THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

(PHILIPPINE CONTEXT)
BY: PROF. RONNIE ESPERGAL PASIGUI

Definitions of Curriculum
• Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-ofschool situations. • It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.

Definition(s) of Curriculum • Curriculum – is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. ( Howell and Evans 1995) • Curriculum – is the “what” of teaching. • Curriculum – listings of subjects to be taught in school.

CURRICULUM

• A document which describes a structured series of learning objectives and outcomes for a given subject matter area • Includes a specification of what should be learned, how it should be taught, and the plan for implementing/assessing the learning

Curriculum Planning
• A curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. • A Curriculum guide is a written curriculum.

Curriculum Planning
• A Curriculum Planning is the process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created.

Curriculum Planning • It is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching. and looking toward next steps. . deciding upon goals and emphases. selecting learning resources and classroom procedures. evaluating progress. determining curriculum content.

Curriculum Development • It is defined as the process of selecting. and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs. . abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community. organizing. executing.

developing. and evaluating a learning unit.Curriculum Laboratory • Curriculum laboratory is a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum. . • Resource Unit is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning.

TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT .

Two Schools of Thought Predominated Throughout History of Curriculum Development: • The Essentialist School • The Progressive School .

. • It considers all learners as much as the same and it aims to fit the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo • Its major motivation is discipline and considers freedom as an outcome and not a means of education.The Essentialist School • It considers the curriculum as something rigid consisting of discipline subjects.

The Essentialist School • Its approach is authoritative and the teacher’s role is to assign lessons and to recite recitations. . mastery of facts and skills. • It is book-centered and the methods recommended are memory work . and development of abstract intelligence.

. • Its measurement of outcomes are standard tests based on subject matter mastery.The Essentialist School • It has no interest in social action and life activities.

• “Permanent studies” where the rule of grammar.Traditional Points of View of Curriculum • Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. rhetoric.(Hutchins) • Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals. . logic and mathematics for basic education emphasized. • Synonymous to “course study”. reading.

The Progressive School • It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest. • Its factor of motivation is individual achievement believing that persons are naturally good. . having in mind that no two persons are alike. • It is learner-centered.

The Progressive School • The Role of the teacher is to stimulate direct learning process. . • It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for future social life.

initiative.The Progressive School • Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of teaching and learning are imperatives in curriculum development in order to create independent thinking. self-reliance. . selfexpression and activity in the elarner. individuality.

The Progressive School • Its measurement of outcomes are now devices taking into consideration subject matter and personality values. .

course of study and list of courses or specific discipline can only be called curriculum if these written materials are actualized by the learner.Progressive Points of View of Curriculum • Listing of subjects. and also learned by the students. • All experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. – Caswell & Campbell • Experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher. – Marsh and Willis . • Total learning experiences of the individual. syllabi.

all learners should be treated alike. children or learners don’t. • A NUMBER OF “self-evident educational truths” in the past are now seen to be rather educational myths.Different Theories • Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum principles and practices. . such as teachers know.

• In many areas.Different Theories • The fundamental concepts of some curricula have changed. . Large and Small Group Instruction. Computer Assisted Instruction. new methodologies: programmed instruction. Tutorials. and a variety of individualized instruction procedures have been developed.

• There is the curricular emphasis on the observable facts. the world of things. intellectual history. ideas of religion. .Different Emphases • There is the curricular emphasis on the subject matter for the mind. with priority in value to literature. studies. philosophy.

• Another curriculum stresses the importance of experience – process.Different Emphases • Another curricular emphasis is the school’s dependence on Scholasticism. .

. • The learner must learn skills. and make decisions. acquire knowledge.Different Emphasis • A recent curricular emphasis is that of existing choice.

Educational experiences related to the purpose 3.Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principle 1. Purposes of the school 2. Evaluation of the experiences . Organization of the experiences 4.

Formulation of learning objectives. 4. Organization of learning activities. 7. . 3. Selection of the learning content. Organization of learning content. 2. 6. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society. Selection of the learning experiences.Hilda Taba : Grassroots Approach 1. 5.

Steps in Curriculum Development •Tyler’s Questions of Curriculum Development will provide 4 steps: •What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? •What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? •How can these educational experiences be effectively organised? •How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? .

we arrive the following basic steps of curriculum development: • • • • Selection of aims.. goals and objectives. because they can be more than 4 .Steps. • The 4 steps above are basic.. Organisation of learning experiences. • In answering Tyler’s questions. Selection of learning experiences and content. and Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved.

• This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model .Curriculum Development • Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps are followed in a sequence or a straight line.

• One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e. like a cycle .g.Curriculum Development • Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims.

• Changes made in content may necessitate changes in experiences. . which may again bring about changes in evaluation etc.Curriculum Development • Kerr (1968) also believes that curriculum process is a very comlex set of activities and decisions and they interact a lot.

that is why we use the terms aims. goals and objectives to refer to them. • Curriculum aims range from the very broad to the more specific. Aims are broad statements which cover all of the experiences provided in the curriculum.Selection of Aims and Objectives • Every curriculum is aimed at developing in the learners certain competencies or abilities. . In fact. while objectives describe the more specific outcomes that can be attained as a result of lessons or instruction delivered at the classroom. goals are tied to specific subjects or group of contents within the curriculum. The curriculum process must therefore clearly identify the aims that the curriculum is intended to achieve.

• Relevance to school’s philosophy of education: each nation has its own philosophy of education which its schools try to implement. We should ask whether the objectives we select are relevant to this philosophy. our understanding what learning is and how it takes place. there is a dominant conception of learning i. • Consistency with our theory of learning: at any time in any society. • The present status of the learner: what has the learner already known? What are his/her characteristics? What is he/she ready for? • The state of our knowledge of the subject matter or content: We should examine new developments in knowledge to see if they contain things that are of real value to the learner and society. norms and expectations when selecting aims. Nigeria’s philosophy of education is contained in its National Policy on Education. For .e.Factors in Selecting Aims • Analysis of our culture: we should take into account our cultural values.

learning experience is an activity which the learner engages in which results in changes in his behaviour. • There are some factors to consider in selecting both learning experiences and content. • We shall first examine those criteria for selecting learning experiences . • We should select those contents and learning experiences that will in attaining the goals of the curriculum.Selection of Content & Learning Experiences • Content is what we teach.

• Relevance to life: learning experience must be related to the learner’s real life situations in and out of school. • Suitability: learning experiences must be suitable to the learners present state of learning and characteristics: .Factors in Selecting Learning Experiences • Validity: this refers to the relevance of the stated learning experience to the stated goals of the curriculum. • Variety: learning experiences must cater to the needs of different types of learners by providing different types of experiences.

Selection of learning experiences… • Cumulation: even though experiences provided may be different. Such learning experiences are important because of their multiple benefits. • Multiple Learning: a single learning experience may bring about multiple outcomes. . they should all lead to the attainment of the same goal. subsequent experiences should build on earlier ones.

Factors in Selecting Content • Validity: means two things.e. will lead to the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are considered useful by society? • Interest: is the content interesting to the learner? Or can the content be made interesting to learners? • Learnability: is the content selected such that learners can learn and understand given their present level/ . • Significance: is the content significant or will lead it to the more mastery or more understanding of the course or subject. is the content related to the objectives. and is the content true or authentic. • Utility: here the question is whether the content selected is useful i.

CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES .

• Colonial rules in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives. political.Curriculum Development in the Philippines • Touched on the religion. . economic. and social influences and events that took place in the country.

the nature of knowledge.The Need for Curriculum Framework • What learning objectives should be included? • What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? • Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs and interests. or the learners’ characteristics? • What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content? • Will the choice of methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles? • Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure . or rather on the needs of the society? • Will the selection depend on tradition.

The result of lack of Framework • • • • • • • • Sari-sari (hodgepodge) Pira-piraso (piemal) Tagpi-tagpi (patchwork) Sabog (lack of focus) Malabo (vague) Lakas ng kutob (gutfeel) Hula-hula (hunches) Gaya-gaya (patterned from an existing model) • Bahala na (by chance) • Patama-tama (non-deliberate) .

The Areas of Concern • Cultural Values • Knowledge of Learner • Knowledge Of Teaching-Learning Theories and Principles • Body of Knowledge .

Cultural Values Visible • Rules • Food • Dress • Language • Music • Dance • Means of Livelihood • Political Behavior • Family • Community Norms Non-Visible • Philosophy • Beliefs • Value System .

Knowledge of the Learner • Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) .Content Based (not on the learner and learning process) • The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) – addresses the learner and learning process .

Determinants of Learning in Philippines • Educational Development Project Implementing Task Force(EDPITAF) – revealed that community and home variables have greater impact on learning than school factors. Factors: • Use of electricity • Parental education • Parents’ perception of academic abilities and interests of the children • Parents’ attitude • Geography (Region) • School Type • Socio economic status of the Family .

Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Principles • Behaviorism • Cognitive Development Psychology • Cognitive Field Psychology The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) demonstrate ample evidence of the inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles through the use of behavioral objectives. drills. practices. . and homeworks reinforces learning.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT • Before 1521 – Education before the coming of the Spaniards • 1521-1896 –Education during the Spanish Regime • 1896 -1898 – Education during Philippine Revolution • 1899 – 1935 – Education during the American Occupation • 1935 – 1941 – Education during the Philippine Commonwealth • 1941 – 1944 – Education during the Japanese Occupation • 1945 – 1946 – Education after WWII • 1946 – present – Education under the Philippine Republic .

possessing their systems of writing. • The inhabitants were civilized people. and Borneo. • They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia. China. laws and moral standards in a well organized government.The Pre-Spanish Curriculum • The Filipino possessed a culture of their own. Indo-China. India. .

their belief in Bathala. their code of laws –the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas.The Pre-Spanish Curriculum • As shown in the rule of Barangays. . and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced.

.Pre-Spanish Devised-Cur • The Spanish Missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos. writing and religion) to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule. both body and soul. • The curriculum then consisted of 3 R’s (reading.

• The main readings were the catecismo. • The method of instruction was mainly individual memorization. • The schools were parochial or convent schools. .The Spanish Devised Cur.

• The motive of the Americans was to conquer the Filipinos not only physically but also mentally. • English was the medium of instruction. • The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy of values.AMERICAN Devised Cur. .

American Devised Cur. Body Training – physical education 2. • The primary curriculum prescribed for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects: 1. and Arithmetic. Nature Study. . Mental Training – English.

etc. . domestic science.Commonwealth Curriculum • (1935-1946) considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum. • The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing course in farming.

also known as educational Act of 1940.Commonwealth Curriculum • Commonwealth Act 586. recognized the elementary school system. .

• They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nippongo. and abolishing English as the medium of instruction and as a subject. .Japanese Devised Curriculum • They devised a curriculum for the Filipinos to suit their vested interest.

Japanese Devised Curriculum • All textbooks were censored and revised. . • It caused a “black out” in Philippine education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.

S. some steps taken were to restore grade VII. and most especially to adopt the modern trends in education taken from the U. to abolish the double-single session.Liberation Period Curriculum • (1945) Steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war. .

Liberation Period Curriculum • The curriculum remained basically the same as before and was still subject-centered. .

Philippine Republic Cur. • Great experiments in the community school and the use of vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them. .

Philippine Republic Cur. • An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. . • Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine-oriented. Aguilar.

Philippine Republic Cur. Literature • Books on character education and other library materials • Library equipment and permanent features . 1966 sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in the schools were as follows: • Books which are contributions to Phil. 30. • Memorandum No.

CURRICULUM APPROACHES .

Curriculum Approaches • • • • • • • • • 1. Intellectual –Academic Approach 5. Behavioral-rational Approach 3. Eclectic Models . Non-Technician / Non-Scientific Approach 6. System-managerial Approach 4. Reconstructionism 9. Technical – Scientific Approaches 2. Re-conceptualist Approach 8. Humanistic – aesthetic Approach 7.

principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures. superintendents.Technical – Scientific Approach • The curriculum developers which may include specialists. and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation .

. When teachers share in shaping the goals and selecting the content and method of instruction as well as evaluating results.Bases of Technical Scientific Approach • 1. The competence of teachers will improve when they participate in curriculum development • 3. they will better understand one another. The curriculum will improve as the professional competence of teachers improves. • 4. their involvement is assured. When people interact during face-to-face sessions. • 2.

• Viewing the curriculum as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation. .Behavioral-Rational Approach • It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process.

Monitor curriculum implementation • 5. Motivate interest of all stakeholders • 2. Synthesize divergent viewpoints • 4.Systems-Managerial Approach • 1. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders • 3. Create a climate of innovation and change .

Academic Approach • Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. • This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey .Intellectual.

Non-Technical / Non-Scientific Approaches • Flexible and less structured without predetermined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process • Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases. .

. • It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach • Argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction.

• Reflects on existentialist orientation. . • The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.Reconceptualist Approach • Criticizes the technocratic – scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals.

Reconstructionism • The school is an institution of social reform. . • Criticizes the progressivists for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.

in particular. rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. Filipino educators. prefer eclectic models (halohalo) which are a combination of several approaches. (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole. • Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi) but a synthesis.Eclectic Models • Oftentimes. .

Curriculum Design • • • • • • The The The The The The Subject-Area Design Integrated Design Core-Curriculum Design Child-Centered Design Social Reconstruction Design De-schooling Design .

• PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Essentialism • PROPOENT / S – Adler. Hutchins .Subject – Centered Design • FOCUS .A group of subjects or subject matter that represent the essential knowledge and values of society that have survived the test of time.

• PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Experimentalism • PROPONENT / S – Broudy. into an integrated course.Integrated Design • FOCUS .the integration of two or more subjects. both within and across disciplines. Silberman .

Core Curriculum Design • FOCUS – a common body of curriculum content and learning experience that should be encountered by all students – The great books • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Perennialism • PROPONENT /S – Goodlad / Boyer .

Child-Centered Design • FOCUS – Learning activities centered around the interests and needs of the child. Eisner . • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Progressivism • PROPONENT / S – Dewey . designed to motivate and interest the child in the learning process.

Social Reconstructionist • FOCUS – critical analysis of the political. social action projects designed to bring about social change. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Social Reconstruction • PROPONENT / S – Shane . Bramald . and economic problems facing society. social. future trends.

and economic systems. primarily in the social sciences. out of school experiences of equal value. designed to develop the child’s sense of freedom from the domination of the political. social. Goodman .Deschooling • FOCUS – in-school experiences.Freire . • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Social Reconstructionism • PROPONENT /S .

IMPLEMENTATION .

Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORC) 2. Linkage Model 4.IMPLEMENTATION MODELS 1. Leadership Obstacle Course (LOC) 3. Rand Change Agent Model . Organizational Development (OD) 5.

. or at the time of the introduction of the innovation.ORC * Focuses on overcoming staff resistance to change that is present immediately before.

LOC • Extends the ORC model and puts emphasis on the gathering of data to determine the extent and nature of the resistance in order to deal with it appropriately. .

. formulation of solution.The Linkage Model • The linkage process involves a cycle of diagnosis. dissemination and evaluation. search. retrieval.

OD • This model is an information-processing change strategy that enables the system to improve its operations and the quality of interactions among its members to facilitate the introduction of change. .

The School organizational structure . The support of the local community • D. The characteristics of the proposed change • B. Competencies of the teaching and administrative staff • C.Rand Model • The Rand Model is based on the assumption that the success of the implementation of new program depends on: • A.

4.Factors Affecting the Choice of Implementation Model 1. 2. Level of Resistance Type of desired change Available expertise Available resources Urgency of the situation . 5. 3.

EVALUATION .

It is the means of determining whether the program is meeting its goals. (Tuckman. 1979) .DEFINITION OF EVALUATION Curriculum evaluation is a systematic process of determining whether the curriculum as designed and implemented has produced or is producing the intended and desired results. that is whether the measures / outcomes for a given set of instructional inputs match the intended or prespecified outcomes.

Scientific approach – purpose driven .Humanistic approach – goal free 2.Types of Evaluation 1.

school. . Scope – (teaching –program-cost effectiveness) 2. summative. Personnel involved – (individual teachers. Timing – (formative. Method – ( quantitative. national) 5. committees. qualitative) 4. Level – (classroom. impact) 3.Objectives of Evaluation 1.

Dev .Role of Evaluation in Cur.

1991 National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED . 1991 Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) 7. 1976 Survey of Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE) 5. 1982 Household and School Matching Survey 6. 1959 Swanson Survey 3. 1925 Monroe Survey 2. 1969 Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) 4.Evaluation Studies in the Philippines 1.

6. 3. 8.MONROE SURVEY 1. 7. 5. 2. Administrative organization and supervision Elementary education Secondary Education Higher Education Teacher education and training Language of instruction Private education Finance Education of the non-Christians . 4. 9.

6. Elementary education Secondary education Vocational education Teacher training Organization and administration Financing the public schools The report included a deterioration of performance in reading. 7.SWANSON SURVEY 1. large class sizes. and inadequate supervision . 2. 3. 4. 5. language and arithmetic due to poor instructional methods.

Inequitable distribution of educational facilities and resources across the regions d. Ascertain the efficiency of the system 3. Analyze performance of the educational system and its relevance to national developmental goals 2. Mismatch between education priorities and the national development priorities c. The report included findings on : a. Lack of systematic planning and evaluation . 4. Mismatch between educational services and manpower requirements b. Identify areas which need more detailed investigation.Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) 1.

Questionnaires in order to establish the profiles of pupils. processes (curriculum and instruction). 5.SURVEY OF OUTCOMES OF ELEM EDUCATION (SOUTELE) 1. Battery of achievement tests designed to measure the outcomes of elementary education 2. school heads. These are affected by socio economic. teachers. and outputs (students’ achievement). The study revealed deficiencies of elementary education in terms of inputs (resources). quality of teaching. school types. etc. . Student’s attitude inventory aimed to measure affective objectives 4. General mental ability test of non-verbal type designed to measure association 3.

The Household and School Matching Survey (HSMS) 1. 2. social. The findings of the investigation showed that home-related and community related variables have greater influences on learning than school related factors such as cost per pupil and numbers of textbooks per students. The survey hypothesized that learning is predicated on the antecedent academic. physiological variables. .

Strengthening the system’s linkages with all sectors concerned in human resource development 4.The Congressional Commission on Education Study (EDCOM) 1. . Enhancing the internal capability of the system to satisfactorily implement the constitutional provisions on education 2. Assisting the system to achieve its sectoral goals and targets through strategies that are consistent with the nation’s development goals. Providing the system with necessary financial and other infrastructure support 3.

The National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED
1. Teacher factor is crucial in the success of the teaching-learning process 2. There is a need to improve the pre-service and in-service training of teachers that should include the development of skills in classroom management, teacher-pupil interaction, and the use of instructional aids, etc.

Monitoring and Evaluation of RBEC
1. Defines what levels of learning students of schools and divisions meet at various stages of the basic education cycle based on the national curriculum. 2. Setting of minimum national standards for capabilities, structures, processes and output based on a template for school improvement processes from planning to implementation to monitoring and evaluation 3. Nationally standardized student assessment, outcomes measurement and reporting of basic school statistics

Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER)
1. Created through E.O. in 1988 to define a budget feasible program of reform, and identify executive priority policy recommendations and items for a legislative agenda on education. 2. Comprised of multi sectoral group 3. Proposed the establishment of National Education Evaluation and Testing System (NEETS) that assumes responsibility for educational assessment of all levels, including technical and skills development

CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES .

BILINGUAL EDUCATION 1. the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and until otherwise provided by law. DECS Order 52. 1987 – the policy of bilingual education aims to make every Filipino competent in both Filipino and English at the national level 3. English. sect 7 of 1987 constitution – “for the purposes of communication and instruction.” 2. DECS defines bilingual as “separate use of Filipino and English as media of instruction in specific subjects. Article 14. s.” .

” 2. cruelty. 1990 envisioned 90% in 2000 of early childhood care and development either home-based services or kindergarten / nursery classes . Cons. 1987 Phil. – recognizes the “right of children to assistance. abuse. UN Convention on the Rights of Child 3.Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) 1. including proper care and nutrition. Education for All (EFA) agenda of DECS. Sec 2. and special protection from all forms of neglect. exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. Art 15.

Access to pre-school education 2.Environmental education .Global education 4.Other issues 1.Private Pre-school education 3.

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