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K S Malladi1 and S V Barai2
ABSTRACT: The rapid progress made by the country brings with it the consequences of industrialization and the accompanied environmental hazards with it. One such environmental problem is the disposal of waste generated by modern society and discarded tyres. Discarded tyres are a nondegradable waste product with a great capacity of polluting the environment. This paper investigates the feasibility of using these tyres as an inert material in concrete. Rubber fibers obtained by the shredding and grinding of tyres is incorporated in concrete. Various fresh concrete and hardened concrete properties are studied. The performance of the concrete after treatment with NaOH solution is also investigated. Finally, rubberized concrete based tiles study was carried out. KEYWORDS: Chemical composition, Compressive strength, Rubber fiber, Tensile strength, Tiles, Tyres 1. INTRODUCTION
Annually approximately 200 million tyres are generated as waste in the world and in India; about 42.5 million tyres are discarded. The method of disposing of tyres in India is mostly by using them as fuel in brick kilns or as land fills. However, the nature of combustion and the absolute lack of processing of gases released by the combustion and the releasing of these directly into the atmosphere are a serious cause for atmospheric pollution. With the increasing number of vehicles on Indian roads, the number of tyres discarded will increase adding to the problem. Discarded tyres are also non-biodegradable. Tyres use, as landfills are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and potential fire hazards. Also, it may cause ground water pollution in longer run due to leaching of chemicals. There are several recycling methods being developed to put the recycled rubber to good use, such as recovery of resources using various physical and chemical methods. These however involve the use of energy, which is costly and hence makes them less attractive. As a possible solution to the problem of disposal of used tyres an experiment is being conducted to examine the potential of using rubber fiber as an additive in concrete. Eldin and Senouci  carried out tests with rubber crumb and tire chips as additives in concrete in place of fine and coarse aggregate. Khatib and Bayomy  also carried out tests using rubber in concrete and found the compressive strength as well properties like slump, air content and unit weight. Segre and Joeckes  pretreated the rubber with 0.1N NaOH solution to increase the adhesive properties of rubber to the concrete matrix. Studies have also been carried out on the stability of rubber in a highly alkaline environment. The results on static and dynamic properties, and damping properties as well as acoustic properties of rubber filled concrete are reported in the literature.
Former post-graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India
coarse aggregate corresponding to Grade II of IS 383  and rubber fibers as per the details given in Table 1 are used.27 41. This clearly shows the microscopic structure of the rubber particle and the complex structure of rubber.05 Length of fiber 10mm –40mm 6mm. Figure 1 shows the results of Scanning Electron Microscope scan. water absorption. The performance of the concrete after treatment with NaOH solution is also investigated.22 11 2.This paper investigates the feasibility of using rubber of tyres as an inert material in concrete. tensile strength and flexural strength are studied.36 mm 5mm-25mm Mostly crumb rubber Figure 1 shows the rubber fiber obtained by the shredding of tyres. Characteristics of rubber fiber Sieve size 10mm 4. Rubber fiber obtained by the shredding and grinding of tyres is incorporated in concrete. compressive strength. Rubber fibers and scanning electronic microscope (magnification 1000) 3.86 170. Finally some tiles are cast to check practical utilization of rubber fiber incorporated concrete.1 N NaOH solutions for fine aggregate and (iii) behaviour of rubberized concrete tile.18mm 600 microns 300 microns 150 microns Less than 150 microns Wt retained in grams 0 33. Various properties like workability.53 134.75mm 2. Figure 1. Designated rubber in concrete mixes Designation Mix proportion M1 M20 Concrete MF1 M20 with 5% Fiber MF2 M20 with 10% Fiber MF3 M20 with 15% Fiber MF4 M20 with 20% Fiber MN1 M20 with 10 % Fiber washed with NaOH .75 27. It shows clearly the elongated nature of the fiber structure.36mm 1. Also. MATERIALS AND CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Locally available slag cement was used for the study. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The experimental program consisted study on (i) replacement of the fine aggregate with rubber fiber in various proportions for fine aggregate (2) replacement of rubber fiber treated with 0. The nomenclature of various specimens is given in Table 2. Table 2. density. 2. The rubber fibers are obtained by shredding discarded tyres. Table 1. Fine aggregate corresponding to Grade II of IS 383 .
) For all other mixes the proportions of cement. The procedure was to take a 0. Water cement ratio was 0. Segregation: There was no segregation observed during the compaction of concrete while casting the specimens.1 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES Some of the properties of fresh concrete like workability and segregation were studied. The rubber was uniformly mixed with the concrete as was seen in the specimens after compression and tensile tests were carried out.) Potable water (Tap Water) was used in all cases. (ii. giving revolutions as per laid down Indian Standards. 4. and it is possible that with higher percentages of rubber.) All replacements were carried out by weight. (ix. designed as per the design mix in the IS 10262 . However. (iv.) The control mix was M20 (20 MPa).1 NaOH TREATMENT In addition to the above. coarse aggregate and water remained constant with various proportions of fine aggregate being replaced by rubber fiber.) All measurements were made by weight and mechanical mixing of the constituents was done.414. All the above tests were carried out on them and the results were compared. This is due to the fact that fine aggregate has a density about 5 times that of rubber. • 5.) Fresh and hardened concrete properties test were carried out. The idea of immersing and washing with NaOH and water was to remove all the dust and grime in addition to treat the surface so that there would be increased adhesion to the cement paste.2 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES The results related to hardened concrete properties are tabulated in Table 3. the decrease in the density is small.1 N NaOH solution and immerse the rubber fiber in for 20 minutes. (iii.) The testing of specimens was carried after specimens were surface dry. From the mix design a compaction factor of 85 % was targeted. but it can be summarized that generally workability is adversely affected by the incorporation of rubber fiber. TEST PROCEDURE (i. • Density: From Table 3. 5. (viii.) Dimensions of specimens were as per the standard specimens. (x. • Workability Test: The compaction factor was carried out to determine the workability of the mix. After removing the rubber by filtering it. STUDY ON RUBBER FIBRE BASED CONCRETE 5. It was found that while generally the workability decreased with the increase in the rubber content the result of MF4 mix corresponding to 15 % fiber showed an increase in the workability. Rubber Fiber treated with NaOH solution were also tested to compare the results with those of the untreated rubber.) All specimens were removed from moulds after 24 hours and cured under water.) For each test a minimum of at least three specimens were used and for each mix at least two specimens in addition were cast for any unforeseen eventuality. (vii. (v. the rubber was washed with water and air-dried. All specimens were compacted using vibrator and not by hand tamping. one can obtain a relatively lightweight concrete. Then rubber fibers were taken in proportions of 10 % and replaced the sand as was done before.4. it can be seen that as the percentage of the rubber is increased the density of the concrete decreased. (vi. which will decrease the .
9 1. The split tensile test gave some interesting facts. which is 3. An added advantage is the saving in wear and tear of machinery. There is an actual rise in the tensile strength with the incorporation of about 10 % rubber fiber over even that with no rubber. The specimen was able to carry considerable amount of load even after failure.97 16. for practical purposes the incorporation of rubber increased may influence this property favorably. it was found that there is a 37% percent decrease in the strength.11 24.8 24.52 4. Table 3.14 1.53 MF1 2294.17 21. Therefore. This was evident from all the samples even if the tensile strength was lower.7√fck • Test results M1 2354. .122 MF2 2290.69 3. Compressive Strength Tests: The compressive tests were carried out after 7 days and 28 days for cubes and after 28 days for cylinders.29 18. For the above results only the concrete with 20% fiber failed the above test. with the failure being more ductile in nature than that with no rubber fiber.45 3.30 5. Flexural Strength Tests: Prisms of size 500x100x100mm were tested for the flexural strength of the specimens.09 4.3 16.00 1.31 3. the minimum strength of M20 concrete must at least be 24 N/mm2.6 3. The failed specimens were capable of withstanding measurable post failure loads and of undergoing significant displacement.87 MF4 2243. Split Tensile Tests: As mentioned earlier the test was carried out after 28 days on surface dry cylinder specimens.5 18.45 3.83 3. They also agree with the suggestion of Khatib and Bayomy  that the maximum amount of rubber incorporated into the concrete mix be restricted to 20%.87 5.76 • • • • Water Absorption Tests: With regards to water absorption. In the table a comparison was carried out between the theoretical flexural strength and the experimental flexural strength and the result showed again that only 20% fiber specimens were unsatisfactory. This is a clear indication that rubber makes the concrete more waterproof.33 11.17 1.67 22.46 3. The method of failure of the test sample also showed a change. Table 3 shows the results.4 28. These results are consistent with results obtained by Eldin and Senousi . For each test and for each mix three specimens were tested. Hardened concrete properties Property Density (Kg/m3) Water Absorption (percent) Compressive Strength (MPa) • 7 days cube strength • 28 days cube strength • 28 days cylinder strength Split Tensile Strength (MPa) • 28 days result Flexural Strength (MPa) • 0.4 20. With the 20 % rubber fiber.0 25.7√fck. The specimens never separated into two halves.5 4.57 34.45 MF3 2284. The minimum flexural strength for a M20 concrete is 0. It is seen from Table 3 that all the samples except that with 20% rubber fiber satisfy the criteria as laid down by the IS code. It can be seen from Table 3 that increase in the rubber component caused the flexural strength to decrease. This could be due to the cross linked polymers in rubber compared to the structure of sand.4 16. it is worthwhile to note that as the percentage of rubber increased the water absorption decreased.6N/mm2 and as per the IS 456 . From the design mix the target strength was 27.weight of various structures or components of buildings as well as give ease in handling.13 N/mm2. The concrete mass was able to withstand loads even when it was highly cracked. It was found that the fibers tended to bind the concrete specimen.5 3.56 24.55 4.3 2.36 1.
The 28 days cylinder test shows similar results. This makes the rubber fiber only about 8% less strong as the control mix.77 respectively.2 HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES The results related to hardened concrete properties are tabulated in Table 4. which make the treatment of the rubber with NaOH interesting.83 3. 6.87 5. The increase in the case of rubber fiber was nearly 20%. Compressive Strength Tests: The comparison of the strengths reveals some interesting facts.36 1. concrete tiles were cast of dimensions 250 x 250 x 100 mm.44 Density Kg/m3 Water Absorption (percent) 28 days cube compressive strength (MPa) 28 days cylinder compressive strength (MPa) Split Tensile strength (MPa) Flexural strength (MPa) • • • Density and Water Absorption Tests: It is clear from Table 4 that there is not much difference in the water absorption and the density between the two. It is apparent that the treatment by a 0.93 4.29 18.55 4.17 21.9 20. The change in the workability of treated fiber is noticeable and is favorably improved. grime settling on the surface of the particles hence giving a better chance for adhesion. and .87 2.4 28.9 1.4 34.53 10 % Treated Rubber Fiber (MN1) 2262.00 3. STUDY ON NaOH TREATED RUBBER FIBRE Rubber pretreated with NaOH solution was taken and the properties are being compared to those specimens having with untreated rubber specimens. Table 4. The first with no rubber and using M20 concrete.71 and 0.1 N NaOH solution for 20 minutes has helped to improve the overall quality of the cement mix and substantially reduced the loss of compressive strength hence making it more attractive to be used in various applications. Tensile Splitting and Flexural Strength Tests: It is seen from Table 4 that treatment of rubber fiber with NaOH solution improved split tensile and flexural strength. Table 4 shows that the treatment improves the strength rubber fiber filled concrete. The other changes occurring could be the removal of dust. 6.41 10 % Untreated Rubber Fiber (MF2) 2290.6.4 24.52 4. • • Workability: Untreated fiber and treated fiber based concreted showed compaction factor as 0. . In order to study the feasibility of incorporating rubber in some concrete applications. To understand this better the 28 days compressive strength was carried out on cylinders. STUDY ON RUBBER FIBRE BASED CONCRETE TILES 7. Segregation: There was no difference observed in the segregation between treated and untreated samples. it was suggested that NaOH treatment removed Zinc Strearate from the surface of the rubber particles thereby increasing the adhesion to the paste. This can be explained that rubber remains largely inert in an alkaline environment. Hardened concrete properties for NaOH treated and untreated rubber fibers M20 Concrete 2354.1 FRESH CONCRETE PROPERTIES Some of the properties of fresh concrete like workability and segregation were studied. In a note published by Segre et al.
4. IS 456. Bureau of Indian Standards. The tiles were then checked for compressive strength (Table 5). 2000. 5. “Surface characterization of recycled tire rubber to be used in cement paste matrix”... 7. New Delhi. Segre. “Rubberized Portland cement concrete”. Bureau of Indian Standards.. 2000. Finally applications in the form of tiles were tested with 10% rubber fiber. I. 248.4 While additional tests like abrasion. it is concluded that rubber incorporated concrete has lower strength than normal concrete and it could be used in places where strength required is lower and other properties like impact resistance. New Delhi. Specification for coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for concrete.Z. . P. 3. However abrasion and shrinkage tests needs to be carried out before any final recommendations. Table 5.521-523. acoustic damping etc are required. The tests showed that while there was a loss of strength it was within acceptable limits. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 6. Monterio.. It can be seen that the specimen with fiber rubber gave near target strength.1 N NaOH solutions was investigated. Plain and reinforced concrete. Vol. 1999. Vol. REFERENCES 1. SUMMARY The paper reported the effect of the incorporation of rubber fiber in various proportions in the place of fine aggregate into a M20 (20 MPa) concrete mix and studied the effect on various properties. flexural strength and split tensile strength showed a decrease in proportion to the amount of rubber incorporated into the mix. 11.the second with 10 % rubber fiber based concrete tiles. In brief. Journal of Colloid Interface Science.A. 1982. Water absorption as well as density also decreased with the increase in rubber. Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design.478-496.206-213. J. IS 10262. B. 1970. Vol. G. pp. Compressive strength and flexural strength of tiles Sample Type Control Mix . 5. IS 383. and Senouci.code of practice. 8. shrinkage is required before the commercial applications can be started. Cement and Concrete Research. For each test. While the compressive strength. The workability also showed a gradual deterioration with the increase in rubber. 2002. New Delhi. 1993. 2. Eldin. (2000). 9.F. and Bayomy. N. 30. India. Vol. Khatib.5 27. K. In the design of the tests the target mean strength at the end of 28 days was 27. N. and Joekes. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. “Use of Tire Rubber Particles as Addition to Cement paste. pp. India. Segre.6N/mm2. India. N.M20 concrete 10 % Rubber Fiber Compressive Strength (MPa) 30. pp. The study on the effect of immersing the rubber for 20 minutes in 0. as before three specimens were cast and tested. These tests were of a preliminary nature to check if the loss in strength was within acceptable limits. “Rubber–tire particles as concrete aggregate”. Bureau of Indian Standards. pp. and Sposito. The tests revealed an increase in strength upto 18%.N. M.1421-1425..
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