer and then drop it or propel it into the workpiece. A forging press. The advantages of a hydraulic press over a mechanical press are its flexibility and greater capacity. the most common being air and steam hammers. 28 . The disadvantages include a slower. often just called a press. cranks and/or toggles to produce a preset (a predetermined force at a certain location in the stroke) and reproducible stroke.equipment. and automatic hot forging processes all use specialized machinery. Both of these machines can be used for open die or closed die forging. The main reason for this is excess energy (energy that isn't used to deform the workpiece) that isn't released as heat or sound needs to be transmitted to the foundation. Mechanical presses function by using cams. is used for press forging. In a counterblow machine both the hammer and anvil move and the workpiece is held between them. the counterblow machine or impactor is used. There are two main types: mechanical and hydraulic presses.. and costlier machine to operate. Their capacities range from 3 to 160 MN (300 to 18.

i. 2. 5. Die material is made very hard which can’t be deforming easily. The shape of die is made in process of forging wise. 3. So we can make dies of different shapes according to product which we want to manufacture. 4.e. Fullering Edging] Bending Blocking Finishing 29 . 1.Dies: Dies is used in forging as shown in fig.

Heat treatment: 30 .

Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials. normally to extreme temperatures. The nature of the grains (i. precipitation strengthening. and the rate of cooling within the microstructure. Heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of the metal by controlling rate of diffusion. tempering and quenching. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling. heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding.Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical. such as glass. Heat treatment techniques include annealing. 31 . Processes: Metallic materials consist of a microstructure of small crystals called "grains" or crystallites. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally. The most common application is metallurgical. case hardening. grain size and composition) is one of the most effective factors that can determine the overall mechanical behavior of the metal. and sometimes chemical properties of a material. to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material.e.

produce an opposite effect when these are quenched: they anneal. which causes the existing grains to grow. ANNEALING: Annealing is a technique used to recover cold work and relax stresses within a metal. from fastest to slowest. 316). metals such as austenitic stainless steel (304. tool steels such as 2767 or H13 hot work tool steel should be quenched in forced air. Upon being rapidly cooled. quenching a certain steel too fast can result in cracking. it is called a normalizing heat treatment. which is why high-tensile steels such as AISI 4140 should be quenched in oil. oil. Cooling speeds. ductile metal. it is called a full anneal heat treatment.silicon). Depending on the alloy and other considerations (such as concern for maximum hardness vs. The second stage of annealing is recrystallization. 32 .Complex heat treating schedules are often devised by metallurgists to optimize an alloy's mechanical properties. a metal (usually steel or cast iron) must be heated into the austenitic crystal phase and then quickly cooled. Annealing typically results in a soft. and forced air. brine. oil. go from polymer (i. When an annealed part is allowed to cool in the furnace. The quenched hardness of a metal depends on its chemical composition and quenching method. brittle crystalline structure. a portion of austenite (dependent on alloy composition) will transform to martensite. and low alloy or medium-tensile steels such as XK1320 or AISI 1040 should be quenched in brine or water. a superalloy may undergo five or more different heat treating operations to develop the desired properties. In the aerospace industry.e. polymer dissolved in water. where new stress-free grains grow. as they work-harden significantly. a hard. fresh water. A stress relief annealing is when only the first stage of annealing is performed. However. However. Austenitic stainless steels must be quench-annealed to become fully corrosion resistant. cooling may be done with forced air or other gas (such as nitrogen). When an annealed part is removed from the furnace and allowed to cool in air. The third stage is grain growth. cracking and distortion). This can lead to quality problems depending on the accuracy of the furnace's temperature controls and timer. and copper. Hardening and tempering (quenching and tempering): To harden by quenching. or brine.

A method for alleviating this problem is called tempering. as well as some superalloys and some stainless steels. Alloys may age "naturally" meaning that the precipitates form at room temperature. 33 . In some applications. while very hard. This is called differential hardening. Precipitation hardening: Some metals are classified as precipitation hardening metals. The Chinese jian is one of the earliest known examples of this. may be easier with a softer part. Examples of precipitation hardening alloys include 2000 series. 6000 series. thereby increasing the strength of the alloy. often 300 F or 150 C) to impart some toughness. depending on alloy and application) are sometimes used to impart further ductility. The resulting interstitial solid solution is harder than the base material. for example. which improves wear resistance without sacrificing toughness. and the Japanese katana the most widely known.Untempered martensite. It is common in high quality knives and swords. or they may age "artificially" when precipitates only form at elevated temperatures. diffuses into the surface of a monolithic metal. Aging a "solutionized" metal will allow the alloying elements to diffuse through the microstructure and form intermetallic particles. resulting in a soft metal. although some yield strength is lost. Higher tempering temperatures (may be up to 1300 F or 700 C. most commonly carbon or nitrogen.assembly of rivets. Case hardening: Case hardening is a process in which an alloying element. Selective hardening: Some techniques allow different areas of a single object to receive different heat treatments. and 7000 series aluminium alloy. is too brittle to be useful for most applications. The Nepalese Khukuri is another example. naturally aging alloys may be stored in a freezer to prevent hardening until after further operations . Most applications require that quenched parts be tempered (heat treated at a low temperature. When a precipitation hardening alloy is quenched. its alloying elements will be trapped in solution. These intermetallic particles will nucleate and fall out of solution and act as a reinforcing phase.

sanding. Since the cooling rate is very high in laser treatment.Laser surface engineering is a surface treatment with high versatility. metastable even metallic glass can be obtained by this method. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. 34 . drilling. CONVENTIONAL MACHINES: Lathe machine: A lathe (pronounced /ˈleɪð/ is a machine tool which spins the workpiece to perform various operations such as cutting. the best-known design being the potter's wheel. metal spinning. and glassworking. metalworking. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution. plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Lathes are used in woodturning. using clamps or dogs. or to a faceplate. or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. knurling. Other workholding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet. at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. selectivity and novel properties. Lathes can be used to shape pottery.

but the workpiece as a whole is not rotationally symmetric. table legs. When a workpiece is supported in this manner. and more force may be applied to the workpiece. baseball bats. This technique is used for camshafts. worked. it is more stable. The result is that various cross sections of the workpiece are rotationally symmetric. Modes of use: When a workpiece is fixed between the headstock and the tailstock. musical instruments (especially woodwind instruments). but gently. or at right angles. When a workpiece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end. at a right angle to the axis of rotation. at a right angle to the axis of rotation. via tools. most work must be done axially. cue sticks. crankshafts and camshafts. When a workpiece is supported at both ends. various types of chair legs. Thus. 35 . it is said to be "between centers". via tools. less force may be applied to the workpiece. then remounted with a new axis of rotation.Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders. bowls. without fear that the workpiece may break loose. towards the headstock. the work is said to be "face work". lest the workpiece rip free. this is referred to as "eccentric turning" or "multi axis turning". When a workpiece is mounted with a certain axis of rotation.

Examples of work produced from a lathe: Drilling machine: Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint. 36 . It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the workpiece. which forms chips at the cutting edge. end cutting tool.

the inside of the hole usually has helical feed marks.Process: Drilled holes are characterized by their sharp edge on the entrance side and the presence of burrs on the exit side (unless they have been removed). This causes the workpiece to become more susceptible to corrosion at the stressed surface. to be deflected. that is. depending on the material. Also. any chips are removed via the flutes.[1] The type of chips formed can be an indicator of the machinability of the material. which include: Milling machine: 37 . which causes the hole to be misplaced. This minimizes the drill bit's tendency to "walk". Chips may be long spirals or small flakes. When possible drilled holes should be located perpendicular to the workpiece surface. and process parameters. Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the workpiece by creating low residual stresses around the hole opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed material on the newly formed surface. For fluted drill bits. the higher the tendency to walk. with long gummy chips reducing machinability. The tendency to walk is also preempted in various other ways. The higher the length-todiameter ratio of the drill bit.

mechanically automated. milling machines also move the workpiece radially against the rotating milling cutter. Milling machines may be manually operated. Both types range in size from small. Workpiece and cutter movement are precisely controlled to less than 0.A milling machine (also see synonyms below) is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. which holds the workpiece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate the material. which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. horizontal and vertical. bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines. which cuts on its sides as well as its tip.001 in (0. Unlike a drill press. 38 . or digitally automated via computer numerical control (CNC). usually by means of precision ground slides and leadscrews or analogous technology.025 mm). Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms.

39 . drilling) to complex (e.. planing.g. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.Milling machines can perform a vast number of operations. from simple (e. contouring.. diesinking). slot and keyway cutting.g.

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