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Published by: tundeszoke on Jun 27, 2013
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8. A. Pronouns without person contrast Pro-forms play a vital role in grammar.

One category of pro-forms is particularly associated with noun phrases and this is the pronoun. All these pronouns have one thing in common: their referential meaning is determined purely by the grammar of English, and the linguistic or situational context in which they occur. Classes and subclasses of pronouns: Central pronoun: • • • personal (I, me, they, them) reflexive (myself, themselves) possessive (my/mine, their/theirs)

Relative pronoun: (which, that) Interrogative pronoun: (who, what) Demonstrative pronoun: (this, those) Indefinite: • Positive: - universal (both, each) - assertive (some, several) - non-assertive (any, either) • Negative: (nobody, neither)

Pronouns without person contract a) Relative pronouns: no number reference, in relative clauses Wh-items: have gender reference (personal or non-personal) who, whom, whose, which, where, when e.g. I’d like to see the house which you have for sale. The man who greated me. That and zero: only in restrictive clauses, no gender reference: The actor (that) I admired came to London. I’d like to see the house you have for sale. b) Interrogative pronouns: in interrogative clauses. There are 5: who, whom, whose, which, what e.g. house belong? Whose is this house? Who owns this house? Whom does this house belong to? To whom does this


-thing (impersonal). neither. anyone. many of.partitive1: both. some of. this. both of. few. no) and Non-assertive: The of-partitives: The final part is personal pronoun or a noun preceded by a definite determiner. most of our students With noncount partition: all of. a little. some of. everyone. more of. everything some. none of. neither of With plural count partition: all of. someone. every. no one. anything.body (personal). Characterised as a whole by having a general and non-specific reference – indefinite.c) Demonstrative pronouns: can function as determiners (followed by a noun) and as pronouns (on their on). Express quantity from total to nothing. each. Reference sometimes involves gender: pronouns. neither many. a few. all. either of. basically used deictically. these (relative proximity to the speaker) that. both. a lot. With singular count partition: each of. several any. those (relative remoteness) d) Indefinite pronouns: heterogeneous in form and embrace a wide range of meaning and properties. lot . Several of them can function as determiners (every. anybody. little. any of. one of. each.positive: universal: Assertive: . somebody. . much.negative: . everybody. any of Beethoven’s music them - 1 Partitive = részelős 2 . something. either nobody.

A good rest is what you need most.8. pseudo. without making the clause negative.g. That was not an accident. Negates a word or phrase. The pseudo-cleft sentence occurs more typically. B. The following are virtually 3 . In some respects. What you need most is a good rest. with the wh. the construction can make explicit the division between given and new parts of the communication.clause as subject. Unlike the cleft sentence. local negation. only some part of it. cleft sentences Exclusive ‘or’: ( kizáró) – you can choose only 1 thing Excludes the possibility that the contents of both clauses are true or are to be fulfilled. It is indeed only with what-clauses that we can make a direct comparison (or and subordinate clause. like the cleft sentence proper. E. It is essentially an SVC sentence with a nominal relative clause as subject or complement. Exclusive ‘or’. it rather freely permits marked focus to fall on the predication: What he’s done is (to) spoil the whole thing. I saw him not long ago – fairly recently She is not an unintelligent woman – she is fairly intelligent I will never see you again. since it can thus present a climax in the complement. Pseudo cleft sentence Is another device whereby. not + a morphologically negated gradable adjective or adverbs. the pseudo-cleft sentence is more limited that the cleft sentence proper. You may go to the cinema or you can stay at home The exclusive meaning can be strengthened by conjuncts else / alternatively Local negation: the whole clause is not negated. however. It thus differs from the ordinary cleft sentence in being completely accountable in terms of the categories of main clause synonymous: It’s a good rest that you need most.

why. whose. Here is where the accident took place. – clause paraphrase 1 All she did was { cancel the meeting} do –is only a substitute. Cancel the meeting was all she did. Clauses with where and when are sometimes acceptable. Somebody whose writing I admire is Jill. but mainly when the wh-clause is subject complement. 4 . there are numerous ‘paraphrases’ of the pseudo-cleft construction involving noun phrases of general reference in place of the wh-item. and to compensate for these restrictions.choice) between the two constructions. (In) Autumn is when the countryside is most beautiful. and how do not easily enter into the pseudocleft sentence construction at all. Clauses introduced by who. The way you should o is via Cheltenham. nominal relative clause – bare inf. to emphasize cancel-bare inf. The person who spoke to you must have been the manager. Function: Cs ( subject Complement) {What I want } is a coke.

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