INTRODUCTION

Definition : A Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve Mathematical, Logical and graphical manipulations. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. It performs the following three operations in sequence. 1. It receives data & instructions from the input device. 2. Processes the data as per instructions. 3. Provides the result (output) in a desired form. Data : It is the collection of raw facts, figures & symbols. Ex : Names of students and their marks in different subjects listed in random order. Information : It is the data that is processed & presented in an organized manner. Ex : When the names of students are arranged in alphabetical order, total and average marks are calculated & presented in a tabular form, it is information. Program : Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task. Advantages of computers :
1. High speed : Computers have the ability to perform routine tasks at a greater speed than human

beings. They can perform millions of calculations in seconds.
2. Accuracy : Computers are used to perform tasks in a way that ensures accuracy. 3. Storage : Computers can store large amount of information. Any item of data or any instruction

stored in the memory can be retrieved by the computer at lightning speeds.
4. Automation : Computers can be instructed to perform complex tasks automatically ( which

increases the productivity).
5. Diligence : Computers can perform the same task repeatedly & with the same accuracy without

getting tired.
6. Versatility : Computers are flexible to perform both simple and complex tasks. 7. Cost effectiveness : Computers reduce the amount of paper work and human effort, thereby

reducing costs. Limitations of computers : 1. Computers need clear & complete instructions to perform a task accurately. If the instructions are not clear & complete, the computer will not produce the required result. 2. Computers cannot think. 3. Computers cannot learn by experience. Generations of computers :

Generation First Generation (1946-1954 ) Second Generation (1955-1965) Third Generation (1968-1975 ) Fourth Generation ( 1976-1980) Fifth Generation (1980 – till today )

Component used Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (IC) Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) Ultra Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI) Micro Processor (SILICON CHIP)
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ANATOMY OF COMPUTERS
The computer system consists of three units: 1. Input device 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Output device

Block diagram of a Computer : CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Memory unit

INPUT DEVICE

ALU

OUT PUT DEVICE

Control Unit

The various functions of these units can be summarized as:

Unit
1.Input device :

Function
Reads information from input media and enters to the computer in a coded form

2.CPU (a) Memory unit (b) Arithmetic Logic unit (c) Control Unit : : : Stores program and data Performs arithmetic and logical functions Interprets program instructions and controls the input and output devices 3. Output device : decodes information and presents it to the user

Central Processing Unit: It is the part of the computer that carries out the instructions of a
computer program. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Hence it is known as the ―brain‖ of the computer. The CPU consists of storage or memory unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and control unit. (a). Memory Unit: It is also known as the primary storage or main memory. It stores data, program instructions, internal results and final output temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device. It consists of thousands of cells called ―storage locations‖. These cells activate with ―off -on‖ or binary digits(0,1) mechanism. Thus a character either a letter or numerical digit is stored as a string of (0,1) Binary digits ( BITS). These bits are used to store instructions and data by their combinations. (b) Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU): It is the unit where all Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction etc.) and logical functions such as true or false, male or female are performed. Once data are fed into the main memory from input devices, they are held and transferred as needed to ALU where processing takes place. No process occurs in primary storage. Intermediate generated results in ALU

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are temporarily placed in memory until needed at later time. Data may move from primary memory to ALU and back again to storage many times before the process is finalized. (c).Control Unit : It acts as a central nervous system and ensures that the information is stored

correctly and the program instructions are followed in proper sequence as well as the data are selected from the memory as necessary. It also coordinates all the input and output devices of a system .

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Input Devices
Devices used to provide data and instructions to the computer are called Input devices. Some important input devices are Key board, Mouse, Scanner, MICR, Web camera, Microphone etc. 1. Keyboard: The Key board is used for typing text into the computer. It is also known as standard Input device. A computer keyboard is similar to that of a type writer with additional keys. The most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys. There are different types of keys on the keyboard. The keys are categorized as :   Alphanumeric keys , including letters & numbers. Punctuation keys, such as colon (:), semicolon (;) Question mark (?), Single & double quotes (‗,‖)  Special keys such as arrow keys, control keys, function keys (F1 to F12), HOME, END etc.

2.. Mouse: It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor on a monitor. A mouse will have 2 buttons on its top. The left button is the most frequently used button. There will be a wheel between the left and right buttons. This wheel enables us to smoothly scroll through screens of information. As we move the mouse, the pointer on the monitor moves in the same direction. Optical mouse is another advanced pointing device that uses a light emitting component instead of the mouse ball. Mouse cannot be used for entering the data. It is only useful to select the options on the screen.

3. Scanner: :

It is an input device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate into

digital form. The main advantage of these scanners is that the data need not be entered separately resulting in saving lot of time.

Scanners are of two types: i) optical scanners i) Optical scanners:

ii) MICR

a. Optical character Recognition(OCR): In this, characters are read with the help of a light. This is used in office atomization, documentation in library etc. b. Optical mark recognition(OMR): It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as a pencil mark. OMR is used in tests such as aptitude tests. c. Optical barcode recognition(OBCR): Barcode readers are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on product containers. This is used in super markets, book shops etc. ii. MICR: This is widely used in banks to process the cheques. This allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink. 6

4. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR): : It is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of the cheques. MICR characters ( cheque No., Acc.No.etc) are printed in special ink usually containing iron oxide. When a document that contains the ink needs to be read, it passes through a machine which magnetizes the ink and there will be a reader sorter unit which translates the magnetic information into characters. MICR provides a secure, high speed of scanning and processing information. It scans about 2600 cheques/min.

Output devices
Any device that is capable of representing information on a computer is called an Output device. Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired form. Some important Output devices are : Monitor, Printer 1 .Terminal/Monitor: It is similar to TV screen- either a monochrome (black & white) or colour – and it displays the output. It is also referred as Visual Display Unit(VDU). Several types of monitors are in use. Some of them are Colour Graphic Adapter(CGA), Enhanced Graphics Adaptor(EGA) , Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) and Super Video Graphics Adapter (SVGA). The screen sizes differ from system to system. The standard size is 24 lines by 80 characters. Most systems have provision for scrolling which helps in moving the text vertically or horizontally on the screen.

2 . Printer: A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as ―printout‖. The different printers and their speeds are as follows: S. No. 1 Type Dot – Matrix printer 2 3 4 5 Ink Jet printer Laser printer Line printer Plotter Mode of Printing Prints the character in dotted pattern through printer ribbon using either 24 pin or 9 pin Work by spraying ionized ink Also called page printer. Uses laser beam to produce an image. Prints lines at a time instead of single characters. Produces drawings or graphs through pens which are filled with different colours. ( CPS: Characters Per Second; PPM: Pages Per Minutes; LPM : Lines Per Minute) 300 to 600 LPM Slow, 90 CPS 6 to 12 PPM CPS Speed 200/300 to 700

Laser printer ****** 7

Primary memory is further classified into two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read. Primary Memory ( Internal storage) 2. Units of memory: The computer stores a character in the storage cells with binary (0. It is the main area in a computer where the data is stored. This memory can be quickly accessed by the CPU for reading or storing information. The stored data can be recalled instantly and correctly whenever desired. 2. i. Access time: This is the time required to locate and retrieve stored data from the storage unit in response to program instructions.1). its programs and the data. Any storage unit of a computer system is classified on the basis of the following criteria: 1. 3. Thus the basic unit of memory is a bit (binary digit – 0. This code has given alphabets like some numbers which can be converted to Binary form. 8 . till the time the computer is running. a computer requires 8 bits or 1 byte.65 ……. A. RAM is a place in a computer that holds instructions for the computer. the storage of data and instructions in RAM is temporary.Z – 90 and a – 97 ………. Secondary Memory ( External storage) Primary Memory : Primary memory is also called internal memory and is an important part of a computer. Storage capacity: It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit.1) mechanism.Only Memory (ROM ) RAM: RAM is also known as read/write memory as information can be read from and written onto it.MEMORY OF THE COMPUTER Memory or storage capacity is one of the important components of a computer. This is called the ― word length‖ of the storage unit. Hence the storage capacity of the computer is measured in the number of words it can store and is expressed in terms of bytes.e it is volatile memory. To store a character. The CPU can directly access the data from RAM almost immediately. Cost per bit of storage. The different units of measurement are 8 Bits = 1 Byte 210 (or) 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 210 (or)1024 KB 210 (or)1024 MB Conversion : ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange. z – 121 = 1 Mega Byte (MB) = 1 Gega Byte (GB) By using these codes the alphabets can be converted to digital & hence to Binary form. However. Types of Memory : A computer memory is of two types 1. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off.

It is less sensitive to external environmental disorders and hence the storage in hard disk is safe. These platters are coated with magnetic material. 160GB.2 MB 1.8 MB Size (Diameter) 5. It has a small hole on one side called ―Right protect notch‖. Secondary memory: The primary memory which is faster (and hence expensive) is generally not sufficient for large storage of data.25 inches 5. additional memory. There is a hole in the centre through which the spindle of drive unit rotates the disk.5 inches 3. A hard disk is fixed inside the CPU and its capacity ranges from 20 MB onwards.5 inches and these could be either lowdensity or high-density floppies. The storage of data and instructions in ROM is permanent. The hard disk is made up of a collection of discs (one below the other) known as platters on which the data is recorded.e it is non-volatile memory. DVD and Flash drive. ROM is the ‗built-in‘ memory of a computer.25 inches 3. Which protects accidental writing/deleting the information from the disk. As a result. Hard Disk: The hard disk can hold more information than the floppy disk and the retrieval of information from hard disk is faster when compared to floppies or tapes. Storage capacity of floppies are measured in kilobytes (KB) and megabytes (MB).44 MB 2. It is also referred as ―backup storage‖ as it is used to store large volume of data on a permanent basis which can be transferred to the primary memory whenever required for processing. Hard Disk. The disks are available in two sizes of 5.5 inches 2. 1. A small hard disk might be as much as 25 times larger than a floppy disk. Some of the devices of secondary storages are Floppy Disk.25 and 3. Data are stored in secondary storage in the same binary codes as in the main (primary memory) storage. i. The details about the storage capacities of the floppies are presented below: Floppy Disk Low Density High Density High Density Extended Storage Capacity 360 KB 1. Storage Capacity of hard disks varies from 20 MB to several Gega bytes like 80GB. called the ―auxiliary‖ or ―seconda ry memory‖ is used. Floppy Disk: It is also referred as ―Diskette: and is made of flexible Vinyl material. It stores some basic input – output instructions put by the manufacturer to operate the computer.ROM: It is called Read-only memory as information can only be read from and not written or changed onto ROM. 9 . It does not depend on the power supply. CD-ROM.

except that it can store larger amounts of data. The stored data can be read. This device is plugged into the USB port of the computer and the computer automatically detects this device. It is popular because it is easy to use and small enough to be carried in a pocket. 5. We can read. It is also called USB drive. ****** 10 .3. Data once written onto it can be erased to write or record new information many times. 4GB. DVDs that can store up to 17GBs are also available. 8GB etc. It is used to store a wide variety of information. CD-ROM: CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk–Read Only Memory. (ii) CD-RW(Compact disc Rewritable): It is also called erasable CD. portable device that can be used to store. Due to its small size. DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc. it is commonly called Pen drive. Flash Drive: It is a small. access and transfer data. It is similar to a CD-ROM. DVDs are generally used to store a very large multimedia presentations and movies that combine high quality sound and graphics. Its main advantage is that it is portable and can hold a large amount of data. Data once written onto it cannot be erased. Because of their capacity. To use a CD-ROM. and move data from computer to pen drive or pen drive to computer. a device called CD drive is needed. It comes in various storage capacities of 2GB. 4. copy. The storage capacity of most CD-ROMs is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB.7MB. The storage capacity of a DVD is at least 4. write.. CD-ROMs have the following variations: (i) CD-R(Compact disc Recordable): Data can be written onto it just once. delete.

It is suited for personal computers. executes. the compilers produce a list of errors at the end of the execution of the program. Without TV studio (software) from where the programs are telecast. They are compilers and Interpreters A Compiler checks the entire user – written program (known as the source program) and if it is error free. a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language. If the source program contains errors. Windows XP etc  Disk Operating System (DOS): It was developed as early as 1980 by Bill Gates at the age of 19.e a compiler translates the whole program before execution. The operating system acts as interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of programs. produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program). the TV (Hardware) is a dead machine.  UNIX AND XENIX: It is suited for multi-user and multi-task system 2. There are two types of translators. It refers to the objects that we can actually touch. i. Application programs 5. General purpose programs 1.Graphical user Interface CUI : It is operated with keyboard only. Operating System 2. Utility programs 4. It requires a powerful PC with a minimum RAM of 8 MB . CUI -. Dos is a single user and single task operating system  WINDOWS : It works with DOS and it supports single user and multitask system. Ex: input and output devices. There are five categories of software. i.HARDWARE and SOFTWARE Hardware: The physical components of the computer are known as ―Hardware‖. processors. Therefore. The source program is retained for possible modifications and corrections and the object program is loaded into the computer for execution. They are: 1. Ex: MS-DOS. Software: Software is a program or set of instructions that causes the Hardware to function in a desired way. Translators 3.e It is a bridge between the user and the Hardware. The basic difference between the Hardware and Software is just the same as that exists between TV and TV studio. An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. This continues till the last statement. languages is known as translators . Thus an interpreter 11 The software that ―translates‖ the instructions of different . Generally the OS acts as an interface between the user and the Hardware of the computer. Operating System (OS) : The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called Operating system.Character user Interface GUI -. Ex: Windows 95. UNIX GUI : The system can be operated with mouse and keyboard. circuits and the cables. The User interface provided by the OS can be character based or graphical. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and if it is error – free. Translators : Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language – the machine language .

Railway Reservation etc. Example: COPY. Example: Payroll. which is difficult. These are referred as third generation languages. The compiler produces an error list of the entire program at the end.1). High Level Languages (HLL): These are referred as problem oriented languages (POL). time consuming and leading to errors while writing the programs. Utility Programs: These are pre-written programs supplied by the manufacturer for maintaining day to day activities of computer system. 12 . There is no unique standard machine language.   Because of their English like nature. Machine Languages: Computers respond only to machine language. Billing. Several High Level Languages which are in common use: FORTRAN : FORmula TRANslation COBOL : BASIC : PROLOG: ALGOL : Common Business Oriented Language Beginner‘s All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code PROgramming in LOGic ALGOrithmic Language 3. 4. all programs should be written with these codes. 2. Assembly Languages : It uses mnemonic codes rather than numeric codes (as in machine languages). It requires translators to convert into machine language. 2. MAILING. Add or A is used as a symbol for addition. These languages follow rules like ―English‖ language. This language is in terms of binary codes (0.translates or executes the first instruction before it goes to the second. Ex. These are machine dependent. Oracle. The advantages of these languages are  The high level languages are convenient for writing programs as they can be written without any codes. The major difference between compiler and interpreter is 1. writing program in assembly language is also time consuming. These programs are written in different languages such as BASIC or C or by using database packages like dBASE.. while a compiler translates the whole program before execution. Interpreter takes more time for the execution of the program compared to compilers as it translates one statement at a time Programming Languages: There are three types of programming languages. 3. Like machine language. 1. i. They are machine independent. virus scanning software etc. less time is required to write a program.e. These are referred as the first generation languages. Rather there are many machine languages. Application Programs: These are user written programs to do a specific job which can be changed to meet the individual needs. These are also machine dependent. SORT. A program written in any HLL can be run on computers of different types without any modifications. Error correction is very much simpler in the case of interpreter as it translates the statements in stages.

These packages are categorized as : i) Data Analysis Data Analysis Ex: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). Qpro. ******* ii) Word Processing iii) Spread Sheet iv) Graphics and v) Databases 13 . 7. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system : It determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. Spread Sheet Ex: LOTUS. 5. Interpretation of commands and instructions. 2. Word Processing Ex: WORD PERFECT. Input / Output management : It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different Input and Output devices while one or more programmes are executed. CHIRATOR.5. SYMPHONY. MICROSTAT. Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator. POWER-POINT etc. Processor management : It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system. Graphics Ex: LOTUS. Databases Ex: dBASE. 4. MS-Excel etc. 6. FOX-BASE. GENSTAT. 3. SAS etc. STORY-BOARD. Functions of Operating System : Today most operating systems perform the following important functions : 1. General Purpose Packages: These packages are developed to suit the needs of research workers / scientists in different fields. NORTON EDITOR etc. File management : It allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines. MSTAT. MS-Word. ORACLE. WORDSTAR. MS-Access etc. VP-PLANNER. FOX-PRO. Memory management : It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data.

traffic signals. medical scanning. the developments in the computers led to the use of digital computers in variety of applications. by CRAY computers. Digital Computers: These computers operate by ―counting‖.S. the digital computers are classified into 1) Special Purpose Computers and 2) General Purpose Computers 1. solving mathematical equations. Later. In India the indigenous super computer was developed under the name 14 . manipulations of data. Analog computers: They operate by ―measuring‖ instead of ―counting‖. Digital Computers 3. spacecraft. Param. b) Mainframe Computers: They also have large storage and high computing speed (but relatively lower than the super computers).. Hybrid Computers 1. These are used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines such as electronics. available It can serve multi-users indigenously and used for large volume applications. payroll and personnel database.A. they support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. 2. rocket technology etc. storage) as follows. Some of the areas where these computers are being used are – soil testing.. drip irrigation. These can be classified into three types: 1. speed and the purpose for which they are developed. Hybrid Computers: Computers which combine the features of analog and digital computers are known as Hybrid computers. weather forecasting etc. 3.Classification of Computers Computers are classified according to the storage capacity.. A majority of the computers that are in use are digital. These computers were essentially developed for computations. Depending on the use of applications.. a) Super Computers b) Mainframe Computers c) Mini Computers d) Micro Computers These are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and a) Super Computers: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers. 2. General Purpose Computers: These are developed to meet the requirements of several areas such as simulation. space applications etc. speed. They are used in applications like weather forecasting. These computers are available in different sizes and capabilities and are further classified (based on memory. The name (derived from greek word analog) denotes that the computer functions by establishing similarities between the two quantities. The first super computer was developed in U. Analog Computes 2. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or numbers. but are expensive c) Mini Computers: It is simultaneously a medium sized computer with moderate cost. They are powerful tools for solving differential equations. Special Purpose Computers: These are developed with a specific purpose.

PC-AT : PC with Advanced Technology ***** 15 .d) Micro Computers: A micro computer is the smallest general purpose processing system. PC : Personal Computer 2. They are cheap. easy to use even at homes and can be read for variety of applications from small to medium range. Micro computers are also referred as ―personal computers‖(PC). These are available in three models: 1. These are self contained units and usually developed for use by one person at a time but can be linked to very large systems. PC-XT : PC with Extended Technology 3.

80286. The major components of the circuit board are : Microprocessor. but it does it about 5000 times faster.000. mouse. Over the years.000 42. The classification is presented in the following table: S.000 275. Hard above disk.200. III and Pentium 4.e it contains ALU & CU.000 134. Microprocessor: The Microprocessor chip is like a brain of human being which contains circuits and registers to perform arithmetic.000 3. output and secondary storage units like floppy drives. are called peripherals.100. Disk Drive (s). There is an address bus which is built into these chips to determine the storage locations (of RAM) of the data and the instructions of the program. store. keyboard. a keyboard . etc. printer and CPU. i. The CPU of PC has a mother board with several chips mounted on a circuit board.500.PERSONAL COMPUTERS Personal Computer: A personal computer has a Monitor (VDU). II. RAM and ROM chips and other supporting circuits. clock speed and peripherals. Microprocessor.000 9..000. Mouse and Printer 3 PC-AT 1 MB to 32 MB 80286 to 80486 16 .000 7. The other procesors are 8088.000 1.000 125. Pentium I.6 GHZ Data width 8 bits 16 bits 8-bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus Peripherals: The input. different microprocessors were developed and the first in the series is INTEL 8080. It is measured in terms of million pulses per second (MHZs).000 Clock speed 2MHZ 5 MHZ 6 MHZ 16 MHZ 25 MHZ 60 MHZ 233 MHZ 450 MHZ 1. manipulate and process a byte of data at a time. These chips will be able to retrieve data from the input output devices. 80486. 80386. Clock Speed: The speed with which the instruction is executed or number of pulses per second is called the clock speed. key board and printer 18 MHZ Floppy Drives. logic and control functions. Key board and printer 25 MHZ and Floppy drives. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Microprocessor 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4 ―Prescott‖ Date 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 2004 Transistors 6000 29. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088. The following table gives the differences among the different processors that intel has introduced over the years : S.No.No. Keyboard.5 GHZ 3.500. Classification of PCs: PCs are mainly classified on the basis of primary memory (RAM). 1 2 PC-Type PC PC-XT RAM 640 KB 1 MB Microprocessor 8088/8086 8088/8086 Clock speed 8 MHZ Peripherals Floppy Drives. HardDisk Drive.

The symbol ―\>‖ is referred as DOS prompt from where DOS commands can be entered. when the computer is switched on. ― non-system or disk error‖ is flashed on the screen. If OS is not existing either in floppy drive or in the hard disk drive. The booting of the computer is carried out with a software which resides on ROM chip called BIOS ( Basic Input Output System). These are referred as follows: Floppy Disk Drive : A or B Hard Disk : C Booting of the Computer: Booting imply ―activating‖ the computer for working. the operating system residing in the floppy or in the hard disk is transferred into the primary memory. the screen finally displays one of the following symbols with a blinking cursor at its end: a) A:\> This imply that the computer is booted through Floppy drive `A‘ and is ready to accept DOS commands. Booting is essential whenever the system is locked or switched-off. It is carried out by pressing the following three keys simultaneously : It is preferable to cold booting as it safeguards the system from sudden power b) Warm Booting: Ctrl + Alt + Del. the computer is ready to accept the commands at user terminal. fluctuations resulting out of switching ON and OFF the system. ****** 17 . Thus.Working with personal computers Drives of the computer: A computer can have Floppy Disk Drive along with Hard Disk drives in the system. a) Cold Booting: It is only switching OFF the system and after some time again switching ON. After this. b) C:\> It imply that the PC is booted through the Hard-Disk Drive `C‘. A PC can be booted through two ways: a) Cold Booting b) Warm Booting. Thus when a PC with system disk either in Hard-Disk Drive or Floppy Drive is switched ―on‖.

The relation between files.) is used to separate the first part of a file name from the extension. Directory: It is a collection of files. %. it is automatically executed when the computer is switched on or during booting. a directory may contain directories also. @. A file with . Executable Files: The files with extension of either . File names can include any one of the following characters: A to Z (or a to z) 0 to 9.SYS extension. The main directory of a drive is called Root Directory into which several directories and sub-directories may exist. according to the usage. Backup Files: These are backup files of a file and have extension . the computer will give an extension to identify the different types of files you have created. 18 . (COMMAND. directories and disk is similar to the relation between papers. (LETTER. etc. { } The characters which are not allowed are: :.BAT. Rules for naming the files: 1.. Just as a cabinet contain papers and other folders. RAMA. #. A batch file has the extension . date and time of creation of files. $. it should be referred along with its extension and not only with the first part 5.EXE are called executable files.COM or .BAK. Types of files in DOS: There are different types of files you can create in your computer.MS-DOS MS-DOS is a collection of programs and other files. size. Batch Files: the file containing a series of DOS commands. If the batch file is given a special name AUTOEXEC.BAT. System Files: These are program files developed for system control. application programs. File names should be of one to eight characters in length with an option of one to three character extension 2.WK1.TXT. ( ).. It is a single user and single programming environment.COM extension refers to COMMAND file name and the other with . These files are such that their contents can not be altered (edited). which are executed automatically one at a time in the order entered. etc. A period (. is known as the batch file. Reserved devices names are not allowed.COM. These files are directly executed by typing their names (without the extension) by the computer. They have . system programs and the computer itself.EXE extension refers EXECUTABLE program file. filing folders and filling cabinets.) 4. When a file name includes an extension. Files and File names: A file is a collection of related information. &. . + / \ * as these have special meaning 3. To differentiate each file. These files are created while working with WORDSTAR package for typing a document. The files should have suitable names for their identification in later use. MS-DOS is designed to provide a method of organizing and using the information stored on disks. DATE.

Suppose you want to delete a file COMPUTER. Del stats. 4. These are stored in a large file with file name COMMAND.COM : lists all files with extension .DOC  3. the floppy drive. The total number of files and remaining bytes are listed. file size. They are loaded into the memory of the PC when PC is booted.COM. COPY STATS MATHS copies a file ―STATS‖ with the name ―MATHS‖ on the same drive 2. COPY PATH A:ENTO copies a file ―PATH‖ from the current drive to drive ―A‖ with the file name ―ENTO‖.TXT the following command will work: C:\> REN MATHS. DEL: Deletes a specified file.TXT to STATS. COPY A:MATHS C:STATS copies a file ―MATHS‖ form drive ―A‖ to drive ―C‖ with the file name ―STATS‖ 4. Eg: DIR STATS. Ex: Suppose if you want to change the name of a file MATHS. 1. C:\>dir a: This command displays the list of files and directories from the drive A i. The way to execute copy command is to type COPY leave a space followed by the source file name again a space followed by destination file. REN: The REN command is used to rename the old file with another name. when a PC is booted.* deletes all extensions of the file ―stats‖.Types of DOS commands: There are two types of commands: i) internal and ii) external i) Internal DOS commands: Internal commands are those commands which manage files. DIR *. 3. COPY A:MATHS.TXT RESULT. date and time of creation.TXT 19 Syntax: DEL {filename} . Syntax: copy {Drive name} <source file> {Drive name} <target file name> Ex: 1. DIR can also be specified with wildcard characters (such as * or ?) to list files sharing a common element in the file name or extension.DOC on A drive. The next screen load of files can be displayed by pressing any key.COM 2. Del stats deletes the file ―stats‖. DIR: Dir displays continuously the directory of file names. COPY: The COPY command is used to copy files from one place to another. The way to execute Rename command is to type REN leave a space followed by the old file name again followed by a space and new file name.* copies all extensions of file ―MATHS‖ form drive A to drive C with name ―STATS‖. It can be specified with two options: i) Dir/p: It pauses the listing of the directory whenever the screen is full. In addition.* : lists all files with STATS and other combinations along with the extensions.* C:STATS. Only file names and their extensions will be displayed without the date and time of creation.e. ii) Dir/w: displays the files of the directory in a five column format. the command will be: C:> DEL A: COMPUTER.

it is essential to first delete all the files in the directory. the directory has to be changed to ―STATS‖ Ex: C:\>CD\ STATS (or) CD STATS : This command changes the root directory to the directory ―STATS‖. 8.5. If no date is to be Syntax: C:\> Date changed. Thus while in ―C‖ drive. CD : It is used to change from one directory to the other. type in the following command: 20 . one can directly invoke files of DOS. PATH: (or) This command displays the volume label of the current disk It is used to create. 7. To remove the directory STATS. To remove a directory. VOL: 4.e Z to A) 2. LABEL: 5. change or delete the volume label on the disk It is used to provide access to files located on other directories or on other disks. FORMAT: Formatting a (new) disk imply organizing the new disk into magnetic tracks and sectors that are readable by DOS. all the existing files on it would be erased. Hence this command should be used carefully. FORMAT a: formats disk in drive ―A‖ 3. 6.BAT files for its execution when the PC is booted 6.DATE: It displays current date and asks for new date in (mm)-(dd)-(YY) format. the old date can be retained by pressing ―enter‖ key. It is specified as follows: C:\> MD\STATS (or) MD STATS : This command makes (creates) a new directory with the name ― STATS‖.VER: displays the version of DOS C:\> CLS  ii) External commands: External commands are small file programs used for doing specific jobs. RD: It removes or deletes a directory. MD: It is used to make a new directory (or sub-directory) which is subordinate to the current (or root) directory. However. Some of the useful commands : 1.CLS : when you want to clear the screen. SORT: It sorts the files in alphanumeric order: either A to Z or Z to A DIR| SORT (or) DIR/ON : Displays all the files in A to Z order DIR| SORT/R (or) DIR/O-N: Displays all the files in reverse order (i. WORDSTAR (WS) LOTUS directories by giving the following command: PATH = C:\DOS. pressing ―enter‖ retains the old time Syntax: C:\> Time 7. if an old disk is formatted. C:\WS. C:\LOTUS This command is generally listed in the AUTOEXEC. the command is C:\> RD STATS 8. If we have to work with files in the directory ―STATS‖.TIME: displays current time and asks for new tine and if no new time is to be entered. The PC copies files only on a formatted disk.

Jerusalem. Whenever the PC is switched off. UTSCAN. Die_Hard-2. Generic. Functioning of viruses: viruses reside in executable files such as . TREE: It displays the directories and sub-directories existing in a drive with a ―TREE‖ diagram. AVIRA. VACCINE: It is a software developed for removing the viruses. A virus kills data and program files. May_5th. They are classified as : i) ii) File Allocation Table (FAT) based viruses File based viruses ii )Key board viruses and Some of the well known viruses are: Joshi. Meccaf etc.9. Some of the anti-virus vaccines are: NASHSOFT. there are in-built programs to guard against computer viruses. It also displays only directories with symbol <DIR> (without files and sub directories in that directory) whereas.COM or . The difference between TREE and DIR commands is that: DIR displays all files with its size. date and time of creation. World peace etc. the virus enters the RAM through . These are anti-virus programs for both DOS and WINDOWS and a memory resident virus-safe program that guards against the introduction of files that may be affected by virus. they appear to be basically developed for a check against the ―piracy‖ of program packages. Gumnam.. Although the purpose for developing such softwares is not known. More than 1000 computer viruses have been identified. Brain. they again go back to the executable files.COM) file and starts destructive work of killing data and program files. AVG. TREE displays directories and sub directories in a drive without files.EXE. ********* Computer viruses and Vaccines: Def: A VIRUS is a set of instructions (or program) or software prepared to destroy a package and data. Thus when PC is switched on. In DOS version. ***** 21 .COM (COMMAND.

0. When we rest the mouse pointer on an icon. Atleast 8 MB RAM. Windows owes its name to the fact that it runs each program or document or application in its own separate window. It provides a big facility of plug and play standard. Parts of a window screen: Desktop: The desktop is the on-screen work area on which Windows. It supports long file name rather than the limited 8 characters with extension of three letter file name (8:3) as used by DOS. This is referred to as Tooltip. Calculator and Paint. It gives a brief description of the Icon. 8. Hardware required for Windows: 1. 3. It converts the plain character based user interface provided by DOS into a Graphical User Interface(GUI) such as pictures. then it will display fault error message about its crash and you can eliminate the crashed program from the task list without affecting other running applications. A PC with atleast 80386 processor.WINDOWS Salient features of Windows Operating System: 1. 6.2. User can paste portion of one document into another by utilizing more advanced document linking . there will be 4-5 icons on the desktop. menus & dialog boxes appear. If a program crashes. 7. It allows user to simply plug a new board such as a video.22 2. Windows have the facility of accessories such as Word pad. MS-DOS version 6. Monitor (Super VGA . Parts of the desktop include Icons & the taskbar. By default. The text below each icon is the name of the Icon. 4. The Desktop can have several components. Note pad. Components of the Desktop:  Icons  Taskbar Icons: Icon is a small image that represents a file. symbols and words on your screen that can be controlled by the mouse. features called Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). Mouse. A Hard disk with atleast 40-MB of free space to install Windows. 6. Icons. In Windows file name can have name up to 255 characters long. 5. 2. a rectangular box appears. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE). folder or program. 3. 7. Monochrome or Multicolored) 6. 5. audio or network card into the computer without having a set of switches or making other settings. CD drive. 4. They are:  My Computer  My documents  Internet Explorer  Recycle bin  Network Neighborhood 22 6. It provides a multitasking capabilities to the PC.

and the min. click the maximize button. which can be restored again if needed. The Taskbar has the START menu on the left & the Notification area on the right. Network Neighborhood: This is an application which display all the computers connected in network with our computer. The Title bar is also the handle for the window. The Restore button places the window back so that more than one window can display at a time. If you click and hold the mouse button down on the title bar. The Task bar will show the task whether or not the window is minimized. you can move it around the screen. The different parts of a window are the Title bar. the Toolbar.My Computer: This is the icon which represents all the files & folders which can be used in the system.  Minimize – To have a window take the minimum amount of desktop space possible. It is used to access the drives. 23 .  Restore – A maximized window will cover over all the other windows and icons on the desktop. Internet Explorer: This is an application used to browse the internet. Notification area holds system icons that allow for functions such as changing the time & Volume of the Computer. you can have it taken completely off the desktop by closing it. This stretches the window out like an architect‘s floor plan being rolled out over the desk. All the open applications are available on the Taskbar. Control panel etc.e Floppy drive(A). Local C. Recycle bin: This is a folder that stores all the files & folders deleted from windows temporarily. Menu items are commands within the menu bar that allow choosing of functions & tasks.  Close (X) – When done with a window. max & close buttons. Printer. My Documents: This is the default storage location for the files created in the windows. Menu bar: The Menu bar displays a list of commands that can be used to perform various tasks.  Maximize – To have a window take the maximum desktop space. These tools are used to manage the window & the components within it. folders & files on the computer. i. Anatomy of a Window: The window on a desktop is the rectangular area displaying content independently of other areas of the screen. click the minimize button. like your name at the top of a piece of paper. D. We can start an application using the start menu. Taskbar: The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of the screen is called Taskbar. This drops the window into the Task bar like a piece of paper going into a drawer. Title bar – This is the title of the window. Use the X button to do this. E. ( this will be below the Title bar). Menu bar.

Booting in Windows:      When the computer is switched on. then it transfers the OS from ROM to RAM. If OS is present. ******* 24 .Tool bar: contains a set of buttons for frequently used commands. Scroll Bars: On the bottom and right edges of a window we find scroll bars. They are used to pan across the information in the window. current page number. the number of words in the document etc. when we have information which won‘t fit into the window. The Status Bar :The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the window and provides such information as the cursor position. it shows non-system or disk error. If there is no OS. Then the desktop is displayed on the monitor. The BIOS present in ROM searches for the operating system and drives. the BIOS is activated.

By using these two panes. To open Windows Explorer. and rename files. Type in the name of the directory and press ENTER. 2. To select all --CTRL + A ii) iii) To select consecutive files: Use shift key + arrow keys To select non-consecutive files:    In the right pane of Windows Explorer. On the right pane of the screen. move. 3. you can browse through the contents of your computer in a single window. 25 . folders. You can notice the change in the tree structure immediately. Creating files: After creating a folder. Explorer uses the directory windows to graphically display the directory structure of your disk and files. The right pane displays the contents of the selected drive or folder. and drives. click Start  All programs  Accessories  Windows Explorer Windows Explorer is divided into 2 panes. Windows Explorer displays the contents of the entire system in a hierarchical manner. and drives. a new folder is created. as well as perform other tasks pertaining to files. You can use it to see how your files are organized and to copy. click the first item to be selected.WINDOWS EXPLORER Windows Explorer is an application that provides detailed information about your files. we can move files into it or create new files within the folder. The left pane displays the list of drives & folders on the computer. Selecting files & folders: i) To select all the files in a folder: Click the folder in the left pane  All the files will be displayed in the right pane. Choose FileNewFolder. Hold down CTRL Click all other items that need to be selected. From the tree pane : select the directory under which you want to create a sub directory. folders. Folder is a list of files (similar to Directory in MS-DOS) Working with Folders: Creating a Folder: 1.

select and press ctrl +X & then to paste. click cut Click the destination folder in the left pane On the edit menu. Renaming files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) Select the item to be renamed Choose File  Rename Current name gets selected. press ctrl+ V To move the files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) select the folder to be moved. the next step is to copy the files. If you want to delete. select the file & then press ****** 26 . select it and then press ctrl +C. The clip board is a location where the information you copy or cut is temporarily stored) iii) iv) Click the destination folder in the left pane. On the edit menu. Alternatively. On the edit menu click copy ( the files are copied to the clip board. Type in the new name Press Enter. to cut a file or folder. you can delete them. click yes otherwise No. click delete or press delete. All the files & folders which are deleted are moved to the recycle bin. In W. Deleting files or folders: If you do not want certain files or folders. press ctrl +V. A warning appears prompting you to confirm the file deletion. click paste. click paste in the Edit menu. Shift+ Del.Exp. Alternatively. To copy the files & folders: i) ii) In Windows Explorer. To paste. To delete: i) ii) iii) Select On the file menu. Note: To delete a file permanently without moving it to the Recycle bin.Copying Files & Folders: Once we select the files to be copied. to copy a file or folder. select the file or folder to be copied.

comma. punctuations and other special symbols which are commonly used in the text. Features of Word-processing: 1. mail merge printing 1. Word-wrap: In word-processing packages. and manipulation of a document in a desired form. As soon as the length of a sentence exceeds the right margin. cursor control 3. Sentence: A sentence is a group of words preceded and followed by appropriate delimiting characters. Similarly. numerical digits. Word: A word is group of characters that are separated from other group of characters by some delimiters like. paragraphs are separated by leaving blank lines between them. a complete document may be very short such as a memo(or letter) or very long such as a book consisting of several chapters. 2. full stop and space. Another important facility is that any ‗word‘ can be replaced by a new word through out the file. Word-wrap 2. 6. editing. Paragraph: It is a group of one or more sentences. there is a facility to ‗recover‘ the text which is deleted by mistake or accidentally. In addition to these. Cursor Control: The four directional keys of the keyboard ( for editing in much the similar manner as that of a pointer or pencil. Chapters: It is a collection of pages 7. ) helps in locating the text 27 . 5. Units of the Document: Since word-processing is concerned with preparation of a document (in a desired form). These documents are referred as ―Files‖. thesaurus 7. Character: It refers to the alphabets. wherever the old word appears. file management 10. 3. macros 8.WORD PROCESSING Definition: Word-processing is essentially typing. 4. the corresponding word is automatically adjusted in the following line. This is called ―word-wrap‖. Editing: Words or lines can be entered (inserted) or deleted in any part of the text with proper alignment . Documents and files: It is a group of chapters. 3. Pages: It is the amount of text that can be printed on one page of a paper. editing 4. A paragraph is created only when carriage control is externally given for a sentence. Usually. formatting 5. the text can be continuously typed and the computer automatically starts a fresh line when a line is filled up. spell-check 6. a block of text(which is frequently used) can be prepared and moved or copied wherever desired in the file. it is essential to know the units of the document: 1. printing 9. 2.

File management: This facility allows to create. The ability to define macros allows us to save a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes. Mail merge printing: This facility helps in printing same ―original‖ letter with different addresses. Formatting : The text formatting refers to the way the text is desired to appear on a page. delete. CHIRATOR 4.4. Some of these are listed below: 1. Spell-check: Word-processing packages provide checking of spellings facility 6. superscripts and subscripts setting foot-notes  number of lines per page  printing page numbers and headings for ‗Header‘ and ‗Footer‘  table of contents  indexing the text 5. 8. This includes following functions      setting left and right margins paragraph settings line spacing selecting font specifications such as underline. 10. so that each letter is ―original‖ and not a carbon copy. WORDSTAR 3. italics. bold. The printing can be controlled after printing a fixed number of pages or can be resumed from any specified page number. Printing: It gives a ‗hard‘ copy of the text. move & search for files. 9. MSWORD (SOFT WORD) 2. Word-processing Packages: Several word-processing packages are available. Macros: A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. NORTON EDITOR ******* 28 . Thesaurus: It provides synonyms (or words with similar meanings) 7.

Insertion point : is the blinking vertical line that indicates the position on the screen where text or graphics will be placed. tables. the default unit of measure is in inches. print and save a document. It is an application used to create. The extension name of MS. Task pane : is a small window within the word window that provides shortcuts to commonly used tasks. Menu bar: Contains the list of menus available inside word. ( The term document refers to a file created using word processor) Starting MS-Word: Start  All Programs  MS-office MS-word MS-word icon is w. Status bar: displays the details such as the page number the user is working on. Formatting toolbar: Contains a list of formatting options available inside the format menu. edit and format your document.. charts. Standard toolbar: provides shortcuts in the form of buttons for frequently performed tasks.MS-WORD MS. line number. edit. column number etc. 29 .Word is a word processor. White page area: is the space area where you type. page no. Horizontal & Vertical rulers: used for measurement purposes like any normal ruler. each menu contains a specific set of commands. drawings & features that will make the text richer & more interactive. Scroll bars : are used to move up and down or left and right in a document.doc. The default Word document includes the following layout tools:           Title bar: displays the document name and the application. out of the total pages found in the document. It allows the user to insert pictures. section no.word is .

location and file format Print: Prints the active file . italic or underlined.  Font size : Allows you to change the font size by clicking inside the Font size box and entering a value or by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the box to view a list of sizes available. center or right side of the page. Note : A Font size of 11 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text. moving and printing data. or make a table of selected text Insert Excel worksheet: Inserts an Excel spreadsheet into the Word document Columns : Changes the number of columns in a document Drawing: Displays or hides the Drawing toolbar Zoom (100%): Enlarge or reduce the display of the active document Formatting Toolbar: The formatting Tool bar is the easiest way to change many attributes of a text.     Bold. from left to right or right to left manner. Line spacing : Allows you to set the amount of space that word puts when go to a new line. Select then a size by clicking on it.for more print options go to the File menu and select Print Print preview : Shows how the document will look when you print it. You can view a list of fonts available. grammar and writing style checker Cut : Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard Copy : Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard Paste : Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point Format painter : Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects Undo : Reverses the last command. Font : Allows you to change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the font name box. use pull-down menu to undo several steps Redo : Reverses the action of the Undo button. you can scroll down to view more fonts and select the font name you wish to use by clicking on its name.   Style menu: Allows you to make your text Bold. underlined… depending on the style you choose. Function of commonly used buttons                  New: Creates a new blank document based on the default template Open: Opens or finds an existing file Save: Saves the active file with its current file name. Italic. 30 . You can also justify the text across the page using the justify button. Spelling & Grammer: Spelling. use the pull-down menu to redo several steps Insert table: Insert a table into the document. Alignment : Each button respectively allows you to make your text aligned to the left. Italic.Standard Toolbar: This toolbar contains buttons to allow you to perform the basic operations such as opening and closing a document. Text orientation : Allows you to change the typing direction of your text. Underline : Each button respectively allows you to make your text appear as bold.

i. (with HTML extension) 6. Font colour : Allows you to change the colour of the text.This gives the details about the document ( the type of file.To get the printout. To insert a new page. Exit . 8. of copies). Save as .To close the Ms-word.To set the margin. Send .e a bulk ( big/ more) work can be done in small parts. Properties . 12.Opens the existing files . Orientation 9. press Ctrl + Enter 10. Print . the date of 31 . paper size.Saves the file with one name -Saves the file with more than one name( with different formats) 5. Web Page Preview – This shows the web page in printable form. the size of file.( Specified pages and no.This is used to send the file document to internet mail to some other person. Save as Web page – This is used to save a document in a Web style. Page set up .This is used to do the parts of work in small parts. Open 3. Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F): 1. creation. date of modification and file location) 11. Increase / Decrease indent : Allows you to increase or decrease the indentation of your paragraph in relation to the side of the page. Highlight color : Allows you to change the color behind a text selection.     Numbering.Opens new Word file (Blank Document file) . 7. Bullets : Allows you to make your text appear as a bullets list or as a numbering list. New 2. Save 4. Versions . Outside Border : Allows you to add a border around a text selection.

Used to find the part of text word \ character in the file (Ctrl + F) Find Next – (F3) Finding \ finding next : Used to repeat the finding process.Used to highlight points in number wise / bullet wise. Borders & Shades .(Ctrl + H) Paste special – This will paste the copied (or) cut text in a form of an object.Can paste the selected text ( Ctrl + V) .Removes the selected text .Can copy a selected text ( Ctrl + C) .Used to set the space between paragraphs and also between the lines 3. style.Will take the opposite action of undo ( Ctrl + Y) . It will paste in box which Cannot be altered.Used to replace any part of Text / word / Character with another word/ character.Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E): Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Del Find . Replace .used to change the font face. 4. a column break is used ( insert menu  break  Columns) Ctrl + Shift + Enter 6. 2. Columns – Used to write the text in column wise. specified line. specified paragraph. Drop Cap . Paragraph .(Ctrl + G) Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O) 1.Can cut a selected text ( Ctrl + X) .Curser goes to the specified page. size etc. To have a break in columns.Used to drop the letter to different lines. Bullets .Will take the previous command (ctrl +Z) . Go To .Used to apply different borders to the table / to the page. Font . 5. 32 .

MS WORD – working with files: Creating a New document:  Click the New Blank document button on the standard tool bar. choose File  New. Some important features of Tools menu: Spelling &Grammar : Used to check the spelling and correct the words with related word. Select All pages (or) Current page (or) type the page numbers and also select number of copies according to the requirement and click O. 13. select File  Save (or)  Follow the key sequence Ctrl + S Save dialog box appears. backgrounds with some existing design background. Text direction . When you reach the end of a page. To do so. drop cap must be used first) 8. where you want the text to appear and type it in. If you want.This is used to change the back ground colour of the document but the color can be seen only in the web layout. select File  Open Saving a document:  Click the Save button on the Tool bar.Editing Text : Typing and Inserting Text: To enter text in your document. 12. select getting started and the select more (or)  From the Menu bar.Frames are used to write different documents in one single document.Used to change the direction of drop cap (Note : To use text direction. 9.This is used to change the document. word will automatically break text onto the next page. 33 . (or)  From the Menu bar. and select Blank document. This shows the background only in the web layout. (or)  From the task pane. Type the name and click Save. MS WORD . (Shift +F7) : used to type the letters with the same matter but different addresses. Change case . Back Ground . you can start a new page at any point by inserting a page break.7. Word will automatically wrap text as it reaches the end of a line. Toggle – This converts lower case letters to upper case & vice –versa in a word. 11. position the insertion point i. Opening Existing documents:  Click the open button found on the Standard tool bar. Style . 10.K Closing a document:  Select File  close  Click on the small X found on the right top next to the Menu bar and the Title bar. (or)  From the Menu bar.e a vertical blinking line. Frames .Used to change the case of the text.This is used to change the writing fashion of the document which are already existing. ( F7) Thesaurus Mail merge : Used to know the synonym (meaning) of the word. Press enter to start a new paragraph. the New document task pane will open. Printing a document :  Select File  Print (or)  Click on the Print button on the Standard Tool bar (or)  Click Ctrl + P Print dialog box appears. Theme . press ctrl + Enter.

select Edit  cut Follow the key sequence Ctrl + X From the Menu bar.  Whole paragraph: Triple click within the paragraph. characters typed are inserted into the text to the left of the insertion point. click the Copy button (or) Follow the key sequence Ctrl + C (or) From the standard tool bar. copying and pasting text: Cut text: Highlight the text you need to move and follow one of the methods listed below:       From the Menu bar. select Edit  Paste Follow the key sequence Ctrl + V (or) (or) From the standard Tool bar. click the Paste button ******* 34 .e selected with the mouse cursor.  Sentence : ctrl + click in a sentence  Entire document : Edit  select all ( ctrl + A) Deleting text:    Use the BACKSPACE or the DELETE key to delete text. select Edit  copy (or) From the standard toolbar. the text you type will replace the existing text. i. then drag the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button pressed. click on the cut button. Moving. locate the mouse at the start of the text you wish to highlight and click the left button. In overtype mode. pushing any characters to the right of the insertion point further to the right. move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to and follow one of the methods listed below:    From the menu bar. Selecting Text: In order to change the format of the text you just typed. Shortcuts used for selecting a portion of the text:  Whole word : Double click within the word. To highlight the whole text or part of it. it must be first highlighted. Note: The Insert key is a toggle key.Word offers two modes for adding text to your documents: Insert mode and overwrite mode. highlight the text using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key. BACKSPACE key will delete text to the left of the cursor and DELETE key will erase text to the right. To delete a large section of text. (or) Copy text: Paste Text: To paste previously cut or copied text. In Insert mode. This means that the same key can be used to switch back and forth between two different modes.

Some important features of MS-Excel: 1. By default. Thus it is used in many scientific and engineering environments for analyzing data. 8. It includes all features of a spreadsheet package like recalculation. 6. a picture etc.xls We can start excel in many ways: 1. Availability of functions: Several Mathematical. which helps the user to easily understand. OLE support: Object linking and Embedding is a feature through which Excel can contain any object like a document. Maintaining high volume of data: Excel can contain large volume of data. 4. One workbook can contain a maximum of 256 worksheets. 5. Workbooks: Workbooks are the files in which worksheets related to a project are held. 7. Double click on the Microsoft application Icon. Auto correct. The extension name of excel workbook is . Availability of Charts & Graphs: MS-Excel allows users to view data entered as tables in a graphical form as charts. 2. Excel workbook contains 3 worksheets designated as sheet 1. Spreadsheet displays data in the form of rows and columns. 35 . Data Analysis Tools: MS-Excel provides a set of data analysis tools called Analysis Tool pack. Sorting capability: Excel has the capability of sorting any data in Ascending or Descending order. MS-Excel is a window based spreadsheet developed by Microsoft corporation. sheet 2. Excel can even hold graphic objects like pictures & images. financial & statistical functions are available in an Excel package. Auto fill feature: Excel has the feature which allows to fill cells with repetitive data such as chronological dates or numbers and repeated text. sheet 3. Window based application: Excel like all other applications has Toolbars. 3. Shortcut Menus. A single cell can contain a maximum of 255 characters. Getting started with Excel: An Excel document is called a workbook. Start  Run  Type Excel  hit enter 3. A worksheet can contain 65536 rows and 256 columns. 2. Start  Programs  Microsoft office  Microsoft Excel  hit enter.MS -EXCEL Spreadsheet is a software that helps to substitute the paper worksheets in the offices. It also provides many Mathematical. An intersection of row and column is known as a cell. analyze data & compare data. graphs & functions. Online help and Wizards. Financial & Statistical functions. 9.

View. Format. Name box: displays the cell address of the active cell.   Status bar: located at the very bottom of the screen displays brief information about activating features within the worksheet area. Edit. located beneath the menu bar. has buttons for commonly performed tasks like adding a column of numbers. printing. Tools.536 rows and 256 columns. sorting.) either textual or numerical can be entered and the results can be displayed. Rows are numbered from 1 to 65. Insert.536 and columns labeled from A to IV (256 columns).   Title bar: The title bar contains the name of the program Microsoft Excel and the default name of the workbook Book1 that would change as soon as you save your file and give another name. 36 . Ex: B6 Worksheet area: The middle portion of screen which occupies a major area is called worksheet area. Formula bar: displays the contents of the active cell. Window and Help.e. Column letter followed by the row number. and other operations. The Standard Excel XP toolbar appears in the figure below. Active cell: The cell in which you are currently working. Menu bar : The Menu bar contains menus that include all the commands you need to use to work your way through Excel such as File. columns & cell: In a worksheet rows are numbered from top to bottom. information or data (i. Sheet tabs: appear above the status bar displaying the names of the worksheets. The columns are labeled with letters from left to right. A worksheet is a large work area of 65. Standard and formatting toolbars are displayed by default.Components of the Excel window: An Excel window has several unique elements identified in the figure below:  Rows. Data. Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar. Excel let's you customize the toolbar or even display multiple toolbars at the same time.      Tool Bar: Tool Bars are usually shortcuts for menu items. In this area.

By default. to edit the data in a cell. 1. To enter data of any type. click New. Use the formula bar to enter and edit worksheet data. the workbook is named as Book 1.Formatting toolbar The Formatting toolbar. press F2. Formula bar & Name box The formula bar is located beneath the toolbar at the top of the Excel worksheet. Editing text: The easiest way to edit the contents of a cell is to select the cell and then retype the entry. you have entered the marks as 78 instead of 87. 2. Entering data: You can enter text. Click blank workbook. Creating a New Workbook: The steps to create a new workbook are. Select the cell by clicking on it. an X and a check mark appear. The contents of the active cell always appear in the formula bar. When you click the mouse in the formula bar. When you begin typing. then click on A6 and type 87 enter 37 . The new entry replaces the old contents. The new workbook task pane appears at the right side of the screen. and sheet 1 is the active worksheet & A1 is the active cell. Ex: Suppose you find that in the cell A6. A new workbook with 3 worksheets appears. Press the Enter key. formatting numbers and placing borders around cells. You can click the check icon to confirm and completes editing. Type in the information. located beneath the Standard toolbar bar. numbers and dates in an Excel worksheet. or the X to abandon editing. 3. Alternatively. On the File menu. Name box The Name box displays the reference of the selected cells in the form of column label followed by row number. your data also appears in the formula bar. 1. has buttons for various formatting operations like changing text size or style.

2. the steps are: Format/Cell/N/umber/Decimal places/2 Formatting Text: Text can be formatted using the buttons on the formatting toolbar. Italic etc.75 points high and every column is 8. rows & columns can be inserted or deleted without affecting the surrounding rows. displaying dates. Formatting a worksheet: Changing the style or appearance of data in a worksheet is called formatting. You can format the data in a worksheet by:   Changing the position of data in a cell Changing the font. To change the default alignment. Drag the boundary until the required width is obtained. To insert a row. Inserting Rows & Columns: In Excel. 2. On the Insert menu. click columns. 2. 3. 2. Retype the data & press enter. Changing Row height & Column width: By default. As you fill it with data. font size can be changed. Rest the mouse pointer over the column before which you want to insert the new Column. columns & cells. The font style can also be changed to bold. Font of a cell. To Resize a column: 1. Formatting Numbers: Formatting data in a worksheet includes changing the number of decimal places. Rest the mouse pointer over the row above which you want to insert the new row.You can also edit part of the data in a cell: 1. Rest the mouse pointer on the column boundary on the right side. to insert a column. The shape of the mouse pointer changes to 3. 1. Delete the part of the data that you do not wish to keep. any text you enter in Excel is aligned to the left and any value or number is aligned to the Right.43 characters wide. click rows. Similarly. To format the number in a cell. The insertion point appears within the cell. Double click the cell you want to edit. style & colour. 38 . Aligning data: By default. On the Insert menu. however you have to change the size of rows & columns so that it is fitted to the length of the data. A row is inserted and the existing row moves down after the new row. 1. size. every row is 12. you can use the alignment buttons on the formatting tool bar. times & fractions and adding currency symbols.

3.(OR) 1. 2. you can add the page breaks in the required space. MS. Row height can also be adjusted by selecting the rows.Excel evaluates the formula according to the order of precedence of the operators. / + / & = / > /< ) Operation Bracket Exponentiation Multiplication . In Excel. The column which is to be adjusted is made active by clicking on column letter. 4.  File  Save (or)  Ctrl +S (or)  click on the save button on the Tool bar. Operator ( ^ *. Sorting: Highlight the cells that should be sorted and click the sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button found on the Standard toolbar. File menu  page break preview The page breaks are shown in dasher lines. Step 2: select insert  page break Saving a workbook: To save a workbook. A dialogue box is displayed. Type in the required size of the column in the text box column width. One of the powerful features is formulas. When you attempt to print a worksheet Excel automatically inserts page breaks view. display the result of the calculation and not the formula. Printing: To print the worksheet. a formula starts with an equal (=) sign and should be followed by the operation to be performed. select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking the row‘s label. Formulas: In Excel. Then choose Insert  page break from the Menu bar. Division Addition. We can use formula to perform Mathematical. Type the name and click Save. Similarly. The cells in which formulas are stored. After that. The column option is selected from the Format menu. select File  Print from the Menu bar (or) click on the Print button from the Standard Toolbar (or) follow the key sequence Ctrl + p Inserting Page breaks: To set the page breaks within the worksheet. select the full row until the data in the sheet exists. Save dialogue box appears. Click on the width option. Step 1: select a cell above which the page break is needed. Subtraction Concatenation Comparisons Order of precedence 1 2 3 4 5 6 39 . A formula is an equation that is used to perform calculations on data in a worksheet. If the automatic allocation of page breaks does not satisfy with your requirements. Statistical & date/time operations on a single value or a set of values by using operators. We can use any number of operators in a single formula.

number2.gives the maximum value within the range specified . a colon (:) is used between the first & last cell addresses.gives the absolute value of the number . readymade and frequently used formula that accepts data. Type ―=‖ sign. To enter a function in a cell.calculates the standard deviation of the given data .gives the factorial of the number . Step i) Click the cell I3 ii) Type ― = ( C3 * F3) iii) press Enter The result ―23607‖ will be displayed in the cell I3.gives the logarithm of the number .counts how many numbers are there in the list of arguments Note : To specify a range of cells. Suppose the value of the cell B6 is 78345. Suppose the values in the cells B2. Statistical functions with syntax and purpose: 40 . 56 respectively. perform calculations & returns results. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Example: Click the cell in which you want the result of the function to be displayed.e F2 ii) Type ― = ( B2 + C2 + D2 )‖ iii) Press Enter The value ―118‖ will be displayed in F2. ii) Type ― = (B6/5) ― iii) Press Enter The value ―15669‖ will be displayed in the cell E6. C2. 2.calculates the mean of the given data . To add these values and to have the result in the cell F2. Functions : A function is a built-in. D2 are 34. i.calculates the average of the values in a specified range . 28. Divide the value by 5 and have it in the cell E6: Step i) Click the cell E6. =Average(B1: B10) Calculates the average of the values in the cells B1 to B10 Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose: i) ii) iii) iv) v) i) ii) iii) iv) v) Sum( number1. Step i) Click on the cell in which total marks is to be displayed. Type the function name. Multiply the value 549 of the cell C3 with the value 43 of the cell F3 and have the result in the cell I3. Press Enter.…) – gives the sum of the values in a specified range Abs( number) Fact( number) Sqrt(number) Log(number) Average( range of cells) Stdev(range of cells) Mean( range of cells) Max( range of cells) count( ) .Examples of the formula expressions: 1. Type the cell range & other arguments within brackets.gives the square root of the number . 3.

Select the function option from the Insert menu. Steps to use the function Wizard: 1. We can use different types of charts to represent data. The cell in which the function is to be inserted. Creating Charts : Charts in Excel are used to represent data pictorially. Statistical. Click O. Bar charts 3. Line 4. enter the chart options like label of the chart and click Next In the step 4 of 4. Click O. 6. Financial etc. 3. pie 5. The selected cell on the worksheet will automatically contain the formula. The function needed is selected. Radar 9. Enter the arguments. The Function Wizard screen is displayed. It contains all the functions according to the type such as Mathematical. 41 . Open the Insert Menu and select Chart In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. Date/time. select the type of chart you want to make and click Next In the step 2 of 4. Stock 12. Bubble 11. Types of charts which are available in Excel: 1. is selected.K. Cone & Pyramid Creating a Chart : Step i) ii) iii) iv) vi) vii) Enter the data in a table.Function Wizard : The Function Wizard is a tool in Excel through which a user can enter formulas in the correct format without any errors. Surface 10. Doughnut 8. Column charts 2. 2. 5. XY (scatter) 6. The result is shown in the selected cell. A dialogue box is displayed in which arguments are accepted. Area 7. enter chart source data and click Next In the step 3 of 4. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. It lists all the functions available.K 4. Cylinder.

select Column chart and click Next iv) In the step 2 of 4. production of crops 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 paddy wheat maize groundnut type of crop Series1 production(tonns) 42 .Column Chart: Column charts are one of the most common types of graphs used to display data. to draw a column chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. A column chart represents data in the form of a series of vertical bars. For example.No. Each bar represents a value. ii) Open the Insert Menu and select Chart iii) In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 To construct a bar chart for the above data: Step i) Enter the data in a table. enter the chart options like label of the chart vi) In the step 4 of 4. enter chart source data v) In the step 3 of 4. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish.

whose area are proportional to the frequencies or percentages of cases under various categories. to draw a pie chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. a circle is divided into sectors. In this chart.Pie Chart: A Pie chart is used to represent the distribution of a categorical data. Then we select the data of the first series and choose pie chart and proceed as per the options given in the dialogue box. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 pr oduction of cr ops 30% 46% paddy w heat maize groundnut 14% 10% ******* 43 . Data on each variable is entered in the Excel worksheet in a row or column with suitable headings. A separate chart pie chart should be drawn for each data set. For example.No.

the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions and then displays the results in an output table. and engineering worksheet functions. iv) click OK v) The result will be given in the corresponding output format. iii) The corresponding dialogue box appears. To access these tools. You provide the data and parameters for each analysis. Excel provides many other statistical. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. click Data Analysis on the Tools menu. click on the one you want.Statistical Analysis Tools Microsoft Excel provides a set of data analysis tools— called the Analysis Tool Pak— that you can use to save steps when you develop complex statistical or engineering analyses. Enter the Input range and Output range (addresses of the cells) iv) give the address of the cell where you want the result to be shown. If the Data Analysis command is not available. you need to load the Analysis Tool Pak add-in program. Accessing the data analysis tools: The Analysis Tool Pak includes the tools described below. 44 . Some of the statistical functions are built-in and others become available when you install the Analysis Tool Pak. financial. Analysis Tools: ANOVA: Single factor ANOVA: Two-Factor with replication ANOVA: Two-Factor without replication Correlation Covariance Descriptive statistics F-test two-sample for variances Histogram Regression t-test: two sample assuming equal variances t-test: two sample assuming unequal variances Z-test: two sample for means Steps to use Analysis Tools: Step i) From the Menu bar choose Tools and click on Data Analysis ii) When the Data Analysis dialogue box appears. Related to worksheet functions.

989783 1 gain in weight Ex 2: Following is the data of head and body weights of 5 insects. iii) When the Correlation dialogue box appears. iv) give the output range where you want the result to be shown. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. iii) When the Regression dialogue box appears. clock OK. Head weight (X) 20 22 25 27 31 Body weight (Y) 60 64 72 80 84 Step i) From the Menu bar. 45 .Ex 1: The following are the results of 5 preschool going children at different levels of protein content in diet. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. Find the regression equation of y on x. v) the result will be shown in the following format: Summary output: Protein content Protein content gain in weight 1 0. Compute the correlation coefficient using Excel Protein content (%) 5 7 10 12 13 Gain in weight(gm) 30 40 80 100 120 Step i) From the Menu bar. ii) Select Regression in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. enter the Input range and also give the output range where you want the result to be shown. ii) Select Correlation in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. clock OK. enter the Input Y range and input X range.

05.K 46 .7838 16.948025 Standard Error 2.6 P-value 0.21622 416 Standard Error 6.96 Significance F 0.184445 Ex 3: The daily production of two pesticide factories is recorded as follows. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis.405405 F 73. Solution: Step i) From the Menu bar. iv) Click the check box against Labels in the First row.836289 0.464204 Upper 95.0% -7.64801 3.27027 MS 399. click O.86423 1.324953 Observations 5 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 1 3 4 SS 399. iii) Enter the variable 1 range.324324 t Stat 2. Factory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 12 16 9 13 15 17 20 23 B 8 13 21 16 11 12 Test whether there is any significant difference between two factories at probability level 0. variable 2 range and set Hypothesized mean difference as zero.003305 Intercept (X) Coefficients 13.v) The result will be shown in the following format.135073 0. ii)Select t-test.7838 5.464204 Upper 95% 35.86423 1. iv) Give the output range where you want the result to be shown.0% 35.89189 2.961019 Adjusted R Square 0. two samples assuming equal variances in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK.64801 3.003305 Lower 95% -7.032081 8.980316 R Square 0.184445 Lower 95. SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.

5 20.877324 0. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances A 15.v) the result will be shown in the following format.178813 B 13.625 19.11458 0 12 0.198768 1.397535 2.782288 0.98214 8 20.3 6 Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail ****** 47 .

Student name. many meaningful conclusions can be drawn. A data access page displays data stored in a database over the internet. queries and reports by following a series of steps provided by the wizard. organizing and retrieving data. We cannot make changes to the data in a report. Every row containing information about a student represents a record. i. A database can be maintained in a computer by using a database management system(DBMS). 7.e the printable form of the table or query or form. Ex: A table can contain personal information about all the students in a college.MS-ACCESS The Database is an organized collection of data related to a particular topic or purpose. such as validating data against complex conditions. The records in the student table can include fields such as Admission number. Click on File menu  New  Enter A window appears  give a name to the database 48 . All database objects should be created manually. DBMS is an application that enables to maintain data in a database. The Blank Database command is used to create a blank database. forms. MS-Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that is used to store and manipulate large amount of information. A database stored electronically has distinct advantages over a manually organized system. Macros : used to automate frequently performed tasks. Reports : used to present data from tables or Queries in a format of our choice. Every row represents a Record. Start Programs MS office  Ms-Access  Enter 2.   The database Wizard is used to create tables. To start MS-Access: 1.mdb. Start  Run Ms-Access Enter An Access Database consists of 7 different Database objects. The extension name of Ms-Access file is . Pages : display shortcuts to data access pages in the database. 1. Each piece of information in a record is called a Field. Queries : used to retrieve information from a database based on specific conditions. Address. 3. Tables : Store database data in Rows (records) and columns (fields). Phone number etc. 5. 6. Ex: A Query can be used to extract details about students studying in a particular class. Modules : used to perform advanced database operations. 4. The database serves as a base from which a desired information can be retrieved. Ex: we can create a macro to print a report automatically. Forms : used as interfaces for users to enter. 2. view and modify data in a Table. Maintaining data involves storing. We can format the data in a report. Creating a Database : A Database can be created by using the database Wizard or by using the Blank Database command.

Create Table by entering data: Click on Table (object) in the main switch board. 49 . Enter the details Working with Database Fields : Microsoft Access database fields are created by entering a field name and a field data type in each row of the field entry area of the database table window. Click on create table on Datasheet view  now a window appears  here we find fields ( field1. click on table in the main switch board and double click on the table name. field2. The database window appears. 2.Creating a Table : 1.. roll no. Commands in the New Table dialog box Command Create table by entering data Design view Table wizard       Used to assign fields for the new table and modify field properties Used to create a table through a guided sequence of steps Purpose Used to create a table by entering values directly in a row and column format I. under objects.……) Give the field names ( Name. marks etc) Click on close button of the table and save the table with some name To enter details into the table. The New Table dialog box appears. Open the database in which the table is to be created. click Tables and then click New on the database window toolbar.

 Text : used for text or combinations of text and numbers. Number : used for data to be included in Mathematical calculations. Currency : used for currency values and to prevent rounding off during calculations.        Memo : Used for lengthy text and numbers. Ex: Field name Roll No Name Marks Data types Auto Number Text Number 3. Auto Number : used for unique sequential or random numbers that are automatically inserted when a record is added.4 or 8 bytes. Usually this field is sequentially numbered. such as yes/ No. or postal codes. Now enter the details. the field is called the foreign key in the second table. To enter data into the table. Create a table in Design view: 1. click on table (object) in the main switch board. Ex : Admission number field Foreign key : When a primary key of one table appears as a field in another table. double click on the table created. except calculations involving money. click on the close button of the table and save it with some name 4. Stores up to 255 characters. Stores 1. such as notes or descriptions. such as addresses or for numbers that do not require calculations. 50 . Date / Time : used for dates and times. such as phone numbers. Primary & Foreign keys: Data should be checked for redundancy before it is stored in a database. Yes /No : used for data that can be only one of two possible values. On/Off. 5. OLE object : used for OLE objects like pictures. Keys are used to maintain the integrity of data. Stores 8 bytes. 2. Keys are of two types: primary & foreign. graphs and other binary data. Stores upto 64. their uses and their storage sizes. Stores 8 bytes.Data types in MS-Access : The following list summarizes all the field data types available in MS. True/False. Here click on ― create table in design view‖ Now a window appears  here type the field names and their data types respectively. Keys contain unique values that help to filter redundant information from the input data.Access.000 characters. Stores up to 1 GB. II.2. Primary key: The field in a table that uniquely identifies each record is called the primary key.

The display and contents of the form is controlled fully by the user. the open button is replaced by the preview button. But. Query and forms are meant for displaying it on screen. You can toggle between these three views using the View Tool. In a table.Queries :     By using queries we can view.  In forms. Reports can be viewed either in print preview mode or design mode. You can also use them as the source of records for forms and reports. ****** Forms : 51 . Design ii. In the database window. You can bring together data from multiple tables and sort it in a particular order. The report preview shows how the data will appear on taking out the printouts. if the table has many fields. Pictures can be added to a form. it is known as Report. The screen may be too small to fit it. The user may have to scroll horizontally or vertically to view the rest of the fields/ records. the data can be displayed as per the users requirement. Report: The data shown in a table. Form view The datasheet view shows many records whereas form view displays single record. You can perform calculations on groups of records. then it may not be possible for a user to view all of them. number of records are displayed at a time. i. Datasheet & iii. Data cannot be edited in the reports.   In forms there are 3 views. change and analyze data in different ways. but when you take the printout or the Hard copy. when you click the report tab. The fields can be arranged as the user wants it. The records are generally displayed one at a time.

typically a building. The computer is connected to a modem. states. Ex: the computers in all branches of an office within a city. it connects the computers distributed across multiple buildings. Ex: Internet Explorer. it is called a WAN. connected to a telephone line. Ex : Set of interconnected computers within an office. Metropolitan Area Network: A metropolitan area network is a network that is larger than a LAN. Internet INTERNET The internet is a global connection of computers. Internet connection helps us to: 1. countries or even continents. in turn. c) Telephone line: A telephone line is required to transfer data from one computer to another. Microsoft outlook express etc. Modem stands for Modulator Demodulator.. which stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. which. The communication links which inter connect each host computer use a common method of transmission known as TCP/IP. 4. b) Web Browser: A browser is a software program that is necessary in order to view web pages on the web. file compression. Mozilla Firefox. 5. View interesting video‘s listen to music or wander through a 3-D world. Share your opinions and your knowledge on a variety of topics through various new groups. 52 . decompression utility etc. Depending on the geographical location. networks can be classified as a) LAN ( Local Area Network) b) MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network) c) WAN (Wide Area Network) Local Area Network: If a network is confined to a single location. Netscape Navigator. Ex : i. Types of Networks Networks can range from a small group of computers linked together in a class room to thousands of computers linked together across the globe. Send or receive E-mail 3. it is called a LAN. Requirements for connecting to the Internet: a) Modem: A modem is a peripheral device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. These computers are connected via a huge network of telecommunication links. Wide Area Network: When a network is located over wide areas such as cities. The internet allows you to access to a whole resource of data and information stored at different sites (called hosts) and locations around the world. Down load useful programs such as virus detectors. Chat with other people any where in the world 6. Read information on a wide range of topics 2.Networking and Internet A network is an arrangement that enables two or more computers to communicate (talk) to each other. Computers in different branches of a Globalised company. ii.

A typical web address or URL looks as http:// www. it can be sent to many people at the same time 3. Specrta Net etc. The WWW support a protocol called Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).d) Subscription with Internet service provider (ISP): ISP‘s are companies that provide access to the internet. These pages. called web pages are stored on different computers that are connected to the internet. Some of the features of E-mail are 1.asp Explanation Identifies protocol necessary to retrieve the file. The web pages have links between them i. 2. an E-mail message consists of two parts a) a header specifying the address of the sender and the address of the receiver b) the text of the message 53 .microsoft. pictures. A collection of related web pages is known as a web site. World Wide Web (WWW): It refers to the collection of information accessible on the internet.asp Explanation of the example URL: URL Element http WWW Microsoft . HTML uses special text codes to define the various elements of a web page.com /catalog/navigation. data and graphics. it is much faster than the normal mail. In order to transmit a graphically designed web page complete with pictures. Indicates that the site is on the world wide web Indicates the name of the web site Indicates the domain type of the web site Specifies the path of the file stored on the web server‘s hard disk E-Mail E-mail or electronic mail is a service for sending or receiving messages electronically through a computer network. Some of the ISPs in India are VSNL. These words or pictures that help to move from one page to another are called hyperlinks. Sify. Internet was initially designed for the transmission of text basing on the protocols mentioned. Uniform Resource Locator: (URL): Each web site has a unique address commonly referred to as a URL.com/catalog/navigation. It consists of millions & millions of pages of text. Messages can be sent within a matter of seconds to any part in the world. A URL specifies the exact location of the web page on the internet.e when we click a certain word or picture in a page. it will take us to another page. A web site can be accessed by means of a unique name assigned to it. embedded sound and animation a special language was designed which is referred to as Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML). The electronic mail uses various technologies that support electronic transmission of text. it can access information and file libraries on request 5. HTTP provides a method of transmitting a professionally laid out page over the text based internet. We need subscription with any ISP to get an Internet connection. The web is similar to a library. E-mail user can have a mail box which is accessed through a computer terminal 6. sounds and animation on various topics. MTNL. E-mail is cheaper than a phone call and an ordinary mail 4. All internet servers cannot support HTTP and so the web can be regarded as a subset of the larger internet.

Yahoo! search and Infoseek etc. and country name Ex: Statisitcs@hotmial. Alta Vista. providing links to relevant Web sites for us to choose from. Mailing list can be created to send the same message to a group of people E-Mail Address: An E-Mail address consists of three parts 1. The search engine looks for the keywords we have entered and returns the results of the search. deleting. ******* 54 . Domain name A domain represents organization. network.com. A user interface is provided where you can enter the word or phrase you are searching for. Search Engines : Search engines are utilities used to search for information on the web. The person‘s Login name 2. displaying. @ sign 3. Both the names are separated by the @symbol.7. saving. forwarding and replying. Google. The mailing system allows selecting messages for reading.com in this Statistics is the user name and his account is in the domain hotmail. 8. Some commonly used search engines are MSN.

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