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Summer course 2007-2008 Dr. Hanan AlZraikat
Oral environment and patient consideration
• The oral environment represents a challenge to the success of dental materials. • Understanding these challenges and limitations, is essential for a successful treatment. • Materials must be biocompatible, aesthetic and durable. • As a member of the allied dental team, you need to appreciate these factors & have a thorough knowledge of selection criteria and materials manipulation.
• Force and stress: a. Compressive: crushing biting forces b. Tensile: biting force stretches a material c. Shear: e.g. an incisor used for cutting
e. But failure usually occurs after repetitive force application i. which may lead to deformation. fatigue failure.– Resisting these forces creates stress within the material. – Dental materials can withstand one type of stress while fail under another. strain. 4 .
• Moisture and acid levels: – Intraoral pH depends on diet and acid producing bacteria. color. tastes of foods and beverages (e. acrylic). – Dental amalgam is susceptible to tarnish (discoloration caused by oxidation of metal). Low solubility contributes to longevity.e. corrosion: to wear out due to chemical rxn. resins.g. i. – Metals (except noble metals) are affected by acid and moisture. 5 . odor. – Some materials take up water. – Moisture affects materials during placement or over time.
• Galvanism: an electric current transmitted between two dissimilar metals. – Percolation: opening and closing of a gap between tooth and restoration due to expansion and contraction of restoration. pulp irritation. 6 . • Temperature: – Dimensional changes (expansion/contraction) – Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE): measurement of dimensional changes. – Thermal conductivity and insulators (pulp sensitivity). staining. This may lead to recurrent caries. – Exothermic rxn of restorative material.
energy.Retention: the ability of the material to maintain its position and resist displacement – Mechanical: undercuts e. Affected by: • • • • Wetting Viscosity Film thickness Surface characteristics: cleanliness. 7 . glass ionomer cements – Bonding: a term used to describe how composite is bonded to tooth surface (micromechanical/chemical). texture. moisture contamination.g.g. amalgam – Chemical: e.
• Microleakage: the seepage of harmful materials through the gap between tooth and restoration. Can cause: – Staining – Recurrent caries – Sensitivity 8 .
9 . soft tissue – Short term vs. long term exposure – Small doses vs. high doses (fluoride treatment) – Adverse effects maybe due to materials itself or the breakdown of its components.• Biocompatibility: dental material must not have an adverse effect on living tissue – Materials used on hard tissue vs.
• Esthetics – Color components: • Hue: dominant color of wavelength detected (tooth color is seen in yellow and brown range) • Chroma: color intensity or strength • Value: how bright or dark a color is. opaque – Shade guide 10 . – Transparent vs.
• Conditions for assessing restorations: – Dry field – Good lighting – Sharp explorer – Radiographs – Magnification – Good knowledge of material 11 .
2) 12 .End of part one Reference: Dental materials Clinical applications for dental assistants and dental hygienists (ch.
thermodynamics.8) Definition: The study of flow or deformation of materials.1. Introduction to dental materials ch.Material properties • Physical properties: properties based on the laws of mechanics. 13 . Solids: elasticity and viscoelsticity Liquids: viscosity = shear stress/shear strain • Consider extrusion of a fluid from syringe. (Phillips’ science of dental materials) A. electricity etc. optics. Rheological properties (ref.
• Viscosity: resistance of a liquid to flow. plaster. prophylaxis paste). The ways in which materials flow or deform under stress are important to their use in dentistry.g. 14 . • Thixotropic material: is a material that becomes less viscous when subject to repeated pressure (e.
properties and manipulation) – Properties defined by the laws of mechanics. the physical science that deals with energy and forces and their effects on bodies. Average biting force – 1st and 2nd molars = 580 N – Bicuspids (premolars) = 310 N – Cuspids (canines) = 220 N – Incisors = 180 N Artificial replacement of dentition decreases biting force (e. – Maximum biting force decreases from molars to incisors. Dental Materials. fixed bridge.g. Mechanical properties (ref. partial and complete dentures) 15 .B.
1724 1.724 17. an objective standard is needed.4 16 . gold alloy) Force (N) Area (mm²) Stress (MPa) 111 111 111 111 645 64. rubber vs.g.24 172.5 6.• To compare the performance of materials irrespective of their shape or size. Description of mechanical properties depends on these two. shear) – Strain: the deformation per unit of length as a result of force = deformation/length (e. – Stress = force/unit area (compressive.645 0. This standard is stress and strain. tensile.45 0.
• Stress-strain curves are a convenient way to compare materials mechanical properties whether in compression. especially when strain is independent of the length of time the load is applied 17 . tension or shear.
rubber impression material) 18 . alginate.g.• Strain-time curves are sometimes used when strain depends on the time the load is maintained (e.
– Values resulting from stress-strain curves: • Elastic modulus = stress/ strain (MPa). • Ultimate strength: maximum amount of strength a material can withstand without breaking. *Note: some materials can be classified as clinical failure when significant permanent deformation occurs even if the material does not fracture 19 . a measure of stiffness which is resistance to deformation measured by Young’s modulus • Proportional limit: measure of stress allowed before permanent deformation occurs.
20 . viscoelastic (recovery slow or with some degree of permanent deformation • Toughness: ability of the material to resist fracture • Resilience: the ability of the material to resist permanent deformation • Creep: time-dependent plastic strain of a material under a static load or constant stress.– Other mechanical properties • Elasticity: the ability to stretch and not break (impression material and undercuts) – Elastic (recovery immediate) vs.
• Hardness: resistance to wear or abrasion (enamel and porcelain are among the hardest). Hardness is measured using several tests such as Knoop. or Vickers hardness tests • Fatigue properties (refer to slides only): Materials are subjected to intermittent stress over long period of time. so crack propagates until fracture occurs. failure may occur by a fatigue process. but over time. This involves the formation of microcracks. 22 . resulting from stress concentration at a surface fault. stress is small. Final fracture occurs at a low stress level.
g. 10 000) and determine the value of the cyclic stress which is required to cause fracture within this number of cycles. 23 . Fatigue life: application of stress cycles at a certain amount and frequency and observe number of cycles needed to cause failure.• Fatigue is studied in 2 ways: 1. Fatigue limit: select a number of cycles (e. 2.
• Ultimate strength values of selected dental materials Material Dentine Enamel Tensile strength 98 10 Compressive strength 297 400 Amalgam Gold alloys Composite Porcelain 48-69 414-828 34-62 40 310-483 ----200-345 150 24 .
Dental Materials. Therefore patients may experience postoperative sensitivity in association with amalgam restorations for instance. Enamel and dentine are poor thermal conductors compared to amalgam and gold alloys. (Metals have higher values compared to plastics and ceramics). Thermal properties: (ref. Therefore insulators are required in some cases to protect the pulp. • Thermal conductivity: it’s a measure of heat transferred through a material or rate of heat flow. properties and manipulation) Materials have different rates of conducting heat.C. Coefficient of thermal expansion (explained previously) • 25 .
oral cavity) • Corrosion: can result from • • adjacent dissimilar metals.D.g. Dental Materials. properties and • Galvanism: generated electrical current a patient can feel resulting from dissimilar metals present in a solution that contains ions (e. Chemical corrosion 26 . Galvanic action can cause the metal to dissolve resulting in pitting and roughness. Electrical properties: manipulation) (ref.
• Sorption includes: • • Absorption: uptake of liquid by solid e.g. uptake of water by acrylic plastics Adsorption: concentration of molecules at the surface of solid or liquid e. Laboratory studies are used to evaluate and rank materials. properties and manipulation) • important criteria for dental materials selection. adsorption of saliva on tooth surface 28 .g. Dental Materials. Solubility and sorption: (ref.E.
properties and manipulation) measure of the affinity of a liquid for a solid indicated by spreading of a drop e.g. wetting of denture base by saliva. Dental Materials. Wetting of enamel surface by pits and fissures. • Wettability: (ref.F. wettability is observed by shape of a drop of liquid on solid surface identified by contact angle: • Low contact angle = high wettability (hydrophilic if liquid is water) • High contact angle = low wettability (hydrophobic if liquid is water) 29 .
Good wetting of a solid by a liquid with low contact angle (left). θ liquid θ liquid solid solid 30 . poor wetting forming a high contact angle (right).
but absorbs and scatters it. and scatters the rest • Opaque material does not transmit light. • Surface texture: the polishability of a material is an important criteria for selection *Metamerism: change of color of an object due to a change in light source 31 . namely the eye.G. chroma) • • Translucency: • Translucent materials allows some light to pass. value. Introduction to dental materials) • Every object we see is as a result of reflectance of light from that object reaching an extremely sensitive photodetector. This is characterized by: Color (Hue. Optical properties: (ref. absorbs some.
Shade guide and selection 32 .
H. Biological properties: (ref.2) • – – – – Primary requirements of any dental material: Non-toxic Non-irritant Should not have carcinogenic or allergic potential If used as filling material should be harmless to pulp • – – – Biological evaluation of dental materials: Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 33 . applied dental materials ch.
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