INTRODUCTION

Definition : A Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve Mathematical, Logical and graphical manipulations. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. It performs the following three operations in sequence. 1. It receives data & instructions from the input device. 2. Processes the data as per instructions. 3. Provides the result (output) in a desired form. Data : It is the collection of raw facts, figures & symbols. Ex : Names of students and their marks in different subjects listed in random order. Information : It is the data that is processed & presented in an organized manner. Ex : When the names of students are arranged in alphabetical order, total and average marks are calculated & presented in a tabular form, it is information. Program : Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task. Advantages of computers :
1. High speed : Computers have the ability to perform routine tasks at a greater speed than human

beings. They can perform millions of calculations in seconds.
2. Accuracy : Computers are used to perform tasks in a way that ensures accuracy. 3. Storage : Computers can store large amount of information. Any item of data or any instruction

stored in the memory can be retrieved by the computer at lightning speeds.
4. Automation : Computers can be instructed to perform complex tasks automatically ( which

increases the productivity).
5. Diligence : Computers can perform the same task repeatedly & with the same accuracy without

getting tired.
6. Versatility : Computers are flexible to perform both simple and complex tasks. 7. Cost effectiveness : Computers reduce the amount of paper work and human effort, thereby

reducing costs. Limitations of computers : 1. Computers need clear & complete instructions to perform a task accurately. If the instructions are not clear & complete, the computer will not produce the required result. 2. Computers cannot think. 3. Computers cannot learn by experience. Generations of computers :

Generation First Generation (1946-1954 ) Second Generation (1955-1965) Third Generation (1968-1975 ) Fourth Generation ( 1976-1980) Fifth Generation (1980 – till today )

Component used Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (IC) Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) Ultra Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI) Micro Processor (SILICON CHIP)
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ANATOMY OF COMPUTERS
The computer system consists of three units: 1. Input device 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Output device

Block diagram of a Computer : CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Memory unit

INPUT DEVICE

ALU

OUT PUT DEVICE

Control Unit

The various functions of these units can be summarized as:

Unit
1.Input device :

Function
Reads information from input media and enters to the computer in a coded form

2.CPU (a) Memory unit (b) Arithmetic Logic unit (c) Control Unit : : : Stores program and data Performs arithmetic and logical functions Interprets program instructions and controls the input and output devices 3. Output device : decodes information and presents it to the user

Central Processing Unit: It is the part of the computer that carries out the instructions of a
computer program. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Hence it is known as the ―brain‖ of the computer. The CPU consists of storage or memory unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and control unit. (a). Memory Unit: It is also known as the primary storage or main memory. It stores data, program instructions, internal results and final output temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device. It consists of thousands of cells called ―storage locations‖. These cells activate with ―off -on‖ or binary digits(0,1) mechanism. Thus a character either a letter or numerical digit is stored as a string of (0,1) Binary digits ( BITS). These bits are used to store instructions and data by their combinations. (b) Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU): It is the unit where all Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction etc.) and logical functions such as true or false, male or female are performed. Once data are fed into the main memory from input devices, they are held and transferred as needed to ALU where processing takes place. No process occurs in primary storage. Intermediate generated results in ALU

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are temporarily placed in memory until needed at later time. Data may move from primary memory to ALU and back again to storage many times before the process is finalized. (c).Control Unit : It acts as a central nervous system and ensures that the information is stored

correctly and the program instructions are followed in proper sequence as well as the data are selected from the memory as necessary. It also coordinates all the input and output devices of a system .

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Input Devices
Devices used to provide data and instructions to the computer are called Input devices. Some important input devices are Key board, Mouse, Scanner, MICR, Web camera, Microphone etc. 1. Keyboard: The Key board is used for typing text into the computer. It is also known as standard Input device. A computer keyboard is similar to that of a type writer with additional keys. The most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys. There are different types of keys on the keyboard. The keys are categorized as :   Alphanumeric keys , including letters & numbers. Punctuation keys, such as colon (:), semicolon (;) Question mark (?), Single & double quotes (‗,‖)  Special keys such as arrow keys, control keys, function keys (F1 to F12), HOME, END etc.

2.. Mouse: It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor on a monitor. A mouse will have 2 buttons on its top. The left button is the most frequently used button. There will be a wheel between the left and right buttons. This wheel enables us to smoothly scroll through screens of information. As we move the mouse, the pointer on the monitor moves in the same direction. Optical mouse is another advanced pointing device that uses a light emitting component instead of the mouse ball. Mouse cannot be used for entering the data. It is only useful to select the options on the screen.

3. Scanner: :

It is an input device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate into

digital form. The main advantage of these scanners is that the data need not be entered separately resulting in saving lot of time.

Scanners are of two types: i) optical scanners i) Optical scanners:

ii) MICR

a. Optical character Recognition(OCR): In this, characters are read with the help of a light. This is used in office atomization, documentation in library etc. b. Optical mark recognition(OMR): It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as a pencil mark. OMR is used in tests such as aptitude tests. c. Optical barcode recognition(OBCR): Barcode readers are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on product containers. This is used in super markets, book shops etc. ii. MICR: This is widely used in banks to process the cheques. This allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink. 6

4. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR): : It is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of the cheques. MICR characters ( cheque No., Acc.No.etc) are printed in special ink usually containing iron oxide. When a document that contains the ink needs to be read, it passes through a machine which magnetizes the ink and there will be a reader sorter unit which translates the magnetic information into characters. MICR provides a secure, high speed of scanning and processing information. It scans about 2600 cheques/min.

Output devices
Any device that is capable of representing information on a computer is called an Output device. Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired form. Some important Output devices are : Monitor, Printer 1 .Terminal/Monitor: It is similar to TV screen- either a monochrome (black & white) or colour – and it displays the output. It is also referred as Visual Display Unit(VDU). Several types of monitors are in use. Some of them are Colour Graphic Adapter(CGA), Enhanced Graphics Adaptor(EGA) , Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) and Super Video Graphics Adapter (SVGA). The screen sizes differ from system to system. The standard size is 24 lines by 80 characters. Most systems have provision for scrolling which helps in moving the text vertically or horizontally on the screen.

2 . Printer: A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as ―printout‖. The different printers and their speeds are as follows: S. No. 1 Type Dot – Matrix printer 2 3 4 5 Ink Jet printer Laser printer Line printer Plotter Mode of Printing Prints the character in dotted pattern through printer ribbon using either 24 pin or 9 pin Work by spraying ionized ink Also called page printer. Uses laser beam to produce an image. Prints lines at a time instead of single characters. Produces drawings or graphs through pens which are filled with different colours. ( CPS: Characters Per Second; PPM: Pages Per Minutes; LPM : Lines Per Minute) 300 to 600 LPM Slow, 90 CPS 6 to 12 PPM CPS Speed 200/300 to 700

Laser printer ****** 7

MEMORY OF THE COMPUTER Memory or storage capacity is one of the important components of a computer. Primary memory is further classified into two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read. Units of memory: The computer stores a character in the storage cells with binary (0. the storage of data and instructions in RAM is temporary. A. Secondary Memory ( External storage) Primary Memory : Primary memory is also called internal memory and is an important part of a computer. its programs and the data. It is the main area in a computer where the data is stored. Types of Memory : A computer memory is of two types 1.Z – 90 and a – 97 ……….e it is volatile memory. However. Any storage unit of a computer system is classified on the basis of the following criteria: 1.1) mechanism. 2. The CPU can directly access the data from RAM almost immediately. Cost per bit of storage. Hence the storage capacity of the computer is measured in the number of words it can store and is expressed in terms of bytes. RAM is a place in a computer that holds instructions for the computer. To store a character. This memory can be quickly accessed by the CPU for reading or storing information. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. 3. Primary Memory ( Internal storage) 2. i.Only Memory (ROM ) RAM: RAM is also known as read/write memory as information can be read from and written onto it. The different units of measurement are 8 Bits = 1 Byte 210 (or) 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 210 (or)1024 KB 210 (or)1024 MB Conversion : ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is called the ― word length‖ of the storage unit. Thus the basic unit of memory is a bit (binary digit – 0.65 ……. till the time the computer is running. 8 . This code has given alphabets like some numbers which can be converted to Binary form. a computer requires 8 bits or 1 byte. Storage capacity: It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit.1). The stored data can be recalled instantly and correctly whenever desired. z – 121 = 1 Mega Byte (MB) = 1 Gega Byte (GB) By using these codes the alphabets can be converted to digital & hence to Binary form. Access time: This is the time required to locate and retrieve stored data from the storage unit in response to program instructions.

A small hard disk might be as much as 25 times larger than a floppy disk. It does not depend on the power supply. 160GB. Hard Disk: The hard disk can hold more information than the floppy disk and the retrieval of information from hard disk is faster when compared to floppies or tapes. Storage capacity of floppies are measured in kilobytes (KB) and megabytes (MB). As a result. Storage Capacity of hard disks varies from 20 MB to several Gega bytes like 80GB. i. 1.ROM: It is called Read-only memory as information can only be read from and not written or changed onto ROM. CD-ROM. ROM is the ‗built-in‘ memory of a computer. It stores some basic input – output instructions put by the manufacturer to operate the computer. These platters are coated with magnetic material.8 MB Size (Diameter) 5.5 inches 2.25 and 3. Some of the devices of secondary storages are Floppy Disk. The storage of data and instructions in ROM is permanent. There is a hole in the centre through which the spindle of drive unit rotates the disk. It is also referred as ―backup storage‖ as it is used to store large volume of data on a permanent basis which can be transferred to the primary memory whenever required for processing. additional memory. The details about the storage capacities of the floppies are presented below: Floppy Disk Low Density High Density High Density Extended Storage Capacity 360 KB 1. It has a small hole on one side called ―Right protect notch‖. It is less sensitive to external environmental disorders and hence the storage in hard disk is safe. Hard Disk. The hard disk is made up of a collection of discs (one below the other) known as platters on which the data is recorded.e it is non-volatile memory.5 inches and these could be either lowdensity or high-density floppies.25 inches 3.44 MB 2. Data are stored in secondary storage in the same binary codes as in the main (primary memory) storage. Secondary memory: The primary memory which is faster (and hence expensive) is generally not sufficient for large storage of data.2 MB 1. A hard disk is fixed inside the CPU and its capacity ranges from 20 MB onwards. DVD and Flash drive. called the ―auxiliary‖ or ―seconda ry memory‖ is used.5 inches 3. 9 . Floppy Disk: It is also referred as ―Diskette: and is made of flexible Vinyl material. Which protects accidental writing/deleting the information from the disk. The disks are available in two sizes of 5.25 inches 5.

Flash Drive: It is a small.3. CD-ROM: CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk–Read Only Memory. To use a CD-ROM. 4. Its main advantage is that it is portable and can hold a large amount of data. It is similar to a CD-ROM. Data once written onto it cannot be erased. DVDs are generally used to store a very large multimedia presentations and movies that combine high quality sound and graphics. delete. This device is plugged into the USB port of the computer and the computer automatically detects this device. a device called CD drive is needed. CD-ROMs have the following variations: (i) CD-R(Compact disc Recordable): Data can be written onto it just once. It comes in various storage capacities of 2GB. DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc. It is also called USB drive. Because of their capacity. We can read. DVDs that can store up to 17GBs are also available. access and transfer data. portable device that can be used to store. and move data from computer to pen drive or pen drive to computer. It is popular because it is easy to use and small enough to be carried in a pocket. write. 4GB.. The stored data can be read.7MB. it is commonly called Pen drive. 5. The storage capacity of most CD-ROMs is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB. 8GB etc. Due to its small size. (ii) CD-RW(Compact disc Rewritable): It is also called erasable CD. It is used to store a wide variety of information. copy. Data once written onto it can be erased to write or record new information many times. ****** 10 . except that it can store larger amounts of data. The storage capacity of a DVD is at least 4.

i. It requires a powerful PC with a minimum RAM of 8 MB . a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language. Therefore. Utility programs 4.Character user Interface GUI -. The basic difference between the Hardware and Software is just the same as that exists between TV and TV studio. This continues till the last statement. languages is known as translators . If the source program contains errors. Translators : Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language – the machine language . Dos is a single user and single task operating system  WINDOWS : It works with DOS and it supports single user and multitask system. An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. the compilers produce a list of errors at the end of the execution of the program. There are two types of translators. UNIX GUI : The system can be operated with mouse and keyboard. i. Operating System (OS) : The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called Operating system. They are compilers and Interpreters A Compiler checks the entire user – written program (known as the source program) and if it is error free. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and if it is error – free. Ex: MS-DOS.  UNIX AND XENIX: It is suited for multi-user and multi-task system 2. Generally the OS acts as an interface between the user and the Hardware of the computer. It refers to the objects that we can actually touch.Graphical user Interface CUI : It is operated with keyboard only. Operating System 2. They are: 1. the TV (Hardware) is a dead machine. Thus an interpreter 11 The software that ―translates‖ the instructions of different . Without TV studio (software) from where the programs are telecast. Translators 3. executes. CUI -. circuits and the cables. Ex: Windows 95. There are five categories of software. The User interface provided by the OS can be character based or graphical. produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program). processors. The operating system acts as interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of programs. Software: Software is a program or set of instructions that causes the Hardware to function in a desired way. The source program is retained for possible modifications and corrections and the object program is loaded into the computer for execution. Ex: input and output devices.e a compiler translates the whole program before execution. General purpose programs 1. Windows XP etc  Disk Operating System (DOS): It was developed as early as 1980 by Bill Gates at the age of 19.e It is a bridge between the user and the Hardware. It is suited for personal computers.HARDWARE and SOFTWARE Hardware: The physical components of the computer are known as ―Hardware‖. Application programs 5.

Example: Payroll. 4. Ex. There is no unique standard machine language. 3. Add or A is used as a symbol for addition. Rather there are many machine languages. 2. These languages follow rules like ―English‖ language.   Because of their English like nature. i. 2. Error correction is very much simpler in the case of interpreter as it translates the statements in stages. Several High Level Languages which are in common use: FORTRAN : FORmula TRANslation COBOL : BASIC : PROLOG: ALGOL : Common Business Oriented Language Beginner‘s All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code PROgramming in LOGic ALGOrithmic Language 3. High Level Languages (HLL): These are referred as problem oriented languages (POL). These are machine dependent. Machine Languages: Computers respond only to machine language. Railway Reservation etc.1). MAILING. Interpreter takes more time for the execution of the program compared to compilers as it translates one statement at a time Programming Languages: There are three types of programming languages.e. Like machine language. These programs are written in different languages such as BASIC or C or by using database packages like dBASE. These are also machine dependent. This language is in terms of binary codes (0. writing program in assembly language is also time consuming. It requires translators to convert into machine language. time consuming and leading to errors while writing the programs. The compiler produces an error list of the entire program at the end. Utility Programs: These are pre-written programs supplied by the manufacturer for maintaining day to day activities of computer system. Assembly Languages : It uses mnemonic codes rather than numeric codes (as in machine languages). virus scanning software etc. Application Programs: These are user written programs to do a specific job which can be changed to meet the individual needs. Example: COPY. The major difference between compiler and interpreter is 1. These are referred as the first generation languages. A program written in any HLL can be run on computers of different types without any modifications.. These are referred as third generation languages. less time is required to write a program. 1. Billing. which is difficult. Oracle.translates or executes the first instruction before it goes to the second. all programs should be written with these codes. They are machine independent. The advantages of these languages are  The high level languages are convenient for writing programs as they can be written without any codes. 12 . while a compiler translates the whole program before execution. SORT.

Establishment and enforcement of a priority system : It determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. STORY-BOARD. 5. POWER-POINT etc. Graphics Ex: LOTUS. These packages are categorized as : i) Data Analysis Data Analysis Ex: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). FOX-PRO. Qpro. Word Processing Ex: WORD PERFECT. WORDSTAR.5. Databases Ex: dBASE. Input / Output management : It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different Input and Output devices while one or more programmes are executed. 7. MSTAT. General Purpose Packages: These packages are developed to suit the needs of research workers / scientists in different fields. GENSTAT. MS-Excel etc. Functions of Operating System : Today most operating systems perform the following important functions : 1. File management : It allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines. 6. ******* ii) Word Processing iii) Spread Sheet iv) Graphics and v) Databases 13 . CHIRATOR. SAS etc. MS-Access etc. MS-Word. Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator. VP-PLANNER. 2. Spread Sheet Ex: LOTUS. Memory management : It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data. Processor management : It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system. Interpretation of commands and instructions. MICROSTAT. NORTON EDITOR etc. 4. ORACLE. FOX-BASE. 3. SYMPHONY.

payroll and personnel database. Depending on the use of applications. These can be classified into three types: 1. 3. 2. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or numbers. traffic signals. In India the indigenous super computer was developed under the name 14 .. Some of the areas where these computers are being used are – soil testing. the developments in the computers led to the use of digital computers in variety of applications. speed and the purpose for which they are developed. Digital Computers: These computers operate by ―counting‖. space applications etc. Later. manipulations of data. Param. Analog computers: They operate by ―measuring‖ instead of ―counting‖. Hybrid Computers: Computers which combine the features of analog and digital computers are known as Hybrid computers..S. General Purpose Computers: These are developed to meet the requirements of several areas such as simulation.. but are expensive c) Mini Computers: It is simultaneously a medium sized computer with moderate cost.A. a) Super Computers b) Mainframe Computers c) Mini Computers d) Micro Computers These are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and a) Super Computers: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers. Digital Computers 3. These computers are available in different sizes and capabilities and are further classified (based on memory. speed. rocket technology etc. solving mathematical equations. storage) as follows. weather forecasting etc. Special Purpose Computers: These are developed with a specific purpose. the digital computers are classified into 1) Special Purpose Computers and 2) General Purpose Computers 1. The first super computer was developed in U.. They are powerful tools for solving differential equations.Classification of Computers Computers are classified according to the storage capacity. 2. Hybrid Computers 1. by CRAY computers. A majority of the computers that are in use are digital. available It can serve multi-users indigenously and used for large volume applications. they support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. Analog Computes 2. The name (derived from greek word analog) denotes that the computer functions by establishing similarities between the two quantities. medical scanning. These are used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines such as electronics. These computers were essentially developed for computations. drip irrigation. b) Mainframe Computers: They also have large storage and high computing speed (but relatively lower than the super computers). spacecraft. They are used in applications like weather forecasting.

d) Micro Computers: A micro computer is the smallest general purpose processing system. These are self contained units and usually developed for use by one person at a time but can be linked to very large systems. PC : Personal Computer 2. Micro computers are also referred as ―personal computers‖(PC). PC-XT : PC with Extended Technology 3. easy to use even at homes and can be read for variety of applications from small to medium range. They are cheap. These are available in three models: 1. PC-AT : PC with Advanced Technology ***** 15 .

200. are called peripherals. 80486. The major components of the circuit board are : Microprocessor.. Pentium I.6 GHZ Data width 8 bits 16 bits 8-bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus Peripherals: The input.100.000 42. RAM and ROM chips and other supporting circuits.No. Classification of PCs: PCs are mainly classified on the basis of primary memory (RAM). These chips will be able to retrieve data from the input output devices. store. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088. Keyboard.000 1. The following table gives the differences among the different processors that intel has introduced over the years : S.000 125. Mouse and Printer 3 PC-AT 1 MB to 32 MB 80286 to 80486 16 . key board and printer 18 MHZ Floppy Drives. output and secondary storage units like floppy drives. Microprocessor. mouse. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Microprocessor 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4 ―Prescott‖ Date 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 2004 Transistors 6000 29. 1 2 PC-Type PC PC-XT RAM 640 KB 1 MB Microprocessor 8088/8086 8088/8086 Clock speed 8 MHZ Peripherals Floppy Drives.No. 80286.PERSONAL COMPUTERS Personal Computer: A personal computer has a Monitor (VDU). a keyboard . There is an address bus which is built into these chips to determine the storage locations (of RAM) of the data and the instructions of the program. manipulate and process a byte of data at a time.500. II.000 134. The classification is presented in the following table: S.000 9. HardDisk Drive. keyboard. i.000 7. Clock Speed: The speed with which the instruction is executed or number of pulses per second is called the clock speed. Hard above disk.000 Clock speed 2MHZ 5 MHZ 6 MHZ 16 MHZ 25 MHZ 60 MHZ 233 MHZ 450 MHZ 1. III and Pentium 4. The CPU of PC has a mother board with several chips mounted on a circuit board.000. but it does it about 5000 times faster.5 GHZ 3.000 3. clock speed and peripherals. Over the years.000. It is measured in terms of million pulses per second (MHZs).500. The other procesors are 8088. logic and control functions. printer and CPU. Disk Drive (s).e it contains ALU & CU. 80386. Key board and printer 25 MHZ and Floppy drives. etc.000 275. Microprocessor: The Microprocessor chip is like a brain of human being which contains circuits and registers to perform arithmetic. different microprocessors were developed and the first in the series is INTEL 8080.

the computer is ready to accept the commands at user terminal. Booting is essential whenever the system is locked or switched-off. the operating system residing in the floppy or in the hard disk is transferred into the primary memory. fluctuations resulting out of switching ON and OFF the system. After this. Thus when a PC with system disk either in Hard-Disk Drive or Floppy Drive is switched ―on‖. the screen finally displays one of the following symbols with a blinking cursor at its end: a) A:\> This imply that the computer is booted through Floppy drive `A‘ and is ready to accept DOS commands. when the computer is switched on. ****** 17 . These are referred as follows: Floppy Disk Drive : A or B Hard Disk : C Booting of the Computer: Booting imply ―activating‖ the computer for working. a) Cold Booting: It is only switching OFF the system and after some time again switching ON. b) C:\> It imply that the PC is booted through the Hard-Disk Drive `C‘. Thus. A PC can be booted through two ways: a) Cold Booting b) Warm Booting. The symbol ―\>‖ is referred as DOS prompt from where DOS commands can be entered. It is carried out by pressing the following three keys simultaneously : It is preferable to cold booting as it safeguards the system from sudden power b) Warm Booting: Ctrl + Alt + Del.Working with personal computers Drives of the computer: A computer can have Floppy Disk Drive along with Hard Disk drives in the system. The booting of the computer is carried out with a software which resides on ROM chip called BIOS ( Basic Input Output System). ― non-system or disk error‖ is flashed on the screen. If OS is not existing either in floppy drive or in the hard disk drive.

Rules for naming the files: 1. The main directory of a drive is called Root Directory into which several directories and sub-directories may exist.BAT. etc. %.MS-DOS MS-DOS is a collection of programs and other files. etc. filing folders and filling cabinets. If the batch file is given a special name AUTOEXEC. is known as the batch file.SYS extension. File names should be of one to eight characters in length with an option of one to three character extension 2.BAK. The files should have suitable names for their identification in later use.) 4. a directory may contain directories also.COM extension refers to COMMAND file name and the other with . date and time of creation of files. It is a single user and single programming environment. it should be referred along with its extension and not only with the first part 5. 18 . Executable Files: The files with extension of either .WK1. Just as a cabinet contain papers and other folders. RAMA. When a file name includes an extension. A file with . according to the usage. System Files: These are program files developed for system control. directories and disk is similar to the relation between papers. Types of files in DOS: There are different types of files you can create in your computer. $. Files and File names: A file is a collection of related information. A period (. To differentiate each file.COM or . + / \ * as these have special meaning 3. A batch file has the extension . &. Directory: It is a collection of files. DATE.EXE are called executable files. it is automatically executed when the computer is switched on or during booting. File names can include any one of the following characters: A to Z (or a to z) 0 to 9. They have . These files are directly executed by typing their names (without the extension) by the computer. . #. Backup Files: These are backup files of a file and have extension .. size.. system programs and the computer itself.BAT. The relation between files.COM.TXT.) is used to separate the first part of a file name from the extension. the computer will give an extension to identify the different types of files you have created. MS-DOS is designed to provide a method of organizing and using the information stored on disks. Reserved devices names are not allowed. (COMMAND. These files are such that their contents can not be altered (edited).EXE extension refers EXECUTABLE program file. (LETTER. ( ). application programs. Batch Files: the file containing a series of DOS commands. These files are created while working with WORDSTAR package for typing a document. @. { } The characters which are not allowed are: :. which are executed automatically one at a time in the order entered.

COPY A:MATHS. 4.DOC on A drive.TXT RESULT. DIR: Dir displays continuously the directory of file names. COPY: The COPY command is used to copy files from one place to another. DEL: Deletes a specified file. Del stats deletes the file ―stats‖. 3.COM 2. DIR *. C:\>dir a: This command displays the list of files and directories from the drive A i. It can be specified with two options: i) Dir/p: It pauses the listing of the directory whenever the screen is full. Suppose you want to delete a file COMPUTER.TXT to STATS.DOC  3. COPY PATH A:ENTO copies a file ―PATH‖ from the current drive to drive ―A‖ with the file name ―ENTO‖. file size. COPY A:MATHS C:STATS copies a file ―MATHS‖ form drive ―A‖ to drive ―C‖ with the file name ―STATS‖ 4. In addition.* copies all extensions of file ―MATHS‖ form drive A to drive C with name ―STATS‖.Types of DOS commands: There are two types of commands: i) internal and ii) external i) Internal DOS commands: Internal commands are those commands which manage files. Syntax: copy {Drive name} <source file> {Drive name} <target file name> Ex: 1. 1. the floppy drive.TXT 19 Syntax: DEL {filename} . ii) Dir/w: displays the files of the directory in a five column format. DIR can also be specified with wildcard characters (such as * or ?) to list files sharing a common element in the file name or extension. The way to execute Rename command is to type REN leave a space followed by the old file name again followed by a space and new file name.TXT the following command will work: C:\> REN MATHS. The total number of files and remaining bytes are listed. They are loaded into the memory of the PC when PC is booted. The next screen load of files can be displayed by pressing any key. Del stats.* : lists all files with STATS and other combinations along with the extensions. date and time of creation. The way to execute copy command is to type COPY leave a space followed by the source file name again a space followed by destination file.e. Eg: DIR STATS.COM : lists all files with extension . These are stored in a large file with file name COMMAND.* deletes all extensions of the file ―stats‖.* C:STATS. REN: The REN command is used to rename the old file with another name. when a PC is booted. Ex: Suppose if you want to change the name of a file MATHS. Only file names and their extensions will be displayed without the date and time of creation. COPY STATS MATHS copies a file ―STATS‖ with the name ―MATHS‖ on the same drive 2.COM. the command will be: C:> DEL A: COMPUTER.

5. change or delete the volume label on the disk It is used to provide access to files located on other directories or on other disks. If no date is to be Syntax: C:\> Date changed. one can directly invoke files of DOS. pressing ―enter‖ retains the old time Syntax: C:\> Time 7. 7. PATH: (or) This command displays the volume label of the current disk It is used to create. To remove the directory STATS. 8. WORDSTAR (WS) LOTUS directories by giving the following command: PATH = C:\DOS. 6. Some of the useful commands : 1. It is specified as follows: C:\> MD\STATS (or) MD STATS : This command makes (creates) a new directory with the name ― STATS‖. FORMAT: Formatting a (new) disk imply organizing the new disk into magnetic tracks and sectors that are readable by DOS. FORMAT a: formats disk in drive ―A‖ 3.BAT files for its execution when the PC is booted 6.DATE: It displays current date and asks for new date in (mm)-(dd)-(YY) format. The PC copies files only on a formatted disk. type in the following command: 20 . all the existing files on it would be erased. it is essential to first delete all the files in the directory.CLS : when you want to clear the screen. RD: It removes or deletes a directory. the command is C:\> RD STATS 8. C:\LOTUS This command is generally listed in the AUTOEXEC. To remove a directory. Hence this command should be used carefully. However. VOL: 4.TIME: displays current time and asks for new tine and if no new time is to be entered. the old date can be retained by pressing ―enter‖ key. C:\WS. LABEL: 5.VER: displays the version of DOS C:\> CLS  ii) External commands: External commands are small file programs used for doing specific jobs. if an old disk is formatted. If we have to work with files in the directory ―STATS‖. CD : It is used to change from one directory to the other. Thus while in ―C‖ drive. the directory has to be changed to ―STATS‖ Ex: C:\>CD\ STATS (or) CD STATS : This command changes the root directory to the directory ―STATS‖. SORT: It sorts the files in alphanumeric order: either A to Z or Z to A DIR| SORT (or) DIR/ON : Displays all the files in A to Z order DIR| SORT/R (or) DIR/O-N: Displays all the files in reverse order (i.e Z to A) 2. MD: It is used to make a new directory (or sub-directory) which is subordinate to the current (or root) directory.

there are in-built programs to guard against computer viruses. Generic. Brain.COM (COMMAND. Thus when PC is switched on. ********* Computer viruses and Vaccines: Def: A VIRUS is a set of instructions (or program) or software prepared to destroy a package and data. TREE displays directories and sub directories in a drive without files. Although the purpose for developing such softwares is not known. Functioning of viruses: viruses reside in executable files such as . Some of the anti-virus vaccines are: NASHSOFT. TREE: It displays the directories and sub-directories existing in a drive with a ―TREE‖ diagram. VACCINE: It is a software developed for removing the viruses. More than 1000 computer viruses have been identified.EXE.COM or . It also displays only directories with symbol <DIR> (without files and sub directories in that directory) whereas. In DOS version. Meccaf etc. AVG. The difference between TREE and DIR commands is that: DIR displays all files with its size.9. they again go back to the executable files. World peace etc. AVIRA. the virus enters the RAM through .COM) file and starts destructive work of killing data and program files.. date and time of creation. Die_Hard-2. A virus kills data and program files. Whenever the PC is switched off. Gumnam. UTSCAN. May_5th. Jerusalem. They are classified as : i) ii) File Allocation Table (FAT) based viruses File based viruses ii )Key board viruses and Some of the well known viruses are: Joshi. they appear to be basically developed for a check against the ―piracy‖ of program packages. ***** 21 . These are anti-virus programs for both DOS and WINDOWS and a memory resident virus-safe program that guards against the introduction of files that may be affected by virus.

5. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). 4. Mouse. User can paste portion of one document into another by utilizing more advanced document linking . Note pad. audio or network card into the computer without having a set of switches or making other settings. When we rest the mouse pointer on an icon. 2. MS-DOS version 6. By default.22 2. It provides a big facility of plug and play standard. The text below each icon is the name of the Icon. Hardware required for Windows: 1. 8. Windows have the facility of accessories such as Word pad. folder or program. then it will display fault error message about its crash and you can eliminate the crashed program from the task list without affecting other running applications. Parts of the desktop include Icons & the taskbar. 4. It converts the plain character based user interface provided by DOS into a Graphical User Interface(GUI) such as pictures. 7. 5.0. CD drive. It provides a multitasking capabilities to the PC. 7. Components of the Desktop:  Icons  Taskbar Icons: Icon is a small image that represents a file. It gives a brief description of the Icon. Icons. menus & dialog boxes appear. 3.WINDOWS Salient features of Windows Operating System: 1. Monitor (Super VGA . Parts of a window screen: Desktop: The desktop is the on-screen work area on which Windows. If a program crashes. It allows user to simply plug a new board such as a video. there will be 4-5 icons on the desktop. A Hard disk with atleast 40-MB of free space to install Windows. The Desktop can have several components. symbols and words on your screen that can be controlled by the mouse. Windows owes its name to the fact that it runs each program or document or application in its own separate window.2. Calculator and Paint. A PC with atleast 80386 processor. 3. 6. Atleast 8 MB RAM. 6. They are:  My Computer  My documents  Internet Explorer  Recycle bin  Network Neighborhood 22 6. It supports long file name rather than the limited 8 characters with extension of three letter file name (8:3) as used by DOS. This is referred to as Tooltip. In Windows file name can have name up to 255 characters long. a rectangular box appears. features called Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). Monochrome or Multicolored) 6.

 Close (X) – When done with a window. i. you can have it taken completely off the desktop by closing it. It is used to access the drives. which can be restored again if needed. you can move it around the screen. folders & files on the computer.  Minimize – To have a window take the minimum amount of desktop space possible. We can start an application using the start menu. Use the X button to do this. the Toolbar. Notification area holds system icons that allow for functions such as changing the time & Volume of the Computer. My Documents: This is the default storage location for the files created in the windows. Title bar – This is the title of the window. 23 .My Computer: This is the icon which represents all the files & folders which can be used in the system. Menu bar. E. ( this will be below the Title bar). Internet Explorer: This is an application used to browse the internet. max & close buttons. The different parts of a window are the Title bar. Local C. Printer. Menu bar: The Menu bar displays a list of commands that can be used to perform various tasks. Control panel etc. The Restore button places the window back so that more than one window can display at a time. All the open applications are available on the Taskbar.e Floppy drive(A). The Title bar is also the handle for the window. If you click and hold the mouse button down on the title bar. Recycle bin: This is a folder that stores all the files & folders deleted from windows temporarily. Anatomy of a Window: The window on a desktop is the rectangular area displaying content independently of other areas of the screen. and the min. like your name at the top of a piece of paper. Menu items are commands within the menu bar that allow choosing of functions & tasks. The Taskbar has the START menu on the left & the Notification area on the right. This drops the window into the Task bar like a piece of paper going into a drawer. D. This stretches the window out like an architect‘s floor plan being rolled out over the desk.  Maximize – To have a window take the maximum desktop space. The Task bar will show the task whether or not the window is minimized.  Restore – A maximized window will cover over all the other windows and icons on the desktop. click the minimize button. click the maximize button. Taskbar: The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of the screen is called Taskbar. Network Neighborhood: This is an application which display all the computers connected in network with our computer. These tools are used to manage the window & the components within it.

the BIOS is activated. If there is no OS. ******* 24 . Scroll Bars: On the bottom and right edges of a window we find scroll bars. The Status Bar :The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the window and provides such information as the cursor position.Tool bar: contains a set of buttons for frequently used commands. They are used to pan across the information in the window. the number of words in the document etc. If OS is present. current page number. then it transfers the OS from ROM to RAM. it shows non-system or disk error. Booting in Windows:      When the computer is switched on. The BIOS present in ROM searches for the operating system and drives. when we have information which won‘t fit into the window. Then the desktop is displayed on the monitor.

Creating files: After creating a folder. 2. you can browse through the contents of your computer in a single window. The left pane displays the list of drives & folders on the computer. as well as perform other tasks pertaining to files. 25 . and drives. Windows Explorer displays the contents of the entire system in a hierarchical manner. folders. folders. You can notice the change in the tree structure immediately. and rename files. we can move files into it or create new files within the folder. The right pane displays the contents of the selected drive or folder. click the first item to be selected. click Start  All programs  Accessories  Windows Explorer Windows Explorer is divided into 2 panes. From the tree pane : select the directory under which you want to create a sub directory. a new folder is created. You can use it to see how your files are organized and to copy. 3. Hold down CTRL Click all other items that need to be selected. By using these two panes. To open Windows Explorer. and drives.WINDOWS EXPLORER Windows Explorer is an application that provides detailed information about your files. move. Selecting files & folders: i) To select all the files in a folder: Click the folder in the left pane  All the files will be displayed in the right pane. On the right pane of the screen. Folder is a list of files (similar to Directory in MS-DOS) Working with Folders: Creating a Folder: 1. Choose FileNewFolder. Explorer uses the directory windows to graphically display the directory structure of your disk and files. Type in the name of the directory and press ENTER. To select all --CTRL + A ii) iii) To select consecutive files: Use shift key + arrow keys To select non-consecutive files:    In the right pane of Windows Explorer.

select it and then press ctrl +C. to copy a file or folder. Renaming files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) Select the item to be renamed Choose File  Rename Current name gets selected. Deleting files or folders: If you do not want certain files or folders. In W. press ctrl +V. Alternatively. Note: To delete a file permanently without moving it to the Recycle bin. click yes otherwise No. To paste. select and press ctrl +X & then to paste. On the edit menu click copy ( the files are copied to the clip board. click paste in the Edit menu. All the files & folders which are deleted are moved to the recycle bin. To delete: i) ii) iii) Select On the file menu.Exp. click delete or press delete. press ctrl+ V To move the files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) select the folder to be moved. On the edit menu. The clip board is a location where the information you copy or cut is temporarily stored) iii) iv) Click the destination folder in the left pane. you can delete them. to cut a file or folder. A warning appears prompting you to confirm the file deletion. the next step is to copy the files. select the file or folder to be copied. Shift+ Del. select the file & then press ****** 26 . Type in the new name Press Enter. click cut Click the destination folder in the left pane On the edit menu. Alternatively.Copying Files & Folders: Once we select the files to be copied. If you want to delete. click paste. To copy the files & folders: i) ii) In Windows Explorer.

A paragraph is created only when carriage control is externally given for a sentence. Pages: It is the amount of text that can be printed on one page of a paper. 5. punctuations and other special symbols which are commonly used in the text. 4. These documents are referred as ―Files‖. Usually. numerical digits. 6. 3. a complete document may be very short such as a memo(or letter) or very long such as a book consisting of several chapters. Documents and files: It is a group of chapters. Cursor Control: The four directional keys of the keyboard ( for editing in much the similar manner as that of a pointer or pencil. printing 9. Editing: Words or lines can be entered (inserted) or deleted in any part of the text with proper alignment . This is called ―word-wrap‖. Units of the Document: Since word-processing is concerned with preparation of a document (in a desired form). Word-wrap 2. wherever the old word appears. paragraphs are separated by leaving blank lines between them. ) helps in locating the text 27 . macros 8. comma. the corresponding word is automatically adjusted in the following line. 3. Paragraph: It is a group of one or more sentences. Features of Word-processing: 1. the text can be continuously typed and the computer automatically starts a fresh line when a line is filled up. Chapters: It is a collection of pages 7. Word-wrap: In word-processing packages. full stop and space.WORD PROCESSING Definition: Word-processing is essentially typing. Sentence: A sentence is a group of words preceded and followed by appropriate delimiting characters. editing 4. it is essential to know the units of the document: 1. mail merge printing 1. Similarly. thesaurus 7. a block of text(which is frequently used) can be prepared and moved or copied wherever desired in the file. 2. cursor control 3. Character: It refers to the alphabets. spell-check 6. file management 10. formatting 5. 2. Another important facility is that any ‗word‘ can be replaced by a new word through out the file. there is a facility to ‗recover‘ the text which is deleted by mistake or accidentally. In addition to these. and manipulation of a document in a desired form. Word: A word is group of characters that are separated from other group of characters by some delimiters like. editing. As soon as the length of a sentence exceeds the right margin.

delete. italics. 9. CHIRATOR 4. Spell-check: Word-processing packages provide checking of spellings facility 6. bold. WORDSTAR 3.4. Word-processing Packages: Several word-processing packages are available. The printing can be controlled after printing a fixed number of pages or can be resumed from any specified page number. File management: This facility allows to create. MSWORD (SOFT WORD) 2. superscripts and subscripts setting foot-notes  number of lines per page  printing page numbers and headings for ‗Header‘ and ‗Footer‘  table of contents  indexing the text 5. Mail merge printing: This facility helps in printing same ―original‖ letter with different addresses. Formatting : The text formatting refers to the way the text is desired to appear on a page. NORTON EDITOR ******* 28 . move & search for files. so that each letter is ―original‖ and not a carbon copy. Printing: It gives a ‗hard‘ copy of the text. 10. The ability to define macros allows us to save a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes. Some of these are listed below: 1. Macros: A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. 8. Thesaurus: It provides synonyms (or words with similar meanings) 7. This includes following functions      setting left and right margins paragraph settings line spacing selecting font specifications such as underline.

edit and format your document. Horizontal & Vertical rulers: used for measurement purposes like any normal ruler. drawings & features that will make the text richer & more interactive. section no. each menu contains a specific set of commands.doc. Task pane : is a small window within the word window that provides shortcuts to commonly used tasks.MS-WORD MS. out of the total pages found in the document. charts. edit. ( The term document refers to a file created using word processor) Starting MS-Word: Start  All Programs  MS-office MS-word MS-word icon is w. Formatting toolbar: Contains a list of formatting options available inside the format menu. The extension name of MS. Standard toolbar: provides shortcuts in the form of buttons for frequently performed tasks. Insertion point : is the blinking vertical line that indicates the position on the screen where text or graphics will be placed.word is . It is an application used to create. It allows the user to insert pictures. Scroll bars : are used to move up and down or left and right in a document. the default unit of measure is in inches. tables..Word is a word processor. White page area: is the space area where you type. page no. column number etc. 29 . The default Word document includes the following layout tools:           Title bar: displays the document name and the application. Menu bar: Contains the list of menus available inside word. line number. Status bar: displays the details such as the page number the user is working on. print and save a document.

Select then a size by clicking on it. you can scroll down to view more fonts and select the font name you wish to use by clicking on its name.  Font size : Allows you to change the font size by clicking inside the Font size box and entering a value or by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the box to view a list of sizes available. Underline : Each button respectively allows you to make your text appear as bold. use the pull-down menu to redo several steps Insert table: Insert a table into the document. center or right side of the page. or make a table of selected text Insert Excel worksheet: Inserts an Excel spreadsheet into the Word document Columns : Changes the number of columns in a document Drawing: Displays or hides the Drawing toolbar Zoom (100%): Enlarge or reduce the display of the active document Formatting Toolbar: The formatting Tool bar is the easiest way to change many attributes of a text.   Style menu: Allows you to make your text Bold. from left to right or right to left manner.     Bold. use pull-down menu to undo several steps Redo : Reverses the action of the Undo button. location and file format Print: Prints the active file .Standard Toolbar: This toolbar contains buttons to allow you to perform the basic operations such as opening and closing a document. Spelling & Grammer: Spelling. Function of commonly used buttons                  New: Creates a new blank document based on the default template Open: Opens or finds an existing file Save: Saves the active file with its current file name. Italic. Text orientation : Allows you to change the typing direction of your text. 30 . italic or underlined. Font : Allows you to change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the font name box. Line spacing : Allows you to set the amount of space that word puts when go to a new line.for more print options go to the File menu and select Print Print preview : Shows how the document will look when you print it. moving and printing data. Alignment : Each button respectively allows you to make your text aligned to the left. You can view a list of fonts available. Italic. Note : A Font size of 11 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text. grammar and writing style checker Cut : Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard Copy : Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard Paste : Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point Format painter : Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects Undo : Reverses the last command. You can also justify the text across the page using the justify button. underlined… depending on the style you choose.

Web Page Preview – This shows the web page in printable form. date of modification and file location) 11.Saves the file with one name -Saves the file with more than one name( with different formats) 5.This is used to send the file document to internet mail to some other person. To insert a new page. the date of 31 . Increase / Decrease indent : Allows you to increase or decrease the indentation of your paragraph in relation to the side of the page. Highlight color : Allows you to change the color behind a text selection. Orientation 9. Page set up . creation. 7. Font colour : Allows you to change the colour of the text. Save as Web page – This is used to save a document in a Web style.Opens the existing files . 12. Print .e a bulk ( big/ more) work can be done in small parts.This is used to do the parts of work in small parts. New 2. i.Opens new Word file (Blank Document file) . paper size.( Specified pages and no. 8.To close the Ms-word. Exit . press Ctrl + Enter 10. (with HTML extension) 6. Save as . Versions .     Numbering. Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F): 1. Send . Bullets : Allows you to make your text appear as a bullets list or as a numbering list.To get the printout. Properties . Save 4.To set the margin. the size of file. of copies). Outside Border : Allows you to add a border around a text selection.This gives the details about the document ( the type of file. Open 3.

Curser goes to the specified page.(Ctrl + H) Paste special – This will paste the copied (or) cut text in a form of an object. size etc. Paragraph .Can paste the selected text ( Ctrl + V) .Can copy a selected text ( Ctrl + C) .Used to drop the letter to different lines. It will paste in box which Cannot be altered. specified paragraph. 2. 4. Drop Cap . Replace . 32 .Used to apply different borders to the table / to the page. 5. Borders & Shades .Will take the opposite action of undo ( Ctrl + Y) . specified line.Will take the previous command (ctrl +Z) .used to change the font face. To have a break in columns. style.Used to replace any part of Text / word / Character with another word/ character.Can cut a selected text ( Ctrl + X) .Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E): Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Del Find .Used to set the space between paragraphs and also between the lines 3. Font . Go To .Used to find the part of text word \ character in the file (Ctrl + F) Find Next – (F3) Finding \ finding next : Used to repeat the finding process. Bullets .Removes the selected text . a column break is used ( insert menu  break  Columns) Ctrl + Shift + Enter 6. Columns – Used to write the text in column wise.Used to highlight points in number wise / bullet wise.(Ctrl + G) Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O) 1.

13. MS WORD . Opening Existing documents:  Click the open button found on the Standard tool bar. choose File  New.K Closing a document:  Select File  close  Click on the small X found on the right top next to the Menu bar and the Title bar. drop cap must be used first) 8. where you want the text to appear and type it in. and select Blank document.e a vertical blinking line. (or)  From the Menu bar. Toggle – This converts lower case letters to upper case & vice –versa in a word. you can start a new page at any point by inserting a page break.This is used to change the writing fashion of the document which are already existing. Back Ground .Editing Text : Typing and Inserting Text: To enter text in your document.Used to change the case of the text. This shows the background only in the web layout.This is used to change the back ground colour of the document but the color can be seen only in the web layout. Select All pages (or) Current page (or) type the page numbers and also select number of copies according to the requirement and click O. Theme . Text direction . select getting started and the select more (or)  From the Menu bar. select File  Save (or)  Follow the key sequence Ctrl + S Save dialog box appears. To do so. 10. 33 . Printing a document :  Select File  Print (or)  Click on the Print button on the Standard Tool bar (or)  Click Ctrl + P Print dialog box appears. Change case . backgrounds with some existing design background. Press enter to start a new paragraph. position the insertion point i. press ctrl + Enter.This is used to change the document. select File  Open Saving a document:  Click the Save button on the Tool bar. Type the name and click Save.Frames are used to write different documents in one single document. MS WORD – working with files: Creating a New document:  Click the New Blank document button on the standard tool bar. (or)  From the task pane. When you reach the end of a page. Some important features of Tools menu: Spelling &Grammar : Used to check the spelling and correct the words with related word. Frames . If you want. word will automatically break text onto the next page. 9. (Shift +F7) : used to type the letters with the same matter but different addresses. 12. the New document task pane will open. Style .Used to change the direction of drop cap (Note : To use text direction. (or)  From the Menu bar. 11.7. Word will automatically wrap text as it reaches the end of a line. ( F7) Thesaurus Mail merge : Used to know the synonym (meaning) of the word.

(or) Copy text: Paste Text: To paste previously cut or copied text. click the Copy button (or) Follow the key sequence Ctrl + C (or) From the standard tool bar. Shortcuts used for selecting a portion of the text:  Whole word : Double click within the word.  Whole paragraph: Triple click within the paragraph. copying and pasting text: Cut text: Highlight the text you need to move and follow one of the methods listed below:       From the Menu bar. click on the cut button. In Insert mode. To delete a large section of text. i. move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to and follow one of the methods listed below:    From the menu bar. In overtype mode. BACKSPACE key will delete text to the left of the cursor and DELETE key will erase text to the right. To highlight the whole text or part of it. This means that the same key can be used to switch back and forth between two different modes. click the Paste button ******* 34 . it must be first highlighted. characters typed are inserted into the text to the left of the insertion point. then drag the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button pressed.e selected with the mouse cursor. pushing any characters to the right of the insertion point further to the right. select Edit  Paste Follow the key sequence Ctrl + V (or) (or) From the standard Tool bar. Selecting Text: In order to change the format of the text you just typed.  Sentence : ctrl + click in a sentence  Entire document : Edit  select all ( ctrl + A) Deleting text:    Use the BACKSPACE or the DELETE key to delete text.Word offers two modes for adding text to your documents: Insert mode and overwrite mode. Moving. highlight the text using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key. select Edit  cut Follow the key sequence Ctrl + X From the Menu bar. Note: The Insert key is a toggle key. select Edit  copy (or) From the standard toolbar. locate the mouse at the start of the text you wish to highlight and click the left button. the text you type will replace the existing text.

Spreadsheet displays data in the form of rows and columns. Data Analysis Tools: MS-Excel provides a set of data analysis tools called Analysis Tool pack. Auto correct. 3. Availability of Charts & Graphs: MS-Excel allows users to view data entered as tables in a graphical form as charts. sheet 3. MS-Excel is a window based spreadsheet developed by Microsoft corporation. Availability of functions: Several Mathematical. Window based application: Excel like all other applications has Toolbars. 4. A worksheet can contain 65536 rows and 256 columns. 9. 2. It includes all features of a spreadsheet package like recalculation. Double click on the Microsoft application Icon. Some important features of MS-Excel: 1. An intersection of row and column is known as a cell. analyze data & compare data. It also provides many Mathematical. Financial & Statistical functions. Excel workbook contains 3 worksheets designated as sheet 1. Getting started with Excel: An Excel document is called a workbook. Workbooks: Workbooks are the files in which worksheets related to a project are held. Start  Programs  Microsoft office  Microsoft Excel  hit enter. financial & statistical functions are available in an Excel package. Thus it is used in many scientific and engineering environments for analyzing data. A single cell can contain a maximum of 255 characters. 6. One workbook can contain a maximum of 256 worksheets. Maintaining high volume of data: Excel can contain large volume of data. Start  Run  Type Excel  hit enter 3. 5.MS -EXCEL Spreadsheet is a software that helps to substitute the paper worksheets in the offices. 2. The extension name of excel workbook is . Auto fill feature: Excel has the feature which allows to fill cells with repetitive data such as chronological dates or numbers and repeated text. 8. Sorting capability: Excel has the capability of sorting any data in Ascending or Descending order. Shortcut Menus. which helps the user to easily understand. Online help and Wizards.xls We can start excel in many ways: 1. Excel can even hold graphic objects like pictures & images. 35 . a picture etc. graphs & functions. OLE support: Object linking and Embedding is a feature through which Excel can contain any object like a document. By default. 7. sheet 2.

Name box: displays the cell address of the active cell.Components of the Excel window: An Excel window has several unique elements identified in the figure below:  Rows. Data. Formula bar: displays the contents of the active cell. Ex: B6 Worksheet area: The middle portion of screen which occupies a major area is called worksheet area.e. columns & cell: In a worksheet rows are numbered from top to bottom. Format. Sheet tabs: appear above the status bar displaying the names of the worksheets. Edit. Column letter followed by the row number.536 rows and 256 columns. Active cell: The cell in which you are currently working. In this area. Window and Help. 36 . located beneath the menu bar. Insert.      Tool Bar: Tool Bars are usually shortcuts for menu items. Excel let's you customize the toolbar or even display multiple toolbars at the same time. sorting. Menu bar : The Menu bar contains menus that include all the commands you need to use to work your way through Excel such as File. Rows are numbered from 1 to 65. Standard and formatting toolbars are displayed by default. A worksheet is a large work area of 65. Tools. information or data (i. printing. and other operations.) either textual or numerical can be entered and the results can be displayed. View. Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar. has buttons for commonly performed tasks like adding a column of numbers.536 and columns labeled from A to IV (256 columns). The columns are labeled with letters from left to right. The Standard Excel XP toolbar appears in the figure below.   Status bar: located at the very bottom of the screen displays brief information about activating features within the worksheet area.   Title bar: The title bar contains the name of the program Microsoft Excel and the default name of the workbook Book1 that would change as soon as you save your file and give another name.

Creating a New Workbook: The steps to create a new workbook are. 2. The new workbook task pane appears at the right side of the screen. When you click the mouse in the formula bar. you have entered the marks as 78 instead of 87. A new workbook with 3 worksheets appears. or the X to abandon editing. Alternatively.Formatting toolbar The Formatting toolbar. located beneath the Standard toolbar bar. Click blank workbook. Use the formula bar to enter and edit worksheet data. 1. 1. to edit the data in a cell. The new entry replaces the old contents. By default. formatting numbers and placing borders around cells. On the File menu. an X and a check mark appear. Select the cell by clicking on it. 3. Formula bar & Name box The formula bar is located beneath the toolbar at the top of the Excel worksheet. Press the Enter key. Type in the information. The contents of the active cell always appear in the formula bar. Ex: Suppose you find that in the cell A6. click New. You can click the check icon to confirm and completes editing. then click on A6 and type 87 enter 37 . When you begin typing. the workbook is named as Book 1. your data also appears in the formula bar. Entering data: You can enter text. numbers and dates in an Excel worksheet. Name box The Name box displays the reference of the selected cells in the form of column label followed by row number. Editing text: The easiest way to edit the contents of a cell is to select the cell and then retype the entry. press F2. has buttons for various formatting operations like changing text size or style. and sheet 1 is the active worksheet & A1 is the active cell. To enter data of any type.

Formatting Numbers: Formatting data in a worksheet includes changing the number of decimal places. 1. Rest the mouse pointer over the row above which you want to insert the new row. On the Insert menu. Italic etc. The shape of the mouse pointer changes to 3. click rows. the steps are: Format/Cell/N/umber/Decimal places/2 Formatting Text: Text can be formatted using the buttons on the formatting toolbar.43 characters wide. 2. To format the number in a cell. Drag the boundary until the required width is obtained. 2. Inserting Rows & Columns: In Excel. Rest the mouse pointer over the column before which you want to insert the new Column. On the Insert menu. times & fractions and adding currency symbols. The insertion point appears within the cell. Formatting a worksheet: Changing the style or appearance of data in a worksheet is called formatting. Font of a cell. you can use the alignment buttons on the formatting tool bar. columns & cells. You can format the data in a worksheet by:   Changing the position of data in a cell Changing the font. Rest the mouse pointer on the column boundary on the right side. displaying dates. size. A row is inserted and the existing row moves down after the new row. 1. Retype the data & press enter. Double click the cell you want to edit. Aligning data: By default. The font style can also be changed to bold. 2. to insert a column. 38 .75 points high and every column is 8. To change the default alignment. any text you enter in Excel is aligned to the left and any value or number is aligned to the Right.You can also edit part of the data in a cell: 1. click columns. however you have to change the size of rows & columns so that it is fitted to the length of the data. As you fill it with data. To insert a row. rows & columns can be inserted or deleted without affecting the surrounding rows. style & colour. 3. 2. Delete the part of the data that you do not wish to keep. Changing Row height & Column width: By default. To Resize a column: 1. font size can be changed. every row is 12. Similarly.

Excel evaluates the formula according to the order of precedence of the operators. We can use any number of operators in a single formula. Type in the required size of the column in the text box column width. The column option is selected from the Format menu. Statistical & date/time operations on a single value or a set of values by using operators. One of the powerful features is formulas. Save dialogue box appears.(OR) 1. Subtraction Concatenation Comparisons Order of precedence 1 2 3 4 5 6 39 . When you attempt to print a worksheet Excel automatically inserts page breaks view. Row height can also be adjusted by selecting the rows. 4. Step 2: select insert  page break Saving a workbook: To save a workbook. Step 1: select a cell above which the page break is needed. The column which is to be adjusted is made active by clicking on column letter.  File  Save (or)  Ctrl +S (or)  click on the save button on the Tool bar. you can add the page breaks in the required space. select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking the row‘s label. MS. In Excel. A formula is an equation that is used to perform calculations on data in a worksheet. 2. Type the name and click Save. a formula starts with an equal (=) sign and should be followed by the operation to be performed. Similarly. / + / & = / > /< ) Operation Bracket Exponentiation Multiplication . Printing: To print the worksheet. After that. Sorting: Highlight the cells that should be sorted and click the sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button found on the Standard toolbar. Division Addition. Click on the width option. The cells in which formulas are stored. Operator ( ^ *. Then choose Insert  page break from the Menu bar. Formulas: In Excel. We can use formula to perform Mathematical. select the full row until the data in the sheet exists. File menu  page break preview The page breaks are shown in dasher lines. If the automatic allocation of page breaks does not satisfy with your requirements. 3. select File  Print from the Menu bar (or) click on the Print button from the Standard Toolbar (or) follow the key sequence Ctrl + p Inserting Page breaks: To set the page breaks within the worksheet. A dialogue box is displayed. display the result of the calculation and not the formula.

i. Suppose the value of the cell B6 is 78345. 28. Multiply the value 549 of the cell C3 with the value 43 of the cell F3 and have the result in the cell I3.Examples of the formula expressions: 1.calculates the mean of the given data .gives the absolute value of the number . C2. Type the cell range & other arguments within brackets. D2 are 34. Type the function name.…) – gives the sum of the values in a specified range Abs( number) Fact( number) Sqrt(number) Log(number) Average( range of cells) Stdev(range of cells) Mean( range of cells) Max( range of cells) count( ) . To enter a function in a cell. readymade and frequently used formula that accepts data. 56 respectively. ii) Type ― = (B6/5) ― iii) Press Enter The value ―15669‖ will be displayed in the cell E6.gives the logarithm of the number . Step i) Click on the cell in which total marks is to be displayed. Functions : A function is a built-in.gives the factorial of the number . 3. Type ―=‖ sign. =Average(B1: B10) Calculates the average of the values in the cells B1 to B10 Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose: i) ii) iii) iv) v) i) ii) iii) iv) v) Sum( number1.gives the maximum value within the range specified .calculates the standard deviation of the given data .counts how many numbers are there in the list of arguments Note : To specify a range of cells. a colon (:) is used between the first & last cell addresses. perform calculations & returns results. Step i) Click the cell I3 ii) Type ― = ( C3 * F3) iii) press Enter The result ―23607‖ will be displayed in the cell I3. 2.e F2 ii) Type ― = ( B2 + C2 + D2 )‖ iii) Press Enter The value ―118‖ will be displayed in F2.gives the square root of the number . i) ii) iii) iv) v) Example: Click the cell in which you want the result of the function to be displayed. To add these values and to have the result in the cell F2. Divide the value by 5 and have it in the cell E6: Step i) Click the cell E6. Statistical functions with syntax and purpose: 40 . Press Enter.calculates the average of the values in a specified range . number2. Suppose the values in the cells B2.

We can use different types of charts to represent data. enter chart source data and click Next In the step 3 of 4. Stock 12. Creating Charts : Charts in Excel are used to represent data pictorially. Bubble 11. select the type of chart you want to make and click Next In the step 2 of 4. Area 7. Financial etc. It contains all the functions according to the type such as Mathematical. 41 . Statistical. 3. Bar charts 3.K 4. Date/time. A dialogue box is displayed in which arguments are accepted. Column charts 2. Line 4. 5. 2.Function Wizard : The Function Wizard is a tool in Excel through which a user can enter formulas in the correct format without any errors. enter the chart options like label of the chart and click Next In the step 4 of 4. Click O. Types of charts which are available in Excel: 1. Doughnut 8. Enter the arguments. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. pie 5. Click O. XY (scatter) 6. The Function Wizard screen is displayed.K. Surface 10. Radar 9. The result is shown in the selected cell. The selected cell on the worksheet will automatically contain the formula. Steps to use the function Wizard: 1. The function needed is selected. Cone & Pyramid Creating a Chart : Step i) ii) iii) iv) vi) vii) Enter the data in a table. is selected. 6. Select the function option from the Insert menu. It lists all the functions available. The cell in which the function is to be inserted. Cylinder. Open the Insert Menu and select Chart In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4.

For example.Column Chart: Column charts are one of the most common types of graphs used to display data. ii) Open the Insert Menu and select Chart iii) In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 To construct a bar chart for the above data: Step i) Enter the data in a table. Each bar represents a value. select Column chart and click Next iv) In the step 2 of 4. A column chart represents data in the form of a series of vertical bars. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. enter chart source data v) In the step 3 of 4. production of crops 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 paddy wheat maize groundnut type of crop Series1 production(tonns) 42 . to draw a column chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. enter the chart options like label of the chart vi) In the step 4 of 4.No.

For example. A separate chart pie chart should be drawn for each data set. Data on each variable is entered in the Excel worksheet in a row or column with suitable headings. to draw a pie chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. whose area are proportional to the frequencies or percentages of cases under various categories. Then we select the data of the first series and choose pie chart and proceed as per the options given in the dialogue box. In this chart. a circle is divided into sectors.Pie Chart: A Pie chart is used to represent the distribution of a categorical data. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 pr oduction of cr ops 30% 46% paddy w heat maize groundnut 14% 10% ******* 43 .No.

Enter the Input range and Output range (addresses of the cells) iv) give the address of the cell where you want the result to be shown. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. If the Data Analysis command is not available. the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions and then displays the results in an output table. Accessing the data analysis tools: The Analysis Tool Pak includes the tools described below. Some of the statistical functions are built-in and others become available when you install the Analysis Tool Pak. and engineering worksheet functions. click on the one you want. Excel provides many other statistical. click Data Analysis on the Tools menu. Analysis Tools: ANOVA: Single factor ANOVA: Two-Factor with replication ANOVA: Two-Factor without replication Correlation Covariance Descriptive statistics F-test two-sample for variances Histogram Regression t-test: two sample assuming equal variances t-test: two sample assuming unequal variances Z-test: two sample for means Steps to use Analysis Tools: Step i) From the Menu bar choose Tools and click on Data Analysis ii) When the Data Analysis dialogue box appears. To access these tools. iv) click OK v) The result will be given in the corresponding output format. iii) The corresponding dialogue box appears. Related to worksheet functions. financial.Statistical Analysis Tools Microsoft Excel provides a set of data analysis tools— called the Analysis Tool Pak— that you can use to save steps when you develop complex statistical or engineering analyses. you need to load the Analysis Tool Pak add-in program. 44 . You provide the data and parameters for each analysis.

Ex 1: The following are the results of 5 preschool going children at different levels of protein content in diet. 45 . iii) When the Correlation dialogue box appears. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. clock OK. ii) Select Correlation in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. Find the regression equation of y on x. Head weight (X) 20 22 25 27 31 Body weight (Y) 60 64 72 80 84 Step i) From the Menu bar. enter the Input range and also give the output range where you want the result to be shown. clock OK. enter the Input Y range and input X range. v) the result will be shown in the following format: Summary output: Protein content Protein content gain in weight 1 0.989783 1 gain in weight Ex 2: Following is the data of head and body weights of 5 insects. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. ii) Select Regression in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. iii) When the Regression dialogue box appears. Compute the correlation coefficient using Excel Protein content (%) 5 7 10 12 13 Gain in weight(gm) 30 40 80 100 120 Step i) From the Menu bar. iv) give the output range where you want the result to be shown.

05.0% -7.21622 416 Standard Error 6. iii) Enter the variable 1 range.64801 3.86423 1.948025 Standard Error 2.184445 Lower 95.86423 1. two samples assuming equal variances in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK.27027 MS 399.7838 5.464204 Upper 95.003305 Intercept (X) Coefficients 13.324953 Observations 5 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 1 3 4 SS 399. iv) Give the output range where you want the result to be shown.405405 F 73.032081 8. Solution: Step i) From the Menu bar. SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.K 46 .980316 R Square 0.6 P-value 0.0% 35. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis.v) The result will be shown in the following format.135073 0.003305 Lower 95% -7.184445 Ex 3: The daily production of two pesticide factories is recorded as follows.64801 3.961019 Adjusted R Square 0.324324 t Stat 2. iv) Click the check box against Labels in the First row.464204 Upper 95% 35.96 Significance F 0.89189 2. click O. Factory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 12 16 9 13 15 17 20 23 B 8 13 21 16 11 12 Test whether there is any significant difference between two factories at probability level 0.836289 0. ii)Select t-test.7838 16. variable 2 range and set Hypothesized mean difference as zero.

198768 1.5 20.v) the result will be shown in the following format.98214 8 20.3 6 Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail ****** 47 . t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances A 15.178813 B 13.782288 0.877324 0.625 19.11458 0 12 0.397535 2.

Each piece of information in a record is called a Field. The database serves as a base from which a desired information can be retrieved. A database can be maintained in a computer by using a database management system(DBMS). organizing and retrieving data. 6. Ex: A Query can be used to extract details about students studying in a particular class. Ex: A table can contain personal information about all the students in a college. such as validating data against complex conditions.e the printable form of the table or query or form. i. Start Programs MS office  Ms-Access  Enter 2. Pages : display shortcuts to data access pages in the database. 3. The records in the student table can include fields such as Admission number. The Blank Database command is used to create a blank database. 5. Phone number etc. 1. 4.mdb. Creating a Database : A Database can be created by using the database Wizard or by using the Blank Database command. Student name. Click on File menu  New  Enter A window appears  give a name to the database 48 . 2. All database objects should be created manually. many meaningful conclusions can be drawn. Modules : used to perform advanced database operations. Queries : used to retrieve information from a database based on specific conditions. Every row containing information about a student represents a record. Ex: we can create a macro to print a report automatically. The extension name of Ms-Access file is . queries and reports by following a series of steps provided by the wizard. Macros : used to automate frequently performed tasks. Every row represents a Record. To start MS-Access: 1. 7. Address.MS-ACCESS The Database is an organized collection of data related to a particular topic or purpose. Maintaining data involves storing.   The database Wizard is used to create tables. We can format the data in a report. MS-Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that is used to store and manipulate large amount of information. DBMS is an application that enables to maintain data in a database. Forms : used as interfaces for users to enter. A data access page displays data stored in a database over the internet. We cannot make changes to the data in a report. Reports : used to present data from tables or Queries in a format of our choice. A database stored electronically has distinct advantages over a manually organized system. Tables : Store database data in Rows (records) and columns (fields). view and modify data in a Table. forms. Start  Run Ms-Access Enter An Access Database consists of 7 different Database objects.

click Tables and then click New on the database window toolbar.……) Give the field names ( Name. Enter the details Working with Database Fields : Microsoft Access database fields are created by entering a field name and a field data type in each row of the field entry area of the database table window. marks etc) Click on close button of the table and save the table with some name To enter details into the table. 2. The database window appears. field2. Click on create table on Datasheet view  now a window appears  here we find fields ( field1. click on table in the main switch board and double click on the table name. The New Table dialog box appears.. Commands in the New Table dialog box Command Create table by entering data Design view Table wizard       Used to assign fields for the new table and modify field properties Used to create a table through a guided sequence of steps Purpose Used to create a table by entering values directly in a row and column format I. under objects.Creating a Table : 1. Create Table by entering data: Click on Table (object) in the main switch board. Open the database in which the table is to be created. 49 . roll no.

Usually this field is sequentially numbered. Keys contain unique values that help to filter redundant information from the input data. Create a table in Design view: 1. 2. Stores up to 1 GB. Keys are used to maintain the integrity of data. such as notes or descriptions. Primary key: The field in a table that uniquely identifies each record is called the primary key.  Text : used for text or combinations of text and numbers. their uses and their storage sizes. II. Stores 8 bytes. or postal codes.2.        Memo : Used for lengthy text and numbers. OLE object : used for OLE objects like pictures.Access. such as yes/ No. Ex: Field name Roll No Name Marks Data types Auto Number Text Number 3.Data types in MS-Access : The following list summarizes all the field data types available in MS. Stores 8 bytes. To enter data into the table.000 characters. 50 . Ex : Admission number field Foreign key : When a primary key of one table appears as a field in another table. such as phone numbers. click on the close button of the table and save it with some name 4. 5. Keys are of two types: primary & foreign. True/False. the field is called the foreign key in the second table.4 or 8 bytes. Primary & Foreign keys: Data should be checked for redundancy before it is stored in a database. Yes /No : used for data that can be only one of two possible values. such as addresses or for numbers that do not require calculations. Date / Time : used for dates and times. Currency : used for currency values and to prevent rounding off during calculations. except calculations involving money. Here click on ― create table in design view‖ Now a window appears  here type the field names and their data types respectively. double click on the table created. Stores up to 255 characters. Stores upto 64. Number : used for data to be included in Mathematical calculations. Now enter the details. graphs and other binary data. Auto Number : used for unique sequential or random numbers that are automatically inserted when a record is added. click on table (object) in the main switch board. On/Off. Stores 1.

Pictures can be added to a form. it is known as Report. change and analyze data in different ways. Reports can be viewed either in print preview mode or design mode.  In forms. the open button is replaced by the preview button. The screen may be too small to fit it. i. if the table has many fields. but when you take the printout or the Hard copy. The fields can be arranged as the user wants it.   In forms there are 3 views. The user may have to scroll horizontally or vertically to view the rest of the fields/ records. Datasheet & iii. Form view The datasheet view shows many records whereas form view displays single record. ****** Forms : 51 . You can also use them as the source of records for forms and reports. You can perform calculations on groups of records. when you click the report tab. the data can be displayed as per the users requirement. Query and forms are meant for displaying it on screen. You can toggle between these three views using the View Tool. number of records are displayed at a time. then it may not be possible for a user to view all of them. The report preview shows how the data will appear on taking out the printouts. The records are generally displayed one at a time. But.Queries :     By using queries we can view. In a table. Data cannot be edited in the reports. The display and contents of the form is controlled fully by the user. In the database window. Design ii. You can bring together data from multiple tables and sort it in a particular order. Report: The data shown in a table.

file compression. Ex : Set of interconnected computers within an office. Internet INTERNET The internet is a global connection of computers. ii. Wide Area Network: When a network is located over wide areas such as cities.. c) Telephone line: A telephone line is required to transfer data from one computer to another. 5. in turn.Networking and Internet A network is an arrangement that enables two or more computers to communicate (talk) to each other. Requirements for connecting to the Internet: a) Modem: A modem is a peripheral device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. Ex: Internet Explorer. it is called a LAN. states. Send or receive E-mail 3. Mozilla Firefox. Down load useful programs such as virus detectors. Metropolitan Area Network: A metropolitan area network is a network that is larger than a LAN. Modem stands for Modulator Demodulator. View interesting video‘s listen to music or wander through a 3-D world. it connects the computers distributed across multiple buildings. Types of Networks Networks can range from a small group of computers linked together in a class room to thousands of computers linked together across the globe. it is called a WAN. The internet allows you to access to a whole resource of data and information stored at different sites (called hosts) and locations around the world. networks can be classified as a) LAN ( Local Area Network) b) MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network) c) WAN (Wide Area Network) Local Area Network: If a network is confined to a single location. 4. Share your opinions and your knowledge on a variety of topics through various new groups. typically a building. b) Web Browser: A browser is a software program that is necessary in order to view web pages on the web. Read information on a wide range of topics 2. These computers are connected via a huge network of telecommunication links. Ex: the computers in all branches of an office within a city. connected to a telephone line. Netscape Navigator. decompression utility etc. Computers in different branches of a Globalised company. Chat with other people any where in the world 6. 52 . Microsoft outlook express etc. The computer is connected to a modem. countries or even continents. which stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Internet connection helps us to: 1. Depending on the geographical location. Ex : i. which. The communication links which inter connect each host computer use a common method of transmission known as TCP/IP.

The electronic mail uses various technologies that support electronic transmission of text. it is much faster than the normal mail. 2. E-mail user can have a mail box which is accessed through a computer terminal 6. A typical web address or URL looks as http:// www. Some of the ISPs in India are VSNL. We need subscription with any ISP to get an Internet connection. In order to transmit a graphically designed web page complete with pictures. A collection of related web pages is known as a web site. an E-mail message consists of two parts a) a header specifying the address of the sender and the address of the receiver b) the text of the message 53 . sounds and animation on various topics. The web is similar to a library. Internet was initially designed for the transmission of text basing on the protocols mentioned. Some of the features of E-mail are 1. called web pages are stored on different computers that are connected to the internet. it can access information and file libraries on request 5. The web pages have links between them i. MTNL.com /catalog/navigation. Sify. HTTP provides a method of transmitting a professionally laid out page over the text based internet. These pages. The WWW support a protocol called Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).asp Explanation of the example URL: URL Element http WWW Microsoft . it will take us to another page. World Wide Web (WWW): It refers to the collection of information accessible on the internet.d) Subscription with Internet service provider (ISP): ISP‘s are companies that provide access to the internet. These words or pictures that help to move from one page to another are called hyperlinks. pictures. Indicates that the site is on the world wide web Indicates the name of the web site Indicates the domain type of the web site Specifies the path of the file stored on the web server‘s hard disk E-Mail E-mail or electronic mail is a service for sending or receiving messages electronically through a computer network. data and graphics. A web site can be accessed by means of a unique name assigned to it.e when we click a certain word or picture in a page. embedded sound and animation a special language was designed which is referred to as Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML). HTML uses special text codes to define the various elements of a web page. All internet servers cannot support HTTP and so the web can be regarded as a subset of the larger internet. A URL specifies the exact location of the web page on the internet.com/catalog/navigation. Uniform Resource Locator: (URL): Each web site has a unique address commonly referred to as a URL. E-mail is cheaper than a phone call and an ordinary mail 4.asp Explanation Identifies protocol necessary to retrieve the file. It consists of millions & millions of pages of text. Messages can be sent within a matter of seconds to any part in the world.microsoft. Specrta Net etc. it can be sent to many people at the same time 3.

com. The search engine looks for the keywords we have entered and returns the results of the search. and country name Ex: Statisitcs@hotmial. The person‘s Login name 2. Yahoo! search and Infoseek etc. displaying. A user interface is provided where you can enter the word or phrase you are searching for.com in this Statistics is the user name and his account is in the domain hotmail. providing links to relevant Web sites for us to choose from. ******* 54 . saving. @ sign 3. Domain name A domain represents organization. The mailing system allows selecting messages for reading.7. Both the names are separated by the @symbol. forwarding and replying. network. Some commonly used search engines are MSN. Alta Vista. 8. Search Engines : Search engines are utilities used to search for information on the web. Google. deleting. Mailing list can be created to send the same message to a group of people E-Mail Address: An E-Mail address consists of three parts 1.

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