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• Wikipedia- ”An attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item. Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question.”
Characteristics/Nature of Attitudes
• Attitudes Have subject-object relationship Are learned Are relatively enduring states of readiness Have motivational characteristics Are numerous Range from strongly positive to strongly negative Are internal dispositions
Factors that Influence Development of Attitudes
• Integration of person’s experiences • Differentiation of experiences • Dramatic experiences • Individual’s physical development • Individual’s emotional development • Individual’s social development • Individual’s ethical/moral development
• Individual’s home & family • Individual’s social environment BROADLY TWO CATEGORIES: Factors within the individual himself/herself Factors within the individual’s environment
Implication for organization
• It may lead to job satisfaction: recognition, achievement, type of work, advancement etc • It may lead to job dissatisfaction: salary, working conditions, relations with subordinates, job security etc • Need for study of attitude of the employees • Need for identifying the factors determining attitude and its change
• It may be defined as the possession of a feeling on the part of the employee of being accepted and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals.
• Feeling accepted by one’s work group • Sharing common goals with one’s work group • Having confidence in the desirability of these goals
Characteristics of Industrial Morale
• • • • • • It is dynamic It is complex It is an attribute of individual It exists with reference to job situation It is influenced by motivation It is applicable to employees at all the job levels • It involves ego & its satisfaction
Factors that Influence Morale
• Group cohesiveness or feeling of togetherness • Need for a goal • Observable progress towards the goalthere must be observable progress towards the goal • Specific meaningful tasks- individual in the group must have specific meaningful tasks that are necessary to the achievement of the goal
• Job security. • Management style. • Staff feeling that their contribution is valued by their employer. • Realistic opportunities for merit-based promotion. • The perceived social or economic value of the work being done by the organization as a whole. • The perceived status of the work being done by the organization as a whole. • Team composition. • The work culture.
Measures of Improving Morale
• incorporate tangible factors like food and money as well as less concrete facets such as time, learning, and culture • Morale boosting techniques/methods can be implemented in almost any aspect of the work environment
• Application of methods such as: increasing employee recognition and involvement fostering communication and a sense of belongingness and ownership within the organization providing opportunities for education and personal development creating a physically comfortable work environment
• Make workers feel that the organization they work for genuinely cares about them • Ask employees if they feel they are working to their potential • Cross-train employees