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As a student of Kohlberg's, Gilligan was taken by the stage theory approach to understanding moral reasoning. But she disagreed with her mentor's assessment of the content of the moral system within which people developed. If you look at the table of Kohlberg's stages, you can see the question being answered in the third column is one of justice - the fourth stage gives this away with talk about duty and guilt. "What are the rules of the game?" seems to be the issue at hand. From her careful interviews with women making momentous decisions in their lives, Gilligan concluded that these women were thinking more about the caring thing to do rather than the thing the rules allowed. So she thought Kohlberg was all wet, at least with regard to women's development in moral thinking. What set her off in thinking this was the fact that in some of Kohlberg's investigations, women turned out to score lower - less developed - than did men. Were women really moral midgets? Gilligan did not think so. In taking this stand, she was going against the current of a great deal of psychological opinion. Our friend Freud thought women's moral sense was stunted because they stayed attached to their mothers. Another great developmental theorist, Erik Erickson, thought the tasks of development were separation from mother and the family. If women did not succeed in this scale, then they were obviously deficient. Gilligan's reply was to assert that women were not inferior in their personal or moral development, but that they were different. They developed in a way that focused on connections among people (rather than separation) and with an ethic of care for those people (rather than an ethic of justice). Gilligan lays out in this groundbreaking book this alternative theory.
Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care Approximate Age Range not listed not listed maybe never Stage Preconventional Conventional Goal Goal is individual survival Self sacrifice is goodness
Transition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others Transition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too Postconventional Principle of nonviolence: do not hurt others or self
Thus Gilligan produces her own stage theory of moral development for women. Like Kohlberg's, it has three major divisions: preconventional, conventional, and post conventional. But for Gilligan, the transitions between the stages are fueled by changes in the sense of self rather than in changes in cognitive capability. Remember that Kohlberg's approach is based on Piaget's cognitive developmental model. Gilligan's is based instead on a modified version of Freud's approach to ego
and Erickson's) systems are based on a male-centered view. Gilligan has shown that Kohlberg's (and Freud's. Several studies have now found both men and women using both justice and care dimensions in their moral reasoning. As you read these quotes try to decide if you see the same thing in them that Gilligan sees. you may yourself come face to face with an intellectual difficulty. Make sure you follow the logic of her critique of the "fear of success" issue. There have also been criticisms of the rigor of her interview method of research. Those of you who disagree will have to get past the disagreement on this important ethical issue to see if there is anything interesting psychologically in what Gilligan has to say. Current research agrees with Gilligan . Kohlberg built his theory based on interviews with males only. she has broken the idea that there is only one dimension of moral reasoning. Gilligan's argument in the text The first chapter is the most dense and will require the closest attention. And you will find what she uses of Freud's approach and what she discards. This is a classic critique of psychological theory: women are different. But you will find choice tidbits here about her opinion of Freud and Erickson.development. Thus Gilligan is combining Freud (or at least a Freudian theme) with Kohlberg & Piaget. why not three? Why not several? Finally. The momentous life decision that Gilligan looks at in her central study was that of whether or not to get an abortion. If there can be two. Most psychologists now disagree with the empirical claim that men and women differ in their moral reasoning in the way Gilligan outlines. She has certainly shown us the inadequacy of that. Toward the end of the chapter she introduces us to a favorite form of argument: extensive quotes from interviews with interspersed comment. In reading Gilligan and understanding her place in psychology. Here is my pitch for the psychologically interesting. Her basic claim is that women have no place in these earlier theories and that this is why women's development has been considered an aberration from the normal. More careful researchers are now cleaning up behind the trail she blazed. she has connected moral decision making back into concerns about both the self and the social environment in which the self lives. Those of you who agree with her will have less trouble seeing the logic of her system. It seems clear from Gilligan's comments in her text that she is a supporter of a women's right to choose. Images of relationship introduces us to a central claim that Gilligan wants to make: men and women view relationship differently. One more item before we get to the book itself. In addition. but they are not thereby inferior.
However take a close look at the percentage differences she reports. The TAT study is a classical social science style experiment. Different conditions produce a difference in the measured variable. make sure you understand how Gilligan's system is both similar to and different from Kohlberg's. swallowing Anus: defecating or retaining faeces Conflict Weaning away from mother's breast 0-2 Oral 2-4 Anal Toilet training . make sure you understand how the woman's self concept is involved in each of the stages and in the transition from each stage to the next. but the difference is more complex than Gilligan suggests (or can suggest) in this chapter. The stages Age Name Pleasure source Mouth: sucking. biting. First. How large are they? In concepts of self and morality Gilligan introduces the abortion study and lays out the sequence of development you saw in the table above.that there is a difference. Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory Explanations > Learning Theory > Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory The stages | Fixation | So what Sigmund Freud developed a theory of how our sexuality starts from a very young ages and develops through various fixations. How does the meaning of conventional change from one system to the other? Second. If these stages are not psychologically completed and released. You have two basic issues to grapple with here. we can be trapped by them and they may lead to various defense mechanisms to avoid the anxiety produced from the conflict in and leaving of the stage.
4-5 Phallic Genitals Oedipus (boys). The Anal retentive personality is stingy. which is a process through which they learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent as possible. needy and sensitive to rejection. Phallic fixation At the age of 5 or 6. smoking. Anal fixation Anal fixation. The person is generally stubborn and perfectionist. Same-sex friends also help avoid sexual feelings. Social rules puberty Genital onward Direct sexual feelings towards others lead to sexual gratification. drinking. Electra (girls) 6Latency puberty Sexual urges sublimated into sports and hobbies. biting nails. and has a lack of self control. The Oral receptive personality is preoccupied with eating/drinking and reduces tension through oral activity such as eating. using mouth-based aggression. The Oral aggressive personality is hostile and verbally abusive to others. which may be caused by too much punishment during toilet training. near the end of the phallic stage. boys experience the Oedipus Complex whilst girls experience the Electra conflict. They are generally passive. . They will easily 'swallow' other people's ideas. with a compulsive seeking of order and tidiness. Oral fixation Oral fixation has two possible outcomes. The Anal expulsive personality is an opposite of the Anal retentive personality. has two possible outcomes. Fixation Strong conflict can fixate people at early stages. Physical sexual changes reawaken repressed needs. being generally messy and careless.
in order: oral. This is Freud. the child experienced anxiety in relation to that drive. Each stage is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive during that stage. remember. She desires her father whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child). using a model to describe observed behavior. He thus represses his desire and defensively identifies with his father. during any stage. but then a shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis. which unfold in a series of stages. His ideas may thus still be used as metaphors for actual developmental issues. latency. He was. where the son believes his father knows about his desire for his mother and hence fears his father will castrate him. So what? Freud's theories are largely criticized now as lacking in substantial corroborative data. that themes related to this stage would persist into adulthood as neurosis. . is a central element in his sexual drive theory. The concept of psychosexual development. as envisioned by Sigmund Freud at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. He later also recanted. She then represses her desire for her father and incorporates the values of her mother and accepts her inherent 'inferiority' in society. where the daughter is initially attached to her mother. anal. Girls suffer a penis envy. Freud believed that if. which posits that. and genital. These stages are. phallic. however.Boys suffer a castration anxiety. noting that perhaps he had placed too much emphasis on sexual connotations. humans have instinctual sexual appetites (libido). from birth.
However. the libido has a different erogenous zone as the source of its drives. According to this theory. The libido refers to various kinds of sensual pleasures and gratifications. due to his previous work with hysterical patients. To avoid this anxiety. Freud believed the fixation persists into adulthood and underlies the personality structure and psychopathology. Freud called this psychosexual infantilism.  Freud's model of psychosexual development Stage Age Range Erogenous zone(s) Consequences of Fixation . Due to the fairly predictable time-line that the childhood behaviors in question follow.1 Scientific critique o 3.Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Freud's model of psychosexual development o 2.3 Phallic phase o 2. and that it is only through socialization that libidinal drives are focused into adult heterosexuality. and later the genitals). the child may experience failure or reprimands from its parents or society and may thus come to associate anxiety with this erogenous zone.1 Oral phase o 2. which he called "libido development". Believing. hysteria and personality disorders. including neurosis. each child passes through five psychosexual stages. Freud developed a model for what he considered to be the normal sexual development of the child.2 Anal phase o 2. that adult neurosis often has root in childhood sexuality. During each stage. the child becomes preoccupied with themes related to this zone.2 Feminist critique 4 See also 5 References  Background Freud observed that. the anus during Toilet-training. a phenomenon Freud termed fixation. children's behavior often orients around certain body parts (the mouth during breast-feeding.5 Genital phases 3 Criticism of Freud's theory of psychosexual development o 3. at somewhat predictable points during early development. Freud proposed that these behaviors were childhood expressions of sexual fantasy and desire. in the pursuit of satisfying these sexual urges. He suggested that humans are born "polymorphously perverse".4 Latency phase o 2. meaning that infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of the body.
 The key experience in this stage is weaning. body image is developed. Ego formation is attributed to a second factor: experiences that involve delay of gratification and that lead to the understanding that specific behaviors can satisfy some needs. but if they do. defiant. during which the child loses much of the intimate contact with the mother and leads to the first feeling of loss ever experienced by the baby. There are two factors that contribute to the formation of the ego. but later seems to be used productively and is connected to certain needs. gullibility. they tend to be extremely sexually unfulfilled. but also of exploration of the surroundings (as infants tend to put new objects in their mouths). the focus of gratification is on the mouth and pleasure is the result of nursing. one starts understanding that one feels pain only when force is applied on one’s own body. which implies that the infant recognizes that the body is distinct from the outer world. which seems to be purposeless during the first 2 months of the baby’s life. Thus the baby does not have a sense of self and all actions are based on the pleasure principle. During this stage. is under formation during this first stage. . By the identification of the body boundaries. and that he or she must produce certain behaviors to initiate actions that lead to gratification.) Frigidity. Orally Passive: Signs include smoking/eating/kissing/fellatio/cunnilingus Fixation at this stage may result in passivity. Firstly. Coprophiliac Oedipus complex (in boys only according to Freud) Anal 1–3 years Bowel and bladder elimination Phallic 3–6 years Genitals Electra complex (in girls only.Oral Birth-1 year Mouth Orally aggressive: Signs include chewing gum or ends of pens. one starts developing the sense of ego. impotence. The ego. For instance. immaturity and manipulative personality Anal retentive: Obsession with organization or excessive neatness Anal expulsive: Reckless. later developed by Carl Jung) Latency 6-puberty years Pubertyend of life Dormant sexual feelings Sexual interests mature (People do not tend to fixate at this stage. An example of such behavior is crying. disorganized. however. unsatisfactory relationships Genital  Oral phase The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage. which lasts from the beginning of one’s life up to 2 years. In this stage the Id is dominant since neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully formed. The infant gradually realises that gratification is not immediate. careless.
but it develops a weakened sense of self. According to the theory. If the parents react. whereas in others the stage is much shorter. since the parents were the ones who controlled the situation. forming an immature personality. like adult males. On the other hand. consider the stomach to be the seat of emotions. since he or she learns that not everything is under his or her control. the child does not learn that not everything is under his or her control and that gratification is not always immediate (which are the results of weaning). extensively concerned about order and neatness. If the parents put too much emphasis on toilet training while the child decides to accommodate. On the other hand. if the child decides to heed the demands of the id and the parents give in. the child may develop a messy and self-indulgent personality. since the children are physically immature.  Anal phase In the anal stage of the psychosexual development the focus of drive energy (erogenous zone) moves from the upper digestive tract to the lower end and the anus. which asks for immediate gratification of its drives that involves elimination and activities related to it (such as handling feces) and the demands of their parents. not the ego. Even though the gratification is focused on the genitals. this is not in the form of adult sexuality. may have erections during their sleep. On the other hand. or intense and stormy. and the erogenous zone associated with it as the area of the genitals. and thus the child becomes passive since he or she has learned that whether producing behavior or not. however. the child’s needs may be insufficiently met. the formation of ego continues. In this stage. gullibility. This can be the result of either too much or too little gratification. The resolution of this conflict can be gradual and nontraumatic. and also to the formation of a generally manipulative personality due to improper formation of the ego. In some societies it is common for a child to be nursed by his or her mother for several years. immaturity and unrealistic optimism. The ideal resolution comes if the child tries to adjust and the parents are moderate.  Phallic phase The phallic stage extends from about three to five years of age. but also that gratification is not always immediate. the child must comply. Children become increasingly aware of their body and are . depending on how the parents handle the situation. so that the child learns the importance of cleanliness and order gradually. stimulation of genitals is welcomed as pleasurable and boys. This stage holds special importance because some tribal societies commonly found in the Southwest Pacific and Africa. a fixation can lead to passivity. compose the earliest memories for infants in every society. In this stage.Weaning also adds to the baby’s awareness of self. In the case of too much gratification. and trust (since the baby learned that specific behaviors lead to gratification). no gratification comes. However. This stage lasts from about the 15th month to the third year of age. and results to conflict between the id. which leads to a self-controlled adult. the major experience during this stage is toilet training. the gratification of needs lead to the formation of independence (since the baby forms a clear idea about the limits of the self and has formed his or her ego). Sucking and eating. This occurs around the age of two (there may be fluctuations among different societies as to the age in which toilet training occurs). this may lead to the development of compulsive personality.
Freud's theory of feminine sexuality. but still he is one of the main caregivers. since he is the one who sleeps with the mother. For both sexes. however. which involves incorporation of characteristics of the same-sex parent into the child’s own ego. grows out of her earlier infantile desires. After this stage. As a result of this realization. and occurs in a subconscious irrational level. one of the caregivers. nor her mother have a penis. Freud observed that children of this age can very often be observed taking off their clothes and playing “doctor” with each other. but also their parents. Freud's theory regarding the psychosexual dynamic present in female children in this point of their psychosexual development is termed. Whereas the boy would develop a castration anxiety. since the girl realizes that neither she. the Electra complex.curious about the bodies of other children. it starts forming a sexual identity and the dynamics for boys and girls alter. The identification of girls with the mother is easier. The castration fear is not rational. These observations persuaded Freud that the gratification is focused on and around the genitals during this period. envy felt by females toward the males because the males possess a penis. the mother becomes more desired. Generally. the name deriving from Oedipus. The young girl must also at some point give up her first object-choice. Freud argued that young girls followed more or less the same psychosexual development as boys. In both cases the conflict between the id drives and the ego is resolved through two basic defence mechanisms of the ego. The id wants to unite with the mother and kill the father (like Oedipus did). The envy is rooted in the fact that without a penis. for both sexes the primary care giver (at least in most societies) and main source of gratification is the mother. with her own child taking place of the penis in accordance with an ancient symbolic equivalence. based on the reality principle. The second is identification. One of them is repression. but other analysts proposed the female variant to be referred to as "Electra complex". has been sharply criticized in both gender theory and feminist theory. but does not lead to resolution of the conflict. which involves the blocking of memories. For the boy. the woman has an extra stage in her development when the clitoris should wholly or in part hand over its sensitivity and its importance to the vagina. . Freud used the term Oedipal for both sexes. knows that the father is stronger. impulses and ideas from the conscious mind. the parents become the focus of drive energy. the girl would go on to develop penis envy. or asking their mothers whether she has a penis. In the beginning. which culminates in giving birth. potentially resulting in a more submissive and less confident personality. the mother. she is driven to desire sexual union with the father. particularly penis envy. but the ego. and his feelings are ambivalent. The child also feels affectionate towards the father. who killed his father and unintentionally slept with his mother. Freud considered the Oedipal conflict experienced by girls more intense than that experienced by boys. The boy by adopting this mechanism seeks for the reduction of castration fears. Her eventual move into heterosexual femininity. in order to take the father as her new proper object-choice. though not by Freud himself. As the child develops. while the father is the focus of jealousy and rivalry. The major conflict of this stage is called Oedipal conflict. the female cannot sexually possess the mother as driven to by the Id. The fear that the father will object to the boy’s feelings is expressed by the id as fear that the father will castrate him. since his similarity with the father is thought to protect the boy from him.
or to the inability of the Ego to redirect the drive energy to activities accepted by the social environment. mainly related to schooling. starting at 12 years of age). insanity. It is also the time when the individual tries to come to terms with unresolved residues of early childhood. Joseph Merlino on sexuality. . a fixation in this stage may lead to adult women striving for superiority over men.If the conflict is not resolved.e. and the gratification the child receives is not as immediate as it was during the three previous stages. It is said to continue until development stops. and this is attributed to inadequate repression of the Oedipal conflict. which is supposedly at 18 years of age when adulthood starts. vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. or very submissive and with low self-esteem. Another crucial difference between these two stages is that. It uses secondary. while phallic gratification is linked with satisfaction of primary drives. if she had overwhelming feelings of devastation due to lack of penis. process thinking.  Criticism of Freud's theory of psychosexual development Wikinews has related news: Dr. Drive energy is redirected to new activities. A poor identification with the same sex parent may lead to recklessness or even immorality. like in the phallic stage. fetishes and apathy  Scientific critique This article contains weasel words. This stage represents a major portion of life and the basic task for the individual is detachment from parents. or acceptance of responsibilities associated with adulthood. men can exhibit excessive ambition and vanity. the Oedipal conflict is very important for the super-ego development. being seductive and flirtatious. which allows for symbolic gratification. since they have been repressed during the phallic stage. morality becomes internalized. development of families.  Genital phases The fifth and last stage of psycho-sexual development. Now pleasure is mostly related to secondary process thinking. Problems however might occur during this stage. the ego in the genital stage is well-developed. Overall. the drives of the Id are not accessible to the Ego during this stage of development. hobbies and friends. Freud. but this time the energy is expressed in terms of adult sexuality. On the other hand. Hence the drives are seen as dormant and hidden (latent). This symbolic gratification may include the formation of love relationships. In this stage. since by identifying with one of the parents. Such statements should be clarified or removed. lasts from puberty onward (i. and compliance with rules is not any more the result of punishment fear. the focus is again on the genitals. the genital stage.  Latency phase The latency stage is typified by a solidifying of the habits that the child developed in the earlier stages. Whether the Oedipal conflict is successfully resolved or not.
Freud connected Hans’ fear for horses to his fear for his father. the desire of his id to replace his father as his mother's companion and conflicts over masturbation. Little Hans. Hans' fear and anxiety were thought to be the result of various factors. "On Narcissism. is the base for the oedipal tension. however. challenged common western views such as Freud's Oedipus complex and their claim to universality. As a result. Bronisław Malinowski. which may have served to subjectively bias his work in favor of defining human development solely upon normative human sexual development. they cannot be observed as stages in the development of children. Hans admitted his want to have children with his mother. but their uncle. which was considered an adequate proof for patient’s sexual attraction for the opposite-sex parent. such as hormonal and pheromonal activity. Freud supported his assertions on the Oedipal complex with a series of clinical observations. contrary to Freud's speculation." who had a phobia of horses.  Feminist critique Despite their popularity among psychoanalytical psychologists. anal. in his 1914 paper. he published a case study of a boy called "little Hans. not sexual jealousy. nor can it be confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences. children show signs of superego behavior earlier than Freud's suggestion that it does not arise until after the Oedipal complex has been resolved. It is possible that said fixation regarding human sexuality could have negatively influenced Freud in manners that may have led to him ignoring other significant variables that contribute to human's psychosexual development. as Freud admitted. The stage that has caused the most controversy is the phallic stage. to differentiate a familiar from an unfamiliar stimulus. including the birth of his sister. Malinowski found that boys had dreams in which the target of fears was not their father. Segall et al. and to react meaningfully with the care giver." so that one may suggest that Freud manipulated the patient's mind. Freud stated that the Oedipal Complex is universal and essential for development. "Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself" and that "he had to be presented with thoughts which he had so far shown no signs of possessing. even in neonates. Malinowski argued that power. phallic.A common scientific criticism regarding Freudian theory of human psychosexual development is that Freud was personally overly fixated on human sexuality himself. an anthropologist who studied the behavior of villagers in the Trobriand Islands. Ample evidence documents a functioning ego in infants. Scientifically minded researchers have criticized Freud's statement. The neonate shows surprising ability to track moving targets. In the Trobriand society the boys are disciplined by their mothers' brothers instead of their biological fathers (avuncular society). As he recounts in his work. Based on this observation. Freud's psychosexual theories are commonly criticized as being sexist." that "It is impossible to suppose that a unity comparable to the ego can exist in the individual from the very start". and. hypothesized that Freud's theory was based on a misinterpretation of a confounding variable. Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1927). Freud's theories were often informed by his own . In 1909. and genital phases can be observed. A survey of scientific research showed that while personality traits corresponding to Freud's oral. Further. Cultural considerations have largely influenced the assumptions within the psychodynamic perspective. was unable to connect the fear for the horses with his father.
resulting in a great deal of criticism from feminists as well as from gender theory practitioners. argued that young females develop "power envy" instead of "penis envy" toward the male. He had difficulty incorporating female desire into his theories and attempted to provide a theoretical explanation for feminine psychosexual development only rather late in his career. Freud stated that young females develop "penis envy" toward the males during their psychosexual development. more modern formulations consider this as an envy of the perceived right of women to be nurturing. In response. She also suggested the concept of "womb envy" in males. a German Freudian psychoanalyst. Freud personally confessed a lack of understanding of female sexuality and did not hold out hope that psychology would ever explain the phenomenon. which is defined as jealousy of ability to bear children. and thus were infused with an inherently male perspective. For example. Karen Horney. .introspection and self-analysis. However.
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