1. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY 1.1 Definition is an electro-mechanical device consisting essentially of a switch mechanism and an electromagnet. The figure below illustrates the basic components and operation of this type of relay.
The armature is hinged or otherwise fastened to allow it to move when attracted by the coil. The moving contact is mounted on the armature. In operation, current through the coil magnetizes the core, which attracts the movable armature. Movement of the armature opens the NC contact and closes the NO contact. Opening the coil circuit deenergizes the electromagnet and the spring returns the movable contact to the NC position. When a relay operates it is said to "pick-up" and the smallest amount of current needed to close (or open) a set of contacts is called the "pick-up current." If the current is decreased to a value at which the spring overcomes the magnetic pull, the relay "drops-out." This current is called the "dropout" or "reset" value. 1.2 Relay Control Methods There are various ways in which relays are connected to achieve control of load circuits. These control methods are identified as : a. b. c. d. e. direct control shunt control lockup open-circuit closed-circuit
2. REED RELAYS 2.1 Definition a reed relay consists of a magnetically-sensitive switch and a coil. The coil provides the magnetic field required to actuate the switch. Reed relays have advantages over other type of relays. They are not subject to some of the failures associated with electromagnetic relays since they can be operated in a sealed, controlled, environment for millions of high speed operations. An advantage of the reed relay over solid-state devices is that the reed relay provides isolation of control circuit from the load circuit.
2.2 Reed Switch The switched used in reed relays are of two types: dry reed and mercury-wetted reed. The basic dry-reed switch consists of two flat metal reeds mounted in a glass tube, as shown in the figure. The tube contains an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen. For high voltage application the switch is usually mounted in a vacuum.
The blades of the reed switch are made of magnetic material which responds quickly and uniformly to the application of a magnetic field. A nickel-iron alloy is commonly used for this purpose. The overlapping sections of the reed are usually plated with a precious metal, such as gold, silver, rhodium, etc., to provide good, long lasting, electrical contact. The reeds must be so constructed and mounted that the correct gap is maintained between the contacts after thousands of operations.
Mercury wetted reed relay operates in the same manner as the dryreed relay, however, in the MWRR there is a pool of mercury at the base of the switch as shown in the figure.
3. SOLID-STATE RELAY 3.1 Definition A device designed for the transformation of electric signals by utilizing optical radiant energy so as to provide coupling with electrical isolation between input and output. 3.2 Function Although EMRs and solid-state relays are designed to perform similar functions, each accomplishes the final results in different ways. Unlike EMRs, SSRs do not have actual coils and contacts. Instead, they use semiconductor switching devices such as Bipolar transistors, MOSFETs, SCRs, or Triacs. The SSRs has no moving parts, it is resistant to shock and vibration, and it is sealed against dirt and moisture. Like EMRs, SSRs find application in isolating a low-voltage control circuit from a high-power load circuit. They can be used to control ac or dc loads. As shown in the figures, Triac is used to control an ac load and power transistor is used for dc load. For both circuit, when the input voltage turns the LED on, a photodetector connected to the base of the transistor (or to the gate of the triac) turns the transistor (or the triac) and connects the load to the line.
The SSR have several advantages over the EMR. 1. It has longer life because it has no moving parts. 2. It is compatible with transistor & IC circuitry. 3. It does not generate as much electromagnetic interference. 4. It is resistant to shock & vibration. 5. It has faster response time & does not exhibit contact bounce. 4. MERCURY-WETTED CONTACT RELAYS 4.1 Definition The mercury-wetted contact (MWC) and the mercury-wettedreed (MWR) relay are similar in construction, and both are fast and sensitive. However, they differ in capacity and application.
4.1 Function The MWR relay has limited capacity and is used in lowpower applications, such as 150 mW controlling a 15-volt-ampere load. The MWC relay has greater power gain and controls much larger loads. with a 40 mW input one can control a 250 volt-ampere load. Switching units for MWC relays are illustrated below. Each contains one or more sets of contacts, an armature and a pool of mercury. Typical contact configuration are shown below.
As in MWR relays capillary action carries mercury from a pool at the bottom of the MWC relay to the armature contacts. In turn, the armature contacts furnish mercury to the fixed contacts. Contacts thus coated have larger contact areas compared with the decreasing contact areas which develop in other forms of switches as a result of wear, pitting, and corrosion.
1. DIAC 1.1 Function Diac operates like two diodes connected back-to-back in series. Unlike the thyrector, theses diodes are not like zener. Zener diodes maintain the same breakdown voltage after breakdown. Some common earlier diodes have breakdown characteristics as shown in the figure below. After these diodes breakdown, higher currents flow causing high temperatures which lower breakdown voltages. The figure below shows the two (2) types of diac with its schematic , characteristic curve, and diode-equivalent circuit. The thyristor curve is more pronounced. Its ON voltage is lower than the trigger diac. Hence, it dissipates less power for the same current. This enables it to be used with heavier loads.
Both types of diacs are used to trigger large thyristors such as SCRs and Triacs. 2. SHOCKLEY DIODE 2.1 Function The shockley diode is also a trigger device. It is used to turn on a circuit when forward voltage is exceeded. The figure below shows the schematic, the p-n diagram, transistor equivalent, and characteristic curve. The shockley diode acts like a normal diode when it is reversedbiased. When it is forward-biased it blocks current until its forwardbreakover voltage is exceeded. Then, it conducts readily. A common breakover voltage is 60V.
The transistor-equivalent circuit shows that pnp transistor base is the npn collector and the npn base is the pnp collector. As forward voltage nears breakover, the leakage current through the device reaches the turn-on voltage for both transistor. Once both transistors transistors turn on the device latches. That is, the pnp transistor turns on furnishing the npn with base current, and the npn turns on furnishing the pnp with base current. Thus, the two transistors hold each other on until anode-tocathode current goes to zero or at least very close to zero.
The figure below shows a simple application for the Shockley diode. When S1 is closed, the supply voltage (E) furnishes current through R charging up C. When the voltage across C gets to the Shockley turn-on voltage, the diode turns on. This shorts out C, quickly discharging it until the charge on C is too low to keep the Shockley diode in conduction. The Shockley diode turns off allowing the capacitor C to repeat its charging. This sequence of events repeats itself indefinitely. The dc source E is changed to a sawtooth output as shown.
UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT) A P-N device that has an emitter connected to the P-N junction on one side of the bar and two basses at either end of the bar. Although it is given the name transistor, it is never used as an amplifying device like a BJT and FET.
E Emitter B2 Base 2
E P N B2
B1 Base 1
UJT Schematic Symbol and Construction THEORY AND OPERATION FIRING A UJT The operation of a UJT can be stated as follows.
RE IE E B2 + CE VEB1 B1 VB2B1 +
Whenever the voltage between the emitter and base 1, VEB1, is less than a value called peak voltage, VP, the UJT is turned OFF, and no current can pass from E to B1 (IE = 0). If however, VEB1 exceeds VP by just a small amount, the UJT turns ON. When this happens, the emitter to base 1 circuit becomes almost a short circuit, and current can pass from one terminal to another terminal. In all UJT circuits, the burst is short lived, and the UJT goes back to its OFF condition. VOLTAGE CURRENT CHARACTERISTIC CURVE
rB2 E VD rBB = rB2 + rB1
UJT Equivalent Circuit In the circuit above, we find out that there exist an internal resistance between the two base terminals B2 and B1, and is shown as rBB. This resistance is about 5 - 10 kΩ for most UJT’s. The total applied voltage, VB2B1, is divided between the two internal resistance. Thus the voltage which appears across rB1 is given by:
rB1 (VB 2 B1 ) rB1 + rB 2
As stated earlier, to fire a UJT, the E to B1 voltage must become large enough to forward bias the diode. The value of VEB1 needed to accomplish this must equal the sum of the forward voltage plus the voltage drop across rB1, or
VEB1 = VD +
rB1 (VB 2 B1 ) rB1 + rB 2
therefore, we are able to know that the extrinsic standoff ratio is:
rB1 r = B1 rB1 + rB 2 rBB
IE IP IV
Voltage versus Current characteristic Curve of a UJT To better understand the mechanism to which the UJT fires, we have above the voltage versus current characteristic curve of a UJT. The UJT has first to reach VP, as this happens a small emitter current starts to flow across the E to B1 of the UJT. When this occurs, we see the voltage through the characteristic curve of the UJT to be breaking back to approximately zero volts. This is known as the “valley voltage” or VV. The small current that flows when the UJT triggers is called the “peak current” or IP. Why the sudden decrease in voltage? This is because there is a drastic increase in the number of charged carriers available in the B1 region when the emitter current starts to trickle into the main body of the device. CE then discharges until it can no longer deliver minimum current required to keep the UJT ‘ON’. This current is called the “valley Current” or IV. When current drops to IV, the UJT goes “OFF”. No current could therefore flow from E to B1; UJT again needs VP.
UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR The UJT’s negative resistance characteristics is useful in switching and timing circuits. The heart of all UJT timers and oscillators is the UJT Relaxation Oscillator.
R2 RE IE E B2 B1 CE R!
UJT Relaxation Oscillator When the ON-OFF switch is closed, the capacitor CE charges by resistor RE. When the voltage across CE reaches the UJT’s VP value, the UJT will turn ON, provided that RE is not large enough, and its resistance between E and B1 will drop LOW. This low voltage will allow C1 to discharge through the UJT’s E to B1 junction. As CE discharges, its voltage decreases and this causes the UJT to turn off. The cycle then repeats itself since the UJT will allow capacitor CE to begin charging again.
Above is seen the output waveforms for the UJT oscillator circuit. We see that the waveform for the voltage across the emitter to ground is a sawtooth which is not linear. Also, the waveform does not reach zero. PROGRAMMABLE UJT (PUT) The programmable unijunction transistor or PUT is a variation of the Basic UJT thyristor. This four layer thyristor has three terminals labeled cathode (K), anode (A), and gate (G). The key difference between the basic UJT and the PUT is that the PUT’s peak voltage (Vp) can be controlled. The cathode of the PUT corresponds with the base 1 of the UJT. When the PUT fires, a burst of current emerges from the device via cathode lead, just
as a firing burst emerges from the base 1 lead of UJT. Also, the cathode of a PUT, like base 1 of a UJT, is the reference terminal relative to which other voltages are measured. The anode of a PUT corresponds to the emitter of a UJT. The PUT's anode voltage rises until it reaches a certain critical value called the peak voltage, Vp, which causes the device to fire. The gate of a PUT bears a rough correspondence to base 2 of a UJT. For a PUT, the gate receives a voltage from an external circuit, and that voltage sets the peak voltage Vp according to the formula Vp = VG + 0.6 The 0.6 V term is approximate, it depends mostly on the forward voltage across the anode-gate p-n junction, which is somewhat temperature dependent. Note that a PUT differs from a UJT in that its Vp is determined by external circuitry rather than an intrinsic standoff ratio associated with the transistor itself. This is what makes the device programmable: By making an adjustment in an external circuit, we can select any desired value of the peak voltage. The characteristic curve of a PUT has the same general shape as the UJT curve. For a PUT, the horizontal axis represents anode current, IA, and the vertical axis represents anode-to cathode voltage, VAK. As a general rule, the PUT characteristic curve can be regarded as being compressed closer to the origin, compared to the UJT curve. That is the IP and IV values of the most sensitive PUT tends to be lower than for the most sensitive UJTs.
anode gate cathode
IA IP OPERATION The gate to cathode voltage is derived from R3, which is connected with R2 to form a voltage divider. It will work in exactly the same way as the UJT relaxation oscillator, in that C1 will charge via R1 until the charge across C1 reaches the Vp value. In this circuit however the Vp trigger voltage is set by R3. When the PUT’s anode to cathode voltage exceeds the gate voltage by 0.7 V, the PUT will turn ON, and C1 will discharge through the PUT and develop an output pulse across RL. To vary the Frequency of this circuit, we can change the resistance of R1, or change the ratio of R2 to R3, which controls the Vp value of the PUT. IV
R2 G A K
PUT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR By voltage divider principle, VG is:
R3 (VS ) R2 + R3
SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR) A silicon controlled rectifier is a three terminal device used to control rather large currents to a load. The schematic symbol for an SCR is shown below, along with the names and letter abbreviations of its terminals.
GATE (G) CATHODE (K)
An SCR acts very much like a switch. When it is turned ON, there is a low resistance current flow path from anode to cathode; then it acts like a closed switch. When it is turned OFF, no current can flow from anode to cathode; then it acts like an open switch. Because it is a solid-state device, the switching action of an SCR is very fast. The average current flow to a load can be controlled by placing an SCR in series with the load. This arrangement is shown below. If the supply voltage is ac, the SCR spends a certain portion of the ac cycle time in the ON state and the remainder of the time in the OFF state.
As its name suggests, the SCR is a rectifier, so it passes current only during positive half cycle of the ac supply. The positive half cycle is the cycle in which the anode of the SCR is more positive than the cathode. This means that the SCR cannot be turned ON more than half the time. During the other half of the cycle time the supply polarity is negative, and this negative polarity causes the SCR to be reversed biased, preventing it from carrying any current to the load.
SCR WAVEFORMS The popular terms used to describe how an SCR is operating are conduction angle and firing delay angle. Conduction angle is the number of degrees of an ac cycle during which the SCR is turned ON. The firing delay angle is the number of degrees of an ac cycle that elapses before the SCR is turned ON. The figure below illustrates the following angles.
SCR GATE CHARACTERISTICS An SCR is fired by a short burst of current into the gate. This gate current (IG) flows through the junction between the gate and cathode exits from the SCR on the cathode lead. The amount of gate current needed to fire a particular SCR is symbolized IGT. Most SCRs require a gate current of between 0.1 and 50 mA to fire (IGT = 0.1 – 50 mA). Since there is a standard pn junction between gate and cathode, the voltage between these terminals (VGK) must be slightly greater than 0.6 V. The figure below shows the conditions which must exist at the gate for an SCR to fire. Once an SCR has fired, it is not necessary to continue the flow of gate current. As long as current continues to flow through the main terminals, from anode to cathode, the SCR will remain ON. When the anode to cathode current (IAK) drops below some minimum value, called holding current, symbolized IHO, the SCR will shut OFF. This normally occurs as the AC supply voltage passes through zero into its negative region. For most medium-sized SCRs, IHO is around 10mA.
CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF AN SCR
TYPICAL GATE CONTROL CIRCUITS The simplest type of gate control circuit, sometimes called triggering circuit is shown below. This is an example of using the same voltage supply to power both the gate control circuit and the load. Such sharing is common in SCR circuits.
LOAD R1 VOLTAGE SUPPLY
In the figure, if the supply is ac, operation is as follows. When the switch is closed, there will be current into the gate when the supply voltage goes positive. The firing delay angle is determined by the setting of R2, the variable resistance. If R2 is low, the gate current will be sufficiently large to fire the SCR when the supply voltage is low. Therefore the firing delay angle will be small, and average load current will be large. If R2 is high, the supply voltage must climb higher to deliver enough gate current to fire the SCR. This increases the firing delay angle and reduces the average load current. The purpose of R1 is to maintain some fixed resistance in the gate lead even when R2 is set to zero. This is necessary to protect the gate from over currents. R1 also determines the minimum firing delay angle. In some cases a diode is inserted in series with the gate to protect the gate-cathode junction against high reverse voltages. One disadvantage of this simple triggering circuit is that the firing delay angle is adjustable only from about 0o to 90o. OTHER GATE CONTROL CIRCUITS Capacitors Used to Delay Firing The simplest method of improving gate control is to add a capacitor at the bottom of the gate lead resistance, as shown below. The advantage of this circuit is that the firing delay angle can be adjusted past 90o. This can be understood by focusing on the voltage across the capacitor C. When the AC supply is negative, the reverse voltage across the SCR is applied to RC triggering circuit, charging the capacitor negative on the top plate and positive on the bottom plate. When the supply enters its positive half cycle, the forward voltage across the SCR tends to charge C in the opposite direction. However, voltage buildup in the new direction is delayed until the negative charge is removed from the capacitor plates. This delay in applying positive voltage at the gate can be extended past the 90o point. The larger the potentiometer resistance, the longer it take to charge C positive on the top plate and the later the SCR fires.
LOAD R1 VOLTAGE SUPPLY
This idea can be extended by using a resistor inserted into the gate lead, requiring the capacitor to charge higher than 0.6V to trigger the SCR. With the resistor in place, capacitor voltage must reach a value large enough to force sufficient current (IGT) through the resistor and into the gate terminal. Since C must now charge to a higher voltage, triggering is further delayed.
LOAD R1 VOLTAGE SUPPLY
The figure below shows a double RC network for gate control. In this scheme, the delayed voltage across C1 is used to charge C2, resulting in even further delay buildup of gate voltage. The capacitors usually fall in the range from 0.01 uF to 1 uF.
LOAD R1 VOLTAGE SUPPLY
Using A Breakover Device in the Gate Lead The figure below uses a four layer diode inserted in the gate lead to fire an SCR. If the voltage across the capacitor is below the breakover voltage of the diode, it acts like an open switch. When the capacitor voltage rises to the breakover point, the four layer diode fires, and acts like a closed switch. This causes a burst of current into the gate, which provides sure triggering of the SCR. The advantages of the four-layer diode are that it is relatively independent of temperature and that the breakover voltage can be held consistent from one unit to another.
THEORY AND OPERATION OF TRIACS A triac is a three terminal device used to control the average current flow to a load. A triac is different from an SCR in that it can conduct current in either direction when it is turned ON. The schematic symbol of a triac is shown below, along with the names and letter abbreviations of its terminals.
ANODE 2 (A2) OR MAIN TERMINAL 2 (MT2)
ANODE 1 (A1) OR] MAIN TERMINAL 1 (MT1)
When the triac is turned OFF, no current can flow between the main terminals no matter what the polarity of the externally applied voltage. The triac therefore acts like an open switch. When the triac is turned ON, there is a very low-resistance current flow path from one terminal to the other, with the direction of flow depending on the polarity of the externally applied voltage. When the voltage is more positive on MT2, the current flows from MT2 to MT1. When the voltage is more positive on MT1, the current flows from MT1 to MT2. In either case the triac is acting like a closed switch. The circuit relationship among the supply, the triac, and the load is illustrated below. A triac is placed in series with the load just like an SCR. The average current delivered to the load can be varied by varying the amount of time per cycle that the triac spends in its ON state. If a small portion of the time spent in the ON state, the average current flow over many cycles will be low. If a large portion of the cycle time is spent in the ON state, then the average current will be high.
Gate Control (Triggering Circuit) MT1
A triac is not limited to 180o of conduction per cycle. With the proper triggering arrangement, it can conduct for a full 360o per cycle. It thus furnishes
full wave power control instead of the half-wave power control possible with an SCR. TRIAC WAVEFORMS Triac waveforms are very much like SCR waveforms except that they can fire on the negative half-cycle. The figure below shows waveforms both load voltage and triac voltage (across the main terminals) for three different conditions.
Figure (a) waveform show the triac OFF during the first 30o of each half cycle; during this 30o the triac is acting like an open switch. During this time the entire line voltage is dropped across the main terminals of the triac, with no voltage applied to the load. Thus there is no current flow through the triac or the load. After 30o has elapsed, the triac fires of turns ON, and it becomes like a closed switch. At this instant the triac begins conducting current through its main
terminals and through the load, and it continues to carry load current for the remainder of the half cycle. The waveform shows that during the conduction angle, the entire line voltage is applied to the load, with zero voltage appearing across the triac's main terminals. Figure (b) shows the waveforms with a larger firing delay angle. The delay angle is 120o and the conduction angle is 60o. Since the current is flowing during a smaller portion of the total cycle in this case, the average current is less than it was for the previous waveform. Therefore less power is transferred from source to load. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIACS When a triac is biased with an external voltage more positive on MT2, it is usually triggered by current flow from gate to MT1. The polarities of the voltages and the directions of the currents in this case are shown below (a).
When biased as shown in (a), the triggering of a triac is identical to the triggering of an SCR. The G terminal is positive with respect to MT1, which causes the trigger current to flow into the device on the gate lead and out of the device on the MT1 lead. The gate voltage necessary to trigger a triac is symbolized VGT; the gate current necessary to trigger is symbolized IGT. Most medium-sized triacs have a VGT of about 0.6 – 2.0 and an IGT of 0.1 – 20mA. When the triac is biased more positive on MT1, as shown below (b), triggering is usually accomplished by sending gate current into the triac on the MT1 lead and out of the triac on the G lead. The gate voltage will be negative with respect to MT1 to accomplish this. A triac, like an SCR, does not require continuous gate current once it has been fired. It will remain in the ON state until the main terminal polarity changes or until the main terminal current drops below the holding current, IHO, Most medium sized triacs have an IHO rating less than 100mA.
Other important electrical characteristics which apply to triacs are (1) the maximum allowable main terminal rms current, IT(RMS) and (2) the breakover voltage, VDROM, which is the highest main terminal peak voltage the triac can block in either direction. If the instantaneous voltage applied from MT2 to MT1 should exceed VDROM, the triac breaks over and begins passing main terminal current. This does not damage the triac, but it does represent a loss of gate control. One other important electrical rating which is given on manufacturers specification sheets is VTM, the ON-state voltage across the main terminals. Ideally, the ON-state voltage should be 0 V, but VTM usually falls between 1 and 2 V for real triacs. A low VTM rating is desirable because it means the triac closely duplicates the action of a mechanical switch, applying full supply voltage to the load. It also means that the triac itself burns very little power. TRIGGERING METHODS FOR TRIACS 1. RC GATE CONTROL CIRCUITS The simplest triac triggering is shown below (a). In this figure, capacitor C charges through R1 and R2 during the delay angle portion of each half cycle. During the positive half cycle, MT2 is positive with respect to MT1, and C charges positive on its top plate. When the voltage at C builds up to a value large enough to deliver sufficient gate current (IGT) through R3 to trigger the triac, the triac fires. During the negative half cycle, C charges negative on its top plate. Again, when the voltage across the capacitor gets large enough to deliver sufficient gate current in the reverse direction through R3 to trigger the triac, the triac fires. The charging rate of capacitor C is set by the resistance R2. For large R2, the charging rate is slow causing a large firing delay angle and small average load current. For small R2, the charging rate is fast, the firing delay angle is small, and the load current is high. As was true with SCR triggering circuits, a single RC network cannot delay triac firing much past 90o. To establish a wider range of delay angle adjustment, the double RC network of (b) is often used.
2. BREAKOVER DEVICE IN GATE CONTROL CIRCUITS FOR TRIACS The gate control of RC can be improved by the addition of a breakover device in the gate lead, as shown below. The breakover device used is a diac, but there are several other breakover devices which also work well. Use of a breakover device in the gate triggering circuit of a triac offers some important advantages over simple RC gate control circuits. These advantages stem from the fact that breakover devices deliver a pulse of gate current rather than a sinusoidal gate current.
The operation of the circuit in the figure below is the same as that of one circuit in the RC network except that the capacitor voltage must build up to the breakover voltage of the diac in order to deliver gate current to the triac. For a
diac, the breakover voltage must be quite a bit higher than the voltage which would be necessary in the previous figure.