GROUP A MPA 1 2007 / 2008 SESSION

2 INTRODUCTION Nigeria is a federation of 36 States and a Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Each State is made up of a number of Local Government Areas (LGAs), decided by its population and other considerations. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria defines for each of the three tiers of government, Federal, State and Local Government, a set of functions and services; it is expected to perform with respect to governance. But the constitution also identified a number of services it describes as concurrent as opposed to exclusive list for federal and state governments respectively. Education is one of those services on the concurrent list. Education is central to development. It empowers people and strengthens nations. It is a powerful “equalizer”, opening doors to all to lift themselves out of poverty. It is critical to the world’s attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Two of the eight MDGs pertain to education—namely, universal primary completion and gender parity in primary and secondary schooling. Moreover, education—especially girls’ education—has a direct and proven impact on the goals related to child and reproductive health and environmental sustainability. Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion. Investment in education benefits the individual, society, and the world as a whole. Broad-based education of good quality is among the most powerful instruments known to reduce poverty and inequality. With proven benefits for personal health, it also strengthens nations’ economic health by laying the foundation for sustained economic growth. For individuals and nations, it is key to

3 creating, applying, and spreading knowledge—and thus to the development of dynamic, globally competitive economies. It is also fundamental for the construction of democratic societies. Knowledge and advanced skills are critical determinants of a country's economic growth and standard of living as learning outcomes are transformed into goods and services, greater institutional capacity, a more effective public sector, a stronger civil society, and a better investment climate. Good quality, merit-based, equitable, efficient tertiary education and research are essential parts of this transformation. Both developing and industrial countries benefit from the dynamic of the knowledge economy. The capacity for countries to adopt, disseminate, and maximize rapid technological advances is dependent on adequate systems of tertiary education. Improved and accessible tertiary education and effective national innovations systems can help a developing country progress toward sustainable achievements in the Millennium

Development Goals, particularly those goals which relates to all levels of education, health, and gender equity. Tertiary education, is referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Colleges, universities, institutes of technology and polytechnics are the main institutions that provide tertiary education (sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions). Tertiary education generally culminates in the

4 receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees emanating from rigorous training and impact of knowledge in the respective discipline. Tertiary Education encompasses all organized learning activities at the tertiary level. The National Policy on Education (1998) defines Tertiary Education to include the universities, polytechnic, monotechnics and colleges of education in Nigeria Higher Education. OBJECTIVE OF TERTIARY EDUCATION The goals of tertiary education, as specified in the National Policy (2004 edition) are: i) To contribute to national development through high-level relevant manpower training; ii) iii) To develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of society. To develop the intellectual capability for individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external environments, iv) To acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society; v) vi) vii) To promote and encourage scholarship and community services; To forge and cement national unity; and To promote national and international understanding and institutions.

These are in consonance with those envisioned by the World Declaration on Higher Education at the World Conference on Higher Education held in Paris, 5-9 October 1998. The Conference re-affirmed that education is a fundamental pillar of human rights, democracy, sustainable development and peace. It should therefore be accessible to all throughout life and that measures are required to

5 ensure co-operation across and between the various sectors, particularly between general, technical and professional, secondary and post-secondary education as well as between universities and other institutions of higher education. TYPES OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA In Nigeria, higher education is available in four main types of institutions • The universities (Federal, State and Private) , of which there were 95 as at the year 2008; • Polytechnics, originally intended for middle and high level

technical/professional education. • Colleges of Education, intended for high-level non-graduate teacher education, but some of which have since become ‘degree-granting institutions’, with emphasis on bachelors’ degrees in Education; • Monotechnics: higher institutions that offer courses in specific professional areas: Nursing, Agriculture, Veterinary Studies, etc. EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING IN NIGERIA The first institution for higher education in Nigeria was Yaba College of Technology, established in 1934. This became the nucleus of the first University College, established in Ibadan in 1948. The attainment of political independence in 1960 was accompanied by expansion in the education sector in general, and in higher education in particular. There was an improved geographical spread of universities: University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1960), Ahamdu Bello University, Zaria, University of Lagos, and the University of Ife (all in 1962), and much later, the University of Benin (1970).

6 These institutions are now collectively known as FIRST GENERATION UNIVERSITIES. The year 1975 (seven universities were created) witnessed the emergence of Nigeria’s second-generation universities. Most of these Institutions had begun as satellite campuses of existing universities: Kano, Jos, Maiduguri, Calabar, Port Harcourt, and Ilorin. More universities were to follow in subsequent years, with ‘boom period’ in the 1980s. The 1990-decade witnessed the birth of private universities. This phenomenon has helped to broaden the scope of ownership of universities into Federal, State, and Private. The post-1970 institutions are now collectively called the third generation universities. One notable feature of the development of universities in Nigeria is the emergence of specialized universities. Most of these focus on Science and Technology, while there are three (Makurdi, Abeokuta, and Umudike) that focus on Agriculture. List of Approved Federal Universities in Nigeria
S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Bayero University,Kano Fed. Univ. of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Federal University of Technology Yola. Federal University of Technology, Akure Federal University of VICE CHANCELLOR Prof. G. A. Babaji Prof. Shehu U. Abdullahi WEBSITE ADDRESS YEAR FOUNDED 1988 1962 1975 2007 1988 1981 1982,, Prof. Attahiru M. Jega Prof. Babatunde Alabi Prof. Abdullahi Y. Ribadu Prof. Adebisi M. Balogun Prof. Muhammed S.

Technology, Minna. Audu Federal University of Technology, Owerri Prof. C. O.E. Onwuliri Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Prof. Ikenna Onyido National Open University of Prof. Olugbemiro Nigeria, Lagos. Jegede Nigerian Defence Academy,Kaduna Prof. Aliyu Abdullahi Nnamdi Azikiwe Prof. Ilochi Austin University, Awka Okafor Obafemi Awolowo Prof. M. Oladimeji University,Ile-Ife Faborode University of Abuja, Gwagwalada Prof. Nuhu O. Yaqub University of Agriculture, Prof. Oluwafemi O. Abeokuta. Balogun University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Prof. D.V. Uza Prof. E. A. C. University of Benin Nwanze. University of Prof. Bassey O. Calabar Asuquo University of Ibadan Prof. O. A. Bamiro University of Ilorin Prof. Is'haq Oloyede University of Jos Prof. S. G. Tyoden University of Lagos Prof. Tolu Odugbemi Prof. M. M. Daura Prof. C. O. Nebo



9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

1992 2002 1985 1992 1962 1988 1988 1988 1970 1975 1948 1975 1975 1962 1975 1960 1975 1991 1975,,

University of 23 Maiduguri University of 24 Nigeria, Nsukka University of Port25 Harcourt 26 University of Uyo Usuman Danfodiyo 27 University

Prof. Don M. Baridam Prof. A. I. Essien Prof. T. M. Bande

List of Approved State Universities in Nigeria
S/N STATE UNIVERSITIES 1 Abia State University, Uturu. 2 3 4 VICE CHANCELLOR Prof. Mkpa O. Mkpa Prof. Abdurrahman Adamawa State University Mubi Ghaji Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba. Prof. Philip O. Abiodun Akwa Ibom State University of Prof. Sunday W. WEBSITE ADDRESS, YEAR FOUNDED 1980 2002 1999 2004

Technology, Uyo Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Anambra State University of Science & Technology, Uli Benue State University, Makurdi. Bukar Abba Ibrahim University, Damaturu. Petters Prof. D. O. Aighomian Prof. I. P. Orajaka Prof. Akase P. Sorkaa Prof. M. N. Alkali Prof. E. I. Braide Prof. John Enaowho Prof. Fidelis Ogah Prof. I. J. Chidobem Prof. Abdullahi Mahadi Prof. M. A. Chado (DVC) Prof. I. C. Okonkwo Prof. E. M. Abdulrahman,, 1980 2000 1992 2006 2004 1992 2000 1981 2005 2005 1992 2004 2000 2006 2006 1999 1990 1983 2002 2000 1982 2006 2005 1979 2005 1988 2008 2008 2008 2009

5 6 7 8

Cross River State University of 9 Science &Technology, Calabar 10 Delta State University Abraka 11 Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Enugu State University of Science 12 and Technology, Enugu 13 Gombe State Univeristy, Gombe Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida 14 University, Lapai 15 Imo State University, Owerri

16 Kaduna State University, Kaduna Kano State University of Technology 17 Wudil Prof. I. S. Diso Prof. Abdullahi 18 Katsina State University, Katsina Mustapha 19 Kebbi State University, Kebbi 20 Kogi State University Anyigba Ladoke Akintola University of 21 Technology, Ogbomoso 22 Lagos State University Ojo, Lagos. 23 Nasarawa State University, Keffi,,,, com,

Prof. M. K. Abubakar Prof. Hassan S. Isah Prof. B. B. Adeleke Prof. L. A. Hussain Prof. Adamu Baike

Prof. Chris Ikporukpo 24 Niger Delta Unversity, Yenagoa (Ag.) Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago25 Iwoye Prof. Odutola Osilesi 26 Osun State University, Oshogbo Prof. Sola Akinrinade 27 Plateau State University, Bokkos Prof. J. W. Wade, mni Rivers State University of Science & 28 Technology Prof. B B Fakae (Ag) Tai Solarin Univ. of Education, Ijebu- Prof. Kayode O. 29 Ode Oyesiku 30 University of Ado-Ekiti Prof. I. O. Orubuloye 31 University of Education, Ikere Ekiti Ondo State University of Science and 32 Technology, Okiti-Pupa 33 Taraba State University, Jalingo 34 Kwara State University, Ilorin

9 List of Approved Private Universities in Nigeria
S/N STATE UNIVERSITIES Abti-American University, 1 Yola 2 Achievers University, Owo African University of Science & Technology, 3 Abuja Ajayi Crowther University, 4 Ibadan 5 Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin Babcock University,Ilishan6 Remo Bells University of 7 Technology, Otta Benson Idahosa 8 University,Benin City Bingham University, New 9 Karu 10 Bowen University, Iwo 11 Caleb University, Lagos 12 Caritas University, Enugu CETEP City University, 13 Ibadan 14 Covenant University Ota 15 Crawford University Igbesa 16 Crescent University, Fountain 17 Unveristy,Oshogbo Igbinedion University 18 Okada Joseph Ayo Babalola 19 University, Ikeji-Arakeji 20 Katsina University, Katsina Lead City University, 21 Ibadan 22 Madonna University, Okija 23 Novena University, Ogume 24 Obong University Pan African University, 25 Lagos Redeemer's University, 26 Mowe Renaissance 27 University,Enugu 28 Salem University,Lokoja VICE CHANCELLOR Dr. C. Michael Smith (Prsdt) Prof. J.A Odebiyi WEBSITE ADDRESS YEAR FOUNDED 2003 2007 2007 2005 2005 1999 2005 2002 2005 2001 2007 2005 2005 2002 2005 2005 2007 1999 2006 2005 2005 1999 2005 2007 2002 2005 2005 2007 2007 2005 Prof. Olajire Olaniran Prof. 'Deremi Abubakre Prof. Kayode J. Makinde Prof. A. I. Adeyemi Prof. Gideon E. D. Omuta Prof. Prof. Prof. Prof.

F. I. Anjorin (Ag.) T. Olagbemiro Timothy O. Tayo Romanus O. Unegbu

Prof. Akin Aju Prof.Aize O. Obayan Prof. M. I. Ige Prof. B. A. Ola-Adams (Ag.) Prof. H.O. B. Oloyede Prof. A. U. Osaghae

Prof. C. O. Oshun Prof. Danjuma A. Maiwada Prof. Prof. Prof. Prof. J. B. Aladekomo L. C. Unukwube E. O. Adedeji Enefiok S. Udo

Prof. Albert Alos Prof. Oyewale Tomori

Prof. Ogwo E. Ogwo Prof. Paul Omaji Prof. Angulu 29 Tansian University,Umunya Onwuejeogwu 30 University of Mkar, Mkar Prof. Nancy Agbe

31 Veritas University Wesley Univ. of Science & 32 Tech.,Ondo Western Delta University, 33 Oghara 34 Wukari Jubilee University, Prof. (Fr.) Justin S. Ukpong, Prof. Olukayode O. Amund Prof. P.G Hugbo Prof. Godwin Akpa 2007 2007 2007 2005

Polytechnics and Monotechnics Polytechnics and Monotechnics were established during the colonial era, long before the emergence of universities for high level technical manpower in a variety of technical and professional disciplines: Yaba College of Technology (already cited), Schools of survey, Veterinary Medicine, Forestry, and Agriculture in various parts of the country. The early 1950s saw the establishment of the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, which were later absorbed by three of the first generation universities in Ife, Zaria, and Nsukka. The early years of independence witnessed the creation of colleges of technology in Lagos, and in the three regions that existed at that time; Ibadan (Western region), Enugu (Eastern region), and Kaduna (Northern region). As more regions and States were created, new polytechnics (owned by state governments also emerged. The federal government, in its effort to ensure a judicious geographical distribution of facilities for technological education) also established Federal Polytechnics in various parts of the Federation. These institutions contributed to meeting social demands for higher education up till the middle of the 1990s. Today, questions are being raised as to their appropriateness in the contemporary scheme of things, as there has been disenchantment among young people with the ‘cull de sac’ nature of polytechnic education.


Colleges of Education The first advanced Teachers’ Colleges (for producing ‘highly qualified nongraduate teachers’, mainly for secondary schools) were established in the wake of independence in the early 1960s – Zaria (Northern region), Owerri (Eastern region), Ibadan (Western region), and Abraka (Mid West region). The creation of more states in the Federation, and the increasing demand for teachers, due to educational expansion in the country led to the establishment of more institutions, now re-named colleges of education, in every part of the country. Most of the institutions are either federally owned or state government-owned, but there has been a rapid increase in private colleges of education in recent years. Like polytechnics, the popularity of colleges of education is steadily waning. They are no longer anybody’s first choice. For this reason, the nation just has to take a close look at their original ‘raison d’être’ and work out a reorientation process for them.

Approved Polytechnics in Nigeria
S/NO 1. 2. 3. 4. INSTITUTIONS Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1021, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State. Abia State Polytechnic P.M.B. 7166, Aba, Abia State. 082 225952, 225678. Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Jos Rd, Bauchi, Bauchi State. 077 542196, 542651. Adamawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2146, YEAR ESTABLISHED 1992 1992 1988 1991 OWNERSHIP State State State State

12 Yola. Adamawa State. Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1007, Unwana Afikpo, Ebonyi State. Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. Allover Central Polytechnic, Plot 3A&B Abiodun Popoola Str. Sango Otta. Auchi Polytechnic, P.M.B. 13, Auchi, Edo State. Benue State Polytechnic, P.M.B.01 Ugbokolo Benue State. Delta State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1030, Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State. Delta State Polytechnic, P.M.B.03, OtefeOghara, Delta State Delta State Polytechnic, P.M.B.05, Ozoro, Delta State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.5351, Ado – Ekiti. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.0231, Bauchi, Bauchi State. Federal Polytechnic P.M.B.55, Bida, Niger State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.1006, Damaturu Yobe State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.231, Ede, Osun State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1037 Idah, Kogi State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.50, Ilaro, Ogun State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.1012, K/Namoda, Zamfara State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.35 Mubi Adamawa State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 001 Nasarawa, Nasarawa State. Federal Polytechnic P.M.B.1036, Nekede

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

1981 1991 1998/2003* 1973 1976 2002 2002 2003 1977 1979 1977 1993 1992 1977 1979 1983 1979 1993 1977

Federal State Private Federal State State State State Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal

13 Owerri, Imo State. Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 420 Offa, Kwara State. Federal Polytechnic P.M.B. 21 Aguata, Oko, 1982 Anambra State. Grace Polytechnic, Surulere, P. O. Box 9067, Lagos. Hassan Usman Katsina Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2052, Katsina. Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure Jigawa State. Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu P.M.B 01079, Enugu. Kaduna Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2021, Kaduna, Kaduna State. Kano State Polytechnic, P.M.B.3401, Kano, Kano State. Kogi State Polytechnic, P.M.B.1101 Lokoja Kogi State. Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin P.M.B.1375, Ilorin. Lagos City Polytechnic, P.M.B.21200, Ikeja, Lagos State. Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, P.M.B. 21606, Ikeja, Lagos, Lagos State. Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, P.M.B.2210, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Niger State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1 Zungeru, Niger State. Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic, P.M.B.1061 Zaria Kaduna State. Osun State College of Technology, P.M.B.1011, Esa – Oke, Osun State. Osun State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 301, Iree, Osun State. Our Saviour Institute of Science, Agriculture & Technology, P.M.B. 01161, Enugu. Plateau State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 02023, 1962/1999* 1983 1991 1965 1956 1976 1993 1973 1990/1995* 1977 1979 1991 1989 1991 1992 1989/1991* 1978

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.


Federal Federal Private State State State Federal State State State Private State State State State State State Private State

14 Jos, Plateau State. Ramat Polytechnic, P.M.B.1070, Maiduguri, Borno State. Rivers State College of Art and Science, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, River State. Rivers State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 20, Bori, River State. Ronik Polytechnic, P.M.B.21764, Ikeja Lagos, Lagos State. Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P.M.B. 1019 Owo Ondo State. Sokoto State Polytechnic, P.M.B. 2356 Sokoto. The Polytechnic, P.M.B. 22, Ibadan, Oyo State. Universal College Of Technology Ile Ife P.M.B. 009, O.A.U. Ile – Ife. Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B.1034, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State. Wolex Polytechnic, Iyana Ipaja, Lagos. Yaba College of Technology, P.M.B.2011, Yaba, Lagos.

43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

1976 1991 1988 2001/2003* 1979 2000 1970 1994/1999* 1976 1996/1999* 1947

State State State Private State State State Private State Private Federal

Approved Monotechnics in Nigeria
COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE AND RELATED DISCIPLINES S/N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INSTITUTION NAME Adamawa State College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 1010, Mubi Adamawa State. Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 181,Yandev Gboko, Benue State Audu Bako College of Agriculture, P. M. B. 3159, Danbata kano, Kano State Mohammet Lawan College of Agriculture, P. M .B. 1427 Maiduguri Borno State College of Agriculture DAC – ABU, P. M. B. 205, Kabba, Kogi State. YEAR ESTABLISHED 1992 1926 2002 1977 1964 OWNERSHIP State State State State Federal

15 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. College of Agriculture and Animal Science P.M.B. 2134, Mando road. Kaduna State. College of Agriculture P.M.B. 1018 Zuru, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Jalingo P.M.B. 1025 Jalingo – Taraba State College of Agriculture P.M.B. 033 Lafia Nasarawa State. Edo State College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1471, Iguoriakhi, Edo State. Federal College of Fisheries & Marine Technology P.M.B. 80063 V/I Lagos. Federal College of Animal Health & Production Technology, P.M.B 1. Vom Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, P.M.B. 1500, New Bussa, Niger State. Federal College of Agriculture P.M.B. 7008, Ishiagu, Ebonyi State. Federal College of Agriculture Akure, Ondo State. Federal College of Agriculture P.M.B. 5029 Moor Plantation, Ibadan Oyo state. Federal College of Animal Health & Production Technology P.M.B. 5029, Ibadan Oyo. Federal College of Forestry P.M.B 2019 Jos, Plateau State. Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, P.M.B. 2273 Afaka, Kaduna. Federal College of Forestry P.M.B. 5054 Jericho Hill, Ibadan Federal College of Land Resources Technology, P.M.B. 2035, Kuru, Jos Plateau State. Federal College of Land Resources Technology P.M.B. 1518, Owerri, Imo State. Federal College of Wildlife management. P.M.B. 268, New Bussa Niger State. Michael Okpara College of Agriculture P.M.B. 1472, 1959 1976 1979 1996 1992 1969 1941 1978 1955 1957 1921 1964 1958 1976 1939 1987 1981 1978 1978 Federal State State State State Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal State

16 Umuagwo-Ohaji Owerri, Imo State. Niger State College of Agriculture P.M.B. 109, Mokwa, Niger State. Samaru College of Agriculture DAC ABU, Zaria, Kaduna State. COLLEGES OF HEALTH SCIENCE S/N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INSTITUTION NAME Federal School of Dental Technology & Therapy P.M.B. 01473 Enugu, Enugu State. Institute of Public Health College of Health Sciences (OAU) Ife. Nigeria Army Medical Corps & Schools, Ojo NKST College of Health Technology, Mkar, Gboko, Benue State. School of Health Information Management (AKTH) Aminu Kano University Teaching 6. Hospital, Kano. Shehu Idris College of Health Technology, Makarfi, Kaduna State. 1998 State YEAR ESTABLISHED 1982 1980 1974 1960 2002 OWNERSHIP Federal Federal Federal Private Federal

25. 26.

1979 1921

State Federal


S/N 1. 2. 3. INSTITUTION NAME 320 Technical Training Group Nigerian Airforce. P.M.B. 2104, Kaduna. Abuja School of Acct and Computer Studies P. O. Box 6322 Garki, Bwari, Abuja. Federal College of Chemical and Leather Technology, P.M.B. 1034, Samaru Zaria, Kaduna 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9. State Federal Cooperative College Abuja Road.P.M.B. 2425, Kaduna Federal Cooperative College, Ibadan. Oyo State. Federal Cooperative College Oji – River, Enugu State. Federal School of Surveying, Ogbomosho Road, P.M.B. 1024, Oyo State. Maritime Academy of Nigeria, Oron, P.M.B. 1089, Oron – Akwa Ibom State Nigerian Army School of Finance and 1976 1943 1976 1908 1988 1978 Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal Federal YEAR ESTABLISHED 1977 1995/1999♦ 1964 OWNERSHIP Federal Private Federal

Administration, Apapa PMB1066, Lagos, Lagos 10. 11. 12. 13. State Nigerian Army Sch. of Military Engineering Makurdi, P.M.B. 102272, Benue State Nigeria Army Sch. of Signals, Apapa Lagos Nigerian Inst. of Journalism, Ikeja, Lagos. Nigerian Navy College of Engineering Sapele, Naval Base, New Port, P.M.B. 4002, 14. 15. Ogborode, Delta State. Petroleum Training Institute P.M.B. 20, Efurum Delta State. Wavecrest College of Catering and Hospitality Management, Lagos. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE NIGERIAN TERTIARY EDUCATION SYSTEM 1972 1973/1999♦ Federal Private 1960 1948 1971/2003♦ 1982 Federal Federal Private Federal

18 The tertiary education system in Nigeria is composed of Universities, Polytechnics, institutes of technology, colleges of education, that form part of or are affiliated to universities, polytechnic, colleges and professionally specialized institution (IAU,2000).They can be further categorized as state or federal universities and as first, second or third generation universities(Harnett 2000:1) Three levels of university education exist in Nigeria. University first level stage offers a Bachelor’s degree after a minimum of four years and a maximum of six years (e.g in medicine).The university second level stage offers a Master’s degree following one year of post-Bachelor .s study. The university third level stage offers a doctorate degree, two to three years after the Master’s programme. To gain admission into the first level of university education, one has to pass the competitive University Matriculation Examination(UME) (IAU,2000). Higher education in Nigeria can be further divided into the public or private, and the university or non-university sectors. Public universities owned by the federal and state Government dominate the education system. In recognition of the need to encourage private participation in the provision of tertiary education, the Federal Government of Nigeria issued a decree in 1993 allowing private investors to establish universities following guidelines established by the Government. The non-university sector is composed of polytechnics, institutions of technology, colleges of education and professional institutions operating under parent ministries. Three parallel strategies are being pursued in order to expand access to higher education in Nigeria. First, distance higher education programs are being

19 established; second, good quality private universities are being encouraged and third, plans are in place to expand all university campus enrolments to a maximum of 30,000 students. The Nigerian Government controls universities and other tertiary education institutions through the following organs: the Federal Ministry of Education; National Universities Commission, which among other things allocates funds to federal universities and also prescribes the spending formula, and the Committee of Vice Chancellors of Nigerian Federal, which acts as a coordinating body. Each university is administered by a Council and a Senate, and is headed by appointed Vice Chancellor as CEO’s; the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASSU) safeguards the interest of the academic staff in the Nigerian University System. ACCESS AND ENROLMENT TRENDS Reports by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB), which conducts the selection examinations to higher institutions in Nigeria, show that the nation is still unable to meet the social demands for universities. For example, all the universities in the country were able to admit a bare 10.75 % of the 467,490 candidates seeking admission in the 2000/2001 academic year.

For the polytechnics, 24.8% of the 130,000 applicants were admitted in 19992000 (the latest year for which figures are available). The Colleges of Education present a completely different picture, as admission rates have been as high as 75% and even higher. Demand for and supply of places: The Universities

20 Academic Year 1996-1997 1997-1998* 1998–1999 1999–2000 2000-2001 Applications M 218881 F 157946 T 37682 7 186905 242530 268671 134463 176398 198819 32136 8 41892 8 46749 47170 31380 47170 31380 31271 190006 78550 78550 50277 24.44 14.68 9.76 18.75 11.26 7.49 10.75 6.69 4.06 Admissions M F 33130 22925 T 56055 %T %M %F 6.08

14.88 8.79

0 *Data could not be obtained for the academic year 1997 / 98 Source: Education Sector Status Report, May, 2003 The Polytechnics Admissions T 16963 0 15041 3 1998-1999* 1999-2000 72100 56236 13025 1 2000-2001* *Data could not be obtained for the academic year 1998 / 99 and 2000 / 2001 21513 15492 37005 28.41 16.52 11.89 M F 25831 19844 18065 13664 T 45675 31729 %T %M %F

Demand for and supply of places: Academic Year 1996-1997 1997-1998 Applications M 94085 82158 F 75545 68255

26.93 15.23 11.70 21.09 12.01 9.08

Demand for and supply of places: Academic Year 1996-1997 1997-1998* 1998-1999 M 5380 5400 2385 Applications F 8379 7785 4161 T 13950 13185 6546

The Polytechnics Admissions M 3239 5661 F 8784* 6901 T 12023 12562 %T %M %F

86.19 23.22 62.97 95.27 42.94 52.33

21 1999-2000 2000-2001 3999 4862 8861 2998 3674 6672 75.30 33.80 41.47 *Data could not be obtained for the academic year 1997 / 98 and 1999/2000 Quality issues 1. There have been in recent years a serious concern about the quality of products from tertiary institutions, especially in the light of the sudden rise in their number as well as of the numbers of students, factors which have impact negatively on the institutional facilities, which have become dilapidated, and on the grossly overworked academic staff. Chronic under-funding, that made it impossible for the rehabilitation of infrastructures and construction of new buildings to accommodate the ever-increasing student population, has seriously exacerbated the situation. Funds for recurrent expenditure that are also characterized by short falls, go mostly into the payment of salaries and emolument and for providing services such as electricity, leaving very little for the procurement of consumables and other materials. So, laboratories and workshops are stocked with preponderantly obsolete equipment. 2. By far the most important of the factors implicated as causing the decline in the quality of the graduates of the Nigerian higher education institutions, is the perennial instability which has come to be the hallmark of these institutions in recent times. In the university system for instance, instability occasioned by recurrent and often protracted strike actions by staff unions led to the truncation of academic sessions and frequent closures of universities to the extent that between 1993

22 and 2003, the university system witnessed more than 28 months of closure without commensurate make up for lost time. Quality Assurance Mechanisms Quality assurance in Nigerian higher education consists of internal and external mechanisms. The external mechanism is constituted by accreditation conducted by the statutory regulatory agencies and the professional bodies. The internal institutional mechanisms for the Academic Departments, the Faculties, Schools or Colleges and the Senate or Board of studies as comprises quality assurance appropriate. The external examiner system provides additional assurance that the quality of academic programmes of the institutions is acceptable to academic peers across the system. In the university system for instance, Act No 16 of 1985 empowers the National Universities Commission (NUC) to lay down minimum academic standards for all academic programmes taught in Nigerian universities and to accredit them. Thus, NUC 216 conducts accreditation of academic programmes that entail peer assessment of the programmes against pre-determined minimum academic standards (MAS) that provide the benchmarks against which the quality of the programmes is measured. Minimum Academic Standards (MAS) for all academic programmes taught in tertiary institutions are set up by government through the appropriate statutory supervisory agency. The National Universities Commission (NUC) is responsible for the setting up of MAS and the assurance of the quality of all academic programmes offered in the universities; the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and the National Commission for Colleges of Education

23 (NCCE) are respectively charged with quality assurance responsibility in polytechnics (including monotechnics) and Colleges of Education across the nation, respectively. The objectives of accreditation are to: i) Ensure that at least the provisions of the minimum academic standards documents are attained, maintained and enhanced in the universities; ii) Assure employers and other members of the community that Nigerian graduates of all academic programmes have attained an acceptable level of competency in their areas of specialization; and iii) Certify to the international community that the academic programmes offered in Nigerian universities are of high standards, and that their graduates are adequate for employment and further studies. Through the accreditation process, proprietors of the various institutions are advised on ways of revitalizing their institutions and academic programmes where they fail to meet the prescribed standards so that remedial action may be taken towards quality improvement, which is the ultimate purpose of accreditation. The term “accreditation” in the Nigerian context is used to connote “a system for recognizing educational institutions (universities and programmes offered in these institutions) for a level of performance, integrity and quality which entitles them to the confidence of the educational community, the public they serve and the employers of labour” (NUC, 1989). In the Nigerian university system, in spite of the fact that university education commenced in 1948, accreditation is a relatively recent practice given that the

24 first accreditation exercise was conducted in 1990 following the setting and publication of Minimum Academic Standards (MAS) documents for the thirteen broad discipline areas taught in Nigerian universities in 1989. Since then, three other accreditation exercises have been conducted with the most comprehensive being that conducted in 1999 with a mop-up exercise in 2000. In November 2002 accreditation re-visits were conducted to all programmes that earned denied accreditation status in the 2000 accreditation exercise. However, the prevalence of well trained and experience academic staff in some premier universities tends to reduce exercises in such universities. Ranking of Institutions Sequel to the 1999/2000-accreditation exercise, NUC has ranked Nigerian universities based on the Quality (mean score) in each Academic discipline as well as on the Quality of each programme. A league table of the aggregate performance of the academic programmes of the universities was drawn up and used to rank the universities. To achieve objectivity in the exercise, several performance indicators including the following were used to assess the programmes: academic content, curriculum content, 217 admission into the programme, academic regulations, evaluation of students’ work, practical work/degree project, standard of tests and examinations, student course evaluation and external examination, staffing, administration of the department and its staff development programme, physical facilities (classroom facilities, laboratories and staff offices), funding of the the frequency of accreditation

25 programme, library facilities, and employers’ rating of the graduates of the programmes. Scores are awarded based on performance of the programme in the area of each indicator. Academic content has a maximum of 23, staffing 32, physical facilities 25; library 12, funding 5 and employers’ rating of graduates 3. The aggregate scores are then computed. The accreditation status awarded to a programme depends on the total score. On the basis of aggregate scores, programmes could be accorded full accreditation, interim accreditation, or Denied Accreditation status. From the aggregate scores, and for the purpose of comparing clusters of universities, the institutions were ranked based on generation and ownership as shown in the tables below: Ranking of first generation universities RANK 1 2 3 4 5 5 Source: UNIVERSITY University of Lagos, Akoka University of Nigeria, Nsukka University of Benin Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria University of Ibadan National Universities Commission, Abuja MEAN ACADEMIC QUALITY INDEX 3.63 3.57 3.55 3.40 3.14 3.14

Ranking of second generation universities RANK 1 2 3 4 UNIVERSITY University of Port Harcourt University of Jos University of Ilorin Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa MEAN ACADEMIC QUALITY INDEX 3.75 3.47 3.43 3.36

26 5 6 7 8 9 10 Source: University of Maiduguri University of Calabar Bayero University, Kano Usman Danfodiyo University , Sokoto University of Uyo University of Abuja National Universities Commission, Abuja 3.26 3.24 3.22 3.19 3.00 2.80

Ranking of state universities RANK 1 2 3 3 5 6 UNIVERSITY MEAN ACADEMIC QUALITY INDEX 3.40 3.30 3.20 3.20 3.10 3.06 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.54

LAUTECH, Ogbomosho Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Imo State University, Owerri Enugu State University of Science and Technology Abia State University, Uturu River State University of Science and Technology, PortHarcourt 7 University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti 7 Lagos State University, Ojo 7 Benue State University, Makurdi 7 Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma 11 Delta State University, Abraka Source: National Universities Commission, Abuja

STRATEGIC EXPANSION POLICY INTERVENTIONS IN RECENT TIMES Institutional Autonomy: The granting of autonomy to Nigerian universities involving the devolution of more powers to the governing councils of the universities is certainly one of the measures aimed at stabilizing the university system, since under a milieu of increased institutional autonomy, decisions such as the appointment of vice-chancellors which in some cases had been characterized by rancorous and sometimes vicious succession struggle impacting negatively on institutional stability, will be taken at the institutional level. Private Sector Provision of Student Accommodation: The problems of deterioration of physical facilities and infrastructure and congestion in student

27 hostels are being tackled by government on several fronts, notable among which is the private sector participation in hostel development. Another is the presidential intervention to ensure completion of all abandoned projects in the universities. The National Virtual Library Project: The virtual (digital) library project aims to provide, in an equitable and cost effective manner, enhanced access to national and international library and information resources and for sharing locally available resources with libraries all over the world using digital technology. The practical purpose of this is ultimately to solve the perennial problem of lack of current books and journals in university and other higher education libraries. Virtual Institute For Higher Education Pedagogy (VIHEP): A vigorous policy and practice of staff development is essential to boost the morale of academic staff and to update and improve their skills and make them more effective in curricular implementation and innovation. As part of NUC’s contribution to improving the quality of teaching and learning in Nigerian universities and in preparation for the take-off of the National Higher Education Pedagogic Centre (NHEPC), the commission established the Virtual Institute for Higher Education Pedagogy (VIHEP) where participants are expected to be able to update their knowledge and skills on a subject matter using internet protocols as platform. This expected to hone the pedagogic skills of lecturers in Nigerian universities by exposing them to internet-based training on modern methods of teaching and learning in higher education. Teaching And Research Equipment Fund: Protracted under-funding has led

to a situation where many university laboratory and studios equipment are

28 obsolete. To address this situation, NUC has succeeded in getting government to agree to provide specific funds for the procurement of teaching and research equipment through the creation of a teaching and research equipment grant subhead in the funds appropriated to universities in the budget. KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Systematically Planned Expansion: There is a general feeling that the expansion of higher education in Nigeria has not followed a strict master plan. Whether more institutions are needed, in what forms, in what places, under what conditions, etc are now issues that should become elements of a much-desired national strategy for the development of higher education in the country Management Of Student Flow: It is also generally believed that the rapid, unplanned increase in student numbers has been a major crisis area of higher institutions. There is therefore the need for ‘academic planning’ (both at the systems and at the institutional level) to become more closely involved in ‘absorption capacity forecasting’, as a means of ensuring that student flow is more intimately linked with the facilities (human, financial, physical, academic) of various institutions. This would also be an instrument for planning the expansion of institutions in a manner that takes due care of changes in social demand. Curriculum Renewal To Meet The Needs Of A Knowledge Economy: The entire world is questioning the relevance of higher education curricula, and the major issues have been the need to adapt what students learn, the way teaching and learning is organised, assessment procedures, etc to the demands of the rapidly changing world of work that emphasizes KNOWLEDGE in terms of ‘how you know’ and not ‘what you know’. Nigerian high education should see this as its

29 most important challenge; as its continued relevance would depend on the extent and the speed with which it is able to meet prevailing societal aspirations. Evolving A Development-Oriented Operational Culture: The relevance of higher education (especially in a developing country) is also dependent on its capacity to link its programmes and activities to the development imperatives of the Nation. This involves turning those developmental imperatives into the object and subject of teaching, research, and service within the institutions. It also involves forging closer links between town and gown for a more socially responsive form of higher education. Bridging The Gender Gap In Access, Opportunity, And Responsibilities: Gender inequality is a stark reality in higher education, as is the case with the entire system. While the problem requires a ‘systemic attack’, higher education should give it more prominence, by turning Gender into an institutional development issue. Adequate Attention To Students Social And Psychological Challenges: The learner is the major reason for the existence of higher institutions. His/her special needs should be central to any genuine development efforts within that sub sector. Today’s higher education learner is living under more stressful conditions than her/his forebears. Therefore, students’ concerns (bringing them in, and not 221 merely legislating for them) have become an imperative for the smooth development of higher education. This is a major approach to addressing such issues as Cultism and examination malpractices. FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED EDUCATION OVER THE YEARS

30 Historical Factors Every community in Nigeria had its traditional patterns of education that ensured socialization and inter-generational transmission of cultural heritage. With the coming of Islam, parts of the country assimilated Islamic education into the indigenous system. The Islamized sections of the country in fact developed highly sophisticated and organized literary civilizations. “Western” education began as an offshoot of Christian missionary efforts, and therefore was slow in penetrating into the areas of strong Islamic influence, while areas with strong Christian influence readily embraced the new form of Education. This historical incident has had the effect of polarizing the country in educational terms, giving rise to the well-documented and well-orchestrated phenomenon of educational imbalance. The phenomenon has remained an intractable challenge to educational development in the country. Economic Factors The fluctuations that the Nigerian economy has suffered over the years have also largely affected the country’s educational development. During the years of the oil boom (1970 – 1980), centralization was introduced into the country’s education policies and very ambitious expansion programmes were embarked upon by government with the objective of increasing access to all levels of education. The apparent wealth of the era (an annual GDP of 6.2 %), although mostly (90%) accounted for by oil, impacted positively on the education system with government virtually intervening in all aspects of education delivery and thus visibly increasing inputs into the system With the end of the oil boom in the 1970/80s, government income diminished, at the same time as the incidence of

31 poverty at the household level in both urban and rural areas increased. This in its turn has impacted negatively on access to basic service, and particularly on Education. Increased household poverty in turn, led to low and declining school enrolment. Parents were unable to bear the direct and indirect costs of sending their children and wards to school. The Structural Adjustment programme (SAP) which emphasized macro economic stability with little thought for the social dimensions of adjustment, introduced economic gains that made very little dent on the population of persons below the absolute poverty line (of less than $1 a day) the number of which increased from 12% to 14% between 1985 and 1992. The pool of out-of-school children and youth increased at this time, and more children were used to fetch needed extra cash for the family. Sociological Factors The factors referred to as sociological deal with the rising social demand for education leading to more private participation in education delivery. As government investment in education dwindled and infrastructure became more dilapidated, greater patronage was recorded among private providers of education. The situation was the same across all levels of education. An additional dimension was the unemployment situation that indirectly increased the demand for higher education. Although empirical sources do not exist to establish this link, it does appear that graduates quickly enrolled for higher degrees since the alternative was unemployment and idleness. The rising demand for higher education in turn led to the establishment of satellite campuses that were the direct response from the universities to public demand for higher education. Other modernizing trends such as the introduction

32 of various remedial programmes in higher institutions including teacher training colleges, integration of western and Islamiyya schools, and increased private participation in education provision at all levels, depict a trend of increased civil society demand for education. Political Factors Centralization of educational administration in the country began with the government take over of schools between 1970 and 1985. Although differently applied across states, the 1976 introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) by the federal government ended the differential education programmes in the regions. Technical and Teacher’s Colleges were equally taken over by government in the 1970s while in 1975 the Federal Military Government decided to take over all the universities in Nigeria. The subsequent ban on establishment of private universities by state governments, voluntary agencies or private persons was lifted by the democratic dispensation and the 1979 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. As a result of this development, about 12 state universities were opened between 1980 and 1999 mostly in the south. Between 1977 and 1999 however, private universities were banned and un-banned twice (1977, 1984) (1979, 1999) respectively by military and civilian governments. These interventions also exposed the gaps created over the years between the north and the south. The Ashby report diagnosis of the needs of Nigeria in higher education for instance revealed that only 9% of primary school age children in the North were enrolled in school as compared with over 80% of children of similar age in the south (east and west). It was also revealed that only 4000 students were enrolled in

33 secondary school in the north as against 40,000 in the south. This imbalance called for some political engineering to remedy. Geographical Factors With a population of over 88 million, a surface area of 923,764 sq km and languages (about 350), Nigeria is indeed a vast country. This reality introduces complexities to the delivery of social services and infrastructure. People still essentially tied to the land think in terms of ethnic groupings and primordial loyalties thus leading to strong demands for evenness of spread in establishment and locations of educational services. This trend of even spread or quota system was applied to the establishment of the first set of Federal secondary schools, higher education institutions, and has continued to inform the establishment of education facilities. International Influences The case for improved access to education has benefited from international attention and concerns over the years. The Jomtien 1990 Declaration and Framework for Action (1990) and the Dakar EFA Declaration of April 2000 have influenced the orientation of Nigeria’s UBE (Universal Basic Education) programme, as well as the on-going EFA planning exercise. Other international conferences held during the 1990 decade: the Ouagadougou pan-African conference on girls’ education (1993), the world conferences on higher education (1998), and technical/vocational education (1999) have all had their impacts on educational development in the country, and have particularly enabled Nigeria to network with other nations. The same can be said of Nigeria’s

34 involvement in the work of ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa), and its participation in successive MINEDAF conferences of UNESCO. THE PRESENT HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM Nigeria possesses the largest university system in Sub-Saharan Africa. Although South Africa's tertiary enrollments are higher, Nigeria boasts more institutions. With over 48 state and federal universities enrolling over 400,000 students, its university system supports numerous graduate programs (9% of enrollments) and serves as a magnet for students from neighboring countries. The system embraces much of the country's research capacity and produces most of its skilled professionals. Although nominally the responsibility of the Federal Ministry of Education, it is supervised by the National Universities Commission (NUC), a parastatal buffer body. A Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board administers a national university entrance examination and informs universities of applicant scores. A National Education Bank (formerly the Nigerian Student Loan Board) is charged with providing merit scholarships and student loans. Surveying this system and its institutional arrangements well over a decade ago, the World Bank concluded that “more than any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the structures exist in Nigeria that could provide for a rational and effective development of university education” (WORLD BANK 1988:3). In practice, however, the university system developed less rationally than anticipated. Enrollments in the federal universities (34% female, 59% in sciences) grew at the rapid rate of 12% annually during the 1990s and totaled 325,299 students by 2000 (NUC 2002b). Enrollment growth rates were the

35 highest in the South-South Region, followed by the North-East Region. Overall growth rates far exceeded government policy guidelines. RISING ENROLMENT IN SCHOOLS Rising student numbers generated an enrollment ratio of 340 per 100,000 persons (Asia averages 650 and South Africa 2,500) and an average staff/student ratio of 1:21 (sciences 1:22; engineering 1:25; law 1:37; education 1:25). In terms of academic disciplines, the highest rates of enrollment growth occurred in the sciences and in engineering. As a result, the share of science and engineering in total enrollments rose from 54% in 1989 to 59% in 2000, consistent with national policy targets (NUC 2002). Much of this expansion centered in the South-East Region, where a combined annual growth rate of 26.4% in science and engineering led the nation. Nigeria ranks 116 with 4.3% tertiary enrolment in the world. However, efforts to expand enrollments and improve educational quality are severely constrained by growing shortages of qualified academic staff. Between 1997 and 1999, the numbers of academic staff declined by 12% even as enrollments expanded by 13%. Long term brain drain, combined with insufficient output from national postgraduate programs in the face of rising enrollments, has left the federal university system with only 48% of its estimated staffing needs filled. Staffing scarcity is most acute in engineering, science and business disciplines. Shortfalls are estimated at 73% in engineering, 62% in medicine, 58% in administration, and 53% in sciences. In contrast, no staffing shortages exist in the disciplinary areas of Arts and Education (NUC 2002b).

36 The cost of running the federal university system totaled $210 million in 1999. Financing for that system comes almost entirely from the federal government. As a result of enrollment growth and currency devaluation, recurrent allocations per university student in the federal system fell from $610 to $360 between 1990 and 1999 – with obvious implications for educational quality. However, agreements covering university salaries and teaching inputs negotiated with government by the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) in 2001 have raised this amount close to a much healthier $1,000 per student annually (FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA 2001). Federal university revenues are received mainly from three sources: the federal government (84%); income generation activities (7%); and various student fees (9%) – even though no undergraduate tuition fees are charged. In 1992, student fees had represented just 2% of revenues. Equally attentiongrabbing is the fact that, in real terms, capital budgets for federal universities surged by 40% during the 1990s. This is the combined result of special campus refurbishment and rehabilitation grants of substantial size, awards for university capital projects from the now-defunct Petroleum Trust Fund, and similar grants from the recently operational Education Tax Fund. This trend of increasing financial support for the system appears likely to remain during the coming years. In August 2002 the NUC announced that the federal universities would receive an additional 7.2 billion naira (USD 60 million) from government in 2003 and 2004 for the completion of capital projects (GUARDIAN 2002b). Patterns in the structure of university expenditures have improved steadily during the last decade. Whereas in 1991 academic expenses accounted for 49%

37 and administration absorbed 46% of total expenditures, by 1999 these shares were 62% and 35% respectively. In the process, the portions devoted to teaching support and to library development showed positive gains across the system. Direct teaching expenditure per student, however, differed considerably among institutions. In 1997/98 funds spent on direct teaching ranged from a low of 137 naira ($2) per student at Sokoto to a high of 1,683 naira ($21) at Maiduguri. The system-wide weighted average was 331 naira ($4) per student (HARTNETT 2000). Overall, the NUC expenditure guidelines appear to have had a salutary effect, although adherence to them seems to have varied considerably among institutions. Nevertheless, when the financing of higher education is placed within the context of overall education sector financing, the picture becomes less heartening. Although tertiary education presently receives a larger share of the education budget, the latter’s portion of the federal budget has diminished. Over the past four decades, various Nigerian governments have increased university subventions at the expense of investments in primary and secondary education, as they struggled to maintain financial support in the face of burgeoning higher education enrollments. Using data from 1962, Callaway and Musone (1965) concluded that Nigeria’s education expenditure represented 3.5% of GDP and 15.2% of total government expenditure. Of this amount, 50% was allocated to primary education, 31% to secondary education, and 19% to tertiary education. Today, Hinchliffe (2002) estimates that education expenditure is equal to only 2.4% of GDP and 14.3% of government expenditure. The share of these funds going to primary education has dropped to 35% and secondary education’s

38 portion has remained relatively unchanged at 29%, but tertiary education’s share has nearly doubled to 35%. Nigeria’s recent allocation shares for education diverge sharply from regional and international norms. This divergence begs justification. For example, UNESCO’s World Education Report 2000 indicates that for 19 other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, education expenditures averaged 5.1% of GDP and 19.6% of total government expenditures. On average, these countries allocated 21% of their education budgets to tertiary education. In comparison with other African nations, Nigeria’s funding effort on behalf of education is less than half as vigorous and its budgetary priority for the education sector is lower, but tertiary education receives a much higher share of these comparatively smaller amounts of national resources. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION We have considered evolution of higher education in Nigeria a brief description of the Nigerian Tertiary Education Systems, Access and enrolment trends, strategic expansion policy interventions in recent times, key issues and challenges, factors that have influenced education over the years, the present higher education system in Nigeria and the rising enrolment trends in tertiary education. At this point, the principal task is to accelerate the pace of expansion of tertiary institution and operationalize them effectively. In order for this to occur, greater flexibility and responsiveness are needed, particularly in the following four areas, in order to create an enabling environment for the emergence of progressive self-steering, self-regulating, and self-reliant universities in Nigeria.

39 Access. Appropriate steps are being taken to increase access to higher education through the development of a private university sector and establishment of nationwide tertiary distance education programs. As continued enrollment growth generates a more diverse student population with different capabilities and different needs, the system will have to become more flexible and responsive if these students are to attain academic success. Continuing education options for working professionals, quality assurance programs, student support services, and mechanisms that enable students to transfer among institutions are among the changes likely to be required. Teaching/learning. Much of university teaching in Nigeria is based on traditional pedagogy and conventional curricula, and does not even meet the government’s own standards in these areas. In today’s world, the content and method of Nigerian university teaching is often outdated, not responsive to employers’ requirements, and disconnected from the labor market. Likewise, its research output is extremely low and unable to prompt innovation-based productivity gains. To increase the relevance and effectiveness of teaching and research, classroom dynamics may need to focus more on student learning performance, academic programs could seek stronger linkages with employers, and universities might pursue knowledge coalitions with other institutions that possess a comparative advantage in aspects of teaching and research. Financing. Continued expansion of the higher education system has now exceeded government’s capacity to serve as the principal financier of this growth. To respond to the expansion,

40 i) The Nigerian Government should adopt a funding system

characterized by transparency, resource allocation equity and one which embraces explicit indication relating to students real cost, quality teaching assessment, and qualification of academic staff. ii) The Nigerian Government should ensure that allocation of financial resources in Tertiary Educational Institutions is based on quality of research and number of students. iii) Ensure that policy makers consider the full implementation of autonomy of Tertiary Educational Institutions. iv) Ensure direct basic funding to public institution for teaching through an effective funding formula. v) Ensure contractual funding to public institutions through contracts for specific issues. vi) Authorities of Individual Tertiary Educational Institutions should create more internally controllable ways of funding such as: overheads from faculty services to community, or from post-graduation courses fees. vii) Tertiary Educational Institutions should be compelled and monitored, to ensure that they maximize the income so generated on viable investments. viii) Non-Governmental Organizations are not left out in funding education institutions, they can give direct funding to students by means of social support of individual grants.

41 ix) Non-Governmental Organizations can also give indirect funding to students such as scholarships to include meals, accommodation, sports, healthcare etc. Governance/management. Increasingly large and complex institutions of higher learning demand the application of professional management techniques, strategic vision, more proactive corporate management styles that address problems through innovation, and governance structures that facilitate

institutional responsiveness to the wide range of university stakeholders. These shifts have been slow to materialize within Nigerian universities. The transition towards more flexible management and governance would be assisted by a national training capacity in university management, a budget allocation process that recognizes institutional performance, and financial management that empowers strategic planning and decentralized governance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to express our appreciation to Dr. D.E. Oriakhi for giving Group A the opportunity to express themselves academically.

42 However, Group A has taken reasonable care in organization / putting down the information contained in the write-up but does not guarantee that the information is complete, accurate or current. In particular, Group A is not responsible for the accuracy of information that has been provided by other parties and as such it is subject to further clarification.

REFERENCES 1. Federal Ministry of Education (May 2005): Nigeria Education Sector Diagnosis –A framework for re-engineering the education sector;

43 2. William Saint, Teresa A. Hartnett and Erich Strassner (2003): Higher Education In Nigeria – A Status Report 3. NationMaster.Com – Tertiary enrollment (most recent) by country 3/5/2009 2:24pm 4. Ishola Rufus Akintoye (2008): Optimizing output from Tertiary Educational Institutions via adequate funding: A Lesson from Nigeria (International Research Journal of Finance and Economics – ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 14 (2008). 5. 6. 7. 8. The Nation (Monday, February 16, 2009) – National Universities Commission List if approved Universities in Nigeria. 9. National Universities Commission website:


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful