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Computer Knowledge

Computer Knowledge

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Sections

  • Limitations of computers :
  • Generations of computers :
  • Laser printer
  • Floppy Disk Storage Capacity Size (Diameter)
  • Data Analysis
  • Word Processing
  • Spread Sheet
  • Graphics
  • Databases
  • Functions of Operating System :
  • Computer viruses and Vaccines:
  • WINDOWS
  • Salient features of Windows Operating System:
  • Hardware required for Windows:
  • Anatomy of a Window:
  • Booting in Windows:
  • WINDOWS EXPLORER
  • Creating a Folder:
  • Creating files:
  • Selecting files & folders:
  • Copying Files & Folders:
  • To move the files or folders:
  • Renaming files or folders:
  • Deleting files or folders:
  • WORD PROCESSING
  • Units of the Document:
  • The default Word document includes the following layout tools:
  • Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F):
  • Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E):
  • Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O)
  • MS WORD – working with files:
  • MS WORD - Editing Text :
  • Selecting Text:
  • Deleting text:
  • Moving, copying and pasting text: Cut text:
  • Copy text:
  • Paste Text:
  • MS -EXCEL
  • Components of the Excel window:
  • Name box
  • Creating a New Workbook:
  • Entering data:
  • Editing text:
  • Formatting a worksheet:
  • Aligning data:
  • Formatting Numbers:
  • Inserting Rows & Columns:
  • Changing Row height & Column width:
  • File menu page break preview
  • Formulas:
  • Functions :
  • Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose:
  • Statistical functions with syntax and purpose:
  • Function Wizard :
  • Steps to use the function Wizard:
  • Creating Charts :
  • Creating a Chart :
  • Pie Chart:
  • Statistical Analysis Tools
  • Steps to use Analysis Tools:
  • MS-ACCESS
  • Creating a Database :
  • Creating a Table :
  • Command Purpose
  • I. Create Table by entering data:
  • Working with Database Fields :
  • Data types in MS-Access :
  • II. Create a table in Design view:
  • Field name Data types
  • Primary & Foreign keys:
  • Queries :
  • Forms :
  • Report:
  • Types of Networks
  • INTERNET
  • World Wide Web (WWW):
  • URL Element Explanation

INTRODUCTION

Definition : A Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve Mathematical, Logical and graphical manipulations. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system. It performs the following three operations in sequence. 1. It receives data & instructions from the input device. 2. Processes the data as per instructions. 3. Provides the result (output) in a desired form. Data : It is the collection of raw facts, figures & symbols. Ex : Names of students and their marks in different subjects listed in random order. Information : It is the data that is processed & presented in an organized manner. Ex : When the names of students are arranged in alphabetical order, total and average marks are calculated & presented in a tabular form, it is information. Program : Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task. Advantages of computers :
1. High speed : Computers have the ability to perform routine tasks at a greater speed than human

beings. They can perform millions of calculations in seconds.
2. Accuracy : Computers are used to perform tasks in a way that ensures accuracy. 3. Storage : Computers can store large amount of information. Any item of data or any instruction

stored in the memory can be retrieved by the computer at lightning speeds.
4. Automation : Computers can be instructed to perform complex tasks automatically ( which

increases the productivity).
5. Diligence : Computers can perform the same task repeatedly & with the same accuracy without

getting tired.
6. Versatility : Computers are flexible to perform both simple and complex tasks. 7. Cost effectiveness : Computers reduce the amount of paper work and human effort, thereby

reducing costs. Limitations of computers : 1. Computers need clear & complete instructions to perform a task accurately. If the instructions are not clear & complete, the computer will not produce the required result. 2. Computers cannot think. 3. Computers cannot learn by experience. Generations of computers :

Generation First Generation (1946-1954 ) Second Generation (1955-1965) Third Generation (1968-1975 ) Fourth Generation ( 1976-1980) Fifth Generation (1980 – till today )

Component used Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits (IC) Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) Ultra Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI) Micro Processor (SILICON CHIP)
****** 3

ANATOMY OF COMPUTERS
The computer system consists of three units: 1. Input device 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3. Output device

Block diagram of a Computer : CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

Memory unit

INPUT DEVICE

ALU

OUT PUT DEVICE

Control Unit

The various functions of these units can be summarized as:

Unit
1.Input device :

Function
Reads information from input media and enters to the computer in a coded form

2.CPU (a) Memory unit (b) Arithmetic Logic unit (c) Control Unit : : : Stores program and data Performs arithmetic and logical functions Interprets program instructions and controls the input and output devices 3. Output device : decodes information and presents it to the user

Central Processing Unit: It is the part of the computer that carries out the instructions of a
computer program. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Hence it is known as the ―brain‖ of the computer. The CPU consists of storage or memory unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and control unit. (a). Memory Unit: It is also known as the primary storage or main memory. It stores data, program instructions, internal results and final output temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device. It consists of thousands of cells called ―storage locations‖. These cells activate with ―off -on‖ or binary digits(0,1) mechanism. Thus a character either a letter or numerical digit is stored as a string of (0,1) Binary digits ( BITS). These bits are used to store instructions and data by their combinations. (b) Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU): It is the unit where all Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction etc.) and logical functions such as true or false, male or female are performed. Once data are fed into the main memory from input devices, they are held and transferred as needed to ALU where processing takes place. No process occurs in primary storage. Intermediate generated results in ALU

4

are temporarily placed in memory until needed at later time. Data may move from primary memory to ALU and back again to storage many times before the process is finalized. (c).Control Unit : It acts as a central nervous system and ensures that the information is stored

correctly and the program instructions are followed in proper sequence as well as the data are selected from the memory as necessary. It also coordinates all the input and output devices of a system .

5

Input Devices
Devices used to provide data and instructions to the computer are called Input devices. Some important input devices are Key board, Mouse, Scanner, MICR, Web camera, Microphone etc. 1. Keyboard: The Key board is used for typing text into the computer. It is also known as standard Input device. A computer keyboard is similar to that of a type writer with additional keys. The most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys. There are different types of keys on the keyboard. The keys are categorized as :   Alphanumeric keys , including letters & numbers. Punctuation keys, such as colon (:), semicolon (;) Question mark (?), Single & double quotes (‗,‖)  Special keys such as arrow keys, control keys, function keys (F1 to F12), HOME, END etc.

2.. Mouse: It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor on a monitor. A mouse will have 2 buttons on its top. The left button is the most frequently used button. There will be a wheel between the left and right buttons. This wheel enables us to smoothly scroll through screens of information. As we move the mouse, the pointer on the monitor moves in the same direction. Optical mouse is another advanced pointing device that uses a light emitting component instead of the mouse ball. Mouse cannot be used for entering the data. It is only useful to select the options on the screen.

3. Scanner: :

It is an input device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate into

digital form. The main advantage of these scanners is that the data need not be entered separately resulting in saving lot of time.

Scanners are of two types: i) optical scanners i) Optical scanners:

ii) MICR

a. Optical character Recognition(OCR): In this, characters are read with the help of a light. This is used in office atomization, documentation in library etc. b. Optical mark recognition(OMR): It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as a pencil mark. OMR is used in tests such as aptitude tests. c. Optical barcode recognition(OBCR): Barcode readers are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on product containers. This is used in super markets, book shops etc. ii. MICR: This is widely used in banks to process the cheques. This allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink. 6

4. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR): : It is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of the cheques. MICR characters ( cheque No., Acc.No.etc) are printed in special ink usually containing iron oxide. When a document that contains the ink needs to be read, it passes through a machine which magnetizes the ink and there will be a reader sorter unit which translates the magnetic information into characters. MICR provides a secure, high speed of scanning and processing information. It scans about 2600 cheques/min.

Output devices
Any device that is capable of representing information on a computer is called an Output device. Output devices receive information from the CPU and present it to the user in the desired form. Some important Output devices are : Monitor, Printer 1 .Terminal/Monitor: It is similar to TV screen- either a monochrome (black & white) or colour – and it displays the output. It is also referred as Visual Display Unit(VDU). Several types of monitors are in use. Some of them are Colour Graphic Adapter(CGA), Enhanced Graphics Adaptor(EGA) , Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) and Super Video Graphics Adapter (SVGA). The screen sizes differ from system to system. The standard size is 24 lines by 80 characters. Most systems have provision for scrolling which helps in moving the text vertically or horizontally on the screen.

2 . Printer: A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained from a printer is often referred as ―printout‖. The different printers and their speeds are as follows: S. No. 1 Type Dot – Matrix printer 2 3 4 5 Ink Jet printer Laser printer Line printer Plotter Mode of Printing Prints the character in dotted pattern through printer ribbon using either 24 pin or 9 pin Work by spraying ionized ink Also called page printer. Uses laser beam to produce an image. Prints lines at a time instead of single characters. Produces drawings or graphs through pens which are filled with different colours. ( CPS: Characters Per Second; PPM: Pages Per Minutes; LPM : Lines Per Minute) 300 to 600 LPM Slow, 90 CPS 6 to 12 PPM CPS Speed 200/300 to 700

Laser printer ****** 7

Any storage unit of a computer system is classified on the basis of the following criteria: 1. This memory can be quickly accessed by the CPU for reading or storing information. This is called the ― word length‖ of the storage unit. the storage of data and instructions in RAM is temporary. i. Secondary Memory ( External storage) Primary Memory : Primary memory is also called internal memory and is an important part of a computer. Thus the basic unit of memory is a bit (binary digit – 0. 8 . Types of Memory : A computer memory is of two types 1. Access time: This is the time required to locate and retrieve stored data from the storage unit in response to program instructions. Units of memory: The computer stores a character in the storage cells with binary (0.e it is volatile memory. However. It is the main area in a computer where the data is stored. Primary memory is further classified into two types: Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read. 2. To store a character. The different units of measurement are 8 Bits = 1 Byte 210 (or) 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Byte (KB) 210 (or)1024 KB 210 (or)1024 MB Conversion : ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange. its programs and the data. Hence the storage capacity of the computer is measured in the number of words it can store and is expressed in terms of bytes.1) mechanism. z – 121 = 1 Mega Byte (MB) = 1 Gega Byte (GB) By using these codes the alphabets can be converted to digital & hence to Binary form.1). 3. The CPU can directly access the data from RAM almost immediately.Z – 90 and a – 97 ………. A.MEMORY OF THE COMPUTER Memory or storage capacity is one of the important components of a computer. The stored data can be recalled instantly and correctly whenever desired.65 ……. Primary Memory ( Internal storage) 2. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. Cost per bit of storage. a computer requires 8 bits or 1 byte. till the time the computer is running. This code has given alphabets like some numbers which can be converted to Binary form.Only Memory (ROM ) RAM: RAM is also known as read/write memory as information can be read from and written onto it. Storage capacity: It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. RAM is a place in a computer that holds instructions for the computer.

As a result. The storage of data and instructions in ROM is permanent. Data are stored in secondary storage in the same binary codes as in the main (primary memory) storage.25 and 3. CD-ROM. 160GB. Secondary memory: The primary memory which is faster (and hence expensive) is generally not sufficient for large storage of data. Which protects accidental writing/deleting the information from the disk. It is also referred as ―backup storage‖ as it is used to store large volume of data on a permanent basis which can be transferred to the primary memory whenever required for processing. There is a hole in the centre through which the spindle of drive unit rotates the disk.44 MB 2. 9 .ROM: It is called Read-only memory as information can only be read from and not written or changed onto ROM. It does not depend on the power supply. ROM is the ‗built-in‘ memory of a computer.8 MB Size (Diameter) 5.2 MB 1.5 inches 3. called the ―auxiliary‖ or ―seconda ry memory‖ is used. DVD and Flash drive. additional memory. Floppy Disk: It is also referred as ―Diskette: and is made of flexible Vinyl material. It has a small hole on one side called ―Right protect notch‖. Hard Disk: The hard disk can hold more information than the floppy disk and the retrieval of information from hard disk is faster when compared to floppies or tapes. The disks are available in two sizes of 5. A small hard disk might be as much as 25 times larger than a floppy disk.25 inches 3. A hard disk is fixed inside the CPU and its capacity ranges from 20 MB onwards. 1. Storage capacity of floppies are measured in kilobytes (KB) and megabytes (MB). Some of the devices of secondary storages are Floppy Disk. It is less sensitive to external environmental disorders and hence the storage in hard disk is safe. i. It stores some basic input – output instructions put by the manufacturer to operate the computer.e it is non-volatile memory. Storage Capacity of hard disks varies from 20 MB to several Gega bytes like 80GB. Hard Disk. The details about the storage capacities of the floppies are presented below: Floppy Disk Low Density High Density High Density Extended Storage Capacity 360 KB 1.5 inches 2. These platters are coated with magnetic material.25 inches 5. The hard disk is made up of a collection of discs (one below the other) known as platters on which the data is recorded.5 inches and these could be either lowdensity or high-density floppies.

The storage capacity of a DVD is at least 4. 4. 4GB. It is used to store a wide variety of information. The stored data can be read.7MB. Data once written onto it cannot be erased. a device called CD drive is needed. ****** 10 . We can read. delete. except that it can store larger amounts of data. It comes in various storage capacities of 2GB. DVDs that can store up to 17GBs are also available. CD-ROM: CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk–Read Only Memory. It is also called USB drive. Its main advantage is that it is portable and can hold a large amount of data. write. Flash Drive: It is a small. 8GB etc.3. portable device that can be used to store. It is popular because it is easy to use and small enough to be carried in a pocket. 5. The storage capacity of most CD-ROMs is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB. It is similar to a CD-ROM. Because of their capacity. Data once written onto it can be erased to write or record new information many times. it is commonly called Pen drive. CD-ROMs have the following variations: (i) CD-R(Compact disc Recordable): Data can be written onto it just once. DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc. access and transfer data. (ii) CD-RW(Compact disc Rewritable): It is also called erasable CD. DVDs are generally used to store a very large multimedia presentations and movies that combine high quality sound and graphics.. copy. To use a CD-ROM. and move data from computer to pen drive or pen drive to computer. Due to its small size. This device is plugged into the USB port of the computer and the computer automatically detects this device.

General purpose programs 1. languages is known as translators . i.  UNIX AND XENIX: It is suited for multi-user and multi-task system 2. The operating system acts as interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of programs. a program written in any other language should be translated into machine language.e a compiler translates the whole program before execution. There are two types of translators. The basic difference between the Hardware and Software is just the same as that exists between TV and TV studio. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and if it is error – free. produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program). This continues till the last statement. The User interface provided by the OS can be character based or graphical. Translators 3.Character user Interface GUI -. Ex: Windows 95. the compilers produce a list of errors at the end of the execution of the program. UNIX GUI : The system can be operated with mouse and keyboard. Windows XP etc  Disk Operating System (DOS): It was developed as early as 1980 by Bill Gates at the age of 19. processors. Dos is a single user and single task operating system  WINDOWS : It works with DOS and it supports single user and multitask system. Thus an interpreter 11 The software that ―translates‖ the instructions of different . They are compilers and Interpreters A Compiler checks the entire user – written program (known as the source program) and if it is error free. It refers to the objects that we can actually touch. Operating System (OS) : The software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called Operating system. Translators : Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language – the machine language . Operating System 2. They are: 1. executes. i. It requires a powerful PC with a minimum RAM of 8 MB . The source program is retained for possible modifications and corrections and the object program is loaded into the computer for execution. circuits and the cables. Ex: input and output devices. If the source program contains errors.Graphical user Interface CUI : It is operated with keyboard only. There are five categories of software. Therefore.HARDWARE and SOFTWARE Hardware: The physical components of the computer are known as ―Hardware‖. the TV (Hardware) is a dead machine. Ex: MS-DOS. Application programs 5. It is suited for personal computers.e It is a bridge between the user and the Hardware. Software: Software is a program or set of instructions that causes the Hardware to function in a desired way. Utility programs 4. CUI -. Without TV studio (software) from where the programs are telecast. An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. Generally the OS acts as an interface between the user and the Hardware of the computer.

1. Like machine language. High Level Languages (HLL): These are referred as problem oriented languages (POL). 4. They are machine independent. Several High Level Languages which are in common use: FORTRAN : FORmula TRANslation COBOL : BASIC : PROLOG: ALGOL : Common Business Oriented Language Beginner‘s All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code PROgramming in LOGic ALGOrithmic Language 3. These are referred as third generation languages. 2. These languages follow rules like ―English‖ language. all programs should be written with these codes. SORT. Utility Programs: These are pre-written programs supplied by the manufacturer for maintaining day to day activities of computer system. Billing. Error correction is very much simpler in the case of interpreter as it translates the statements in stages.. It requires translators to convert into machine language. writing program in assembly language is also time consuming. These are referred as the first generation languages. The major difference between compiler and interpreter is 1. 3. time consuming and leading to errors while writing the programs. while a compiler translates the whole program before execution. Railway Reservation etc. Interpreter takes more time for the execution of the program compared to compilers as it translates one statement at a time Programming Languages: There are three types of programming languages.translates or executes the first instruction before it goes to the second. 2. Application Programs: These are user written programs to do a specific job which can be changed to meet the individual needs. virus scanning software etc. Add or A is used as a symbol for addition. These are also machine dependent. This language is in terms of binary codes (0. which is difficult. Oracle. Example: COPY.e. The compiler produces an error list of the entire program at the end. These are machine dependent. MAILING. 12 . Ex. These programs are written in different languages such as BASIC or C or by using database packages like dBASE. Example: Payroll.1). Assembly Languages : It uses mnemonic codes rather than numeric codes (as in machine languages).   Because of their English like nature. There is no unique standard machine language. less time is required to write a program. Machine Languages: Computers respond only to machine language. Rather there are many machine languages. A program written in any HLL can be run on computers of different types without any modifications. i. The advantages of these languages are  The high level languages are convenient for writing programs as they can be written without any codes.

Spread Sheet Ex: LOTUS. 2. Qpro. Establishment and enforcement of a priority system : It determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system. SYMPHONY. CHIRATOR. Memory management : It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data. File management : It allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines. WORDSTAR. ******* ii) Word Processing iii) Spread Sheet iv) Graphics and v) Databases 13 . Databases Ex: dBASE. GENSTAT. Processor management : It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system. MS-Word. Facilitates easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator. Interpretation of commands and instructions. 5. 6. 7. 4.5. MICROSTAT. ORACLE. General Purpose Packages: These packages are developed to suit the needs of research workers / scientists in different fields. FOX-PRO. STORY-BOARD. Word Processing Ex: WORD PERFECT. 3. FOX-BASE. Functions of Operating System : Today most operating systems perform the following important functions : 1. MS-Access etc. MS-Excel etc. These packages are categorized as : i) Data Analysis Data Analysis Ex: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science). NORTON EDITOR etc. SAS etc. Input / Output management : It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different Input and Output devices while one or more programmes are executed. VP-PLANNER. Graphics Ex: LOTUS. MSTAT. POWER-POINT etc.

Digital Computers 3.Classification of Computers Computers are classified according to the storage capacity. by CRAY computers. space applications etc. These computers were essentially developed for computations. the developments in the computers led to the use of digital computers in variety of applications. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or numbers. The name (derived from greek word analog) denotes that the computer functions by establishing similarities between the two quantities. Analog computers: They operate by ―measuring‖ instead of ―counting‖. but are expensive c) Mini Computers: It is simultaneously a medium sized computer with moderate cost.. Depending on the use of applications. 3. These are used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines such as electronics. Hybrid Computers: Computers which combine the features of analog and digital computers are known as Hybrid computers. They are powerful tools for solving differential equations.. Special Purpose Computers: These are developed with a specific purpose.A. speed. Analog Computes 2. the digital computers are classified into 1) Special Purpose Computers and 2) General Purpose Computers 1. Param. A majority of the computers that are in use are digital. The first super computer was developed in U. drip irrigation. b) Mainframe Computers: They also have large storage and high computing speed (but relatively lower than the super computers). storage) as follows.. payroll and personnel database..S. rocket technology etc. General Purpose Computers: These are developed to meet the requirements of several areas such as simulation. spacecraft. they support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. available It can serve multi-users indigenously and used for large volume applications. Hybrid Computers 1. Later. manipulations of data. medical scanning. traffic signals. Digital Computers: These computers operate by ―counting‖. weather forecasting etc. These can be classified into three types: 1. They are used in applications like weather forecasting. In India the indigenous super computer was developed under the name 14 . a) Super Computers b) Mainframe Computers c) Mini Computers d) Micro Computers These are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and a) Super Computers: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers. speed and the purpose for which they are developed. 2. Some of the areas where these computers are being used are – soil testing. solving mathematical equations. 2. These computers are available in different sizes and capabilities and are further classified (based on memory.

easy to use even at homes and can be read for variety of applications from small to medium range. They are cheap. These are available in three models: 1.d) Micro Computers: A micro computer is the smallest general purpose processing system. These are self contained units and usually developed for use by one person at a time but can be linked to very large systems. PC-XT : PC with Extended Technology 3. PC-AT : PC with Advanced Technology ***** 15 . PC : Personal Computer 2. Micro computers are also referred as ―personal computers‖(PC).

80486. Mouse and Printer 3 PC-AT 1 MB to 32 MB 80286 to 80486 16 . 80386. The major components of the circuit board are : Microprocessor.000 1.PERSONAL COMPUTERS Personal Computer: A personal computer has a Monitor (VDU). Over the years.000. The classification is presented in the following table: S.000. a keyboard . key board and printer 18 MHZ Floppy Drives. RAM and ROM chips and other supporting circuits. Keyboard. 80286. but it does it about 5000 times faster. Pentium I. clock speed and peripherals. mouse.000 275. Classification of PCs: PCs are mainly classified on the basis of primary memory (RAM). The CPU of PC has a mother board with several chips mounted on a circuit board.000 134. III and Pentium 4. are called peripherals.No. etc. Hard above disk. logic and control functions. different microprocessors were developed and the first in the series is INTEL 8080. Microprocessor. manipulate and process a byte of data at a time. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Microprocessor 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium I Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4 ―Prescott‖ Date 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 2004 Transistors 6000 29. The other procesors are 8088.No.5 GHZ 3.000 9.6 GHZ Data width 8 bits 16 bits 8-bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus 32 bits 64-bit bus Peripherals: The input. There is an address bus which is built into these chips to determine the storage locations (of RAM) of the data and the instructions of the program. It is measured in terms of million pulses per second (MHZs). Disk Drive (s). store.100.000 3. II.000 125.000 Clock speed 2MHZ 5 MHZ 6 MHZ 16 MHZ 25 MHZ 60 MHZ 233 MHZ 450 MHZ 1.000 42. printer and CPU. HardDisk Drive. i.. output and secondary storage units like floppy drives. keyboard. The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088. The following table gives the differences among the different processors that intel has introduced over the years : S. These chips will be able to retrieve data from the input output devices. Key board and printer 25 MHZ and Floppy drives.200. 1 2 PC-Type PC PC-XT RAM 640 KB 1 MB Microprocessor 8088/8086 8088/8086 Clock speed 8 MHZ Peripherals Floppy Drives.e it contains ALU & CU. Clock Speed: The speed with which the instruction is executed or number of pulses per second is called the clock speed.500.500. Microprocessor: The Microprocessor chip is like a brain of human being which contains circuits and registers to perform arithmetic.000 7.

the operating system residing in the floppy or in the hard disk is transferred into the primary memory. The booting of the computer is carried out with a software which resides on ROM chip called BIOS ( Basic Input Output System). Thus. A PC can be booted through two ways: a) Cold Booting b) Warm Booting. when the computer is switched on. the computer is ready to accept the commands at user terminal. Booting is essential whenever the system is locked or switched-off. After this. It is carried out by pressing the following three keys simultaneously : It is preferable to cold booting as it safeguards the system from sudden power b) Warm Booting: Ctrl + Alt + Del. fluctuations resulting out of switching ON and OFF the system. These are referred as follows: Floppy Disk Drive : A or B Hard Disk : C Booting of the Computer: Booting imply ―activating‖ the computer for working. ****** 17 . ― non-system or disk error‖ is flashed on the screen. b) C:\> It imply that the PC is booted through the Hard-Disk Drive `C‘. If OS is not existing either in floppy drive or in the hard disk drive. the screen finally displays one of the following symbols with a blinking cursor at its end: a) A:\> This imply that the computer is booted through Floppy drive `A‘ and is ready to accept DOS commands. Thus when a PC with system disk either in Hard-Disk Drive or Floppy Drive is switched ―on‖.Working with personal computers Drives of the computer: A computer can have Floppy Disk Drive along with Hard Disk drives in the system. The symbol ―\>‖ is referred as DOS prompt from where DOS commands can be entered. a) Cold Booting: It is only switching OFF the system and after some time again switching ON.

MS-DOS is designed to provide a method of organizing and using the information stored on disks. it is automatically executed when the computer is switched on or during booting.BAT. System Files: These are program files developed for system control. A batch file has the extension .COM extension refers to COMMAND file name and the other with . is known as the batch file. Executable Files: The files with extension of either . which are executed automatically one at a time in the order entered. date and time of creation of files.TXT.COM or . { } The characters which are not allowed are: :. These files are such that their contents can not be altered (edited).) 4. 18 . Rules for naming the files: 1. &. A period (. it should be referred along with its extension and not only with the first part 5. ( ). The main directory of a drive is called Root Directory into which several directories and sub-directories may exist. + / \ * as these have special meaning 3. etc. These files are created while working with WORDSTAR package for typing a document. RAMA. @. size.BAT. When a file name includes an extension.) is used to separate the first part of a file name from the extension. %. filing folders and filling cabinets. The relation between files. according to the usage.BAK.SYS extension. These files are directly executed by typing their names (without the extension) by the computer. File names should be of one to eight characters in length with an option of one to three character extension 2. (COMMAND. Just as a cabinet contain papers and other folders. Types of files in DOS: There are different types of files you can create in your computer. Files and File names: A file is a collection of related information. DATE. Reserved devices names are not allowed.WK1. system programs and the computer itself. A file with . To differentiate each file.EXE extension refers EXECUTABLE program file. If the batch file is given a special name AUTOEXEC. Backup Files: These are backup files of a file and have extension .COM. Batch Files: the file containing a series of DOS commands. . Directory: It is a collection of files. It is a single user and single programming environment. (LETTER. application programs... They have . File names can include any one of the following characters: A to Z (or a to z) 0 to 9.MS-DOS MS-DOS is a collection of programs and other files.EXE are called executable files. $. etc. #. a directory may contain directories also. the computer will give an extension to identify the different types of files you have created. The files should have suitable names for their identification in later use. directories and disk is similar to the relation between papers.

Syntax: copy {Drive name} <source file> {Drive name} <target file name> Ex: 1.TXT to STATS. Ex: Suppose if you want to change the name of a file MATHS.* C:STATS. the command will be: C:> DEL A: COMPUTER. They are loaded into the memory of the PC when PC is booted.Types of DOS commands: There are two types of commands: i) internal and ii) external i) Internal DOS commands: Internal commands are those commands which manage files. 3.COM : lists all files with extension .e. The way to execute Rename command is to type REN leave a space followed by the old file name again followed by a space and new file name. file size. 1. COPY PATH A:ENTO copies a file ―PATH‖ from the current drive to drive ―A‖ with the file name ―ENTO‖. COPY STATS MATHS copies a file ―STATS‖ with the name ―MATHS‖ on the same drive 2. when a PC is booted. ii) Dir/w: displays the files of the directory in a five column format. Only file names and their extensions will be displayed without the date and time of creation.TXT RESULT. COPY A:MATHS.* copies all extensions of file ―MATHS‖ form drive A to drive C with name ―STATS‖.COM. Eg: DIR STATS. REN: The REN command is used to rename the old file with another name.TXT 19 Syntax: DEL {filename} . These are stored in a large file with file name COMMAND. C:\>dir a: This command displays the list of files and directories from the drive A i.TXT the following command will work: C:\> REN MATHS.* deletes all extensions of the file ―stats‖. date and time of creation.DOC on A drive. Del stats. In addition. The total number of files and remaining bytes are listed. DIR: Dir displays continuously the directory of file names. 4. DIR *. the floppy drive.* : lists all files with STATS and other combinations along with the extensions. Suppose you want to delete a file COMPUTER.DOC  3. COPY: The COPY command is used to copy files from one place to another. DEL: Deletes a specified file.COM 2. Del stats deletes the file ―stats‖. The way to execute copy command is to type COPY leave a space followed by the source file name again a space followed by destination file. COPY A:MATHS C:STATS copies a file ―MATHS‖ form drive ―A‖ to drive ―C‖ with the file name ―STATS‖ 4. It can be specified with two options: i) Dir/p: It pauses the listing of the directory whenever the screen is full. DIR can also be specified with wildcard characters (such as * or ?) to list files sharing a common element in the file name or extension. The next screen load of files can be displayed by pressing any key.

DATE: It displays current date and asks for new date in (mm)-(dd)-(YY) format. However. Hence this command should be used carefully. If no date is to be Syntax: C:\> Date changed.5. type in the following command: 20 . the directory has to be changed to ―STATS‖ Ex: C:\>CD\ STATS (or) CD STATS : This command changes the root directory to the directory ―STATS‖. CD : It is used to change from one directory to the other.VER: displays the version of DOS C:\> CLS  ii) External commands: External commands are small file programs used for doing specific jobs. 7. PATH: (or) This command displays the volume label of the current disk It is used to create. It is specified as follows: C:\> MD\STATS (or) MD STATS : This command makes (creates) a new directory with the name ― STATS‖.BAT files for its execution when the PC is booted 6. FORMAT a: formats disk in drive ―A‖ 3. To remove a directory. LABEL: 5.TIME: displays current time and asks for new tine and if no new time is to be entered. If we have to work with files in the directory ―STATS‖. it is essential to first delete all the files in the directory. change or delete the volume label on the disk It is used to provide access to files located on other directories or on other disks. all the existing files on it would be erased.CLS : when you want to clear the screen. Some of the useful commands : 1. the command is C:\> RD STATS 8. SORT: It sorts the files in alphanumeric order: either A to Z or Z to A DIR| SORT (or) DIR/ON : Displays all the files in A to Z order DIR| SORT/R (or) DIR/O-N: Displays all the files in reverse order (i. To remove the directory STATS. RD: It removes or deletes a directory. MD: It is used to make a new directory (or sub-directory) which is subordinate to the current (or root) directory. pressing ―enter‖ retains the old time Syntax: C:\> Time 7. C:\LOTUS This command is generally listed in the AUTOEXEC. WORDSTAR (WS) LOTUS directories by giving the following command: PATH = C:\DOS. The PC copies files only on a formatted disk. VOL: 4. Thus while in ―C‖ drive. one can directly invoke files of DOS. C:\WS. the old date can be retained by pressing ―enter‖ key. FORMAT: Formatting a (new) disk imply organizing the new disk into magnetic tracks and sectors that are readable by DOS. 6. if an old disk is formatted. 8.e Z to A) 2.

Some of the anti-virus vaccines are: NASHSOFT. May_5th. In DOS version. Although the purpose for developing such softwares is not known. TREE displays directories and sub directories in a drive without files. Die_Hard-2. A virus kills data and program files. Functioning of viruses: viruses reside in executable files such as .9. Gumnam. World peace etc. Jerusalem. TREE: It displays the directories and sub-directories existing in a drive with a ―TREE‖ diagram.COM (COMMAND. The difference between TREE and DIR commands is that: DIR displays all files with its size. It also displays only directories with symbol <DIR> (without files and sub directories in that directory) whereas. the virus enters the RAM through . there are in-built programs to guard against computer viruses.. Generic. ********* Computer viruses and Vaccines: Def: A VIRUS is a set of instructions (or program) or software prepared to destroy a package and data.COM or . Brain. These are anti-virus programs for both DOS and WINDOWS and a memory resident virus-safe program that guards against the introduction of files that may be affected by virus. they appear to be basically developed for a check against the ―piracy‖ of program packages. date and time of creation. VACCINE: It is a software developed for removing the viruses. Whenever the PC is switched off.EXE. they again go back to the executable files. They are classified as : i) ii) File Allocation Table (FAT) based viruses File based viruses ii )Key board viruses and Some of the well known viruses are: Joshi.COM) file and starts destructive work of killing data and program files. Thus when PC is switched on. ***** 21 . UTSCAN. AVIRA. Meccaf etc. AVG. More than 1000 computer viruses have been identified.

Monochrome or Multicolored) 6. This is referred to as Tooltip. menus & dialog boxes appear. A Hard disk with atleast 40-MB of free space to install Windows. 4. then it will display fault error message about its crash and you can eliminate the crashed program from the task list without affecting other running applications. 8. Mouse. a rectangular box appears. 5.2. It converts the plain character based user interface provided by DOS into a Graphical User Interface(GUI) such as pictures. When we rest the mouse pointer on an icon.WINDOWS Salient features of Windows Operating System: 1. It provides a big facility of plug and play standard.22 2. 7. 4. Atleast 8 MB RAM. 3. Components of the Desktop:  Icons  Taskbar Icons: Icon is a small image that represents a file. By default. Windows owes its name to the fact that it runs each program or document or application in its own separate window. symbols and words on your screen that can be controlled by the mouse. They are:  My Computer  My documents  Internet Explorer  Recycle bin  Network Neighborhood 22 6. Windows have the facility of accessories such as Word pad. Parts of a window screen: Desktop: The desktop is the on-screen work area on which Windows. there will be 4-5 icons on the desktop. audio or network card into the computer without having a set of switches or making other settings. 6. The text below each icon is the name of the Icon. Icons. Hardware required for Windows: 1. It provides a multitasking capabilities to the PC. MS-DOS version 6. It allows user to simply plug a new board such as a video. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).0. 2. folder or program. Calculator and Paint. It gives a brief description of the Icon. The Desktop can have several components. CD drive. features called Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). In Windows file name can have name up to 255 characters long. Parts of the desktop include Icons & the taskbar. 3. Monitor (Super VGA . 6. Note pad. A PC with atleast 80386 processor. 5. 7. It supports long file name rather than the limited 8 characters with extension of three letter file name (8:3) as used by DOS. If a program crashes. User can paste portion of one document into another by utilizing more advanced document linking .

The Taskbar has the START menu on the left & the Notification area on the right. Printer. These tools are used to manage the window & the components within it. This stretches the window out like an architect‘s floor plan being rolled out over the desk. Internet Explorer: This is an application used to browse the internet. If you click and hold the mouse button down on the title bar. The Task bar will show the task whether or not the window is minimized.My Computer: This is the icon which represents all the files & folders which can be used in the system.  Maximize – To have a window take the maximum desktop space. and the min. Recycle bin: This is a folder that stores all the files & folders deleted from windows temporarily. max & close buttons. Notification area holds system icons that allow for functions such as changing the time & Volume of the Computer. the Toolbar. The Title bar is also the handle for the window. you can move it around the screen. E. Network Neighborhood: This is an application which display all the computers connected in network with our computer.  Minimize – To have a window take the minimum amount of desktop space possible. Taskbar: The rectangular bar that runs horizontally across the bottom of the screen is called Taskbar. folders & files on the computer. The different parts of a window are the Title bar. Local C. The Restore button places the window back so that more than one window can display at a time. which can be restored again if needed. ( this will be below the Title bar). you can have it taken completely off the desktop by closing it. i. We can start an application using the start menu. Menu bar: The Menu bar displays a list of commands that can be used to perform various tasks. Menu items are commands within the menu bar that allow choosing of functions & tasks.e Floppy drive(A). click the minimize button. Title bar – This is the title of the window. Use the X button to do this.  Close (X) – When done with a window. click the maximize button. D. Menu bar. Anatomy of a Window: The window on a desktop is the rectangular area displaying content independently of other areas of the screen. like your name at the top of a piece of paper. It is used to access the drives. My Documents: This is the default storage location for the files created in the windows. Control panel etc. This drops the window into the Task bar like a piece of paper going into a drawer. All the open applications are available on the Taskbar. 23 .  Restore – A maximized window will cover over all the other windows and icons on the desktop.

the BIOS is activated. then it transfers the OS from ROM to RAM. The Status Bar :The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the window and provides such information as the cursor position. it shows non-system or disk error. when we have information which won‘t fit into the window. If OS is present.Tool bar: contains a set of buttons for frequently used commands. Booting in Windows:      When the computer is switched on. The BIOS present in ROM searches for the operating system and drives. ******* 24 . Scroll Bars: On the bottom and right edges of a window we find scroll bars. Then the desktop is displayed on the monitor. If there is no OS. They are used to pan across the information in the window. the number of words in the document etc. current page number.

as well as perform other tasks pertaining to files. Creating files: After creating a folder. and drives. folders. You can notice the change in the tree structure immediately. To select all --CTRL + A ii) iii) To select consecutive files: Use shift key + arrow keys To select non-consecutive files:    In the right pane of Windows Explorer. move. The left pane displays the list of drives & folders on the computer. To open Windows Explorer. 2. Type in the name of the directory and press ENTER. Folder is a list of files (similar to Directory in MS-DOS) Working with Folders: Creating a Folder: 1. you can browse through the contents of your computer in a single window. and rename files. The right pane displays the contents of the selected drive or folder. You can use it to see how your files are organized and to copy. a new folder is created. On the right pane of the screen. and drives. By using these two panes. 25 . Choose FileNewFolder. we can move files into it or create new files within the folder. Selecting files & folders: i) To select all the files in a folder: Click the folder in the left pane  All the files will be displayed in the right pane.WINDOWS EXPLORER Windows Explorer is an application that provides detailed information about your files. folders. Windows Explorer displays the contents of the entire system in a hierarchical manner. Hold down CTRL Click all other items that need to be selected. From the tree pane : select the directory under which you want to create a sub directory. 3. click the first item to be selected. Explorer uses the directory windows to graphically display the directory structure of your disk and files. click Start  All programs  Accessories  Windows Explorer Windows Explorer is divided into 2 panes.

If you want to delete. To copy the files & folders: i) ii) In Windows Explorer. select the file & then press ****** 26 . press ctrl+ V To move the files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) select the folder to be moved. On the edit menu. Deleting files or folders: If you do not want certain files or folders. select and press ctrl +X & then to paste. The clip board is a location where the information you copy or cut is temporarily stored) iii) iv) Click the destination folder in the left pane. Note: To delete a file permanently without moving it to the Recycle bin. to cut a file or folder. select it and then press ctrl +C. Alternatively. to copy a file or folder.Copying Files & Folders: Once we select the files to be copied. In W. To delete: i) ii) iii) Select On the file menu. click cut Click the destination folder in the left pane On the edit menu. press ctrl +V. the next step is to copy the files.Exp. click paste. click delete or press delete. Type in the new name Press Enter. Alternatively. click paste in the Edit menu. click yes otherwise No. Shift+ Del. To paste. select the file or folder to be copied. On the edit menu click copy ( the files are copied to the clip board. Renaming files or folders: i) ii) iii) iv) Select the item to be renamed Choose File  Rename Current name gets selected. A warning appears prompting you to confirm the file deletion. All the files & folders which are deleted are moved to the recycle bin. you can delete them.

a block of text(which is frequently used) can be prepared and moved or copied wherever desired in the file. editing 4. numerical digits. the corresponding word is automatically adjusted in the following line. and manipulation of a document in a desired form. mail merge printing 1. Pages: It is the amount of text that can be printed on one page of a paper. editing. Sentence: A sentence is a group of words preceded and followed by appropriate delimiting characters. 4. Documents and files: It is a group of chapters. 5. These documents are referred as ―Files‖. thesaurus 7. As soon as the length of a sentence exceeds the right margin. full stop and space. Units of the Document: Since word-processing is concerned with preparation of a document (in a desired form). ) helps in locating the text 27 . 3. In addition to these. Chapters: It is a collection of pages 7. 2. a complete document may be very short such as a memo(or letter) or very long such as a book consisting of several chapters. Editing: Words or lines can be entered (inserted) or deleted in any part of the text with proper alignment . it is essential to know the units of the document: 1. macros 8. Word-wrap 2. 2. cursor control 3. Usually. spell-check 6. Features of Word-processing: 1. Word: A word is group of characters that are separated from other group of characters by some delimiters like. 6. Similarly.WORD PROCESSING Definition: Word-processing is essentially typing. paragraphs are separated by leaving blank lines between them. Word-wrap: In word-processing packages. This is called ―word-wrap‖. A paragraph is created only when carriage control is externally given for a sentence. Another important facility is that any ‗word‘ can be replaced by a new word through out the file. the text can be continuously typed and the computer automatically starts a fresh line when a line is filled up. there is a facility to ‗recover‘ the text which is deleted by mistake or accidentally. printing 9. file management 10. formatting 5. comma. Cursor Control: The four directional keys of the keyboard ( for editing in much the similar manner as that of a pointer or pencil. Character: It refers to the alphabets. wherever the old word appears. Paragraph: It is a group of one or more sentences. 3. punctuations and other special symbols which are commonly used in the text.

Word-processing Packages: Several word-processing packages are available. 8. WORDSTAR 3. delete. Spell-check: Word-processing packages provide checking of spellings facility 6. Mail merge printing: This facility helps in printing same ―original‖ letter with different addresses. Formatting : The text formatting refers to the way the text is desired to appear on a page. move & search for files. Printing: It gives a ‗hard‘ copy of the text. The ability to define macros allows us to save a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes. so that each letter is ―original‖ and not a carbon copy. NORTON EDITOR ******* 28 . Some of these are listed below: 1. italics. bold. File management: This facility allows to create. MSWORD (SOFT WORD) 2.4. 10. 9. Thesaurus: It provides synonyms (or words with similar meanings) 7. Macros: A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. This includes following functions      setting left and right margins paragraph settings line spacing selecting font specifications such as underline. superscripts and subscripts setting foot-notes  number of lines per page  printing page numbers and headings for ‗Header‘ and ‗Footer‘  table of contents  indexing the text 5. The printing can be controlled after printing a fixed number of pages or can be resumed from any specified page number. CHIRATOR 4.

It is an application used to create. print and save a document. each menu contains a specific set of commands. Standard toolbar: provides shortcuts in the form of buttons for frequently performed tasks.. 29 . The default Word document includes the following layout tools:           Title bar: displays the document name and the application. tables. the default unit of measure is in inches.MS-WORD MS. Insertion point : is the blinking vertical line that indicates the position on the screen where text or graphics will be placed. Status bar: displays the details such as the page number the user is working on. line number. edit. Horizontal & Vertical rulers: used for measurement purposes like any normal ruler. page no. charts. out of the total pages found in the document. White page area: is the space area where you type. ( The term document refers to a file created using word processor) Starting MS-Word: Start  All Programs  MS-office MS-word MS-word icon is w. Formatting toolbar: Contains a list of formatting options available inside the format menu. section no.word is . The extension name of MS. column number etc. It allows the user to insert pictures. Menu bar: Contains the list of menus available inside word. Scroll bars : are used to move up and down or left and right in a document. Task pane : is a small window within the word window that provides shortcuts to commonly used tasks.Word is a word processor.doc. edit and format your document. drawings & features that will make the text richer & more interactive.

underlined… depending on the style you choose. location and file format Print: Prints the active file . Italic. Select then a size by clicking on it. you can scroll down to view more fonts and select the font name you wish to use by clicking on its name. center or right side of the page.for more print options go to the File menu and select Print Print preview : Shows how the document will look when you print it. Italic. or make a table of selected text Insert Excel worksheet: Inserts an Excel spreadsheet into the Word document Columns : Changes the number of columns in a document Drawing: Displays or hides the Drawing toolbar Zoom (100%): Enlarge or reduce the display of the active document Formatting Toolbar: The formatting Tool bar is the easiest way to change many attributes of a text. 30 . grammar and writing style checker Cut : Removes the selection from the document and places it on the clipboard Copy : Copies the selected item(s) to the clipboard Paste : Places the content of the clipboard at the insertion point Format painter : Copies the format from a selected object or text and applies to other objects Undo : Reverses the last command. You can also justify the text across the page using the justify button. Function of commonly used buttons                  New: Creates a new blank document based on the default template Open: Opens or finds an existing file Save: Saves the active file with its current file name. You can view a list of fonts available.     Bold.Standard Toolbar: This toolbar contains buttons to allow you to perform the basic operations such as opening and closing a document. Font : Allows you to change the font by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the font name box. Spelling & Grammer: Spelling. Underline : Each button respectively allows you to make your text appear as bold.   Style menu: Allows you to make your text Bold. Text orientation : Allows you to change the typing direction of your text.  Font size : Allows you to change the font size by clicking inside the Font size box and entering a value or by clicking on the drop-down arrow on the right of the box to view a list of sizes available. Alignment : Each button respectively allows you to make your text aligned to the left. use the pull-down menu to redo several steps Insert table: Insert a table into the document. moving and printing data. Note : A Font size of 11 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text. use pull-down menu to undo several steps Redo : Reverses the action of the Undo button. Line spacing : Allows you to set the amount of space that word puts when go to a new line. from left to right or right to left manner. italic or underlined.

Print . 12. (with HTML extension) 6. Properties . New 2. i. Versions .To set the margin. Orientation 9. Highlight color : Allows you to change the color behind a text selection.( Specified pages and no.This is used to do the parts of work in small parts. Open 3. the date of 31 .This gives the details about the document ( the type of file. Send . Save as Web page – This is used to save a document in a Web style. Font colour : Allows you to change the colour of the text. Exit . press Ctrl + Enter 10.This is used to send the file document to internet mail to some other person. To insert a new page. of copies). Page set up . creation. 7. Bullets : Allows you to make your text appear as a bullets list or as a numbering list. Web Page Preview – This shows the web page in printable form. the size of file. Increase / Decrease indent : Allows you to increase or decrease the indentation of your paragraph in relation to the side of the page.To close the Ms-word. date of modification and file location) 11.Opens new Word file (Blank Document file) . 8. Features of FILE MENU ( ALT F): 1.e a bulk ( big/ more) work can be done in small parts.To get the printout. Save as .Opens the existing files . paper size. Outside Border : Allows you to add a border around a text selection.     Numbering. Save 4.Saves the file with one name -Saves the file with more than one name( with different formats) 5.

Used to replace any part of Text / word / Character with another word/ character.(Ctrl + G) Features of FORMAT MENU ( ALT + O) 1. 2. size etc.used to change the font face. Paragraph .(Ctrl + H) Paste special – This will paste the copied (or) cut text in a form of an object. Go To . 32 . To have a break in columns. Columns – Used to write the text in column wise. It will paste in box which Cannot be altered.Will take the previous command (ctrl +Z) .Will take the opposite action of undo ( Ctrl + Y) .Used to highlight points in number wise / bullet wise.Removes the selected text .Can cut a selected text ( Ctrl + X) .Can copy a selected text ( Ctrl + C) . Drop Cap .Used to find the part of text word \ character in the file (Ctrl + F) Find Next – (F3) Finding \ finding next : Used to repeat the finding process. 5.Used to apply different borders to the table / to the page.Can paste the selected text ( Ctrl + V) . Font .Used to drop the letter to different lines. Bullets . a column break is used ( insert menu  break  Columns) Ctrl + Shift + Enter 6. specified line.Used to set the space between paragraphs and also between the lines 3. Borders & Shades .Features of EDIT MENU (ALT E): Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Del Find . specified paragraph.Curser goes to the specified page. Replace . style. 4.

This is used to change the back ground colour of the document but the color can be seen only in the web layout. (or)  From the Menu bar.Frames are used to write different documents in one single document. the New document task pane will open. 12. Type the name and click Save. (Shift +F7) : used to type the letters with the same matter but different addresses. 9.Used to change the direction of drop cap (Note : To use text direction. When you reach the end of a page. Toggle – This converts lower case letters to upper case & vice –versa in a word. drop cap must be used first) 8. If you want. 10.7. position the insertion point i. MS WORD . Select All pages (or) Current page (or) type the page numbers and also select number of copies according to the requirement and click O. Text direction . Change case . press ctrl + Enter. where you want the text to appear and type it in. (or)  From the Menu bar. word will automatically break text onto the next page. you can start a new page at any point by inserting a page break. Style . Word will automatically wrap text as it reaches the end of a line. Theme .K Closing a document:  Select File  close  Click on the small X found on the right top next to the Menu bar and the Title bar. Frames . select File  Open Saving a document:  Click the Save button on the Tool bar. Press enter to start a new paragraph.e a vertical blinking line. This shows the background only in the web layout. Opening Existing documents:  Click the open button found on the Standard tool bar. Some important features of Tools menu: Spelling &Grammar : Used to check the spelling and correct the words with related word.This is used to change the writing fashion of the document which are already existing.This is used to change the document. 11. ( F7) Thesaurus Mail merge : Used to know the synonym (meaning) of the word.Editing Text : Typing and Inserting Text: To enter text in your document. MS WORD – working with files: Creating a New document:  Click the New Blank document button on the standard tool bar. 13. select File  Save (or)  Follow the key sequence Ctrl + S Save dialog box appears. backgrounds with some existing design background.Used to change the case of the text. and select Blank document. 33 . select getting started and the select more (or)  From the Menu bar. choose File  New. To do so. (or)  From the task pane. Back Ground . Printing a document :  Select File  Print (or)  Click on the Print button on the Standard Tool bar (or)  Click Ctrl + P Print dialog box appears.

This means that the same key can be used to switch back and forth between two different modes. To highlight the whole text or part of it.  Whole paragraph: Triple click within the paragraph. locate the mouse at the start of the text you wish to highlight and click the left button. click the Copy button (or) Follow the key sequence Ctrl + C (or) From the standard tool bar. To delete a large section of text. characters typed are inserted into the text to the left of the insertion point. then drag the mouse over the desired text while keeping the left mouse button pressed. select Edit  copy (or) From the standard toolbar. click the Paste button ******* 34 . highlight the text using any of the methods outlined above and press the DELETE key.Word offers two modes for adding text to your documents: Insert mode and overwrite mode. select Edit  Paste Follow the key sequence Ctrl + V (or) (or) From the standard Tool bar. it must be first highlighted. Shortcuts used for selecting a portion of the text:  Whole word : Double click within the word. i. click on the cut button. (or) Copy text: Paste Text: To paste previously cut or copied text. move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to and follow one of the methods listed below:    From the menu bar.e selected with the mouse cursor. select Edit  cut Follow the key sequence Ctrl + X From the Menu bar. copying and pasting text: Cut text: Highlight the text you need to move and follow one of the methods listed below:       From the Menu bar. the text you type will replace the existing text. Note: The Insert key is a toggle key. BACKSPACE key will delete text to the left of the cursor and DELETE key will erase text to the right. Moving.  Sentence : ctrl + click in a sentence  Entire document : Edit  select all ( ctrl + A) Deleting text:    Use the BACKSPACE or the DELETE key to delete text. Selecting Text: In order to change the format of the text you just typed. In overtype mode. In Insert mode. pushing any characters to the right of the insertion point further to the right.

MS-Excel is a window based spreadsheet developed by Microsoft corporation. Maintaining high volume of data: Excel can contain large volume of data. Double click on the Microsoft application Icon. sheet 2. Financial & Statistical functions. graphs & functions. 2. 3. One workbook can contain a maximum of 256 worksheets.MS -EXCEL Spreadsheet is a software that helps to substitute the paper worksheets in the offices. 35 . Spreadsheet displays data in the form of rows and columns. Workbooks: Workbooks are the files in which worksheets related to a project are held. Online help and Wizards. It includes all features of a spreadsheet package like recalculation. It also provides many Mathematical. Start  Run  Type Excel  hit enter 3. A single cell can contain a maximum of 255 characters. Shortcut Menus.xls We can start excel in many ways: 1. The extension name of excel workbook is . Data Analysis Tools: MS-Excel provides a set of data analysis tools called Analysis Tool pack. Some important features of MS-Excel: 1. An intersection of row and column is known as a cell. Thus it is used in many scientific and engineering environments for analyzing data. financial & statistical functions are available in an Excel package. OLE support: Object linking and Embedding is a feature through which Excel can contain any object like a document. 8. 6. 7. By default. which helps the user to easily understand. Sorting capability: Excel has the capability of sorting any data in Ascending or Descending order. Availability of functions: Several Mathematical. Availability of Charts & Graphs: MS-Excel allows users to view data entered as tables in a graphical form as charts. Auto correct. Start  Programs  Microsoft office  Microsoft Excel  hit enter. 2. analyze data & compare data. Getting started with Excel: An Excel document is called a workbook. Window based application: Excel like all other applications has Toolbars. Excel can even hold graphic objects like pictures & images. 9. a picture etc. Excel workbook contains 3 worksheets designated as sheet 1. 5. Auto fill feature: Excel has the feature which allows to fill cells with repetitive data such as chronological dates or numbers and repeated text. 4. A worksheet can contain 65536 rows and 256 columns. sheet 3.

Window and Help. Sheet tabs: appear above the status bar displaying the names of the worksheets.   Status bar: located at the very bottom of the screen displays brief information about activating features within the worksheet area. The columns are labeled with letters from left to right. 36 . Excel let's you customize the toolbar or even display multiple toolbars at the same time. Format. Edit. Menu bar : The Menu bar contains menus that include all the commands you need to use to work your way through Excel such as File. Insert. Name box: displays the cell address of the active cell.Components of the Excel window: An Excel window has several unique elements identified in the figure below:  Rows. columns & cell: In a worksheet rows are numbered from top to bottom. Rows are numbered from 1 to 65. Formula bar: displays the contents of the active cell. located beneath the menu bar. Data.) either textual or numerical can be entered and the results can be displayed. Column letter followed by the row number. printing. Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar.e.536 and columns labeled from A to IV (256 columns).536 rows and 256 columns. Active cell: The cell in which you are currently working. Tools. information or data (i. Ex: B6 Worksheet area: The middle portion of screen which occupies a major area is called worksheet area. In this area. View. and other operations. The Standard Excel XP toolbar appears in the figure below.      Tool Bar: Tool Bars are usually shortcuts for menu items.   Title bar: The title bar contains the name of the program Microsoft Excel and the default name of the workbook Book1 that would change as soon as you save your file and give another name. sorting. has buttons for commonly performed tasks like adding a column of numbers. A worksheet is a large work area of 65. Standard and formatting toolbars are displayed by default.

The new entry replaces the old contents. Editing text: The easiest way to edit the contents of a cell is to select the cell and then retype the entry. 1. located beneath the Standard toolbar bar. click New. You can click the check icon to confirm and completes editing. you have entered the marks as 78 instead of 87. Name box The Name box displays the reference of the selected cells in the form of column label followed by row number. press F2. Formula bar & Name box The formula bar is located beneath the toolbar at the top of the Excel worksheet. The new workbook task pane appears at the right side of the screen. On the File menu.Formatting toolbar The Formatting toolbar. 2. When you begin typing. Ex: Suppose you find that in the cell A6. Type in the information. Entering data: You can enter text. the workbook is named as Book 1. When you click the mouse in the formula bar. To enter data of any type. and sheet 1 is the active worksheet & A1 is the active cell. Click blank workbook. Creating a New Workbook: The steps to create a new workbook are. has buttons for various formatting operations like changing text size or style. numbers and dates in an Excel worksheet. an X and a check mark appear. 1. Alternatively. Press the Enter key. or the X to abandon editing. then click on A6 and type 87 enter 37 . your data also appears in the formula bar. A new workbook with 3 worksheets appears. By default. The contents of the active cell always appear in the formula bar. Use the formula bar to enter and edit worksheet data. 3. formatting numbers and placing borders around cells. Select the cell by clicking on it. to edit the data in a cell.

Formatting Numbers: Formatting data in a worksheet includes changing the number of decimal places. 2. Delete the part of the data that you do not wish to keep. the steps are: Format/Cell/N/umber/Decimal places/2 Formatting Text: Text can be formatted using the buttons on the formatting toolbar. On the Insert menu. every row is 12. you can use the alignment buttons on the formatting tool bar. As you fill it with data. 38 . to insert a column. Inserting Rows & Columns: In Excel. Rest the mouse pointer on the column boundary on the right side. A row is inserted and the existing row moves down after the new row. Rest the mouse pointer over the row above which you want to insert the new row. Drag the boundary until the required width is obtained. On the Insert menu. To insert a row. times & fractions and adding currency symbols. style & colour. Similarly. click rows. Formatting a worksheet: Changing the style or appearance of data in a worksheet is called formatting. rows & columns can be inserted or deleted without affecting the surrounding rows.75 points high and every column is 8. however you have to change the size of rows & columns so that it is fitted to the length of the data. Aligning data: By default. To Resize a column: 1. To format the number in a cell. The shape of the mouse pointer changes to 3. displaying dates. The insertion point appears within the cell. Italic etc. Changing Row height & Column width: By default. 3. columns & cells. 1. You can format the data in a worksheet by:   Changing the position of data in a cell Changing the font.43 characters wide. click columns. 2. size. The font style can also be changed to bold. To change the default alignment. font size can be changed. Double click the cell you want to edit. Rest the mouse pointer over the column before which you want to insert the new Column. 1. 2. Font of a cell.You can also edit part of the data in a cell: 1. 2. Retype the data & press enter. any text you enter in Excel is aligned to the left and any value or number is aligned to the Right.

Save dialogue box appears. The column option is selected from the Format menu. The column which is to be adjusted is made active by clicking on column letter. Sorting: Highlight the cells that should be sorted and click the sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button found on the Standard toolbar. Division Addition. Then choose Insert  page break from the Menu bar. One of the powerful features is formulas. Subtraction Concatenation Comparisons Order of precedence 1 2 3 4 5 6 39 . 4. select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking the row‘s label. Step 2: select insert  page break Saving a workbook: To save a workbook. We can use formula to perform Mathematical. Formulas: In Excel. / + / & = / > /< ) Operation Bracket Exponentiation Multiplication . When you attempt to print a worksheet Excel automatically inserts page breaks view.Excel evaluates the formula according to the order of precedence of the operators. display the result of the calculation and not the formula. After that.(OR) 1. 3. Statistical & date/time operations on a single value or a set of values by using operators. select File  Print from the Menu bar (or) click on the Print button from the Standard Toolbar (or) follow the key sequence Ctrl + p Inserting Page breaks: To set the page breaks within the worksheet. a formula starts with an equal (=) sign and should be followed by the operation to be performed. Step 1: select a cell above which the page break is needed. 2. Type in the required size of the column in the text box column width. you can add the page breaks in the required space. Operator ( ^ *. We can use any number of operators in a single formula. select the full row until the data in the sheet exists. MS. Similarly. In Excel. The cells in which formulas are stored. File menu  page break preview The page breaks are shown in dasher lines.  File  Save (or)  Ctrl +S (or)  click on the save button on the Tool bar. If the automatic allocation of page breaks does not satisfy with your requirements. A dialogue box is displayed. A formula is an equation that is used to perform calculations on data in a worksheet. Row height can also be adjusted by selecting the rows. Click on the width option. Printing: To print the worksheet. Type the name and click Save.

gives the absolute value of the number .e F2 ii) Type ― = ( B2 + C2 + D2 )‖ iii) Press Enter The value ―118‖ will be displayed in F2.Examples of the formula expressions: 1. 2. Multiply the value 549 of the cell C3 with the value 43 of the cell F3 and have the result in the cell I3.gives the factorial of the number . Functions : A function is a built-in. C2. number2. To enter a function in a cell. Type ―=‖ sign. Type the cell range & other arguments within brackets. 3. Step i) Click the cell I3 ii) Type ― = ( C3 * F3) iii) press Enter The result ―23607‖ will be displayed in the cell I3.calculates the average of the values in a specified range . i.gives the maximum value within the range specified . Type the function name. Press Enter. a colon (:) is used between the first & last cell addresses.calculates the standard deviation of the given data . readymade and frequently used formula that accepts data.counts how many numbers are there in the list of arguments Note : To specify a range of cells. Divide the value by 5 and have it in the cell E6: Step i) Click the cell E6.…) – gives the sum of the values in a specified range Abs( number) Fact( number) Sqrt(number) Log(number) Average( range of cells) Stdev(range of cells) Mean( range of cells) Max( range of cells) count( ) .gives the logarithm of the number . Step i) Click on the cell in which total marks is to be displayed. 56 respectively. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Example: Click the cell in which you want the result of the function to be displayed. Statistical functions with syntax and purpose: 40 . 28. =Average(B1: B10) Calculates the average of the values in the cells B1 to B10 Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose: i) ii) iii) iv) v) i) ii) iii) iv) v) Sum( number1. To add these values and to have the result in the cell F2. D2 are 34. perform calculations & returns results. Suppose the value of the cell B6 is 78345.calculates the mean of the given data .gives the square root of the number . Suppose the values in the cells B2. ii) Type ― = (B6/5) ― iii) Press Enter The value ―15669‖ will be displayed in the cell E6.

The cell in which the function is to be inserted. Open the Insert Menu and select Chart In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4. The selected cell on the worksheet will automatically contain the formula. 41 .Function Wizard : The Function Wizard is a tool in Excel through which a user can enter formulas in the correct format without any errors. Click O. Enter the arguments. Types of charts which are available in Excel: 1. Stock 12. Steps to use the function Wizard: 1. Doughnut 8. Financial etc. enter chart source data and click Next In the step 3 of 4. It lists all the functions available.K 4. 5. is selected. The result is shown in the selected cell. A dialogue box is displayed in which arguments are accepted. 6. It contains all the functions according to the type such as Mathematical. select the type of chart you want to make and click Next In the step 2 of 4. Column charts 2. The function needed is selected. 3. enter the chart options like label of the chart and click Next In the step 4 of 4. 2. Bar charts 3. XY (scatter) 6. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. Date/time. Select the function option from the Insert menu. Radar 9. The Function Wizard screen is displayed. Cone & Pyramid Creating a Chart : Step i) ii) iii) iv) vi) vii) Enter the data in a table. Area 7. Creating Charts : Charts in Excel are used to represent data pictorially.K. Cylinder. Click O. Surface 10. pie 5. Bubble 11. Line 4. We can use different types of charts to represent data. Statistical.

enter the chart options like label of the chart vi) In the step 4 of 4. ii) Open the Insert Menu and select Chart iii) In the Chart Wizard – Step 1 of 4.Column Chart: Column charts are one of the most common types of graphs used to display data. give the chart location where you want the chart to be located and press Finish. to draw a column chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. Each bar represents a value. A column chart represents data in the form of a series of vertical bars. enter chart source data v) In the step 3 of 4. production of crops 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 paddy wheat maize groundnut type of crop Series1 production(tonns) 42 .No. select Column chart and click Next iv) In the step 2 of 4. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 To construct a bar chart for the above data: Step i) Enter the data in a table. For example.

whose area are proportional to the frequencies or percentages of cases under various categories. 1 2 3 4 A crop Paddy Wheat Maize Groundnut B Production(tons) 53 24 18 82 pr oduction of cr ops 30% 46% paddy w heat maize groundnut 14% 10% ******* 43 . In this chart. A separate chart pie chart should be drawn for each data set.No. Data on each variable is entered in the Excel worksheet in a row or column with suitable headings. Then we select the data of the first series and choose pie chart and proceed as per the options given in the dialogue box. For example.Pie Chart: A Pie chart is used to represent the distribution of a categorical data. to draw a pie chart for the production of different crops in a region: S. a circle is divided into sectors.

Statistical Analysis Tools Microsoft Excel provides a set of data analysis tools— called the Analysis Tool Pak— that you can use to save steps when you develop complex statistical or engineering analyses. Enter the Input range and Output range (addresses of the cells) iv) give the address of the cell where you want the result to be shown. Excel provides many other statistical. If the Data Analysis command is not available. Analysis Tools: ANOVA: Single factor ANOVA: Two-Factor with replication ANOVA: Two-Factor without replication Correlation Covariance Descriptive statistics F-test two-sample for variances Histogram Regression t-test: two sample assuming equal variances t-test: two sample assuming unequal variances Z-test: two sample for means Steps to use Analysis Tools: Step i) From the Menu bar choose Tools and click on Data Analysis ii) When the Data Analysis dialogue box appears. You provide the data and parameters for each analysis. 44 . click Data Analysis on the Tools menu. To access these tools. click on the one you want. iv) click OK v) The result will be given in the corresponding output format. you need to load the Analysis Tool Pak add-in program. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. financial. the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions and then displays the results in an output table. Accessing the data analysis tools: The Analysis Tool Pak includes the tools described below. iii) The corresponding dialogue box appears. Some of the statistical functions are built-in and others become available when you install the Analysis Tool Pak. and engineering worksheet functions. Related to worksheet functions.

ii) Select Correlation in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. Head weight (X) 20 22 25 27 31 Body weight (Y) 60 64 72 80 84 Step i) From the Menu bar. ii) Select Regression in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. Compute the correlation coefficient using Excel Protein content (%) 5 7 10 12 13 Gain in weight(gm) 30 40 80 100 120 Step i) From the Menu bar. clock OK. iii) When the Regression dialogue box appears. v) the result will be shown in the following format: Summary output: Protein content Protein content gain in weight 1 0. Find the regression equation of y on x. iii) When the Correlation dialogue box appears.989783 1 gain in weight Ex 2: Following is the data of head and body weights of 5 insects. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. enter the Input range and also give the output range where you want the result to be shown. 45 .Ex 1: The following are the results of 5 preschool going children at different levels of protein content in diet. iv) give the output range where you want the result to be shown. enter the Input Y range and input X range. clock OK.

Factory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 12 16 9 13 15 17 20 23 B 8 13 21 16 11 12 Test whether there is any significant difference between two factories at probability level 0.7838 5.980316 R Square 0.64801 3.836289 0.961019 Adjusted R Square 0.86423 1.464204 Upper 95.86423 1.0% 35.324953 Observations 5 ANOVA df Regression Residual Total 1 3 4 SS 399. variable 2 range and set Hypothesized mean difference as zero. Solution: Step i) From the Menu bar.05. SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.64801 3.324324 t Stat 2.89189 2.K 46 .948025 Standard Error 2.7838 16.135073 0.96 Significance F 0. iii) Enter the variable 1 range.184445 Ex 3: The daily production of two pesticide factories is recorded as follows.27027 MS 399. iv) Click the check box against Labels in the First row.003305 Intercept (X) Coefficients 13.21622 416 Standard Error 6.184445 Lower 95.464204 Upper 95% 35. choose Tools and click on Data Analysis. click O.032081 8.405405 F 73.v) The result will be shown in the following format.003305 Lower 95% -7.0% -7.6 P-value 0. ii)Select t-test. two samples assuming equal variances in the Data Analysis Dialogue box and click OK. iv) Give the output range where you want the result to be shown.

98214 8 20.178813 B 13.v) the result will be shown in the following format.5 20.877324 0. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances A 15.11458 0 12 0.625 19.397535 2.198768 1.3 6 Mean Variance Observations Pooled Variance Hypothesized Mean Difference df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail ****** 47 .782288 0.

Phone number etc. Every row represents a Record. We cannot make changes to the data in a report. 3. 1.e the printable form of the table or query or form. Address. A database can be maintained in a computer by using a database management system(DBMS). 4. The extension name of Ms-Access file is . Ex: A Query can be used to extract details about students studying in a particular class. The database serves as a base from which a desired information can be retrieved. Macros : used to automate frequently performed tasks. Pages : display shortcuts to data access pages in the database. DBMS is an application that enables to maintain data in a database. Reports : used to present data from tables or Queries in a format of our choice. Forms : used as interfaces for users to enter. 2. organizing and retrieving data. Modules : used to perform advanced database operations. To start MS-Access: 1. We can format the data in a report. such as validating data against complex conditions. Queries : used to retrieve information from a database based on specific conditions.MS-ACCESS The Database is an organized collection of data related to a particular topic or purpose. forms. A data access page displays data stored in a database over the internet.   The database Wizard is used to create tables. Ex: we can create a macro to print a report automatically. 5. i. Every row containing information about a student represents a record. Each piece of information in a record is called a Field. All database objects should be created manually. The records in the student table can include fields such as Admission number. 6. Click on File menu  New  Enter A window appears  give a name to the database 48 . queries and reports by following a series of steps provided by the wizard. Maintaining data involves storing. A database stored electronically has distinct advantages over a manually organized system. 7. view and modify data in a Table.mdb. Tables : Store database data in Rows (records) and columns (fields). Start Programs MS office  Ms-Access  Enter 2. The Blank Database command is used to create a blank database. Ex: A table can contain personal information about all the students in a college. many meaningful conclusions can be drawn. Start  Run Ms-Access Enter An Access Database consists of 7 different Database objects. MS-Access is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that is used to store and manipulate large amount of information. Creating a Database : A Database can be created by using the database Wizard or by using the Blank Database command. Student name.

roll no. The database window appears. click Tables and then click New on the database window toolbar. The New Table dialog box appears. 49 . Commands in the New Table dialog box Command Create table by entering data Design view Table wizard       Used to assign fields for the new table and modify field properties Used to create a table through a guided sequence of steps Purpose Used to create a table by entering values directly in a row and column format I. Click on create table on Datasheet view  now a window appears  here we find fields ( field1. Enter the details Working with Database Fields : Microsoft Access database fields are created by entering a field name and a field data type in each row of the field entry area of the database table window. Open the database in which the table is to be created. Create Table by entering data: Click on Table (object) in the main switch board. field2. under objects..……) Give the field names ( Name. 2. click on table in the main switch board and double click on the table name. marks etc) Click on close button of the table and save the table with some name To enter details into the table.Creating a Table : 1.

such as phone numbers. Stores up to 1 GB.Access. Stores up to 255 characters. Stores 1.2. 2.  Text : used for text or combinations of text and numbers. such as addresses or for numbers that do not require calculations. Primary key: The field in a table that uniquely identifies each record is called the primary key. Yes /No : used for data that can be only one of two possible values. the field is called the foreign key in the second table. Auto Number : used for unique sequential or random numbers that are automatically inserted when a record is added. True/False. OLE object : used for OLE objects like pictures. To enter data into the table. such as notes or descriptions. Keys are used to maintain the integrity of data. Ex : Admission number field Foreign key : When a primary key of one table appears as a field in another table. Number : used for data to be included in Mathematical calculations. 5. Keys are of two types: primary & foreign. Currency : used for currency values and to prevent rounding off during calculations. Usually this field is sequentially numbered. 50 . Stores 8 bytes. II.Data types in MS-Access : The following list summarizes all the field data types available in MS. click on the close button of the table and save it with some name 4. double click on the table created. Create a table in Design view: 1. Now enter the details. Stores 8 bytes. such as yes/ No. Primary & Foreign keys: Data should be checked for redundancy before it is stored in a database. click on table (object) in the main switch board.        Memo : Used for lengthy text and numbers. On/Off.000 characters. except calculations involving money. Stores upto 64.4 or 8 bytes. Date / Time : used for dates and times. Keys contain unique values that help to filter redundant information from the input data. graphs and other binary data. their uses and their storage sizes. Ex: Field name Roll No Name Marks Data types Auto Number Text Number 3. Here click on ― create table in design view‖ Now a window appears  here type the field names and their data types respectively. or postal codes.

Pictures can be added to a form. Reports can be viewed either in print preview mode or design mode. You can perform calculations on groups of records. Form view The datasheet view shows many records whereas form view displays single record. The records are generally displayed one at a time. In the database window. The user may have to scroll horizontally or vertically to view the rest of the fields/ records. Data cannot be edited in the reports.  In forms. But. i. The display and contents of the form is controlled fully by the user. Query and forms are meant for displaying it on screen. then it may not be possible for a user to view all of them. You can toggle between these three views using the View Tool. Report: The data shown in a table.Queries :     By using queries we can view. change and analyze data in different ways. ****** Forms : 51 . The screen may be too small to fit it. You can bring together data from multiple tables and sort it in a particular order. The fields can be arranged as the user wants it. number of records are displayed at a time. In a table. the open button is replaced by the preview button. Design ii. when you click the report tab. the data can be displayed as per the users requirement. You can also use them as the source of records for forms and reports. Datasheet & iii. but when you take the printout or the Hard copy. The report preview shows how the data will appear on taking out the printouts. it is known as Report.   In forms there are 3 views. if the table has many fields.

. Modem stands for Modulator Demodulator. states. file compression. The computer is connected to a modem. Netscape Navigator. The internet allows you to access to a whole resource of data and information stored at different sites (called hosts) and locations around the world. c) Telephone line: A telephone line is required to transfer data from one computer to another. Ex : Set of interconnected computers within an office. Microsoft outlook express etc. Mozilla Firefox.Networking and Internet A network is an arrangement that enables two or more computers to communicate (talk) to each other. Computers in different branches of a Globalised company. which. typically a building. The communication links which inter connect each host computer use a common method of transmission known as TCP/IP. Share your opinions and your knowledge on a variety of topics through various new groups. Ex: the computers in all branches of an office within a city. Types of Networks Networks can range from a small group of computers linked together in a class room to thousands of computers linked together across the globe. Internet INTERNET The internet is a global connection of computers. Ex: Internet Explorer. countries or even continents. it is called a LAN. These computers are connected via a huge network of telecommunication links. Chat with other people any where in the world 6. b) Web Browser: A browser is a software program that is necessary in order to view web pages on the web. Down load useful programs such as virus detectors. 4. Ex : i. Send or receive E-mail 3. View interesting video‘s listen to music or wander through a 3-D world. Depending on the geographical location. networks can be classified as a) LAN ( Local Area Network) b) MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network) c) WAN (Wide Area Network) Local Area Network: If a network is confined to a single location. Read information on a wide range of topics 2. decompression utility etc. ii. it is called a WAN. Requirements for connecting to the Internet: a) Modem: A modem is a peripheral device that allows a computer to connect and communicate with other computers. connected to a telephone line. 52 . it connects the computers distributed across multiple buildings. Metropolitan Area Network: A metropolitan area network is a network that is larger than a LAN. 5. Wide Area Network: When a network is located over wide areas such as cities. which stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Internet connection helps us to: 1. in turn.

HTML uses special text codes to define the various elements of a web page. The electronic mail uses various technologies that support electronic transmission of text. All internet servers cannot support HTTP and so the web can be regarded as a subset of the larger internet. E-mail user can have a mail box which is accessed through a computer terminal 6.e when we click a certain word or picture in a page. World Wide Web (WWW): It refers to the collection of information accessible on the internet. It consists of millions & millions of pages of text. A URL specifies the exact location of the web page on the internet. HTTP provides a method of transmitting a professionally laid out page over the text based internet.d) Subscription with Internet service provider (ISP): ISP‘s are companies that provide access to the internet. These words or pictures that help to move from one page to another are called hyperlinks. A collection of related web pages is known as a web site. data and graphics. Sify. E-mail is cheaper than a phone call and an ordinary mail 4. These pages.asp Explanation of the example URL: URL Element http WWW Microsoft .com /catalog/navigation. We need subscription with any ISP to get an Internet connection. Some of the features of E-mail are 1. Messages can be sent within a matter of seconds to any part in the world. In order to transmit a graphically designed web page complete with pictures.microsoft. The WWW support a protocol called Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). pictures. A web site can be accessed by means of a unique name assigned to it. Uniform Resource Locator: (URL): Each web site has a unique address commonly referred to as a URL. called web pages are stored on different computers that are connected to the internet. it can be sent to many people at the same time 3.asp Explanation Identifies protocol necessary to retrieve the file. an E-mail message consists of two parts a) a header specifying the address of the sender and the address of the receiver b) the text of the message 53 . Specrta Net etc. The web pages have links between them i. Internet was initially designed for the transmission of text basing on the protocols mentioned.com/catalog/navigation. it can access information and file libraries on request 5. it is much faster than the normal mail. it will take us to another page. MTNL. Some of the ISPs in India are VSNL. 2. A typical web address or URL looks as http:// www. embedded sound and animation a special language was designed which is referred to as Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML). sounds and animation on various topics. Indicates that the site is on the world wide web Indicates the name of the web site Indicates the domain type of the web site Specifies the path of the file stored on the web server‘s hard disk E-Mail E-mail or electronic mail is a service for sending or receiving messages electronically through a computer network. The web is similar to a library.

8. Mailing list can be created to send the same message to a group of people E-Mail Address: An E-Mail address consists of three parts 1. The mailing system allows selecting messages for reading.com. @ sign 3. Google. and country name Ex: Statisitcs@hotmial. Domain name A domain represents organization. saving. Some commonly used search engines are MSN. A user interface is provided where you can enter the word or phrase you are searching for. displaying. Search Engines : Search engines are utilities used to search for information on the web. providing links to relevant Web sites for us to choose from. The search engine looks for the keywords we have entered and returns the results of the search. network. forwarding and replying. deleting. Alta Vista. The person‘s Login name 2.7. Yahoo! search and Infoseek etc.com in this Statistics is the user name and his account is in the domain hotmail. ******* 54 . Both the names are separated by the @symbol.

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