PR CAMPAIGN

H&M: It’s not charity if it’s for family
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! ! ! ! ! GRAU, Clément GONZÁLEZ, Andrea GRIFFITH, Alicia OGEE, Anne-Solenne WIDMANN, Stephanie ! 1! ! !

TABLE OF CONTENTS!
I.! INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................3! II.! ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................................4! 1.! External factors: PORTER 5 forces ........................................................................................4! 2.! Internal analysis: H&M SWOT ................................................................................................6! 3.! Monitoring the issue: Be affordable but ethical.....................................................................7! 4.! Analysis of H&M communication ............................................................................................8! a)! Stakeholders mapping table ..............................................................................................11! b)! Stakeholders’ level of interest and power........................................................................16! II.! STRATEGY ..................................................................................................................................17! 1.! Core proposition ......................................................................................................................17! 2.! Overall programme aim..........................................................................................................17! 3.! Objectives ................................................................................................................................17! 4.! Overall programme message ................................................................................................17! 5.! Specific audiences and communication messages ...........................................................18! 6.! PR plan .....................................................................................................................................20! 7.! Overall evaluation ...................................................................................................................24! 8.! Timeline ....................................................................................................................................25! BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................27!

TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1: Simplified Model of the Evolutionary Sequence of Public Policy Issues (Tench,2009)…………………………………………………………………………………………6! Figure 2: The Corporate Communication Strategy of H&M adapted from “The total communication domain” (Aberg, L., 1990) ……………………...……………………………… 8 Figure 3: Stakeholders power/interest matrix (adapted from Mendelow, 1991 and cited in Johnson and Scholes, 1993) ……………………………………………………………………. 18

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I.

INTRODUCTION

In October 2012, a Swedish documentary was released highlighting the poor working conditions and wages of factory workers in Bangladesh and Cambodia. It focused exclusively on H&M’s exploitation of cheap labour portraying the company as unethical, threatening its reputation globally. What are the issues? • • The exploitation of workers in third world countries by major Western fashion retailers. Poor payment and working conditions just to keep clothes cheap for Western consumers and maximize profits for the companies. This PR plan will cover a timeline of 5 years starting from October 2012. Even though this is a global issue, this report will only focus on the UK media and in store promotions.

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II.

ANALYSIS
1. External factors: PORTER 5 forces 1. Threat of new competition: LOW • Barriers to entry (patents, rights, etc.): high – Few new firms can enter and non-performing firms can exit easily. • Economies of product differences: low – No differences between different products in the market. • • Brand equity: low – People go to H&M for affordable products. Switching costs or sunk costs: low – Switching between products is very easy for customers. • • Capital requirements: very high – Big competitors like Zara, H&M and Gap. Access to distribution: difficult – To compete with an established retailer like H&M. • Customer loyalty to established brands: Unpredictable consumers – Due to the low prices but important habitual customers. • • Absolute cost: very high – To compete with current competitors. Industry profitability: high – Fashion is a universal need.

2. Threat of substitute products or services: VERY HIGH • • • • • • • • Buyer propensity to substitute: very high. Relative price performance of substitute: high. Buyer switching costs: low. Perceived level of product differentiation: average. Number of substitute products available in the market: very high. Ease of substitution: high. Substandard product: common. Quality depreciation: high.

Products between competitors are very similar and price is the main differentiator for purchase decisions.

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3. Bargaining power of customers (buyers): LOW Buyers are weak and fragmented: no buyer has any particular influence on product or price. 4. Bargaining power of suppliers: VERY LOW Suppliers should be powerful as they gather thousands of orders coming from global companies. However, because the economy of countries such as Bangladesh highly relies on revenues coming from textiles manufacturing, suppliers are not in a strong position to negotiate with international companies that could find cheap labour forces elsewhere. 5. Intensity of competitive rivalry: HIGH • Sustainable competitive advantage through innovation: low – Short-term advantages (Guest designers or celebrity endorsement for H&M) • Competition between online and offline companies: low – Brands are not present online in all countries (Zara, H&M). • Level of advertising expense: high – For example, the paid endorsement by high-profile celebrities like David Beckham in 2013. • Powerful competitive strategy: high – Regarding all H&M efforts about celebrity endorsement, guest designers, co-branding, the brand appears to have a more powerful competitive strategy than its main competitors: Zara or Gap. • Flexibility through customization, volume and variety: average – For H&M, no customization due to mass volumes. However, wide variety of style and colour options.

Finally, the biggest competitive threat to H&M is the number of substitute products and the high price elasticity of similar products on the market.

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2. Internal analysis: H&M SWOT Strengths Company: • Good capital resources: growth in the past eight years since they've opened up in the United States + future implementation in India. • High brand awareness among young consumers globally. • Powerful competitive strategy based on celebrity endorsement (2013: David Beckham). Products: • Worldwide low price retailer with fashionable trends • Overall delivery time: 12 weeks to get an item from the design to its retail state (The average for retailers is usually about 6 months) Stores: • Wide range of products permanently renewed (from 18 to 45 years for men and women + children’s clothing and maternity wear) • Exclusive lines products in some stores with guest designers (Madonna and Roberto Cavalli) Opportunities Economy: • Globalization (worldwide market) • Financial crisis: people are looking for inexpensive products and are trying to save money Market: • New market: mummy/baby clothing (trend to make match mummies and babies clothes) • Online shopping • People are more aware about sustainability and ethics. Social: • Social role of fashion in society Weaknesses Company: • Not focused on only one type of customer (costs of different production machinery) • Perceived as an unethical brand

Products: • Product quality

Stores: • Costs for extra storage due to large volumes bought • Few middlemen in stores (no service)

Threats Market: • Increasing competition in delivery time (ZARA: 2 weeks) and in quality at reasonable price (GAP) • Fashion trends are changing very quickly and frequently • Biased reporting on sweatshop scandals and major threat to reputation. • New regulations about taxes and wages Social: • Ease of substitution products

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3. Monitoring the issue: Be affordable but ethical Based on the evolutionary sequence of public policy issues (Figure 1), the sweatshop scandal is in the fifth stage: Influence. However, the wider issue is not directly tied to H&M but in fact, all high street fashion retailers who use cheap labour in poor countries. Therefore, the approach recommended, and exercised in this PR plan is a dynamic proactive strategy, where H&M will act as an advocate of change, openly seeking to contribute and gain a reputation as a leader in this ethical matter. The early stages of the in the public domain allows H&M to use the issue as an opportunity to advance its strategic position and demonstrate ethical responsibility (Theaker, 2012). Figure 1: Simplified Model of the Evolutionary Sequence of Public Policy Issues (Tench, 2009)

TIPPING&POINT&

3.!Implicate! 2. Interpret! 1. Initiate!

4.!Ignite! 5.!Influence! 6.!Impose!

Specialist domain – Slow Burn • 1: Initiate: In the early 2000’s, attention was brought on the “sweatshops” and the poor working conditions for factory workers in Third World countries that produce for major Western corporations. • 2: Interpret: Start of Labour behind the Label studies/reports to investigate on labour conditions (from 2007 to present). • 3: Implicate: Documentary released in 2012.

TIPPING POINT: Reached in 2012 for H&M ! 7! ! !

4: Ignite: Independent blogs and major newspapers (The Guardian, The Telegraph, The Independent, Daily Mail) started to comment on this topic and it became a public scandal.

• •

5: Influence: Workers strikes in Bangladesh 6: Impose: H&M current position

Public domain – High Impact The Swedish TB show Kalla Fakta has framed the issue portraying H&M as the cause for the problem. In reality, H&M is one of many corporations that are not demanding to respective governments to improve the working conditions of workers.

4. Analysis of H&M communication H&M is a global brand which enjoys outstanding corporate identity, image and reputation and which based its current PR communication on these aspects. Slogan: simplicity, efficiency and prestige. Company philosophy: to provide products and quality at the best price. H&M carries out its strategy by focusing on three main characteristics: (H&M, AR, 2008) 1. Price: H&M controls price by limiting middlemen and outsourcing its products manufacture. 2. Design: design is internal 3. Quality: Focused on market leading and not so much on environmental impact Figure 2: The Corporate Communication Strategy of H&M adapted from “The total communication domain” (Aberg, L., 1990)

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Suppor7ng& of&Core& Opera7ng&

Profiling&

Socialising&

Informing&

Support of Core values According to H&M CEO, the company provides its employees a strong corporate responsibility. Moreover, H&M encourages employees to develop their own initiatives. F Profiling

H&M implements both at home and abroad seminars in order to understand different cultural aspects. The company also hosts exhibitions to push employees to reinforce their interest in fashion magazines, movies, etc. F Informing

H&M informs its stakeholders about all internal or external changes linked to its activities. F Socializing

H&M encourages employees from various ethnic groups to work collectively and to share knowledge and experience to develop new skills. The corporate image of H&M can be explained through the corporate image model of Dowling (1986). H&M implemented a dialogue with its employees and provided an open door policy regarding work related issues (for example the agreement with Union Network International and European Works Council in 1997). Furthermore, H&M puts the emphasis on skill development for its employees by providing them training on customer service, CSR, garment handling, etc. (H&M, CSR, 2008, p.47). ! 9! ! !

These are the key-points in H&M corporate communication: F F F F F F F F F Formal Communication Policies Employee’s image of the company External groups image of company Organizational culture External interpersonal communication Previous product experience Support by distribution channel’s members Marketing media communication Masstige collections

Finally, H&M uses its brand image and reputation as competitive advantages, which is close to Balmer’s vision of Corporate Reputation (2001). Regarding CSR, H&M has been taking action in countries such as Bangladesh for 6 years now. The firm tries to improve workers’ conditions and provide them education about their rights. Some of these actions include: • • Viewing of documentaries to inform factory workers about their rights Conduct lobbying to increase minimum wages (H&M, Programs, 2013)

The company already implemented these actions when the sweatshops issue has been brought up to the public sphere by the Swedish TV program Kalla Fakta. As these CSR actions were fragmented and did not especially create a concrete change for working conditions, this documentary presented the company as a unethical one and therefore, harmed its reputation. Moreover, H&M did not react properly to the situation. Indeed, H&M’s PR plan was too reactive and only consisted of press releases to answer and counter the direct accusations. These press releases received minimal coverage, and can only easily be found on H&M’s website (H&M, Press Release, 2012). Starting from this moment in time (October 2012), H&M should adopt a more proactive approach by bringing all the fragmented actions together in order to create an integrated CSR strategy that will change the public perception of H&M: from being part of the problem to being the solution.

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a) Stakeholders mapping table Stakeholder type Organisation/ Institution Individual Organisation

Interest/Stake

Position

Those directly affected Workers (factory) Internal H&M staff Directly affected by the low wages to pay for the basic needs. Concerned about the corporate culture and brand reputation. Worried about the impact of reputation Shareholders on profit and a potential share value decrease. TV 4 (Swedish TV Channel) Kalla Fakta (Lennart Ekdal) To make people aware about poor working conditions and attack H&M. Social position: change working

conditions as soon as possible. Ethical company: be proud of the

company they work for.

Financial position: “Ethical” profit without scandal.

Media

“H&M is at fault”

Factories

M&V

International

Owners managers

and

They pay the workers and want full control.

Aware of the poor conditions but more interested in business relations and profit.

(Cambodia), etc.

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High street fashion Competition retailers supplied that by are the NEXT, INDITEX, GAP

To

maintain

their

profit

margin Fear of the impact of a reputation scandal on and changes in workers wages on their profit.

because they are all supplied by same factories so any changes in wage for workers will directly affect their profit margin.

same factories Unions Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies National Bangladesh Union Free Trade Union of Cambodia South Regional Regional Union Council Asian Trade Trade

Their responsibility to ensure the best working conditions for their members.

More needs to be done to improve wages.

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" Government and state decision-makers Ministry of Textiles Bangladesh Minitry of Labour and Employment Ministry Cambodia and Training Other concerned stakeholders The Guardian, The Telegraph, All Media TV, and websites major media: The Independent, Daily BBC, Channel Mail, iTV, 4, Interest in transparency. Unbiased engaged. position but not actively of Labour and Jute Responsibility for the citizens of their respective policies countries ensure to implement working Motivated by a wage increase but also afraid by its impact on jobs (due to a lower demand).

that

fair

conditions and “living wage”.

Vocational

newspapers official

Channel 5 and Sky.

13" "

Fashion, Fashion, Specialized blogs Human Fair

Eco-

rights, Trade,

Biased point of view and actively engaged.

Cambodia and Bangladesh. Active regarding working conditions issue. Customers Passive regarding Interested in affordable fashion. Go to H&M because of the choice and price. regarding Interested in Fair working conditions and exploitation in poor countries. David Beckham, Lana Del Rey, Designers Madonna, Roberto Cavalli, etc. 14" " Interested in maintaining their Don’t want to be associated with a brand involved in a big scandal. They don’t care about ethical products just want a good price. Want big companies to take actions and be responsible (proactive in their CSR efforts). Interested in affordable fashion. Go to H&M because of the choice and price but have ethical concerns. Schizophrenic attitude: want ethical but low-priced products.

working conditions issue. Active Wider public

working conditions issue. Celebrities Advertisers

H&M partners

personal reputation.

International institutions Labour behind the label OXFAM Fair Wage Network Asian Center For Human Rights NGO Cambodia Center Want a fair treatment of workers worldwide, especially in underLobbying for actual change and to gather public support.

developed countries exploited by large corporations.

for Human Rights AMNESTY International Cleanclothes Asia FloorWage Fair Trade Label

Organisation Discuss conduct international agreements issues on the and most

UN

UNESCO

Responsible for fair treatments of workers worldwide.

sensitive cases.

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b) Stakeholders’ level of interest and power

Figure 3: Stakeholders power/interest matrix (adapted from Mendelow, 1991 and cited in Johnson and Scholes, 1993)

+

Keep$sa'sfied$
$#Shareholders# $#Passive#customers# $#Governments# $#H&M#partners#

Key$players$
$#Workers# $#Ac>ve#customers# $#Factory#owners# $#Compe>>on*# $#Trade#Unions# $#UN#

POWER

Stakeholders#

Keep$informed$ Minimal$effort$
$#Interna>onal#media# $#Internal#staff# $#Swedish#media# $#Wider#public# $#NGO#

B$ B
#

LEVEL$$OF$INTEREST

+

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II.

STRATEGY
1. Core proposition

H&M can no longer wait for government officials to improve the wages of factory workers in countries like Bangladesh and Cambodia. These members of our community are integral to the success of H&M and many other large fashion corporations, and it is our duty to support them as they support us. If food, housing, health care and education are their main concerns, these are our main concerns as well. While wages cannot be increased overnight, H&M will take a proactive approach to supporting immediate changes to increase their standard of life. 2. Overall programme aim To lead the way in providing both short and long term solutions toward improving wages and standards of living for factory workers. 3. Objectives -Establish a foundation that supports food, housing, health care and education in Bangladesh and Cambodia. -Create and manage the collective lobbying of other high street fashion labels to pressure the governments to establish living wages in Cambodia and Bangladesh. -To use H&M’s privileged position among consumers to raise awareness about the issue of low wages and poor working conditions for factory workers 4. Overall programme message “From producers to consumers, there is no family like the H&M family”. Not a global brand, but a global family.

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5. Specific audiences and communication messages

Objectives

Audiences

Specific Communication Messages

Primary You are part of the H&M family, and we take care of family. We have the financial resources to create the foundation, but we need your support, human resources and infrastructure to be successful in making a difference. Support the cause because we are all part of the global H&M family, and they deserve better.

Factory Workers

OXFAM UNESCO

Establish a foundation that supports food, housing, health care and education in Bangladesh and Cambodia.

Consumers

Secondary In today’s business world, Strong brand reputation Shareholders value equals greater profits. We must do everything to strengthen H&M’s reputation as an ethical member of society. Factory workers are also part of the H&M family, and we take care of family.

Internal Staff

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Primary Implementing a living wage for factory workers is critical and it must transpire as soon as possible. We need to work together to influence the governments to take swift action in implementing the living wage.

Government

Create and manage the collective lobbying of other high street fashion labels to pressure the governments to establish living wages in Cambodia and Bangladesh.

Trade unions

High street fashion labels

Secondary H&M will continue to work with factories even if costs increase due to increased wages for workers.

Factory owners

Primary H&M is not satisfied with the slow progress being made by the Cambodian and Bangladeshi governments in implementing the living wage. The company, under the CEO, will take the lead in lobbying for adequate wages, but in the meantime will do everything it can to improve the workers’ general standard of life.

Media To use H&M’s privileged position among the public to raise awareness about the issue of low wages and poor working conditions for factory workers

Ethical customers

Special interest groups e.g. Labour behind the Labels

Wider public

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6. PR plan The multi-faceted nature of the PR strategy requires two individual, yet integrated PR plans1: 1. Community Relations Plan 2. Public Affairs Plan The third objective, regarding raising public awareness of the issue will be addressed through both plans.

1. Community Relations Plan2
 Main Objective: Establish a foundation that supports food, housing, health care and education in Bangladesh and Cambodia. Vision: It’s not charity if it’s family.

 Sub-Objectives: • Establish a foundation with OXFAM (or a similar NGO) that supports food, housing, health care and education needs of the factory workers in Bangladesh and Cambodia by donating 2% of global profits after tax. • Launch UK consumer campaign to sell 500 000 bags in six months with profits contributing to the foundation.

 Tactical Programme: Logistics • Partner with OXFAM to coordinate and manage the foundation, and its day-to-day operations. H&M will act as the financial sponsor. • Community meetings with the factory workers and families to find out what exactly they need.

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Framework for Multi-Project Public Relations Plan. (adapted from Gregory, 2000 and reprinted in Tench, 2009) 2 Proactive Community Relations Programme based on commercial principles defined by Tench (2006. p.365-366)
1

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Internal Communications • Newsletters to shareholders & internal staff to create awareness of the programme and gain support for it.

Endorsement & Partnerships • Co-brand with OXFAM and Helena Christensen (OXFAM Ambassador & Supermodel) to design the shopping bag. • Use established partnerships with celebrities to start and maintain the conversation on social media. • Involve special interest groups such as Labour behind the Label and Clean Clothes by sending direct mail, press releases and features for online publication and hosting Q&A conferences to show transparency.

Media Relations • • • • • UK Launch Party & Press conference3. Invitations and press kits for journalists and special interest groups. Key Speakers: Helena Christensen, CEO Karl-Johan Persson. Post event press releases. Internal coverage on H&M’s website with links on social media.

Customer empowerment • • • Consumer newsletter. Point of Sale communications (visual display promoting the bags). Social media - generate and encourage trending topics on all platforms.

#############################################################
Core Group Strategy with UK Media and UK consumers as a bridge between the Americas & Europe (Klein, 2003)
3

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Dissemination • • Continued coverage & results to be included in internal and consumer newsletters. Continued coverage on the sustainability page of H&M (Please note: this page must be made more visible to website visitors). • Press releases on how much was raised and impact (media and special interest groups). • Press releases/digital/video shorts: Follow factory workers and the differences the campaign is making in their lives. • Social media: All communication updates will be shortlinked through H&M’s social media pages.

Evaluation • • • • Funds raised Media coverage (AVE etc.) Social Media Metrics & Influence Continued dialogue with Interviews with factory workers and community members to gauge impact/effectiveness of programme • • Image tracking studies Awareness Monitoring

2. Public Affairs Plan
 Main Objective: Create and manage the collective lobbying of other high street fashion labels to pressure the governments to establish living wages in Cambodia and Bangladesh.

 Sub-Objectives: • To raise public awareness and support about implementing the living wage by petitioning for two million signatures over a six month period. • To implement the living wage to 174€/month by December 2018.

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 Tactical Programme:

Network with allies: • Include all directly affected parties: trade unions, high street fashion labels using the factories. • Partner with UNESCO, or other official interested organisation to prepare a report on the working and living conditions of factory workers. • Meet with government officials in Cambodia and Bangladesh presenting the report and the issue, particularly officials form Ministry of Textiles and Jute and Ministry of Labour and Employment in Bangladesh; Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training in Cambodia. Follow up with regular meetings twice a year.

Media Relations • Documentary to show an unbiased report of working conditions to educate public and garner public support. It should be hosted by a local Cambodian/Bangladeshi reporter as a local production is more credible. Have representatives from the group speak on how they are trying to influence government. • Press releases to report major milestones in the process. • Use H&M’s CEO as leader of the group to attract media attention. • Briefings and informational materials to publish on the issue. Public Involvement 4 • • Online petition to garner public support. Social Media - viral bite-sized information to educate, inform and stimulate emotions and actions.

Evaluation: Short term: • • • Measure views of documentary Media coverage The evolution of the size of the group and its supporters.

############################################################# 4 #The#issue#is#not#an#isolated#corporate#or#governmental#one,#but#belongs#to#the#political#public# sphere#(Habermas,#1989)#and#therefore#a#public#discourse#is#crucial.## “The#views#that#emerge#from#the#political#public#sphere#are#understood#to#influence#the# development#of#the#political#sphere#in#democratic#societies.”#(Tench,#2006)# 23# #

• • •

Social Media Metrics & Influence Image tracking studies Awareness Monitoring

Long term: • Has the living wage been implemented?

7. Overall evaluation • • • • • • Awareness Monitoring Audience attitudes surveys Overall funds raised Employees surveys to figure out how they feel with the company Improvements about working conditions in factories Monitoring online chaters.

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8. Timeline
2012 O N
Call Oxfam Community meetings

2013 D J F M A M J J
Design Bag Contact Helena Christensen Contact Special Interest Groups

2014 A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D

Launch party Press Conference

Press Release: money raised with bag sales Press Release: benefits for the community Release video

Community Relations Plan

Press release Social Media + Trending Topic POS: leaflet, display Produce video about impact of the foundation

Kalla Fakta documentary

Press release

Social Media

Newsletter for Shareholders and internal staff Newsletter for Customers Continuous coverage on the website. More visible section.

Call interest parties Formation of pressure group

Produce documentary about living conditions

Release video

Public Affairs Plan

Press release + Social media Dinner with Government to present report Press release All parties sign report Press release Collect signatures online Present petition to Government Press release

Government Briefing

Press release

Prepare report

Press release

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2015 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J

2016 J A S O N D

Newsletter for Shareholders and internal staff Newsletter for Customers
Community Relations Plan

Release video

Release video

Produce follow-up video

Press release

Produce follow-up video

Press release

Social Media

Social Media

Continuous coverage on the website. More visible section.

Government Briefing
Public Affairs Plan

Government Briefing

Government Briefing

Government Briefing

Press release

Press release

Press release Press release

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aberg, L. (1990) Theoretical model and praxis of total communications. International Public Relations Review, 13 (2). Kleiner, A. (2003) Who Really Matters: The Core Group Theory of Power, Privilege, and Success. Currency/Doubleday. Balmer, J.M.T. (2001) Corporate identity, corporate branding and corporate marketing: seeing through the fog, European Journal of Marketing, 35 (3/4), pp.248-910. Baryar, J. (2013) The Sweatshops Culture – Voice from London, The news Blog, 23rd January [Online]. Available at: http://blogs.thenews.com.pk/blogs/2013/01/the-sweatshopsculture-voice-from-london/ (Accessed: 27 February 2013). Dowling, G.R. (1986) Managing your corporate images, Industrial Marketing Management, 15 (2), May, pp. 109–115. Habermas, J. (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Polity, Cambridge. H&M CSR Report (2008) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/AboutSection/en_gb/About/Investor-Relations/FinancialReports/Annual-Reports.html#cm-menu (Accessed: 27 February 2013). H&M Annual Report (2010) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/AboutSection/en_gb/About/Investor-Relations/FinancialReports/Annual-Reports.html#cm-menu (Accessed: 27 February 2013). H&M Annual Report (2011) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/AboutSection/en_gb/About/Investor-Relations/FinancialReports/Annual-Reports.html#cm-menu (Accessed: 27 February 2013). H&M Annual Report (2013) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/AboutSection/en_gb/About/Investor-Relations/FinancialReports/Annual-Reports.html#cm-menu (Accessed: 27 February 2013).

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H&M Press Release (2012) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/NewsroomSection/en_gb/NewsRoom.html (Accessed: 27 February 2013). H&M Press Conference (2012). [Online] Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/dam/hm/about/videos/CSR/Presskonferensfilmen/HM-uncutversion.mp4.form.html/content/hm/NewsroomSection/en/NewsRoom/assetviewer.html (Accessed: 27 February 2013). H&M Programs (2013) [Online]. Available at: http://about.hm.com/content/hm/AboutSection/en/About/Sustainability/Commitments/UseResources-Responsibly/Chemicals/Zero-Discharge/Action-Plan.html (Accessed: 27 February 2013). Johnson, G., Scholes, K. (1993) Exploring Corporate Strategy. Prentice-Hall, London, (1993) TV4 (2012) Kalla fakta 8 – H&M and Stefan Persson [Online]. Available at: http://www.tv4play.se/program/kalla-fakta?video_id=2250237 (Accessed: 27 February 2013). Labor is Not a Commodity blog (2013) With 7 workers dead in another preventable fire, labor rights groups implore apparel brands and retailers to sign fire safety agreement, 26th January [Online]. Available at: http://laborrightsblog.typepad.com/international_labor_right/2013/01/with-7-workers-dead-inanother-preventable-fire-labor-rights-groups-implore-apparel-brands-and-retai.html - more (Accessed: 27 February 2013). Lori Zimmer (2012) H&M’s Cambodian “Poverty Pay” Scandal Exposed on Swedish TV, ecouterre, 27th October posted [Online]. Available at: http://www.ecouterre.com/hmscambodian-poverty-pay-scandal-exposed-on-swedish-tv/ (Accessed at: 27 February 2013). Lucy Siegle (2012) Is H&M the new home of ethical fashion?, The Guardian, 7th April [Online]. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/apr/07/hennes-mauritz-h-

and-m (Accessed at: 27 February 2013). Tench, .R & Yeomans, L, (2009) Exploring Public Relations. 2nd ed. FT prentice Hall. Treehuger (2010) Are These Unethical Fashion Brands Hiding in Your Closet? [Online]. Available at: http://www.treehugger.com/style/are-these-unethical-fashion-brands-hiding-inyour-closet.html (Accessed: 27 February, 2013). 28# #

UH Students Against Sweatshops blog (2010) Fire in Bangladesh sweatshop kills 21, 12th March [Online]. Available at: http://uhstudentsagainstsweatshops.wordpress.com/tag/swedish-hm/ (Accessed: 27 February 2013).

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