Na’Vi Language

Phonology & Orthography Vowels Consonants Sound Change Grammar Pronouns Nouns & Prepositions Adjectives Numbers Verbs Questions & Demonstratives Changing Parts of Speech Phrases Lexicon 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 6 7 7 7 9

Phonology and orthography
Na‟vi lacks voiced stops like [b d ɡ], but has the ejective consonants [pʼ tʼ kʼ], which are spelled px, tx, kx when writing them in Latin script. It also has the syllabic consonants ll and rr. There are seven vowels, a ä e i ì o u. Although all the sounds were designed to be pronounceable by the human actors of the film, there are unusual consonant clusters, as in fngap "metal” and tskxe "rock" Na‟vi syllables may be as simple as a single vowel, or as complex as skxawng "moron" or fngap above (both CCVC). The fictional language Na‟vi of Pandora is unwritten. However, standardized Na‟Vi is written using the Roman alphaet. Sample words: zìsìt "year", fpeio "ceremonial challenge", nìawve "first" (aw "one"), muiä "be fair", tiréa-ióang "spirit animal", kllpxìltu "territory", unil-tìran-tokx "avatar" (dream-walk-body) ***Please note that pronunciation of all words can be found in the bilingual lexicon at the end of the analysis transcribed using IPA.

There are seven simple vowels: Front [i]i [ì] ì [e]ɛ [ä]ä Back [u]u [o]o [a]a

High Mid Low

and four diphthongs [aw], [ew], [ay], [ey]. Note that the e is open-mid while the o is close-mid, and that there is no *oy. These vowels may occur in sequences, as in the Polynesian languages and Japanese. Each vowel counts as a syllable, so that tsaleioae has six syllables, [tsa.lɛ.i.o.a.ɛ], and meoauniaea has eight, [mɛɛ.a]. In addition, the syllabic consonants ll [l̩ ] and rr [r ̩ ] behave as vowels, as in pllte’ [pl̩ .tɛʔ] "to speak". The rr is strongly trilled, and the ll is "light", never a "dark" (velarized) *[ɫ̩ ]. These may occur directly before another vowel, as in hrrap [hr ̩ .ap] "dangerous". Na‟vi does not have vowel length or tone, but it does has contrastive stress: túte [ˈtutɛ] "person", tuté [tuˈtɛ] "female person". Although stress may move with derivation, as here, it is not affected by inflection (case on nouns, tense on verbs, etc). So, for example, the verb lu "to


be" has stress on its only vowel, the u, and no matter what else happens to it, the stress stays on that vowel: lolú [loˈlu] "was" (l‹ol›u), lolängú [loläˈngu] "was (ugh!)" (l‹ol›‹äng›u), etc.

There are twenty consonants. There are two Latin transcriptions: one that more closely approaches the ideal of one letter per phoneme, with the c and g for [ts] and [ng] (the values they have in much of Eastern Europe and Polynesia, respectively), and a modified transcription used for the actors, with the digraphs ts and ng used for those sounds. In transcriptions, the ejective consonants are written with digraphs in x, a convention that appears to be unique to Na‟vi. Labial [px]p‟ [p]p [f]f [m]m [v]v Alveolar [tx]t‟ [t]t [ts]ʦ [s]s [z]z [n]n [r]r [rr]r [l]l or [ll]l: Palatal Velar [kx]k‟ [k]k Glottal [„]ʔ [h]h [ng]ng

Ejective Plosive Affricate Fricative Nasal Flap Trill Liquid/glide



The fricatives and the affricate, f v ts s z h, are restricted to the onset of a syllable; the other consonants may occur at either the beginning or at the end (though w y in final position are considered parts of diphthongs, as they only occur as ay ey aw ew and may be followed by another final consonant, as in skxawng "moron"). However, in addition to appearing before vowels, f ts s may form consonant clusters with any of the unrestricted consonants (the stops and liquids/glides) apart from’ making for 39 clusters. Other sequences occur across syllable boundaries, such as na’vi [naʔ.vi] "person", ikran [ik.ran] "banshee", and atxkxe [atʼ.kʼɛ] "land". The plosives p t k and the affricate ts are tenuis, as in Spanish or French. In final position, they are unreleased, as in Indonesian and other languages of Southeast Asia. The r is flapped, as in Spanish and Indonesian; it sounds a bit like the tt or dd in the American pronunciation of the words latter / ladder.

Sound change
The stop consonants undergo lenition after certain prefixes and prepositions. The ejective consonants px tx kx become the corresponding plosives p’ t’ k’; the plosives and affricate p t ts k become the corresponding fricatives f s h; and the glottal stop ’ disappears entirely. For example, the plural form of po "s/he" is ayfo "they", with the p weakening into an f after the prefix ay-.


They do not inflect for gender. Nouns are conjugated for case in a tripartite system. the plural prefix may be dropped. Pronouns Na‟vi pronouns encode clusivity.Grammar Accounts of the grammar cover parts of speech. lovers. Possessive forms include ngeyä "your" and peyä "her/his". the agent of a transitive clause which has such an object. there are distinct forms for the object of a clause. which is rare among human languages. Both trigger lenition (indicated by the "+" signs rather than the hyphens that usually mark prefix boundaries). which is stressed: tsmuk or tsmúktu "sibling". hands. their uses. etc. There are no words for "a" or "the". there are different words for "we" depending on whether I'm including you or not. the distinction is optional. That is. In a tripartite system. and the dual is me+ (nari "eye". although it's possible to distinguish "he" from "she". but also trial forms for three of an item. Nouns and prepositions Nouns show greater number distinctions than human languages: besides singular and plural. The plural prefix is ay+. In nouns which undergo lenition. "the three of us".). and feminine by -é. and the subject of 3 . gender is only occasionally (and optionally) marked. tsmuké "sister". etc. tsmúkan "brother". "He" and "she" can optionally be differentiated as poan and poé. There are also special forms for "the two of us" (with or without you). oe — nga po dual moe oeng — mefo trial — — — — plural ayoe ayoeng aynga ayfo Exclusive Inclusive 2nd person 3rd person The deferential forms of "I" and "you" are ohe and ngenga. which on Earth are only found with pronouns. However. which are not uncommon in human language (English has a remnant in "both"). they not only have special dual forms for two of an item (eyes. menari "eyes"). and some of their inflections. Pronouns are declined for case as nouns (below) are. as in "he kicks the ball". so the plural of tokx "body" is either aysokx or just sokx. as in "he kicks the ball". but not much about the syntax. sing. Masculine nouns may be distinguished by the suffix -an.

There are two other cases. Oe-ri ontu teya l‹äng›u I-TOP nose full be‹PEJ› "My nose is full (of his distasteful smell). 4 . It preempts the case of the noun: that is. ne "to" (direction). ta "from" (generic). and an agent with the ergative suffix -l. which does not have an object. as well as a topic marker -ri. This may cause some ambiguity with short plurals: mì sokx could also be short for mì aysokx "in the bodies". and mì "in". genitive in -yä and dative in -ru. ftu "from" (direction). ìlä "via. For example. Many of the case markers have several allomorphs. by means of). For example: Oe-l nga-ti kam‹ei›e I-ERG you-ACC See‹LAUD› "I See you" (a greeting) The use of such case forms leaves the word order of Na‟vi largely free. and is somewhat equivalent to (though much more common than) English "as for". fpi "for the sake of". as it's the subject of the intransitive verb "to be". certain of them trigger lenition. Note that "nose" itself is unmarked for case. Adpositions include fa "per" (with. as in "he runs". while an intransitive subject has no case suffix. along". it's understood to be "my nose". they are much like the numerous cases found in Hungarian and Finnish. For example. or as an enclitic after the intransitive clause. the role of a noun in a clause may be indicated with adpositions. One of the leniting prepositions is mì "in". a greater degree of freedom than human languages allow. the subject "nose" is associated with "me": That is. more along the lines of what English does. When used as enclitics. The latter is used to introduce the topic of the clause. ka "across". it takes the -ri suffix rather than the case suffix one would expect from its grammatical role. "with you" may be either hu nga or ngahu. hu "with" (accompaniment). when a noun is made topical. as in mì sokx "in the body". An object is marked with the accusative suffix -ti. in. ta’em "from above"." since the topic is "I". When used as prepositions. usually at the beginning of the clause. Any adposition may occur either as a preposition before the noun. Besides case.

(nì)’awve "first"."two". they do not agree with the noun they modify—and may occur either before or after the noun. 5 . nì’aw "only". "a long river" can be expressed either as. Numerals form various derivatives. kawkrr "never" (not-one-time). For example. The attributive affix a. Only a few numbers are attested: ’aw mune tsìng vofu tsìvol 1 2 4 16 32 From this it would appear that the root for 4 is tsì. and that 32 is "4 eights". which is attached on the side closest to the only used when an adjective modifies a noun. and nì’awtu "alone" from "one". kawtu "no-one" (negative k-). they have a base-eight number system. for 8 is vo. The latter especially allows for great freedom of expression. kilvan a-ngim river ATTR-long The free word order holds for all attributives: Genitives (possessives) and relative clauses can also either precede or follow the noun they modify. They are marked by a syllable a. Predicative adjectives instead take the "be" verb lu: kilvan ngim lu river long be "The river is long" Numbers As the Na‟vi have four digits per hand. ’awsiténg "together" (one-make-same). ngim-a kilvan long-ATTR river or as. such as ’awpo "one" (an individual).Adjectives Na‟vi adjectives are uninflected—that is. also nìmun "again" and perhaps muntxa "to mate" from mun.

as in tsolängun [ts‹ol›‹äng›un] "was able to (ugh!)". these commonly occur on the first and last syllable. In the subsequent sentence. is taron. they both appear after the initial consonant. the verb kame "to See" is inflected positively as kam‹ei›e to indicate the pleasure the speaker feels in the meeting. in the greeting in the section on nouns. future. Because many Na‟vi verbs have two syllables. That is. There are two "be" verbs.Verbs Verbs are conjugated for tense but not for person. The first infix position is taken by infixes for tense and aspect. but not like "I am. telaron. as in the examples below. Conjugation relies exclusively on infixes. which is "be" in the sense of "A is in/at a place" (a verb of existence). Examples with both infix positions filled: t‹ìrm›ar‹ei›on [hunt‹REC. Tense and aspect need not be marked when they can be understood by context or elsewhere in the sentence. I would". For example. they record distinctions like "I am. which precede tense and aspect when they co-occur. I was. s/he is". Oel ngati kameie "I See you". keeping their relative order. tairon. Tenses are past. 6 . There are two positions for infixes: after the consonant (onset) of the penultimate syllable. In monosyllabic words like lu "be" and tsun "can". present (unmarked). will hunt": The speaker is anxious about or bored by it. the phrase teya lu "is full" is inflected negatively as teya l‹äng›u to indicate the speaker's distaste at the experience. for example. lu. and immediate future. as well as by participle and reflexive forms. "To hunt". however. was just hunting": The speaker is happy about it. The second infix position is taken by infixes for affect (speaker attitude. which is "be" in the sense that "A is B" and is used with adjectives (a copula). we are. which are like suffixes but go inside the verb. whether due to success or just the pleasure of the hunt t‹ay›ar‹äng›on [hunt‹FUT›‹PEJ›] "ugh. but "hunted" is t‹ol›aron. taron [hunt] "hunts" t‹ìm›aron [hunt‹REC›] "just hunted" t‹ay›aron [hunt‹FUT›] "will hunt" t‹er›aron [hunt‹IMPV›] "hunting" t‹ol›aron [hunt‹PFV›] "hunted" t‹ì‹r›m›aron [hunt‹REC‹IMPV››] "was just hunting" Other temporal and aspectual forms include tovaron. and after the consonant of the final syllable. or both. whether positive or negative) and for evidentiality (uncertainty or indirect knowledge). with the infix ‹ol›. recent past. tusaron.IMPV›‹LAUD›] "yeah. Oeri ontu teya längu "My nose is full (of his smell)". aspects are perfective (completed or contained) and imperfective (ongoing or uncontained). The aspectual forms are not found in English but are somewhat like the distinction between 'having done' and 'was doing'. and tok.

tsengpe "what? which thing?" "who?" "how?" "what? which action?" "when?" "why?" "where?" fì’u "this. krrpe pelun. fì (and its plural fay "these") and tsa may combine with any noun (without needing the attributive a. kempe pehrr. lehrrap "dangerous". últe "and". kelku si "to live (dwell)". A person who specializes in a verb (English -er) is indicated with -yu: táron "to hunt". Verbs may be made from nouns with the generic action verb si "to make. ’úpe pesu. pe. tìrey "life". spe’étu "a captive". These correspond with demonstratives in fì "this" and tsa "that" (accusative tsat): peú. tupe peyfa. nìftúe "easily". People associated with a verb are indicated by compounding with -tu: spe’é "to capture". kea "no" + noun). and other words may combine with the morphemes in the table. to do": kelku "home". tìngay. such as tengfya "as" ('same way'). slä "but".Negation is made with the particle ke. that thing" "that person" "that (action)" "then" "there" These are merely the more common forms. Questions and demonstratives Yes-no questions are asked with the final question marker srak? Information questions are asked with question words based on the leniting morpheme pe "which?". Various other grammatical particles such as conjunctions join phrases and clauses: na "like. sì. Adverbs are formed in nì-: ftúe "easy". ngay "true". cf.being QUESTION 7 . less) than". lumpe peseng. Changing parts of speech Adjectives may be derived from nouns with le-: hrrap "danger". nga-ru lu fpom srak? [ kaltʼì ngaru lu fpom srak ] Greetings. this thing" "like this" "this (action)" tsa’u tsatu fìfya fìkem tsakem tsakrr fìtseng(e) "here" tsatseng "that. and ké’u "nothing". fu "or". "truth". to "(more. fyape pehem. táronyu "hunter". sìk (unquote). Phrases "Hello. as". how are you?" Kaltxì. Abstract nouns may be derived from verbs and adjectives with the prefix tì-: rey "to live". tengkrr "while" ('same time'). You-DAT be well.

"It‟s a pleasure to be able to chat with you in Na‟vi" Tsun oe nga-hu nì-Na’vi pivängkxo a fì-’u oe-ru prrte’ lu I you-with ADV-Na‟vi pleasure? that this-thing I-DAT speak[9] be "I apologise for this moron" Fì-skxawng-ìri tsapxalute s‹eng›i oe this-moron-TOP apology make‹?› I "These demons are forbidden here" F-ay-vrrtep fì-tsenge lu kxanì this-PL-demon this-place "My nose is full of his alien smell." Oe-ri ta be forbidden peyä fahew a-kewong ontu teya l‹äng›u me-TOP from his smell ATTR-alien nose full be‹PEJ› 8 .

‟tɛŋ/ 'awve adj /‟ʔaw.vɛ/ 'e'al adj /‟ʔɛ.in to.hɛ. to.Lexicon Na’Vi .lɪ.ʔawn/ 'ìheyu n /‟ʔɪ.e.‟tan/ 'ite n /‟ʔ 'ì'awn v /‟ʔɪ.vɛŋ/ 'evi n /‟ʔɛ.koŋ/ 'engeng n /‟ʔɛ.tɛ/ 'ok n /ʔok/ 'ong v /ʔoŋ/ touch one number one one (person) together alien first worst attack beat (rhythmic) level child kid (affectionate form of "child") remain.completely allow almost alone alone (as one person) among ancestor and and animal.sɪ/ 'it n /ʔit/ 'itan n /ʔi.ŋɛŋ/ 'eveng n /‟ʔɛ.stay spiral English language bit a small amount son daughter remembrance unfold.ko/ 'ekong n /‟ʔɛ.si.English ‘ 'ampi v /ʔam.ju/ 'ìnglìsì n /‟ʔɪŋ.‟po/ 'awsiteng adv /ʔaw.beast apology arm arrive arrow ketuwong n kewong n faketuan n nìwotx pr tung v stum adv nì'awtu adj kip pr pizayu n sì conj ulte conj ioang n tsap'alute n pxun n pähem v swizaw n English – Na’Vi A across again agree alarm cry ka pr nìmun adv mllte v rawke n 9 . nonNa'vi) all all (of).ʔal/ 'eko n /‟ʔɛ.‟pi/ 'aw n /ʔaw/ 'awpo pn /ʔaw.blossom art tseo n alien Alien (i.

‟tan/ atokirina' n /a. that vision ready far far away.ɾi.omen they to the others (contraction of aylaberu) you we (exclusive) we (inclusive) avatar.o.ɪm/ Amhul n /‟am. n / 10 .start beginning.i.æ.ɛ/ alaksì adj /al. c 'ekong n slu v teylu n eo pr sngä'i v sngä'ikrr n tsawl adj yìm v 'it n nì'it n E ean adj /‟ɛ.pɛ/ 'upxare n /‟ʔu.sɪt/ apxa adj /ap‟a/ atan adj.are) be responsible beat (rhythmic) become beetle larva(e) before.‟i.ɛ/ au n /au/ aungia n /‟auŋ. dreamwalker uniltìrantokx n body awake away (direction) away (position) txen adj neto pr mìso pr B baby carrier/sling back (direction) conj pawm v 'eko n A a adj /a/ äie n /æ.p‟a. in front of begin.‟ɛ/ ayoeng pn /‟ɾu/ aynga pn /‟aj.‟ɛŋ/ which.‟naʔ/ ätxäle n /‟æt‟.start time big big (in stature) bind bit a small amount blue bit a small amount lu v kllfriyo' v.a/ ayfo pn /‟aj.hul/ Änsìt n /‟æn.sɪ/ alìm adj /‟al.ŋa/ ayoe pn /aj.‟ɛ/ atxkxe n /‟at‟k‟.'upe n /‟ʔu.ɾɛ/ what (thing) Message as as (= same way as) ask attack tengfya aylaru conj /aj.evil badge iveh k'nivi s'di n ne'ìm pr kawng adj pätsì n be a distance child's name child's name large light Seeds of the great tree request land drum (made of skin) a space tok v be be (am.

e. non-Na'vi) this this way.tan/ Eywa n /‟ɛj.u/ faketuan n /fa. in front of blue blue flower Blue Flute Clan body bond bond (neural connection) boom ean adj seze n Omatikaya n tokx n Tsahaylu n kxangangang n tsko swizaw n tsko n eltu n eltungawng n vul n tsteu adj zamunge v tsmukan n nekx v slä conj txìm n ìlä (also: ìlä) pr Plant species (Warbonnet) lead leader World spirit guiding force and deity (equivalent to Gaia).ʔu/ eo pr /ɛo/ Eyaye n /ɛ.rear end by.eltu n /‟ɛ able captive capture center (or place in syaw v mawey adj tsun v spe'etu v spe'e v kxamtseng n 11 .‟kɛ.tu.‟ʦɛŋ(ɛ)/ fì'u pn /‟fɪ. c /‟ɛl.wa „ŋa.Eywa (be with you) with with (by means of) smell Alien (i.ŋawŋ/ emza'u v /ɛ eyk v /ɛjk/ eyktan n /‟ɛjk. Eywa PN good-bye. here this this this (action) this this one (person or thing) fìfya pn /‟fɪf.ɾut/ C call calm can.ʔu/ fkarut v /‟fka.tu/ eltu si F fa pr /fa/ faheu v /‟fa.following Eywa ngahu int /‟ɛj.ja/ fìkem pn /‟fɪ.‟za.hɛ.po/ fìtseng(e) pn /fɪ.kɛm/ fìpo pn /‟fɪ.wa/ brain listen pay attention.consume but butt.tu.via.quit goofing off brainworm pass (a test) before.tu si/ eltungawng n /‟ɛl.this place this this (thing) peel bow and arrow bow bow (weapon) brain brainworm branch branch (of a tree) brave bring brother burn.‟ja.

ɛ/ mighty one news news.kɛ/ ftia v /‟fti.certain clever clever (thing) close close to colleague come continually cord create creature cut D daddy dance danger dangerous sempu n sreu v hrrap n lehrrap adj 12 .tok/ fmi v /fmi/ fnu v.o/ fpi i /fpi/ fpom n /fpom/ fpxafaw n /‟fp‟a.lest study from from (direction) easy child's name choose clan clan leader clear.kɪm/ frapo pn /fɾapo/ fra'u pn /fɾaʔu/ ftang v /ftaŋ/ fte conj /ftɛ/ fteke conj /‟ftɛ. peace medusa (animal) enter everyone everything stop so that so that not.something to report test try the middle) challenge challenge (ceremonial) change child child's name child's name fpeio v latem v 'eveng n Amhul n Änsìt n Ralu n ftxey v olo' n olo'eyktan n law adj sìlronsem adj lok adj lertu n za'u v nìtut adv telem n ngop v swirä n mun'i v quiet quiet ("be quiet!") they hold off. c /fnu/ fo pn /fo/ fpak v /fpak/ fpe' v /fpɛʔ/ fpeio v /fpɛ.faw/ fpxäkìm v /‟fp‟æ.a/ ftu pr /ftu/ ftue adj /‟ftu.fkeu adj /fkɛu/ fko adj /fko/ fmawn n /fmawn/ fmetok n /‟fmɛ.‟i.suspend action send challenge challenge (ceremonial) for the sake of well-being.

Stairway to Heaven (floating mountains) mountain banshee by. strange danger with with (accompaniment) wind leave.‟ja/ stringed instrument Thundering rocks.‟ɾan/ ìlä (also: ìlä) pr /‟ɪ. finished dream Dream Hunt dreamwalker drive out pa'li n tawng v rä'ä v si v toktor n hasey adj unil n Uniltaron n uniltìranyu n kurakx v I i'en n /i.aŋ/ E ear easily mikyun n nìftue adv 13 .pɛ/ fyawìntxu n /fjawɪn. way how daughter day dead demon destroy 'ite n trr n kerusey adj vrrtep n ska'a v terkup v kllkulat v snumìna adj guide die dig up H ha conj /ha/ hapxì n /ha.via.jɪk/ hrrap n /hrap/ hu adj /hu/ hufwe n /‟huf.æ/ ioang n /‟i.wɛ/ hum v /hum/ so so (or "in that case") part done.‟p‟ɪ/ hasey adj /‟ha. finished protect. depart dim dim (of a person) dinner dinner.beast drum (made of skin) au n duck tawng n ikran n / hì'i adj /‟hɪ.ʔo/ fyape conj /‟ɛj/ hawnu v /‟ wutso n meal Direhorse dive do not negative (do not) do.‟t‟u/ choose or path.o.make doctor done.ftxey v /ft‟ɛj/ fu conj /fu/ fya'o n /‟fja.following animal.shelter small funny.ʔi/ hiyìk adj /‟hi.læ/ or /‟ɪl.‟ʔɛn/ Iknimaya n /ik.

exempli fy eyes (two) F false far far away.‟ɾa.noŋ/ across go hello ride out See (spiritual sense) valid teacher enough enter everyone everything evil examine example eye rhythm never bad.irayo n.hɛ/ kelku n /‟kɛl.‟tu/ ke adv /kɛ/ kea adj /‟kɛ.aj/ karyu n /‟kaɾ.u.ku si/ Kelutrel n /‟kɛl.evil no one not no no (before a noun) no home iveh k'nivi s'di n /‟i.tɾɛl/ kempe pn /‟kɛm.‟kr/ kawng adj /kawŋ/ kawtu pn / a distance fast father fear feed female female (person) finger fire first first tsleng adj alìm adj nìwin adj sempul n txopu n yomtìng v tutee n.ju/ kato n /‟ kawkrr adv /kaw.a/ kehe adv /‟kɛ. adj zekwä n txep n 'awve adj nì'awve adj 14 . i /i.pɛ/ kenong v /‟kɛ.vi s‟di/ thank you baby carrier/sling easy eat elbow English language ftue adj yom v pxuntil n 'ìnglìsì n nìtam adj fpxäkìm v frapo pn fra'u pn tìkawng adj steftxaw v tìkenong n nari n menari n K ka pr /ka/ kä v /kæ/ kaltxì n /kal.mɛ/ kangay adj /‟kaŋ.‟mak.vɛh „k‟ni.‟t‟ɪ/ kämakto v /kæ.represent.dwell Hometree Hometree (tree for living in) what what (action) model.ku/ kelku si v /‟kɛ kame v /‟ka.

appealing as food from above from from (direction) from from (various uses) full funny.‟kɛj/ kìm v /kɪm/ kin v /kin/ kinä n.‟jɛ. adj /‟ki.solid) spin need seven leg knee thread species of fruit or vegetable among service four fresh fresh. strange ta'em pr ftu pr ta pr teya adj hiyìk adj G get down get down! (literally.ʔuŋ/ kifkey n /kif.til/ kìng n /kɪŋ/ kì'ong n /‟kɪ.‟kɛm/ kllpxìltu n /kl:.see you again soon be responsible dig up stand territory Ground go good good-bye goodbye.‟tɛ.ʔu/ kewong n /‟kɛ.nam.‟ku. adj pxasul adj insanity world world (physical.mɛ/ kllfriyo' v.see you again soon kllkulat v /kl:.tu/ kllte n /kl:. I understand.‟tɛ/ dead alien nothing alien fly for the sake of forbidden forest forgiveness tswayon v fpi i kxanì adj na'rìng n txoa n tsìng n. grab Eywa ngahu int tslolam i niä v 15 .‟p‟ɪl.ʔoŋ/ kip pr /kip/ kìte'e n /kɪ.lat/ kllkxem v /kl:.woŋ/ keye'ung n /kɛ.Eywa (be with you) Got it.‟va.‟fri.woŋ/ ke'u n /‟kɛ.nam/ kinamtil n /‟ki.kerusey adj /‟kɛ. c /kl:.ʔɛ/ kìyevame n /kɪ.sɛj/ ketuwong n /‟kɛ.jɛ.ɾu."to the ground!") give ne kllte! i tìng v kä v sìltsan adj kìyevame n good-bye good-bye.tu.næ/ kinam n /‟ki.

tɛm/ law adj /law/ lehrrap adj / lɛ.maybe species of fruit or vegetable tail halt he he.naj.hexapod hold off.‟ɾak‟/ time take/consume time when gunship drive out grant great leonopteryx last shadow (great leonopteryx) great.‟nɛk‟/ krrpe adv /kr.aŋ.‟hrap/ Lenay'ga n /‟lɛ. much guide gunship H perhaps.po/ latem v /‟la. pn /‟la.tu/ 16 .much.nɛɾ/ kxetse n /‟k‟ɛ.‟pɛ/ kunsìp n /‟kun.sɪp/ kurakx v /ku.ʔga/ lertu n /‟lɛɾ.ʦɛŋ/ kxangangang n /‟k‟aŋ.suspend action home Hometree Hometree (tree for living in) honor hot how txey v poan pn po pn txe'lan n kaltxì n srung n Yerik n fpak v kelku n Kelutrel n meuia n som adj fyape conj L lahe adj.aŋ/ kxanì adj /k‟anɪ/ kxawm adv /k‟awm/ kxener n /‟k‟ɛ.appear other other one (person or thing) change clear.noble teswotìng v toruk n txan adj nawm adj kllte n pongu pn fyawìntxu n kunsìp n Kx kxam n /k‟am/ kxamtseng n /‟k‟am.midpoint center (or place in the middle) boom forbidden ground group of people.she heart other seem.assistance hexapede.many great (in quantity).certain dangerous Slinger Slinger (predatory creature) colleague hello help help.hɛ/ lam v /lam/ lapo pn /‟la.ʦɛ/ middle.krr n /kr/ krrnekx v /kr.

lì'u n /‟lɪ.bring leave.tok/ lu v /lu/ lumpe adv /‟lum.ɾi/ meuia n /mɛ.right two take.‟i.ŋɛ/ ride calm they (those two) eyes (two) honor if not if not. depart hum v know kinamtil n omum v til n K kid (affectionate form of "child") kill 'evi n tspang v L land large lead leader learn atxkxe n apxa adj eyk v eyktan n nume v 17 .‟na.ɾi/ muiä adj / lrrtok v /‟lr.a/ meyp adj /mɛjp/ mì pr /mɪ/ mikyun n /mik.let go smile be be (am.pɛ/ word close close to release.‟jun/ mìn adj /mɪn/ mìso pr /‟mɪ.‟wɛj/ mefo pn /‟mɛ.i.ɛ/ mokri n /‟mok.‟to/ mawey adj /ʔu/ lok adj /lok/ lonu v /‟lo.‟tɛ/ moe pn /‟ mllte v /ml:.or else in insanity interpret J joint.are) why how hunt hunter peyfa adv taron v taronyu n I I I I (deferential or ceremonial form) if oe pn ohe pn txo conj txokefyaw conj mì pr keye'ung n ralpeng v M makto v /mak. adj /‟mu.æ/ mune menari n /mɛ.hinge weak in ear turn knee away (position) agree we we two (exclusive) voice proper.nɛ/ munge v /‟mu.‟u.

as like.‟ʔaw."to the ground!") to (direction) life light like us like.‟vi/ nawm adj /nawm/ ne kllte! i /nɛ kl:.ɾɪŋ/ Na'vi n /naʔ.u/ niä v /‟ni.mun'i v /mun.taŋ/ nari n /‟na.‟t‟a/ cut mated leave.æ/ nì'aw adj /nɪ.noble get down get down! (literally.abandon leg level txìng v kinam n 'engeng n tìrey n atan adj.quit goofing off live live.tu/ like.‟ʔ particle for surprise or exclamation viperwolf Caniferratus costatus or “striped armored wolf. c N na conj /na/ nang i /naŋ/ nantang n /‟nan.ɾi si/ na'rìng n /‟na./ nì'awtu adj /nɪ.to/ neu v /‟nɛ. adj pxay lip listen listen pay attention. pn srak(e) muntxa adj Tsahìk n txele v 18 .dwell long (period of time) longer longer (time) look rey v kelku si v yol adj nulkrr adj tìng nari v nìn v back (direction) burn.” eye watch out.‟tɛ/ ne pr /nɛ/ ne'ìm pr /nɛʔɪm/ nekx v /nɛk‟/ neto pr /‟nɛ. i na conj pxel pr seyri n tìng mikyun v eltu si v. n Nìayoeg adj.‟ʔi/ muntxa adj /mun.ʔ.ɾi/ nari si careful forest the People the People (name for themselves) great.consume away (direction) want grab only alone alone (as one person) look look (at) M male male (person) many marker for yes-no questions mated matriarch matter matter tutean n. v /‟na.

shift position all all (of).‟ftu.‟tam/ nìtut adv /nɪ. to.nì'awve adj /nɪ.‟tut/ nìtxan adj /nɪ.‟ft‟a.midpoint mighty mind model.with all heart too too.o.‟ʔit/ nìltsan adv /nɪl.vɛ/ nìayoeg adj.exe mplify moment mommy more moron mother mountain banshee of importance meaning medusa (animal) meeting message tsranten v ral n fpxafaw n ultxa n 'upxare n kxam n fkeu adj ronsem n kenong v swaw n sa'nu n nì'ul adj skxawng n sa'nok n ikran n rikx v nìtxan adj pamtseo n zene v bit a small amount well again look look (at) truly enough continually much more fast middle.ɛ/ nìftxavang adv /nɪ.‟ʦan/ nìmun adv /nɪ.‟kr/ nume v /nu.‟ to.vaŋ/ nìhawng adv /nɪ.‟aj/ nìtam adj /nɪ.represent.‟win/ nìwotx pr /nɪ. i /nɪ.completely longer longer (time) learn much music must Ng nga pn /ŋa/ ngawng n /ŋawŋ/ ngay adj /ŋaj/ you worm true N need need never news news.‟hawŋ/ nì'it n /nɪ.‟ʔaw.excessively (subject) matter matter.‟mɛ/ first like us easily passionately.‟t‟an/ nì'ul adj /nɪ.‟ʔul/ nìwin adj /nɪ.‟mun/ nìn v /nɪn/ nìngay adv /nɪŋ.something to kin v tìkin v kawkrr adv fmawn n 19 .‟wot‟/ nulkrr adj /nul.ɛg/ nìftue adv /nɪ.

ti.insult one one number one one (person) zoplo n fko adj 'aw n 'awpo pn nì'aw adj fu conj lahe adj.loʔ/ olo'eyktan n /‟ol.‟lu.‟nu.ŋa/ ngop v /ŋop/ you you (honorific form) Create report night no no no (before a noun) txon n kehe adv kea adj kawtu pn ontu n ke adv ke'u n set adv O oe pr /‟o.a/ omum v /‟o.‟ʔɛjk.hɛ/ olo‟ n /‟o.tu/ I We two (you and I) I (deferential or ceremonial form) clan no one nose not nothing now clan leader Blue Flute Clan know nose O offence. pn lapo pn wrrpa adj P pähem v /‟pæ.a.ʦɛ.o.‟kaj.ɛ/ oeng pr /‟o.tan/ Omatikaya n /om.ɛŋ/ ohe pr /‟o.ngenga pn /‟ŋɛ.‟ʦɪ/ arrive particle for surprise or exclamation Direhorse Thanator Dry Mouth Bringer of Fear (Thanator) sound music promise (a thing to someone) promise (a thing to someone) badge only or other other other one (person or thing) outside P part particle for surprise or exclamation particle for surprise or exclamation particle used in full hapxì n nang i pak i te pa 20 .o/ pänutìng v /pæ.tɪŋ/ pätsì n /pæ.hɛm/ pak i /pak/ pa'li n /‟paʔ.mum/ ontu n /‟on.kan/ pam n /pam/ pamtseo n /‟ palulukan n /‟

with all nìftxavang adv heart path.fa/ pizayu n /‟pi. adv /‟pɛ.sɛŋ/ pesu pn /‟pɛ. c 21 .‟hr/ pelun adv /‟pɛ.she he she group of people. v /pɛj/ peyfa adv /‟pɛj.right protection pull Q quiet quiet ("be quiet!") fnu v.sul/ pxay adj.appealing as food many like. pn /p‟aj/ pxel pr /p‟ɛl/ worthy fresh fresh. way pattern peel fya'o n renu n fkarut v Na'vi n tell where who what what (thing) wait how ancestor speak peu pn.shelter muiä adj hawnu v tìhawnu n za'ärìp v Px pxan adj /p‟an/ pxasul adj /‟p‟a.‟t‟ɛ/ po pn /po/ poan pn /po.u/ pey c. adv /pɛ/ pehem pn.pawm v /pawm/ pe pn.‟an/ poe pn /po. adv /‟pɛ.ju/ plltxe v /pl:.‟ɛ/ pongu pn /‟poŋu/ ask what what (before a noun) what what (action) when why names pass (a test) emza'u v People the People (name for themselves) perhaps.hɛm/ pehrr adv /pɛ.lun/ peng v /pɛŋ/ peseng adv /‟pɛ.fair.maybe person place Plant species (Warbonnet) please poison pretty kxawm adv tute n tseng(e) n Eyaye n rutxe v txum n sevin adj promise (a thing to pänutìng v someone) promise (a thing to someone)

quote mother mommy rey v /ɾɛj/ rikx v /ɾik‟/ rim adj /ɾim/ rina' n /‟ɾi.sɛm/ rutxe v /ɾu. quote see (physical sense) See (spiritual sense) seed S san n /san/ sa'nok n /‟saʔ.‟kɛ/ renu n /‟ɾɛ.pɛŋ/ Ralu n /‟ɾa.stay remembrance request rhythm ride alarm cry pattern live move.til/ sharp arm Elbow R rain ready release.instruction Seeds of the great tree seem.let go tompa n alaksì adj lonu v 'ì'awn v 'ok n ätxäle n kato n makto v kämakto v tskxe n tul v R rä'ä v /‟ɾæ.mɛ/ saying.‟nu.shift position yellow seed stingbat ride out rawke n /ɾaw.stone run S sacred sacred place safe place.refuge save swok n swotu n zongtseng n zong v san n tse'a v kame v rina' n atokirina' n lam v fpe' v kìte'e n sing mind please saying.naʔ/ riti n /ɾiti/ rol v /ɾol/ ronsem n /‟ɾon.pxi adj /p‟i/ pxun n /p‟un/ pxuntil n /‟p‟ sänume n /sæ.‟t‟ɛ/ do not negative (do not) meaning interpret child's name remain.nok/ sa'nu n /‟saʔ.ʔæ/ ral n /ɾal/ ralpeng v /‟ɾal.appear send service 22 .

pul/ set adv /sɛt/ sevin adj /sɛvin/ seyri n /sɛjɾi/ seze n /‟sɛ.‟ʔɛ/ spe'etu n /spɛ.sat pn /sat/ sempu n /‟sɛm.mɪ.kr/ snumìna adj /‟snu.ʔi/ sngä'ikrr n /‟sŋæ.‟ɾon.omen sing sister sixteen sky Sky Person Slinger Slinger (predatory creature) small smell smile so so (or "in that case") so that so that not.ʔi.make unquote clever clever (thing) good destroy moron but become begin.start time sign.sɛm/ sìltsan adj /sɪl.‟ʔɛ.na/ som adj /som/ spe'e v /spɛ.tsmuktu n aungia n rol v tsmuke n vofu n. adj taw n Tawtute n Lenay'ga n hì'i adj faheu v lrrtok v ha conj fte conj fteke conj 'itan n tìrol n way n waytelem n ye'rìn adv pam n plltxe v pretty lip blue flower and do.ʔa/ skxawng n /skʔawŋ/ slä conj /slæ/ slu v /slu/ sngä'i v /‟sŋæ.‟ʦan/ ska'a v /‟ska.lest son song dim dim (of a person) hot capture captive marker for yes-no song songchord soon sound speak 23 . adj pxi adj poe pn wintxu v tsmuk.zɛ/ sì conj /sɪ/ si v /si/ sìk v /sɪk/ sìlronsem adj /sɪl.tu/ srak(e) /sɾak(ɛ)/ that that (after ftu only) daddy father now seven sharp she show sibling kinä n.pu/ sempul n /‟sɛm.start beginning.

i.nɛ/ sreu v /‟sɾɛ.‟o.lock up moment creature arrow sacred sacred place call spirit animal spirit path spread.u/ srung n /sɾuŋ/ steftxaw v /stɛf.‟ft‟u/ täftxuyu n /tæ.ɛk/ tanhì n /tan.ju/ takuk v /‟ta.aŋ/ tam v /tam/ tangek n /‟taŋ.assistance examine almost spear species of fruit or vegetable species of fruit or vegetable spin spiral spirit tukru n kì'ong n kxener n kìm v 'ìheyu n tirea n tireaioang n tireafya'o n virä v kllkxem v tanhì n riti n ftang v tìftang n yey adj tìtxur n takuk v i'en n txur adj ftia v talioang n tam v tsawke n track.‟ft‟u.kuk/ talioang n /‟tal.tu/ syaw v /sjaw/ yes dance help help.zaw/ swok n /swok/ swotu n /‟swo."do" sun T star tail kxetse n 24 .questions srane adv /‟sɾa.‟hɪ/ from from (various uses) from above weave weaver strike sturmbeest suffice suffice.ɾæ/ swizaw n /‟swi.‟t‟aw/ stum adv /stum/ sutx v /sut‟/ swaw n /swaw/ swirä n /‟swi.ʔɛm/ täftxu v /tæ."do" trunk trunk (of a tree) strike stringed instrument strong study sturmbeest suffice suffice.proliferate stand star stingbat stop stopping straight strength T ta pr /ta/ ta'em pr /‟ta.

‟lu/ tìfmetok n /tɪf. i tsnì pn tsakem pn sat pn tsat pn tsa'u pn tsatu pn tsakrr pn tsatseng adv ayfo pn fo pn mefo pn protection evil example need joint. comparative mark Thanator Dry Mouth Bringer of Fear (Thanator) thank you that that that (action) that that (after ftu only) that that (as object) that that (thing that that person irayo n.ɾon/ taronyu n /‟ta.noŋ/ tìkin v /tɪ.instruction tell munge v krrnekx v karyu n sänume n peng v kllpxìltu n fmetok n tìfmetok n to conj palulukan n dive Sky Person particle used in full names cord as as (= same way as) while (= same time as) die grant full beetle larva(e) test stopping territory test test than. pr /tɛŋ.‟mɛ.hinge listen then then.ju/ taw n /taw/ tawng n /tawŋ/ tawng v /tawŋ/ Tawtute n /‟ that time there there.lɛm/ tengfya adj.‟kawŋ/ tìkenong n /tɪ. conj /‟tɛŋ.‟kr/ terkup v /‟tɛɾ.jun/ hunt hunter sky duck take.taron v /‟ta.ɾon.‟ftaŋ/ tìhawnu n /tɪ.tok/ tìftang n /tɪ.kup/ teswotìng v /tɛ.‟haw.fja/ tengkrr conj.bring take/consume time teacher teaching.‟kɛ. adj 25 .nu/ tìkawng adj /tɪ.that place they they they (those two) thirty-two thirty-two tsìvol n.tɛ/ te pa /tɛ/ telem n /‟tɛ.‟swo.tu.‟kin/ til n /til/ tìng mikyun v /tɪŋ „mik.tɪŋ/ teya adj /tɛja/ teylu n /tɛj.

‟pɛ/ tute n /‟tu.‟fja.ʔo/ tireaioang n /ti.aj/ tìran v /tɪ.i. here here.a/ tireafya'o n /tiɾ.‟ɾan/ tirea n /ti‟ɾɛ.‟tor/ tokx n /tok‟/ tompa n /‟tom.‟ɾu/ tul v /tul/ tung v /tuŋ/ tupe adv /tu.‟t‟uɾ/ to conj /to/ tok v /tok/ toktor n /tok.‟o.tìng nari v /tɪŋ „ toruk n /‟to.lock up training.exercise tree Tree of Voices true truly trunk trunk (of a 26 .‟ɾɛ.occupy a space doctor body (octal: 40) this this (action) this this (thing) this this one (person or thing) this this way.a. comparative mark be this this.ɾuk/ trr n /tr/ tukru n /tuk.‟ɛ.excessively touch track.ɾi/ tìng v /tɪŋ/ tìngay n /‟tɪŋ.‟ɾol/ tìtxur n /tɪ.‟ɾɛj/ tìrol n /tɪ.aŋ/ tìrey n /tɪ.this place thread Thundering rocks.Stairway to Heaven (floating mountains) time to (direction) to the others (contraction of aylaberu) together fìkem pn fì'u pn fìpo pn fìfya pn fìtseng(e) pn kìng n Iknimaya n krr n ne pr aylaru conj 'awsiteng adv nìhawng adv 'ampi v sutx v tskxekeng n utral n Utral Aymokriyä n ngay adj nìngay adv tangek n rain great leonopteryx last shadow (great leonopteryx) day spear run allow who person too too.a.tɛ/ look give truth walk spirit spirit path spirit animal life song strength than.

at that time war war party warrior apology that that (as object) there there.tɛ. adj /ʦɪŋ/ tsìvol n. adj Ts tsahaylu n /ʦa.pɛ/ tseo n /‟ʦɛ.that place that that person that that (thing sun big big (in stature) want see (physical sense) place where art four thirty-two thirty-two war war party warrior wash watch tsahìk n /‟ʦa.vol/ bond (neural connection) matriarch turn two U that (action) then. adj /‟ʦɪ.‟ɛ/ male male (person) female female (person) tree) truth try tìngay n fmi v mìn adj mune careful we (exclusive) neu v tsam n tsampongu n tsamsiyu n yur v nari si c.tɛ/ tsat pn /ʦat/ tsatseng adv /‟ʦa.tutean n.‟p‟a.‟an/ tutee n.‟ʔu/ tsawke n /‟ʦaw.o/ tsìng n.ʦɛŋ/ tsatu pn /‟ʦat.ju/ tsap'alute n /ʦa.‟haj.poŋ. adj / tsamsiyu n /‟ʦam.kɛm/ tsakrr conj /ʦa. v ayoe pn understand unfold.u/ tsa'u pn /ʦa.hɪk/ tsakem pn /‟ʦa.kɛ/ tsawl adj /ʦawl/ tse'a v /‟ʦɛ.tɛ.blossom unquote tslam v 'ong v sìk v V valid viperwolf Caniferratus costatus or “striped armored wolf.” vision voice kangay adj nantang n äie n mokri n W wait walk pey c.ʔa/ tseng(e) n /ʦɛŋ(ɛ)/ tsengpe conj /‟ʦɛŋ.‟kr/ tsam n /ʦam/ tsampongu n /‟ʦam. adj /tu. v tìran v 27 .

lam/ tsmuk.lan/ great.tu/ tsmukan n /‟ʦmuk.(octal: 40) tsko n /ʦko/ tsko swizaw n /ʦko „swi. adv krrpe adv pehrr adv peseng adv tsengpe conj a adj tengkrr conj. that while (= same time as) who Tx txan adj /t‟an/ txantslusam adj /‟t‟an.many great (in quantity).much.ɛ/ tsnì pn /ʦnɪ/ tspang v /ʦpaŋ/ tsranten v /‟ʦɾan. I of importance brave can. peace what (thing) what what (action) what what (action) what what (before a noun) what what (thing) when when where where which. adv peu pn.ʦlu.sam/ txe'lan n /‟t‟ɛʔ.kɛŋ/ tslam v /ʦlam/ tsleng adj /ʦlɛŋ/ tslolam i /‟ʦlo. sibling brother sister that kill matter matter.stone training.muchknowing heart who why why wind 28 . much wise wise.u/ tsun v /ʦun/ tswayon v /‟ʦwaj.zaw/ tskxe n /ʦk‟ɛ/ tskxekeng n /‟ʦk‟ɛ. pr pesu pn tupe adv lumpe adv pelun adv hufwe n false Got it.exercise understand we (inclusive) we we two (exclusive) we we two (you and I) weak weave weaver ayoeng pn moe pn oeng pn meyp adj täftxu v täftxuyu n nìltsan adv fpom n 'upe n kempe pn pehem able fly wing well well-being.tsmuktu n /ʦmuk/ /‟ʦ tsmuke n /‟ʦmuk. adv pe pn.on/ tsyal n /ʦjal/ bow bow (weapon) bow and arrow rock.tɛn/ tsteu adj /‟ʦtɛ.

tɾal/ and meeting dream Dream Hunt avatar.tɪ.kɛ.il. Eywa PN world world ( if forgiveness if not if not.t‟a/ unil n /‟ Uniltaron n /‟un.ju/ Utral Aymokriyä n /‟u.tok‟/ uniltìranyu n /un.muchknowing with with (accompaniment) tsyal n txantslusam adj hu adj with with (by means fa pr of) word lì'u n World spirit guiding Eywa n force and deity (equivalent to Gaia).‟ɾan.ɾi.‟mok. dreamwalker body dreamwalker Tree of Voices yellow yes you you you you (honorific form) tree 29 .jæ/ utral n /‟u.lɛ/ txen adj /t‟ɛn/ txep n /t‟ɛp/ txey v /t‟ɛj/ txìm n /t‟ɪm/ txìng v /t‟ɪŋ/ txo conj /t‟o/ txoa n /‟t‟o.or else night fear poison strong wing wise wise.tɛ/ ultxa n /‟ul.txele v /‟t‟ɛ.ɾon/ uniltìrantokx n /un.pu/ txum n /t‟um/ txur adj /t‟uɾ/ matter matter (subject) awake fire haltɾal aj.solid) worm worst worthy kifkey n ngawng n 'e'al adj pxan adj Y year zìsìt n rim adj srane adv aynga pn nga pn ngenga pn U ulte conj /‟ul.fjaw/ txon n /t‟on/ txopu n /‟t‟o.ta.‟ɾan.a/ txokefyaw conj /‟t‟o.tɪ.rear end leave.

ɾik/ ye'rìn adv /‟jɛʔ.‟mu.‟fu/ vrrtep n /‟vr.ʔu/ pull bring come 30 .tɛp/ vul n /vul/ song songchord show outside dinner dinner.tɪŋ/ yur v /juɾ/ hexapede.tɛ.served meal Y Yerik n /‟jɛ.proliferate sixteen demon branch branch (of a tree) W way n /waj/ waytelem n /‟waj.‟t‟u/ wrrpa adj /‟wr.‟æ. adj /vo.lɛm/ wintxu v /win.ɾɪn/ yey adj /jɛj/ yìm v /jɪm/ yol adj /jol/ yom v /jom/ yomtìng v /‟jom.ɾɪp/ zamunge v /za.ɾæ/ vofu wutso n /‟wut.hexapod soon straight bind long (period of time) eat feed wash Z za'ärìp v /zaʔ.ŋɛ/ za'u v /‟za.V virä v /‟vi.

nɛ/ zìsìt n /‟zɪ.‟ʦɛŋ/ zoplo n /‟zo.refuge offence.sɪt/ zong v /zoŋ/ zongtseng n /zoŋ.‟wæ/ zene v /‟zɛ.zekwä n /zɛk.plo/ finger must year save safe place.insult 31 .

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