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Computer Knowledge

Computer Knowledge

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Sections

  • Limitations of computers :
  • Generations of computers :
  • Laser printer
  • Floppy Disk Storage Capacity Size (Diameter)
  • Data Analysis
  • Word Processing
  • Spread Sheet
  • Graphics
  • Databases
  • Functions of Operating System :
  • Computer viruses and Vaccines:
  • WINDOWS
  • Salient features of Windows Operating System:
  • Hardware required for Windows:
  • Anatomy of a Window:
  • Booting in Windows:
  • WINDOWS EXPLORER
  • Creating a Folder:
  • Creating files:
  • Selecting files & folders:
  • Copying Files & Folders:
  • To move the files or folders:
  • Renaming files or folders:
  • Deleting files or folders:
  • WORD PROCESSING
  • Units of the Document:
  • The default Word document includes the following layout tools:
  • Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F):
  • Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E):
  • Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O)
  • MS WORD – working with files:
  • MS WORD - Editing Text :
  • Selecting Text:
  • Deleting text:
  • Moving, copying and pasting text: Cut text:
  • Copy text:
  • Paste Text:
  • MS -EXCEL
  • Components of the Excel window:
  • Name box
  • Creating a New Workbook:
  • Entering data:
  • Editing text:
  • Formatting a worksheet:
  • Aligning data:
  • Formatting Numbers:
  • Inserting Rows & Columns:
  • Changing Row height & Column width:
  • File menu page break preview
  • Formulas:
  • Functions :
  • Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose:
  • Statistical functions with syntax and purpose:
  • Function Wizard :
  • Steps to use the function Wizard:
  • Creating Charts :
  • Creating a Chart :
  • Pie Chart:
  • Statistical Analysis Tools
  • Steps to use Analysis Tools:
  • MS-ACCESS
  • Creating a Database :
  • Creating a Table :
  • Command Purpose
  • I. Create Table by entering data:
  • Working with Database Fields :
  • Data types in MS-Access :
  • II. Create a table in Design view:
  • Field name Data types
  • Primary & Foreign keys:
  • Queries :
  • Forms :
  • Report:
  • Types of Networks
  • INTERNET
  • World Wide Web (WWW):
  • URL Element Explanation

INTRODUCTION

Definition : A Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve Mathematical, Logical and graphical manipulations. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. It performs the following three operations in sequence. 1. It receives data & instructions from the input device. 2. Processes the data as per instructions. 3. Provides the result (output) in a desired form. Data : It is the collection of raw facts, figures & symbols. Ex : Names of students and their marks in different subjects listed in random order. Information : It is the data that is processed & presented in an organized manner. Ex : When the names of students are arranged in alphabetical order, total and average marks are calculated & presented in a tabular form, it is information. Program : Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task. Advantages of computers :
1. High speed : Computers have the ability to perform routine tasks at a greater speed than human

beings. They can perform millions of calculations in seconds.
2. Accuracy : Computers are used to perform tasks in a way that ensures accuracy. 3. Storage : Computers can store large amount of information. Any item of data or any instruction

stored in the memory can be retrieved by the computer at lightning speeds.
4. Automation : Computers can be instructed to perform complex tasks automatically ( which

increases the productivity).
5. Diligence : Computers can perform the same task repeatedly & with the same accuracy without

getting tired.
6. Versatility : Computers are flexible to perform both simple and complex tasks. 7. Cost effectiveness : Computers reduce the amount of paper work and human effort, thereby

reducing costs. Limitations of computers : 1. Computers need clear & complete instructions to perform a task accurately. If the instructions are not clear & complete, the computer will not produce the required result. 2. Computers cannot think. 3. Computers cannot learn by experience. Generations of computers :

Generation First Generation (1946-1954 ) Second Generation (1955-1965) Third Generation (1968-1975 ) Fourth Generation ( 1976-1980) Fifth Generation (1980 – till today )

Component used Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (IC) Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) Ultra Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI) Micro Processor (SILICON CHIP)
****** 3

ANATOMY OF COMPUTERS
The computer system consists of three units: 1. Input device 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Output device

Block diagram of a Computer : CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Memory unit

INPUT DEVICE

ALU

OUT PUT DEVICE

Control Unit

The various functions of these units can be summarized as:

Unit
1.Input device :

Function
Reads information from input media and enters to the computer in a coded form

2.CPU (a) Memory unit (b) Arithmetic Logic unit (c) Control Unit : : : Stores program and data Performs arithmetic and logical functions Interprets program instructions and controls the input and output devices 3. Output device : decodes information and presents it to the user

Central Processing Unit: It is the part of the computer that carries out the instructions of a
computer program. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Hence it is known as the ―brain‖ of the computer. The CPU consists of storage or memory unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and control unit. (a). Memory Unit: It is also known as the primary storage or main memory. It stores data, program instructions, internal results and final output temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device. It consists of thousands of cells called ―storage locations‖. These cells activate with ―off -on‖ or binary digits(0,1) mechanism. Thus a character either a letter or numerical digit is stored as a string of (0,1) Binary digits ( BITS). These bits are used to store instructions and data by their combinations. (b) Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU): It is the unit where all Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction etc.) and logical functions such as true or false, male or female are performed. Once data are fed into the main memory from input devices, they are held and transferred as needed to ALU where processing takes place. No process occurs in primary storage. Intermediate generated results in ALU

4

are temporarily placed in memory until needed at later time. Data may move from primary memory to ALU and back again to storage many times before the process is finalized. (c).Control Unit : It acts as a central nervous system and ensures that the information is stored

correctly and the program instructions are followed in proper sequence as well as the data are selected from the memory as necessary. It also coordinates all the input and output devices of a system .

5

Input Devices
Devices used to provide data and instructions to the computer are called Input devices. Some important input devices are Key board, Mouse, Scanner, MICR, Web camera, Microphone etc. 1. Keyboard: The Key board is used for typing text into the computer. It is also known as standard Input device. A computer keyboard is similar to that of a type writer with additional keys. The most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys. There are different types of keys on the keyboard. The keys are categorized as :   Alphanumeric keys , including letters & numbers. Punctuation keys, such as colon (:), semicolon (;) Question mark (?), Single & double quotes (‗,‖)  Special keys such as arrow keys, control keys, function keys (F1 to F12), HOME, END etc.

2.. Mouse: It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor on a monitor. A mouse will have 2 buttons on its top. The left button is the most frequently used button. There will be a wheel between the left and right buttons. This wheel enables us to smoothly scroll through screens of information. As we move the mouse, the pointer on the monitor moves in the same direction. Optical mouse is another advanced pointing device that uses a light emitting component instead of the mouse ball. Mouse cannot be used for entering the data. It is only useful to select the options on the screen.

3. Scanner: :

It is an input device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate into

digital form. The main advantage of these scanners is that the data need not be entered separately resulting in saving lot of time.

Scanners are of two types: i) optical scanners i) Optical scanners:

ii) MICR

a. Optical character Recognition(OCR): In this, characters are read with the help of a light. This is used in office atomization, documentation in library etc. b. Optical mark recognition(OMR): It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as a pencil mark. OMR is used in tests such as aptitude tests. c. Optical barcode recognition(OBCR): Barcode readers are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on product containers. This is used in super markets, book shops etc. ii. MICR: This is widely used in banks to process the cheques. This allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink. 6

4. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR): : It is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of the cheques. MICR characters ( cheque No., Acc.No.etc) are printed in special ink usually containing iron oxide. When a document that contains the ink needs to be read, it passes through a machine which magnetizes the ink and there will be a reader sorter unit which translates the magnetic information into characters. MICR provides a secure, high speed of scanning and processing information. It scans about 2600 cheques/min.

Output devices
Any device that is capable of representing information on a computer is called an Output device. Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired form. Some important Output devices are : Monitor, Printer 1 .Terminal/Monitor: It is similar to TV screen- either a monochrome (black & white) or colour – and it displays the output. It is also referred as Visual Display Unit(VDU). Several types of monitors are in use. Some of them are Colour Graphic Adapter(CGA), Enhanced Graphics Adaptor(EGA) , Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) and Super Video Graphics Adapter (SVGA). The screen sizes differ from system to system. The standard size is 24 lines by 80 characters. Most systems have provision for scrolling which helps in moving the text vertically or horizontally on the screen.

2 . Printer: A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as ―printout‖. The different printers and their speeds are as follows: S. No. 1 Type Dot – Matrix printer 2 3 4 5 Ink Jet printer Laser printer Line printer Plotter Mode of Printing Prints the character in dotted pattern through printer ribbon using either 24 pin or 9 pin Work by spraying ionized ink Also called page printer. Uses laser beam to produce an image. Prints lines at a time instead of single characters. Produces drawings or graphs through pens which are filled with different colours. ( CPS: Characters Per Second; PPM: Pages Per Minutes; LPM : Lines Per Minute) 300 to 600 LPM Slow, 90 CPS 6 to 12 PPM CPS Speed 200/300 to 700

Laser printer ****** 7

Primary memory is further classified into two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read. the storage of data and instructions in RAM is temporary. The stored data can be recalled instantly and correctly whenever desired. To store a character.e it is volatile memory. The CPU can directly access the data from RAM almost immediately. A. i. However. 3. Access time: This is the time required to locate and retrieve stored data from the storage unit in response to program instructions. This memory can be quickly accessed by the CPU for reading or storing information.MEMORY OF THE COMPUTER Memory or storage capacity is one of the important components of a computer. This code has given alphabets like some numbers which can be converted to Binary form. Primary Memory ( Internal storage) 2. Types of Memory : A computer memory is of two types 1. This is called the ― word length‖ of the storage unit.1) mechanism.1). Secondary Memory ( External storage) Primary Memory : Primary memory is also called internal memory and is an important part of a computer. 8 . till the time the computer is running. Units of memory: The computer stores a character in the storage cells with binary (0. RAM is a place in a computer that holds instructions for the computer. z – 121 = 1 Mega Byte (MB) = 1 Gega Byte (GB) By using these codes the alphabets can be converted to digital & hence to Binary form. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. 2. Storage capacity: It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. Thus the basic unit of memory is a bit (binary digit – 0. its programs and the data. a computer requires 8 bits or 1 byte. Any storage unit of a computer system is classified on the basis of the following criteria: 1. The different units of measurement are 8 Bits = 1 Byte 210 (or) 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 210 (or)1024 KB 210 (or)1024 MB Conversion : ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Cost per bit of storage. Hence the storage capacity of the computer is measured in the number of words it can store and is expressed in terms of bytes.65 …….Only Memory (ROM ) RAM: RAM is also known as read/write memory as information can be read from and written onto it. It is the main area in a computer where the data is stored.Z – 90 and a – 97 ……….

e it is non-volatile memory.5 inches 3. These platters are coated with magnetic material. There is a hole in the centre through which the spindle of drive unit rotates the disk.5 inches 2. Which protects accidental writing/deleting the information from the disk. 160GB. The disks are available in two sizes of 5. ROM is the ‗built-in‘ memory of a computer. i.2 MB 1. It has a small hole on one side called ―Right protect notch‖. It stores some basic input – output instructions put by the manufacturer to operate the computer. CD-ROM. Some of the devices of secondary storages are Floppy Disk. Floppy Disk: It is also referred as ―Diskette: and is made of flexible Vinyl material.25 and 3. A small hard disk might be as much as 25 times larger than a floppy disk. A hard disk is fixed inside the CPU and its capacity ranges from 20 MB onwards. additional memory. called the ―auxiliary‖ or ―seconda ry memory‖ is used. Hard Disk. It is also referred as ―backup storage‖ as it is used to store large volume of data on a permanent basis which can be transferred to the primary memory whenever required for processing. The storage of data and instructions in ROM is permanent. The details about the storage capacities of the floppies are presented below: Floppy Disk Low Density High Density High Density Extended Storage Capacity 360 KB 1.25 inches 5. DVD and Flash drive. Storage Capacity of hard disks varies from 20 MB to several Gega bytes like 80GB. It does not depend on the power supply. As a result. Storage capacity of floppies are measured in kilobytes (KB) and megabytes (MB). Hard Disk: The hard disk can hold more information than the floppy disk and the retrieval of information from hard disk is faster when compared to floppies or tapes.25 inches 3.ROM: It is called Read-only memory as information can only be read from and not written or changed onto ROM. It is less sensitive to external environmental disorders and hence the storage in hard disk is safe. The hard disk is made up of a collection of discs (one below the other) known as platters on which the data is recorded.5 inches and these could be either lowdensity or high-density floppies. Data are stored in secondary storage in the same binary codes as in the main (primary memory) storage.44 MB 2. 1.8 MB Size (Diameter) 5. 9 . Secondary memory: The primary memory which is faster (and hence expensive) is generally not sufficient for large storage of data.

DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc.3. except that it can store larger amounts of data. ****** 10 . Due to its small size. DVDs that can store up to 17GBs are also available. a device called CD drive is needed. CD-ROMs have the following variations: (i) CD-R(Compact disc Recordable): Data can be written onto it just once. Data once written onto it cannot be erased. This device is plugged into the USB port of the computer and the computer automatically detects this device. The stored data can be read.. write. copy. We can read. portable device that can be used to store. 4. The storage capacity of most CD-ROMs is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB. It comes in various storage capacities of 2GB. It is popular because it is easy to use and small enough to be carried in a pocket. CD-ROM: CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk–Read Only Memory. Its main advantage is that it is portable and can hold a large amount of data. and move data from computer to pen drive or pen drive to computer. To use a CD-ROM. It is similar to a CD-ROM.7MB. The storage capacity of a DVD is at least 4. Data once written onto it can be erased to write or record new information many times. It is also called USB drive. DVDs are generally used to store a very large multimedia presentations and movies that combine high quality sound and graphics. Flash Drive: It is a small. Because of their capacity. 8GB etc. (ii) CD-RW(Compact disc Rewritable): It is also called erasable CD. delete. 5. 4GB. It is used to store a wide variety of information. it is commonly called Pen drive. access and transfer data.

They are: 1. Windows XP etc  Disk Operating System (DOS): It was developed as early as 1980 by Bill Gates at the age of 19. executes. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and if it is error – free. the TV (Hardware) is a dead machine. Operating System 2. The source program is retained for possible modifications and corrections and the object program is loaded into the computer for execution. It is suited for personal computers. Application programs 5. The operating system acts as interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of programs. circuits and the cables. It requires a powerful PC with a minimum RAM of 8 MB . i. Operating System (OS) : The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called Operating system. Generally the OS acts as an interface between the user and the Hardware of the computer.Graphical user Interface CUI : It is operated with keyboard only. UNIX GUI : The system can be operated with mouse and keyboard. Ex: input and output devices. Utility programs 4. It refers to the objects that we can actually touch. There are two types of translators. An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style.HARDWARE and SOFTWARE Hardware: The physical components of the computer are known as ―Hardware‖. Without TV studio (software) from where the programs are telecast. the compilers produce a list of errors at the end of the execution of the program.e a compiler translates the whole program before execution. Ex: Windows 95. The User interface provided by the OS can be character based or graphical. languages is known as translators . processors. If the source program contains errors. Translators 3.e It is a bridge between the user and the Hardware. Translators : Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language – the machine language . Therefore. a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language.Character user Interface GUI -. produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program).  UNIX AND XENIX: It is suited for multi-user and multi-task system 2. General purpose programs 1. Ex: MS-DOS. i. Thus an interpreter 11 The software that ―translates‖ the instructions of different . There are five categories of software. The basic difference between the Hardware and Software is just the same as that exists between TV and TV studio. This continues till the last statement. They are compilers and Interpreters A Compiler checks the entire user – written program (known as the source program) and if it is error free. CUI -. Dos is a single user and single task operating system  WINDOWS : It works with DOS and it supports single user and multitask system. Software: Software is a program or set of instructions that causes the Hardware to function in a desired way.

Rather there are many machine languages. Utility Programs: These are pre-written programs supplied by the manufacturer for maintaining day to day activities of computer system. all programs should be written with these codes. 2.1). Add or A is used as a symbol for addition. These programs are written in different languages such as BASIC or C or by using database packages like dBASE. while a compiler translates the whole program before execution. 2. These are referred as third generation languages. The advantages of these languages are  The high level languages are convenient for writing programs as they can be written without any codes. Interpreter takes more time for the execution of the program compared to compilers as it translates one statement at a time Programming Languages: There are three types of programming languages. A program written in any HLL can be run on computers of different types without any modifications.translates or executes the first instruction before it goes to the second. 4. Like machine language. Error correction is very much simpler in the case of interpreter as it translates the statements in stages. The major difference between compiler and interpreter is 1. The compiler produces an error list of the entire program at the end. There is no unique standard machine language. Several High Level Languages which are in common use: FORTRAN : FORmula TRANslation COBOL : BASIC : PROLOG: ALGOL : Common Business Oriented Language Beginner‘s All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code PROgramming in LOGic ALGOrithmic Language 3. Example: COPY.e. Assembly Languages : It uses mnemonic codes rather than numeric codes (as in machine languages). These are machine dependent. Ex. virus scanning software etc. This language is in terms of binary codes (0. 3. Oracle. They are machine independent.. These are referred as the first generation languages. Machine Languages: Computers respond only to machine language. time consuming and leading to errors while writing the programs. Railway Reservation etc. i. Application Programs: These are user written programs to do a specific job which can be changed to meet the individual needs. writing program in assembly language is also time consuming. less time is required to write a program. MAILING. Billing. These are also machine dependent. These languages follow rules like ―English‖ language. 1. which is difficult. SORT. 12 . It requires translators to convert into machine language. Example: Payroll. High Level Languages (HLL): These are referred as problem oriented languages (POL).   Because of their English like nature.

SYMPHONY. 6. 5. GENSTAT. These packages are categorized as : i) Data Analysis Data Analysis Ex: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). VP-PLANNER. SAS etc. 4. MS-Access etc. Interpretation of commands and instructions. 7. Qpro. Graphics Ex: LOTUS.5. MS-Word. Functions of Operating System : Today most operating systems perform the following important functions : 1. MICROSTAT. FOX-PRO. Input / Output management : It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different Input and Output devices while one or more programmes are executed. 3. Spread Sheet Ex: LOTUS. Databases Ex: dBASE. File management : It allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines. Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator. POWER-POINT etc. WORDSTAR. ******* ii) Word Processing iii) Spread Sheet iv) Graphics and v) Databases 13 . Processor management : It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system. 2. STORY-BOARD. FOX-BASE. Word Processing Ex: WORD PERFECT. CHIRATOR. General Purpose Packages: These packages are developed to suit the needs of research workers / scientists in different fields. MSTAT. Memory management : It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data. NORTON EDITOR etc. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system : It determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. ORACLE. MS-Excel etc.

spacecraft. The first super computer was developed in U. speed and the purpose for which they are developed. These can be classified into three types: 1.A. Hybrid Computers: Computers which combine the features of analog and digital computers are known as Hybrid computers. Digital Computers: These computers operate by ―counting‖. In India the indigenous super computer was developed under the name 14 . by CRAY computers. 3. These computers were essentially developed for computations. Digital Computers 3. traffic signals. Hybrid Computers 1. Analog computers: They operate by ―measuring‖ instead of ―counting‖. manipulations of data. they support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. the digital computers are classified into 1) Special Purpose Computers and 2) General Purpose Computers 1. medical scanning. 2. storage) as follows. weather forecasting etc. These are used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines such as electronics. A majority of the computers that are in use are digital. speed. drip irrigation.. They are used in applications like weather forecasting.. General Purpose Computers: These are developed to meet the requirements of several areas such as simulation.. Some of the areas where these computers are being used are – soil testing. b) Mainframe Computers: They also have large storage and high computing speed (but relatively lower than the super computers). Param. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or numbers. payroll and personnel database. Analog Computes 2. solving mathematical equations. but are expensive c) Mini Computers: It is simultaneously a medium sized computer with moderate cost. Later.S. a) Super Computers b) Mainframe Computers c) Mini Computers d) Micro Computers These are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and a) Super Computers: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers.. space applications etc. The name (derived from greek word analog) denotes that the computer functions by establishing similarities between the two quantities. They are powerful tools for solving differential equations. the developments in the computers led to the use of digital computers in variety of applications.Classification of Computers Computers are classified according to the storage capacity. These computers are available in different sizes and capabilities and are further classified (based on memory. available It can serve multi-users indigenously and used for large volume applications. rocket technology etc. 2. Depending on the use of applications. Special Purpose Computers: These are developed with a specific purpose.

d) Micro Computers: A micro computer is the smallest general purpose processing system. These are available in three models: 1. PC-AT : PC with Advanced Technology ***** 15 . Micro computers are also referred as ―personal computers‖(PC). PC : Personal Computer 2. These are self contained units and usually developed for use by one person at a time but can be linked to very large systems. They are cheap. PC-XT : PC with Extended Technology 3. easy to use even at homes and can be read for variety of applications from small to medium range.

The major components of the circuit board are : Microprocessor. etc. Over the years. Keyboard. are called peripherals. Pentium I. III and Pentium 4. keyboard. different microprocessors were developed and the first in the series is INTEL 8080.500. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Microprocessor 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4 ―Prescott‖ Date 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 2004 Transistors 6000 29. output and secondary storage units like floppy drives. 1 2 PC-Type PC PC-XT RAM 640 KB 1 MB Microprocessor 8088/8086 8088/8086 Clock speed 8 MHZ Peripherals Floppy Drives. 80486.5 GHZ 3. mouse.000. manipulate and process a byte of data at a time.PERSONAL COMPUTERS Personal Computer: A personal computer has a Monitor (VDU).000 7.000 Clock speed 2MHZ 5 MHZ 6 MHZ 16 MHZ 25 MHZ 60 MHZ 233 MHZ 450 MHZ 1. clock speed and peripherals. key board and printer 18 MHZ Floppy Drives. printer and CPU. The following table gives the differences among the different processors that intel has introduced over the years : S. logic and control functions.200. 80386. Clock Speed: The speed with which the instruction is executed or number of pulses per second is called the clock speed. There is an address bus which is built into these chips to determine the storage locations (of RAM) of the data and the instructions of the program. II. It is measured in terms of million pulses per second (MHZs).100. a keyboard .No.000 42. The classification is presented in the following table: S.500. Disk Drive (s). Mouse and Printer 3 PC-AT 1 MB to 32 MB 80286 to 80486 16 . Classification of PCs: PCs are mainly classified on the basis of primary memory (RAM).000 134. These chips will be able to retrieve data from the input output devices. 80286.No. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088. Microprocessor: The Microprocessor chip is like a brain of human being which contains circuits and registers to perform arithmetic. Microprocessor.6 GHZ Data width 8 bits 16 bits 8-bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus Peripherals: The input..000 1. Hard above disk. The other procesors are 8088.000. HardDisk Drive.000 9.000 3. store. i. RAM and ROM chips and other supporting circuits. but it does it about 5000 times faster.e it contains ALU & CU. Key board and printer 25 MHZ and Floppy drives. The CPU of PC has a mother board with several chips mounted on a circuit board.000 125.000 275.

After this. the operating system residing in the floppy or in the hard disk is transferred into the primary memory. The symbol ―\>‖ is referred as DOS prompt from where DOS commands can be entered. Thus. These are referred as follows: Floppy Disk Drive : A or B Hard Disk : C Booting of the Computer: Booting imply ―activating‖ the computer for working. a) Cold Booting: It is only switching OFF the system and after some time again switching ON. The booting of the computer is carried out with a software which resides on ROM chip called BIOS ( Basic Input Output System). Thus when a PC with system disk either in Hard-Disk Drive or Floppy Drive is switched ―on‖. ****** 17 . ― non-system or disk error‖ is flashed on the screen. the screen finally displays one of the following symbols with a blinking cursor at its end: a) A:\> This imply that the computer is booted through Floppy drive `A‘ and is ready to accept DOS commands. when the computer is switched on. fluctuations resulting out of switching ON and OFF the system. the computer is ready to accept the commands at user terminal. If OS is not existing either in floppy drive or in the hard disk drive.Working with personal computers Drives of the computer: A computer can have Floppy Disk Drive along with Hard Disk drives in the system. Booting is essential whenever the system is locked or switched-off. It is carried out by pressing the following three keys simultaneously : It is preferable to cold booting as it safeguards the system from sudden power b) Warm Booting: Ctrl + Alt + Del. A PC can be booted through two ways: a) Cold Booting b) Warm Booting. b) C:\> It imply that the PC is booted through the Hard-Disk Drive `C‘.

These files are created while working with WORDSTAR package for typing a document. A batch file has the extension . filing folders and filling cabinets..) 4. @. it is automatically executed when the computer is switched on or during booting.) is used to separate the first part of a file name from the extension. a directory may contain directories also. ( ).COM. RAMA. System Files: These are program files developed for system control. Rules for naming the files: 1. Files and File names: A file is a collection of related information. Backup Files: These are backup files of a file and have extension . it should be referred along with its extension and not only with the first part 5. is known as the batch file. The main directory of a drive is called Root Directory into which several directories and sub-directories may exist. If the batch file is given a special name AUTOEXEC. DATE. The relation between files. A file with .SYS extension. (COMMAND. 18 . Just as a cabinet contain papers and other folders.BAT.BAT. To differentiate each file. A period (.EXE are called executable files. Types of files in DOS: There are different types of files you can create in your computer.TXT. which are executed automatically one at a time in the order entered.COM extension refers to COMMAND file name and the other with . (LETTER.WK1. #. These files are such that their contents can not be altered (edited). File names can include any one of the following characters: A to Z (or a to z) 0 to 9. They have .COM or . + / \ * as these have special meaning 3. Executable Files: The files with extension of either . &. { } The characters which are not allowed are: :. Directory: It is a collection of files. etc. the computer will give an extension to identify the different types of files you have created. When a file name includes an extension.BAK. according to the usage. %.. MS-DOS is designed to provide a method of organizing and using the information stored on disks. $. date and time of creation of files. system programs and the computer itself. size. directories and disk is similar to the relation between papers. Reserved devices names are not allowed.EXE extension refers EXECUTABLE program file. Batch Files: the file containing a series of DOS commands. These files are directly executed by typing their names (without the extension) by the computer.MS-DOS MS-DOS is a collection of programs and other files. . The files should have suitable names for their identification in later use. etc. application programs. File names should be of one to eight characters in length with an option of one to three character extension 2. It is a single user and single programming environment.

These are stored in a large file with file name COMMAND.* C:STATS. COPY STATS MATHS copies a file ―STATS‖ with the name ―MATHS‖ on the same drive 2. 4.e. date and time of creation.COM : lists all files with extension . Suppose you want to delete a file COMPUTER.* copies all extensions of file ―MATHS‖ form drive A to drive C with name ―STATS‖. 3.Types of DOS commands: There are two types of commands: i) internal and ii) external i) Internal DOS commands: Internal commands are those commands which manage files. C:\>dir a: This command displays the list of files and directories from the drive A i. The total number of files and remaining bytes are listed. The next screen load of files can be displayed by pressing any key. when a PC is booted.TXT 19 Syntax: DEL {filename} . REN: The REN command is used to rename the old file with another name. 1. Del stats.* : lists all files with STATS and other combinations along with the extensions. It can be specified with two options: i) Dir/p: It pauses the listing of the directory whenever the screen is full.COM 2. DIR *. COPY A:MATHS C:STATS copies a file ―MATHS‖ form drive ―A‖ to drive ―C‖ with the file name ―STATS‖ 4. Eg: DIR STATS.DOC  3. They are loaded into the memory of the PC when PC is booted. Only file names and their extensions will be displayed without the date and time of creation. The way to execute Rename command is to type REN leave a space followed by the old file name again followed by a space and new file name. the floppy drive. Ex: Suppose if you want to change the name of a file MATHS.TXT RESULT. DIR can also be specified with wildcard characters (such as * or ?) to list files sharing a common element in the file name or extension. Del stats deletes the file ―stats‖. COPY A:MATHS.TXT to STATS. the command will be: C:> DEL A: COMPUTER. COPY: The COPY command is used to copy files from one place to another. Syntax: copy {Drive name} <source file> {Drive name} <target file name> Ex: 1. DEL: Deletes a specified file. DIR: Dir displays continuously the directory of file names. file size. The way to execute copy command is to type COPY leave a space followed by the source file name again a space followed by destination file. In addition.COM.* deletes all extensions of the file ―stats‖. ii) Dir/w: displays the files of the directory in a five column format.TXT the following command will work: C:\> REN MATHS. COPY PATH A:ENTO copies a file ―PATH‖ from the current drive to drive ―A‖ with the file name ―ENTO‖.DOC on A drive.

the command is C:\> RD STATS 8. If no date is to be Syntax: C:\> Date changed. one can directly invoke files of DOS. However. FORMAT: Formatting a (new) disk imply organizing the new disk into magnetic tracks and sectors that are readable by DOS. 6. SORT: It sorts the files in alphanumeric order: either A to Z or Z to A DIR| SORT (or) DIR/ON : Displays all the files in A to Z order DIR| SORT/R (or) DIR/O-N: Displays all the files in reverse order (i.DATE: It displays current date and asks for new date in (mm)-(dd)-(YY) format. VOL: 4. C:\LOTUS This command is generally listed in the AUTOEXEC. WORDSTAR (WS) LOTUS directories by giving the following command: PATH = C:\DOS. Some of the useful commands : 1.CLS : when you want to clear the screen.BAT files for its execution when the PC is booted 6. If we have to work with files in the directory ―STATS‖. LABEL: 5.e Z to A) 2. CD : It is used to change from one directory to the other. The PC copies files only on a formatted disk. C:\WS. It is specified as follows: C:\> MD\STATS (or) MD STATS : This command makes (creates) a new directory with the name ― STATS‖. PATH: (or) This command displays the volume label of the current disk It is used to create.TIME: displays current time and asks for new tine and if no new time is to be entered. the old date can be retained by pressing ―enter‖ key. it is essential to first delete all the files in the directory. Hence this command should be used carefully. To remove the directory STATS.5. pressing ―enter‖ retains the old time Syntax: C:\> Time 7. all the existing files on it would be erased. To remove a directory. Thus while in ―C‖ drive.VER: displays the version of DOS C:\> CLS  ii) External commands: External commands are small file programs used for doing specific jobs. 7. MD: It is used to make a new directory (or sub-directory) which is subordinate to the current (or root) directory. change or delete the volume label on the disk It is used to provide access to files located on other directories or on other disks. if an old disk is formatted. the directory has to be changed to ―STATS‖ Ex: C:\>CD\ STATS (or) CD STATS : This command changes the root directory to the directory ―STATS‖. type in the following command: 20 . FORMAT a: formats disk in drive ―A‖ 3. 8. RD: It removes or deletes a directory.

World peace etc.COM) file and starts destructive work of killing data and program files. It also displays only directories with symbol <DIR> (without files and sub directories in that directory) whereas. the virus enters the RAM through . AVG. AVIRA. date and time of creation. they appear to be basically developed for a check against the ―piracy‖ of program packages. Whenever the PC is switched off. They are classified as : i) ii) File Allocation Table (FAT) based viruses File based viruses ii )Key board viruses and Some of the well known viruses are: Joshi. Gumnam. Die_Hard-2. Although the purpose for developing such softwares is not known. The difference between TREE and DIR commands is that: DIR displays all files with its size. UTSCAN. Brain. These are anti-virus programs for both DOS and WINDOWS and a memory resident virus-safe program that guards against the introduction of files that may be affected by virus.9. there are in-built programs to guard against computer viruses. ***** 21 .COM or . In DOS version.EXE. Functioning of viruses: viruses reside in executable files such as . More than 1000 computer viruses have been identified. May_5th. TREE displays directories and sub directories in a drive without files. ********* Computer viruses and Vaccines: Def: A VIRUS is a set of instructions (or program) or software prepared to destroy a package and data. Thus when PC is switched on.COM (COMMAND. they again go back to the executable files.. Some of the anti-virus vaccines are: NASHSOFT. Generic. A virus kills data and program files. Meccaf etc. VACCINE: It is a software developed for removing the viruses. Jerusalem. TREE: It displays the directories and sub-directories existing in a drive with a ―TREE‖ diagram.

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). It converts the plain character based user interface provided by DOS into a Graphical User Interface(GUI) such as pictures. Mouse. The text below each icon is the name of the Icon. In Windows file name can have name up to 255 characters long. features called Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). It allows user to simply plug a new board such as a video. It supports long file name rather than the limited 8 characters with extension of three letter file name (8:3) as used by DOS. It gives a brief description of the Icon. then it will display fault error message about its crash and you can eliminate the crashed program from the task list without affecting other running applications. MS-DOS version 6. 7. It provides a big facility of plug and play standard. folder or program. CD drive. Monitor (Super VGA . 2. Note pad. 7. 8. Windows have the facility of accessories such as Word pad. Atleast 8 MB RAM. Parts of the desktop include Icons & the taskbar. Windows owes its name to the fact that it runs each program or document or application in its own separate window. The Desktop can have several components. Hardware required for Windows: 1. If a program crashes. 6. there will be 4-5 icons on the desktop. A PC with atleast 80386 processor. Monochrome or Multicolored) 6. Components of the Desktop:  Icons  Taskbar Icons: Icon is a small image that represents a file. They are:  My Computer  My documents  Internet Explorer  Recycle bin  Network Neighborhood 22 6. A Hard disk with atleast 40-MB of free space to install Windows. 5.0. Calculator and Paint.2. User can paste portion of one document into another by utilizing more advanced document linking . It provides a multitasking capabilities to the PC. When we rest the mouse pointer on an icon. 5. Icons. This is referred to as Tooltip.WINDOWS Salient features of Windows Operating System: 1. menus & dialog boxes appear. 3. audio or network card into the computer without having a set of switches or making other settings. 4. 6.22 2. 3. By default. symbols and words on your screen that can be controlled by the mouse. Parts of a window screen: Desktop: The desktop is the on-screen work area on which Windows. 4. a rectangular box appears.

Menu bar. Network Neighborhood: This is an application which display all the computers connected in network with our computer. the Toolbar. like your name at the top of a piece of paper. ( this will be below the Title bar). i. This drops the window into the Task bar like a piece of paper going into a drawer. All the open applications are available on the Taskbar. you can move it around the screen. We can start an application using the start menu. 23 . It is used to access the drives. The Title bar is also the handle for the window. Notification area holds system icons that allow for functions such as changing the time & Volume of the Computer. which can be restored again if needed. Control panel etc. click the maximize button. Internet Explorer: This is an application used to browse the internet. D. The Restore button places the window back so that more than one window can display at a time.  Close (X) – When done with a window. Menu items are commands within the menu bar that allow choosing of functions & tasks. folders & files on the computer.  Maximize – To have a window take the maximum desktop space. and the min. E. Anatomy of a Window: The window on a desktop is the rectangular area displaying content independently of other areas of the screen.  Minimize – To have a window take the minimum amount of desktop space possible.  Restore – A maximized window will cover over all the other windows and icons on the desktop. you can have it taken completely off the desktop by closing it. My Documents: This is the default storage location for the files created in the windows. If you click and hold the mouse button down on the title bar. Recycle bin: This is a folder that stores all the files & folders deleted from windows temporarily. Printer. The Task bar will show the task whether or not the window is minimized. The Taskbar has the START menu on the left & the Notification area on the right. Title bar – This is the title of the window. click the minimize button. This stretches the window out like an architect‘s floor plan being rolled out over the desk. max & close buttons.e Floppy drive(A). Local C.My Computer: This is the icon which represents all the files & folders which can be used in the system. The different parts of a window are the Title bar. These tools are used to manage the window & the components within it. Menu bar: The Menu bar displays a list of commands that can be used to perform various tasks. Taskbar: The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of the screen is called Taskbar. Use the X button to do this.

when we have information which won‘t fit into the window. If OS is present. If there is no OS. The BIOS present in ROM searches for the operating system and drives. Then the desktop is displayed on the monitor. the BIOS is activated. They are used to pan across the information in the window. current page number. ******* 24 . The Status Bar :The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the window and provides such information as the cursor position. Scroll Bars: On the bottom and right edges of a window we find scroll bars. Booting in Windows:      When the computer is switched on.Tool bar: contains a set of buttons for frequently used commands. then it transfers the OS from ROM to RAM. it shows non-system or disk error. the number of words in the document etc.

25 . click Start  All programs  Accessories  Windows Explorer Windows Explorer is divided into 2 panes. a new folder is created. folders. You can notice the change in the tree structure immediately. Explorer uses the directory windows to graphically display the directory structure of your disk and files. folders. and rename files.WINDOWS EXPLORER Windows Explorer is an application that provides detailed information about your files. and drives. Selecting files & folders: i) To select all the files in a folder: Click the folder in the left pane  All the files will be displayed in the right pane. To open Windows Explorer. you can browse through the contents of your computer in a single window. Windows Explorer displays the contents of the entire system in a hierarchical manner. Hold down CTRL Click all other items that need to be selected. and drives. You can use it to see how your files are organized and to copy. On the right pane of the screen. The left pane displays the list of drives & folders on the computer. Type in the name of the directory and press ENTER. Creating files: After creating a folder. 3. Choose FileNewFolder. click the first item to be selected. From the tree pane : select the directory under which you want to create a sub directory. To select all --CTRL + A ii) iii) To select consecutive files: Use shift key + arrow keys To select non-consecutive files:    In the right pane of Windows Explorer. move. we can move files into it or create new files within the folder. By using these two panes. as well as perform other tasks pertaining to files. 2. The right pane displays the contents of the selected drive or folder. Folder is a list of files (similar to Directory in MS-DOS) Working with Folders: Creating a Folder: 1.

select it and then press ctrl +C. Renaming files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) Select the item to be renamed Choose File  Rename Current name gets selected. Deleting files or folders: If you do not want certain files or folders. On the edit menu click copy ( the files are copied to the clip board. press ctrl +V. select the file & then press ****** 26 . In W. click cut Click the destination folder in the left pane On the edit menu. To delete: i) ii) iii) Select On the file menu. click delete or press delete. you can delete them. To paste. The clip board is a location where the information you copy or cut is temporarily stored) iii) iv) Click the destination folder in the left pane. click paste in the Edit menu.Copying Files & Folders: Once we select the files to be copied. All the files & folders which are deleted are moved to the recycle bin. Alternatively. On the edit menu. Note: To delete a file permanently without moving it to the Recycle bin. To copy the files & folders: i) ii) In Windows Explorer.Exp. the next step is to copy the files. to copy a file or folder. click yes otherwise No. Shift+ Del. select the file or folder to be copied. to cut a file or folder. Alternatively. select and press ctrl +X & then to paste. click paste. A warning appears prompting you to confirm the file deletion. Type in the new name Press Enter. press ctrl+ V To move the files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) select the folder to be moved. If you want to delete.

6. Character: It refers to the alphabets. Similarly. the text can be continuously typed and the computer automatically starts a fresh line when a line is filled up. and manipulation of a document in a desired form. Word-wrap: In word-processing packages. 5. it is essential to know the units of the document: 1. 2. 3. thesaurus 7. Word: A word is group of characters that are separated from other group of characters by some delimiters like. In addition to these. a block of text(which is frequently used) can be prepared and moved or copied wherever desired in the file. punctuations and other special symbols which are commonly used in the text. 2. formatting 5. the corresponding word is automatically adjusted in the following line. editing. full stop and space. Another important facility is that any ‗word‘ can be replaced by a new word through out the file. spell-check 6. A paragraph is created only when carriage control is externally given for a sentence. Cursor Control: The four directional keys of the keyboard ( for editing in much the similar manner as that of a pointer or pencil. Editing: Words or lines can be entered (inserted) or deleted in any part of the text with proper alignment . Chapters: It is a collection of pages 7. These documents are referred as ―Files‖. a complete document may be very short such as a memo(or letter) or very long such as a book consisting of several chapters. mail merge printing 1. file management 10. Usually. Features of Word-processing: 1. Word-wrap 2. macros 8. printing 9. editing 4. wherever the old word appears. ) helps in locating the text 27 . Documents and files: It is a group of chapters. As soon as the length of a sentence exceeds the right margin.WORD PROCESSING Definition: Word-processing is essentially typing. paragraphs are separated by leaving blank lines between them. This is called ―word-wrap‖. Units of the Document: Since word-processing is concerned with preparation of a document (in a desired form). numerical digits. Pages: It is the amount of text that can be printed on one page of a paper. Sentence: A sentence is a group of words preceded and followed by appropriate delimiting characters. 4. there is a facility to ‗recover‘ the text which is deleted by mistake or accidentally. cursor control 3. comma. Paragraph: It is a group of one or more sentences. 3.

10. MSWORD (SOFT WORD) 2. so that each letter is ―original‖ and not a carbon copy. File management: This facility allows to create. delete. superscripts and subscripts setting foot-notes  number of lines per page  printing page numbers and headings for ‗Header‘ and ‗Footer‘  table of contents  indexing the text 5. Printing: It gives a ‗hard‘ copy of the text. 8. The printing can be controlled after printing a fixed number of pages or can be resumed from any specified page number. This includes following functions      setting left and right margins paragraph settings line spacing selecting font specifications such as underline. CHIRATOR 4. Formatting : The text formatting refers to the way the text is desired to appear on a page. NORTON EDITOR ******* 28 .4. italics. 9. move & search for files. WORDSTAR 3. Mail merge printing: This facility helps in printing same ―original‖ letter with different addresses. Spell-check: Word-processing packages provide checking of spellings facility 6. Macros: A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. Thesaurus: It provides synonyms (or words with similar meanings) 7. The ability to define macros allows us to save a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes. Some of these are listed below: 1. bold. Word-processing Packages: Several word-processing packages are available.

. section no. Standard toolbar: provides shortcuts in the form of buttons for frequently performed tasks.doc. tables. Horizontal & Vertical rulers: used for measurement purposes like any normal ruler.Word is a word processor. edit and format your document.MS-WORD MS. out of the total pages found in the document. ( The term document refers to a file created using word processor) Starting MS-Word: Start  All Programs  MS-office MS-word MS-word icon is w. edit. It is an application used to create. Task pane : is a small window within the word window that provides shortcuts to commonly used tasks. print and save a document. Menu bar: Contains the list of menus available inside word. Formatting toolbar: Contains a list of formatting options available inside the format menu. page no. Insertion point : is the blinking vertical line that indicates the position on the screen where text or graphics will be placed. Status bar: displays the details such as the page number the user is working on. Scroll bars : are used to move up and down or left and right in a document. The extension name of MS. line number. column number etc. drawings & features that will make the text richer & more interactive. the default unit of measure is in inches. White page area: is the space area where you type.word is . The default Word document includes the following layout tools:           Title bar: displays the document name and the application. charts. 29 . each menu contains a specific set of commands. It allows the user to insert pictures.

Function of commonly used buttons                  New: Creates a new blank document based on the default template Open: Opens or finds an existing file Save: Saves the active file with its current file name. moving and printing data. Select then a size by clicking on it. you can scroll down to view more fonts and select the font name you wish to use by clicking on its name. Line spacing : Allows you to set the amount of space that word puts when go to a new line. or make a table of selected text Insert Excel worksheet: Inserts an Excel spreadsheet into the Word document Columns : Changes the number of columns in a document Drawing: Displays or hides the Drawing toolbar Zoom (100%): Enlarge or reduce the display of the active document Formatting Toolbar: The formatting Tool bar is the easiest way to change many attributes of a text. location and file format Print: Prints the active file . Italic. You can view a list of fonts available. italic or underlined.Standard Toolbar: This toolbar contains buttons to allow you to perform the basic operations such as opening and closing a document. underlined… depending on the style you choose.for more print options go to the File menu and select Print Print preview : Shows how the document will look when you print it.     Bold. from left to right or right to left manner. Underline : Each button respectively allows you to make your text appear as bold. use the pull-down menu to redo several steps Insert table: Insert a table into the document. Alignment : Each button respectively allows you to make your text aligned to the left. use pull-down menu to undo several steps Redo : Reverses the action of the Undo button.   Style menu: Allows you to make your text Bold.  Font size : Allows you to change the font size by clicking inside the Font size box and entering a value or by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the box to view a list of sizes available. You can also justify the text across the page using the justify button. Note : A Font size of 11 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text. Spelling & Grammer: Spelling. 30 . center or right side of the page. Text orientation : Allows you to change the typing direction of your text. grammar and writing style checker Cut : Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard Copy : Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard Paste : Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point Format painter : Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects Undo : Reverses the last command. Italic. Font : Allows you to change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the font name box.

creation. Page set up . Bullets : Allows you to make your text appear as a bullets list or as a numbering list. date of modification and file location) 11.This gives the details about the document ( the type of file. 12. the size of file. Open 3.Opens new Word file (Blank Document file) . paper size. Properties .     Numbering. (with HTML extension) 6. Send .Saves the file with one name -Saves the file with more than one name( with different formats) 5. Save as . To insert a new page. 8. New 2.e a bulk ( big/ more) work can be done in small parts. Exit . Save 4. Highlight color : Allows you to change the color behind a text selection. Save as Web page – This is used to save a document in a Web style. i. press Ctrl + Enter 10.This is used to do the parts of work in small parts. the date of 31 .To close the Ms-word. Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F): 1. Web Page Preview – This shows the web page in printable form.( Specified pages and no. Font colour : Allows you to change the colour of the text. Orientation 9. 7. Increase / Decrease indent : Allows you to increase or decrease the indentation of your paragraph in relation to the side of the page. of copies).To get the printout.Opens the existing files . Outside Border : Allows you to add a border around a text selection. Versions .To set the margin.This is used to send the file document to internet mail to some other person. Print .

Curser goes to the specified page.Will take the opposite action of undo ( Ctrl + Y) .Can paste the selected text ( Ctrl + V) .Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E): Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Del Find .Removes the selected text . To have a break in columns.used to change the font face. style.Can copy a selected text ( Ctrl + C) . Bullets . Font . specified line. Replace .Used to replace any part of Text / word / Character with another word/ character.Used to find the part of text word \ character in the file (Ctrl + F) Find Next – (F3) Finding \ finding next : Used to repeat the finding process.Will take the previous command (ctrl +Z) .Used to apply different borders to the table / to the page.(Ctrl + G) Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O) 1. 4. a column break is used ( insert menu  break  Columns) Ctrl + Shift + Enter 6.Used to set the space between paragraphs and also between the lines 3. It will paste in box which Cannot be altered. 5. Paragraph . Columns – Used to write the text in column wise. specified paragraph. 32 . Drop Cap . Go To . Borders & Shades . size etc.Used to drop the letter to different lines.Used to highlight points in number wise / bullet wise. 2.Can cut a selected text ( Ctrl + X) .(Ctrl + H) Paste special – This will paste the copied (or) cut text in a form of an object.

select getting started and the select more (or)  From the Menu bar. Change case .Frames are used to write different documents in one single document. (or)  From the Menu bar. press ctrl + Enter. 10. Style . To do so. Press enter to start a new paragraph. Printing a document :  Select File  Print (or)  Click on the Print button on the Standard Tool bar (or)  Click Ctrl + P Print dialog box appears.e a vertical blinking line. where you want the text to appear and type it in. Text direction . position the insertion point i.Editing Text : Typing and Inserting Text: To enter text in your document. and select Blank document. backgrounds with some existing design background. choose File  New. Theme .7. Back Ground . (or)  From the task pane. the New document task pane will open.This is used to change the document. ( F7) Thesaurus Mail merge : Used to know the synonym (meaning) of the word. Frames . Some important features of Tools menu: Spelling &Grammar : Used to check the spelling and correct the words with related word. select File  Open Saving a document:  Click the Save button on the Tool bar.Used to change the case of the text. Toggle – This converts lower case letters to upper case & vice –versa in a word. (or)  From the Menu bar. 13. MS WORD . This shows the background only in the web layout.K Closing a document:  Select File  close  Click on the small X found on the right top next to the Menu bar and the Title bar. When you reach the end of a page. MS WORD – working with files: Creating a New document:  Click the New Blank document button on the standard tool bar. 11. 12. 33 .This is used to change the back ground colour of the document but the color can be seen only in the web layout. Select All pages (or) Current page (or) type the page numbers and also select number of copies according to the requirement and click O. (Shift +F7) : used to type the letters with the same matter but different addresses. 9. Word will automatically wrap text as it reaches the end of a line. you can start a new page at any point by inserting a page break. If you want. select File  Save (or)  Follow the key sequence Ctrl + S Save dialog box appears. drop cap must be used first) 8.Used to change the direction of drop cap (Note : To use text direction. word will automatically break text onto the next page. Opening Existing documents:  Click the open button found on the Standard tool bar. Type the name and click Save.This is used to change the writing fashion of the document which are already existing.

Selecting Text: In order to change the format of the text you just typed. select Edit  Paste Follow the key sequence Ctrl + V (or) (or) From the standard Tool bar. In Insert mode.Word offers two modes for adding text to your documents: Insert mode and overwrite mode. select Edit  copy (or) From the standard toolbar.  Sentence : ctrl + click in a sentence  Entire document : Edit  select all ( ctrl + A) Deleting text:    Use the BACKSPACE or the DELETE key to delete text. move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to and follow one of the methods listed below:    From the menu bar. then drag the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button pressed. Note: The Insert key is a toggle key.e selected with the mouse cursor. click on the cut button. highlight the text using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key. pushing any characters to the right of the insertion point further to the right. i. In overtype mode. Moving. characters typed are inserted into the text to the left of the insertion point. Shortcuts used for selecting a portion of the text:  Whole word : Double click within the word. (or) Copy text: Paste Text: To paste previously cut or copied text. locate the mouse at the start of the text you wish to highlight and click the left button. copying and pasting text: Cut text: Highlight the text you need to move and follow one of the methods listed below:       From the Menu bar. it must be first highlighted.  Whole paragraph: Triple click within the paragraph. This means that the same key can be used to switch back and forth between two different modes. To highlight the whole text or part of it. click the Paste button ******* 34 . BACKSPACE key will delete text to the left of the cursor and DELETE key will erase text to the right. click the Copy button (or) Follow the key sequence Ctrl + C (or) From the standard tool bar. the text you type will replace the existing text. select Edit  cut Follow the key sequence Ctrl + X From the Menu bar. To delete a large section of text.

Availability of Charts & Graphs: MS-Excel allows users to view data entered as tables in a graphical form as charts. Double click on the Microsoft application Icon. An intersection of row and column is known as a cell. sheet 2. Getting started with Excel: An Excel document is called a workbook. 35 . Auto fill feature: Excel has the feature which allows to fill cells with repetitive data such as chronological dates or numbers and repeated text.xls We can start excel in many ways: 1. Data Analysis Tools: MS-Excel provides a set of data analysis tools called Analysis Tool pack. One workbook can contain a maximum of 256 worksheets. Sorting capability: Excel has the capability of sorting any data in Ascending or Descending order. Spreadsheet displays data in the form of rows and columns. MS-Excel is a window based spreadsheet developed by Microsoft corporation. 9. 7. Workbooks: Workbooks are the files in which worksheets related to a project are held. Auto correct. 8.MS -EXCEL Spreadsheet is a software that helps to substitute the paper worksheets in the offices. It includes all features of a spreadsheet package like recalculation. A single cell can contain a maximum of 255 characters. which helps the user to easily understand. By default. The extension name of excel workbook is . 4. Financial & Statistical functions. It also provides many Mathematical. 5. 3. graphs & functions. financial & statistical functions are available in an Excel package. sheet 3. Shortcut Menus. A worksheet can contain 65536 rows and 256 columns. 2. Thus it is used in many scientific and engineering environments for analyzing data. Window based application: Excel like all other applications has Toolbars. 2. Excel workbook contains 3 worksheets designated as sheet 1. analyze data & compare data. Start  Run  Type Excel  hit enter 3. Some important features of MS-Excel: 1. 6. Online help and Wizards. a picture etc. Excel can even hold graphic objects like pictures & images. Start  Programs  Microsoft office  Microsoft Excel  hit enter. Maintaining high volume of data: Excel can contain large volume of data. OLE support: Object linking and Embedding is a feature through which Excel can contain any object like a document. Availability of functions: Several Mathematical.

A worksheet is a large work area of 65. Insert. The columns are labeled with letters from left to right. Active cell: The cell in which you are currently working.536 rows and 256 columns. Sheet tabs: appear above the status bar displaying the names of the worksheets.Components of the Excel window: An Excel window has several unique elements identified in the figure below:  Rows.e.   Title bar: The title bar contains the name of the program Microsoft Excel and the default name of the workbook Book1 that would change as soon as you save your file and give another name. Excel let's you customize the toolbar or even display multiple toolbars at the same time. Data. Formula bar: displays the contents of the active cell.536 and columns labeled from A to IV (256 columns). columns & cell: In a worksheet rows are numbered from top to bottom.   Status bar: located at the very bottom of the screen displays brief information about activating features within the worksheet area. Ex: B6 Worksheet area: The middle portion of screen which occupies a major area is called worksheet area. Format. and other operations. printing. information or data (i. located beneath the menu bar. Rows are numbered from 1 to 65. 36 . has buttons for commonly performed tasks like adding a column of numbers.      Tool Bar: Tool Bars are usually shortcuts for menu items. Tools. Menu bar : The Menu bar contains menus that include all the commands you need to use to work your way through Excel such as File. Name box: displays the cell address of the active cell. Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar. In this area. Edit. The Standard Excel XP toolbar appears in the figure below. View. Window and Help. Standard and formatting toolbars are displayed by default.) either textual or numerical can be entered and the results can be displayed. Column letter followed by the row number. sorting.

Entering data: You can enter text. The contents of the active cell always appear in the formula bar. Select the cell by clicking on it. Editing text: The easiest way to edit the contents of a cell is to select the cell and then retype the entry. Use the formula bar to enter and edit worksheet data. Press the Enter key. To enter data of any type. By default. numbers and dates in an Excel worksheet. Creating a New Workbook: The steps to create a new workbook are. you have entered the marks as 78 instead of 87. your data also appears in the formula bar. and sheet 1 is the active worksheet & A1 is the active cell. an X and a check mark appear. 3. Type in the information. The new workbook task pane appears at the right side of the screen. press F2. has buttons for various formatting operations like changing text size or style. click New. Click blank workbook. 1. 1. The new entry replaces the old contents. Name box The Name box displays the reference of the selected cells in the form of column label followed by row number. You can click the check icon to confirm and completes editing. On the File menu. Formula bar & Name box The formula bar is located beneath the toolbar at the top of the Excel worksheet. 2. Alternatively. formatting numbers and placing borders around cells. or the X to abandon editing. to edit the data in a cell. located beneath the Standard toolbar bar. then click on A6 and type 87 enter 37 . When you begin typing.Formatting toolbar The Formatting toolbar. Ex: Suppose you find that in the cell A6. A new workbook with 3 worksheets appears. When you click the mouse in the formula bar. the workbook is named as Book 1.

you can use the alignment buttons on the formatting tool bar. to insert a column.75 points high and every column is 8. however you have to change the size of rows & columns so that it is fitted to the length of the data. displaying dates. The insertion point appears within the cell. every row is 12. 2. To format the number in a cell. The shape of the mouse pointer changes to 3. As you fill it with data.You can also edit part of the data in a cell: 1. To insert a row. Inserting Rows & Columns: In Excel. 38 . rows & columns can be inserted or deleted without affecting the surrounding rows. Aligning data: By default. Retype the data & press enter. click rows. Font of a cell. 1. 2. Double click the cell you want to edit. columns & cells. font size can be changed.43 characters wide. Rest the mouse pointer on the column boundary on the right side. Rest the mouse pointer over the row above which you want to insert the new row. style & colour. On the Insert menu. To Resize a column: 1. any text you enter in Excel is aligned to the left and any value or number is aligned to the Right. On the Insert menu. 2. 3. Drag the boundary until the required width is obtained. You can format the data in a worksheet by:   Changing the position of data in a cell Changing the font. A row is inserted and the existing row moves down after the new row. Changing Row height & Column width: By default. Formatting a worksheet: Changing the style or appearance of data in a worksheet is called formatting. 1. Delete the part of the data that you do not wish to keep. the steps are: Format/Cell/N/umber/Decimal places/2 Formatting Text: Text can be formatted using the buttons on the formatting toolbar. Similarly. size. The font style can also be changed to bold. Rest the mouse pointer over the column before which you want to insert the new Column. times & fractions and adding currency symbols. 2. click columns. To change the default alignment. Formatting Numbers: Formatting data in a worksheet includes changing the number of decimal places. Italic etc.

/ + / & = / > /< ) Operation Bracket Exponentiation Multiplication . Then choose Insert  page break from the Menu bar. The cells in which formulas are stored. Step 1: select a cell above which the page break is needed. select File  Print from the Menu bar (or) click on the Print button from the Standard Toolbar (or) follow the key sequence Ctrl + p Inserting Page breaks: To set the page breaks within the worksheet. A formula is an equation that is used to perform calculations on data in a worksheet.  File  Save (or)  Ctrl +S (or)  click on the save button on the Tool bar. Type in the required size of the column in the text box column width. Printing: To print the worksheet. When you attempt to print a worksheet Excel automatically inserts page breaks view. File menu  page break preview The page breaks are shown in dasher lines. 2.(OR) 1. select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking the row‘s label. One of the powerful features is formulas. Type the name and click Save. We can use any number of operators in a single formula. select the full row until the data in the sheet exists. 4. Save dialogue box appears. a formula starts with an equal (=) sign and should be followed by the operation to be performed. Sorting: Highlight the cells that should be sorted and click the sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button found on the Standard toolbar. Formulas: In Excel. Operator ( ^ *. If the automatic allocation of page breaks does not satisfy with your requirements. We can use formula to perform Mathematical. Division Addition. Subtraction Concatenation Comparisons Order of precedence 1 2 3 4 5 6 39 . Row height can also be adjusted by selecting the rows. In Excel. 3. A dialogue box is displayed. display the result of the calculation and not the formula.Excel evaluates the formula according to the order of precedence of the operators. Statistical & date/time operations on a single value or a set of values by using operators. Similarly. Click on the width option. The column option is selected from the Format menu. Step 2: select insert  page break Saving a workbook: To save a workbook. After that. MS. you can add the page breaks in the required space. The column which is to be adjusted is made active by clicking on column letter.

Type the function name. D2 are 34.gives the logarithm of the number . To enter a function in a cell.…) – gives the sum of the values in a specified range Abs( number) Fact( number) Sqrt(number) Log(number) Average( range of cells) Stdev(range of cells) Mean( range of cells) Max( range of cells) count( ) . Press Enter.gives the factorial of the number . readymade and frequently used formula that accepts data.gives the absolute value of the number . Statistical functions with syntax and purpose: 40 .calculates the average of the values in a specified range . Type ―=‖ sign.e F2 ii) Type ― = ( B2 + C2 + D2 )‖ iii) Press Enter The value ―118‖ will be displayed in F2. Functions : A function is a built-in. C2. Suppose the value of the cell B6 is 78345. 56 respectively.gives the maximum value within the range specified . number2. Suppose the values in the cells B2. Multiply the value 549 of the cell C3 with the value 43 of the cell F3 and have the result in the cell I3.calculates the mean of the given data .Examples of the formula expressions: 1. =Average(B1: B10) Calculates the average of the values in the cells B1 to B10 Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose: i) ii) iii) iv) v) i) ii) iii) iv) v) Sum( number1. perform calculations & returns results. a colon (:) is used between the first & last cell addresses.calculates the standard deviation of the given data .counts how many numbers are there in the list of arguments Note : To specify a range of cells.gives the square root of the number . Divide the value by 5 and have it in the cell E6: Step i) Click the cell E6. Type the cell range & other arguments within brackets. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Example: Click the cell in which you want the result of the function to be displayed. 3. i. 28. 2. Step i) Click on the cell in which total marks is to be displayed. Step i) Click the cell I3 ii) Type ― = ( C3 * F3) iii) press Enter The result ―23607‖ will be displayed in the cell I3. ii) Type ― = (B6/5) ― iii) Press Enter The value ―15669‖ will be displayed in the cell E6. To add these values and to have the result in the cell F2.

The function needed is selected. Steps to use the function Wizard: 1. We can use different types of charts to represent data. Statistical. It lists all the functions available.K. select the type of chart you want to make and click Next In the step 2 of 4. enter the chart options like label of the chart and click Next In the step 4 of 4. Click O. The selected cell on the worksheet will automatically contain the formula. 41 . Types of charts which are available in Excel: 1. Doughnut 8.Function Wizard : The Function Wizard is a tool in Excel through which a user can enter formulas in the correct format without any errors. 2. Creating Charts : Charts in Excel are used to represent data pictorially. Open the Insert Menu and select Chart In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. A dialogue box is displayed in which arguments are accepted. It contains all the functions according to the type such as Mathematical. Bubble 11. Line 4. The result is shown in the selected cell. Date/time. Select the function option from the Insert menu. 5. Bar charts 3. Cone & Pyramid Creating a Chart : Step i) ii) iii) iv) vi) vii) Enter the data in a table.K 4. 3. Cylinder. enter chart source data and click Next In the step 3 of 4. Click O. The cell in which the function is to be inserted. Surface 10. XY (scatter) 6. is selected. Radar 9. Column charts 2. pie 5. Enter the arguments. 6. Stock 12. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. Area 7. Financial etc. The Function Wizard screen is displayed.

Each bar represents a value. enter chart source data v) In the step 3 of 4. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 To construct a bar chart for the above data: Step i) Enter the data in a table. A column chart represents data in the form of a series of vertical bars. enter the chart options like label of the chart vi) In the step 4 of 4. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. production of crops 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 paddy wheat maize groundnut type of crop Series1 production(tonns) 42 . select Column chart and click Next iv) In the step 2 of 4.No. to draw a column chart for the production of different crops in a region: S.Column Chart: Column charts are one of the most common types of graphs used to display data. ii) Open the Insert Menu and select Chart iii) In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. For example.

No. whose area are proportional to the frequencies or percentages of cases under various categories. In this chart. For example. Data on each variable is entered in the Excel worksheet in a row or column with suitable headings. a circle is divided into sectors.Pie Chart: A Pie chart is used to represent the distribution of a categorical data. Then we select the data of the first series and choose pie chart and proceed as per the options given in the dialogue box. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 pr oduction of cr ops 30% 46% paddy w heat maize groundnut 14% 10% ******* 43 . A separate chart pie chart should be drawn for each data set. to draw a pie chart for the production of different crops in a region: S.

Excel provides many other statistical. Related to worksheet functions. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. iv) click OK v) The result will be given in the corresponding output format. iii) The corresponding dialogue box appears. Some of the statistical functions are built-in and others become available when you install the Analysis Tool Pak. you need to load the Analysis Tool Pak add-in program. Accessing the data analysis tools: The Analysis Tool Pak includes the tools described below. click on the one you want.Statistical Analysis Tools Microsoft Excel provides a set of data analysis tools— called the Analysis Tool Pak— that you can use to save steps when you develop complex statistical or engineering analyses. Analysis Tools: ANOVA: Single factor ANOVA: Two-Factor with replication ANOVA: Two-Factor without replication Correlation Covariance Descriptive statistics F-test two-sample for variances Histogram Regression t-test: two sample assuming equal variances t-test: two sample assuming unequal variances Z-test: two sample for means Steps to use Analysis Tools: Step i) From the Menu bar choose Tools and click on Data Analysis ii) When the Data Analysis dialogue box appears. 44 . the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions and then displays the results in an output table. and engineering worksheet functions. If the Data Analysis command is not available. To access these tools. financial. You provide the data and parameters for each analysis. click Data Analysis on the Tools menu. Enter the Input range and Output range (addresses of the cells) iv) give the address of the cell where you want the result to be shown.

enter the Input range and also give the output range where you want the result to be shown. Find the regression equation of y on x. iii) When the Regression dialogue box appears. enter the Input Y range and input X range. iv) give the output range where you want the result to be shown. clock OK. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. Head weight (X) 20 22 25 27 31 Body weight (Y) 60 64 72 80 84 Step i) From the Menu bar.989783 1 gain in weight Ex 2: Following is the data of head and body weights of 5 insects. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. ii) Select Regression in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. 45 . iii) When the Correlation dialogue box appears. v) the result will be shown in the following format: Summary output: Protein content Protein content gain in weight 1 0. ii) Select Correlation in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK.Ex 1: The following are the results of 5 preschool going children at different levels of protein content in diet. Compute the correlation coefficient using Excel Protein content (%) 5 7 10 12 13 Gain in weight(gm) 30 40 80 100 120 Step i) From the Menu bar. clock OK.

K 46 .948025 Standard Error 2. iv) Click the check box against Labels in the First row.89189 2. ii)Select t-test.003305 Lower 95% -7.21622 416 Standard Error 6.0% 35.0% -7.135073 0.003305 Intercept (X) Coefficients 13.64801 3.405405 F 73.v) The result will be shown in the following format.324953 Observations 5 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 1 3 4 SS 399.464204 Upper 95% 35.464204 Upper 95.184445 Ex 3: The daily production of two pesticide factories is recorded as follows.64801 3. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. Solution: Step i) From the Menu bar.86423 1.7838 16.324324 t Stat 2.032081 8.27027 MS 399.961019 Adjusted R Square 0.96 Significance F 0.6 P-value 0. Factory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 12 16 9 13 15 17 20 23 B 8 13 21 16 11 12 Test whether there is any significant difference between two factories at probability level 0.836289 0. variable 2 range and set Hypothesized mean difference as zero. iv) Give the output range where you want the result to be shown.05. two samples assuming equal variances in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK.7838 5.184445 Lower 95. SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.86423 1. click O. iii) Enter the variable 1 range.980316 R Square 0.

782288 0.11458 0 12 0.178813 B 13.v) the result will be shown in the following format.877324 0.198768 1.3 6 Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail ****** 47 .98214 8 20.625 19.397535 2.5 20. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances A 15.

The database serves as a base from which a desired information can be retrieved. Tables : Store database data in Rows (records) and columns (fields). 1. such as validating data against complex conditions. To start MS-Access: 1. Address. queries and reports by following a series of steps provided by the wizard.MS-ACCESS The Database is an organized collection of data related to a particular topic or purpose. A data access page displays data stored in a database over the internet. Ex: we can create a macro to print a report automatically. 5. A database stored electronically has distinct advantages over a manually organized system. Start  Run Ms-Access Enter An Access Database consists of 7 different Database objects. view and modify data in a Table. We can format the data in a report. We cannot make changes to the data in a report. i. Pages : display shortcuts to data access pages in the database.   The database Wizard is used to create tables. 6. Creating a Database : A Database can be created by using the database Wizard or by using the Blank Database command. Every row represents a Record.e the printable form of the table or query or form. 4. Modules : used to perform advanced database operations. Click on File menu  New  Enter A window appears  give a name to the database 48 . All database objects should be created manually. many meaningful conclusions can be drawn. 2. Ex: A table can contain personal information about all the students in a college. 7. Each piece of information in a record is called a Field. The Blank Database command is used to create a blank database. Forms : used as interfaces for users to enter. Every row containing information about a student represents a record. MS-Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that is used to store and manipulate large amount of information.mdb. The records in the student table can include fields such as Admission number. Student name. Phone number etc. Macros : used to automate frequently performed tasks. organizing and retrieving data. The extension name of Ms-Access file is . Queries : used to retrieve information from a database based on specific conditions. A database can be maintained in a computer by using a database management system(DBMS). Reports : used to present data from tables or Queries in a format of our choice. forms. Maintaining data involves storing. Start Programs MS office  Ms-Access  Enter 2. Ex: A Query can be used to extract details about students studying in a particular class. DBMS is an application that enables to maintain data in a database. 3.

marks etc) Click on close button of the table and save the table with some name To enter details into the table. 49 . Open the database in which the table is to be created. Click on create table on Datasheet view  now a window appears  here we find fields ( field1. The New Table dialog box appears.……) Give the field names ( Name. field2. click on table in the main switch board and double click on the table name.. Create Table by entering data: Click on Table (object) in the main switch board.Creating a Table : 1. Commands in the New Table dialog box Command Create table by entering data Design view Table wizard       Used to assign fields for the new table and modify field properties Used to create a table through a guided sequence of steps Purpose Used to create a table by entering values directly in a row and column format I. under objects. roll no. Enter the details Working with Database Fields : Microsoft Access database fields are created by entering a field name and a field data type in each row of the field entry area of the database table window. The database window appears. click Tables and then click New on the database window toolbar. 2.

Ex: Field name Roll No Name Marks Data types Auto Number Text Number 3. Currency : used for currency values and to prevent rounding off during calculations. Yes /No : used for data that can be only one of two possible values.Data types in MS-Access : The following list summarizes all the field data types available in MS. 2. Stores up to 255 characters. Keys are used to maintain the integrity of data. click on the close button of the table and save it with some name 4.        Memo : Used for lengthy text and numbers. On/Off. Stores 8 bytes. Stores 8 bytes. Keys are of two types: primary & foreign. graphs and other binary data. Usually this field is sequentially numbered. Now enter the details. Stores upto 64. Date / Time : used for dates and times. Primary key: The field in a table that uniquely identifies each record is called the primary key.4 or 8 bytes.000 characters.2. OLE object : used for OLE objects like pictures.Access.  Text : used for text or combinations of text and numbers. Primary & Foreign keys: Data should be checked for redundancy before it is stored in a database. or postal codes. click on table (object) in the main switch board. Ex : Admission number field Foreign key : When a primary key of one table appears as a field in another table. Auto Number : used for unique sequential or random numbers that are automatically inserted when a record is added. To enter data into the table. such as phone numbers. Create a table in Design view: 1. 5. the field is called the foreign key in the second table. True/False. 50 . Stores 1. such as yes/ No. Keys contain unique values that help to filter redundant information from the input data. Stores up to 1 GB. II. such as addresses or for numbers that do not require calculations. Number : used for data to be included in Mathematical calculations. double click on the table created. their uses and their storage sizes. except calculations involving money. Here click on ― create table in design view‖ Now a window appears  here type the field names and their data types respectively. such as notes or descriptions.

 In forms. Query and forms are meant for displaying it on screen. You can bring together data from multiple tables and sort it in a particular order. The user may have to scroll horizontally or vertically to view the rest of the fields/ records. In a table. if the table has many fields. Pictures can be added to a form. Report: The data shown in a table. The fields can be arranged as the user wants it. The report preview shows how the data will appear on taking out the printouts. In the database window. But. the data can be displayed as per the users requirement. then it may not be possible for a user to view all of them. it is known as Report. but when you take the printout or the Hard copy. You can perform calculations on groups of records. ****** Forms : 51 . number of records are displayed at a time. Form view The datasheet view shows many records whereas form view displays single record. You can toggle between these three views using the View Tool. change and analyze data in different ways. The display and contents of the form is controlled fully by the user. The records are generally displayed one at a time. when you click the report tab. Datasheet & iii. the open button is replaced by the preview button. Design ii.   In forms there are 3 views. Reports can be viewed either in print preview mode or design mode. The screen may be too small to fit it. i. Data cannot be edited in the reports. You can also use them as the source of records for forms and reports.Queries :     By using queries we can view.

which stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. The internet allows you to access to a whole resource of data and information stored at different sites (called hosts) and locations around the world. states. Ex: the computers in all branches of an office within a city. it is called a WAN. Internet connection helps us to: 1. Netscape Navigator. Ex : i. it connects the computers distributed across multiple buildings. The computer is connected to a modem. View interesting video‘s listen to music or wander through a 3-D world. Internet INTERNET The internet is a global connection of computers. typically a building.. Down load useful programs such as virus detectors. ii. Microsoft outlook express etc. 52 . Chat with other people any where in the world 6. Requirements for connecting to the Internet: a) Modem: A modem is a peripheral device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. file compression. decompression utility etc. Wide Area Network: When a network is located over wide areas such as cities. 4. Types of Networks Networks can range from a small group of computers linked together in a class room to thousands of computers linked together across the globe. countries or even continents. Computers in different branches of a Globalised company. Send or receive E-mail 3. These computers are connected via a huge network of telecommunication links. Mozilla Firefox. Share your opinions and your knowledge on a variety of topics through various new groups. networks can be classified as a) LAN ( Local Area Network) b) MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network) c) WAN (Wide Area Network) Local Area Network: If a network is confined to a single location. The communication links which inter connect each host computer use a common method of transmission known as TCP/IP.Networking and Internet A network is an arrangement that enables two or more computers to communicate (talk) to each other. Depending on the geographical location. b) Web Browser: A browser is a software program that is necessary in order to view web pages on the web. Metropolitan Area Network: A metropolitan area network is a network that is larger than a LAN. Modem stands for Modulator Demodulator. Ex: Internet Explorer. Read information on a wide range of topics 2. c) Telephone line: A telephone line is required to transfer data from one computer to another. it is called a LAN. 5. Ex : Set of interconnected computers within an office. in turn. connected to a telephone line. which.

HTTP provides a method of transmitting a professionally laid out page over the text based internet. These pages.com/catalog/navigation. Internet was initially designed for the transmission of text basing on the protocols mentioned. it can access information and file libraries on request 5. it will take us to another page.asp Explanation of the example URL: URL Element http WWW Microsoft . an E-mail message consists of two parts a) a header specifying the address of the sender and the address of the receiver b) the text of the message 53 . All internet servers cannot support HTTP and so the web can be regarded as a subset of the larger internet. The WWW support a protocol called Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The web is similar to a library. A web site can be accessed by means of a unique name assigned to it. data and graphics. pictures. E-mail is cheaper than a phone call and an ordinary mail 4. Uniform Resource Locator: (URL): Each web site has a unique address commonly referred to as a URL. We need subscription with any ISP to get an Internet connection. World Wide Web (WWW): It refers to the collection of information accessible on the internet. Some of the ISPs in India are VSNL. A typical web address or URL looks as http:// www.com /catalog/navigation. Some of the features of E-mail are 1. Sify. The electronic mail uses various technologies that support electronic transmission of text. A collection of related web pages is known as a web site. called web pages are stored on different computers that are connected to the internet. HTML uses special text codes to define the various elements of a web page. It consists of millions & millions of pages of text. embedded sound and animation a special language was designed which is referred to as Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML). Messages can be sent within a matter of seconds to any part in the world. In order to transmit a graphically designed web page complete with pictures. Indicates that the site is on the world wide web Indicates the name of the web site Indicates the domain type of the web site Specifies the path of the file stored on the web server‘s hard disk E-Mail E-mail or electronic mail is a service for sending or receiving messages electronically through a computer network. Specrta Net etc. The web pages have links between them i. These words or pictures that help to move from one page to another are called hyperlinks.asp Explanation Identifies protocol necessary to retrieve the file. 2.microsoft. it can be sent to many people at the same time 3. it is much faster than the normal mail. A URL specifies the exact location of the web page on the internet. E-mail user can have a mail box which is accessed through a computer terminal 6.e when we click a certain word or picture in a page. sounds and animation on various topics. MTNL.d) Subscription with Internet service provider (ISP): ISP‘s are companies that provide access to the internet.

Alta Vista. 8. Domain name A domain represents organization. The person‘s Login name 2. Yahoo! search and Infoseek etc. Both the names are separated by the @symbol. Google.7. The mailing system allows selecting messages for reading. Mailing list can be created to send the same message to a group of people E-Mail Address: An E-Mail address consists of three parts 1. deleting. and country name Ex: Statisitcs@hotmial.com in this Statistics is the user name and his account is in the domain hotmail. A user interface is provided where you can enter the word or phrase you are searching for. network. @ sign 3. forwarding and replying. displaying.com. Search Engines : Search engines are utilities used to search for information on the web. saving. ******* 54 . The search engine looks for the keywords we have entered and returns the results of the search. providing links to relevant Web sites for us to choose from. Some commonly used search engines are MSN.

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