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W e l l

Deliverability

6.1 Introduction

Well deliverability is determined by the combination of well inflow performance (see Chapter 3) and wellbore flow performance (see Chapter 4). While the former describes the deliverability of the reservoir, the latter presents the resistance to flow of production string. This chapter focuses on prediction of achievable gas production rates from gas reservoirs with specified production string characteristics. The technique of analysis is called Nodal analysis (a Schlumburger patent). Calculation examples are illustrated with computer spreadsheets that are provided with this book.

6.2 Nodal Analysis Fluid properties, such as gas z-factor and gas viscosity, change with the location-dependent pressure and temperature in the gas production system. To simulate the fluid flow in the system, it is necessary to "break" the system into discrete nodes that separate system elements (equipment sections). Fluid properties at the elements are evaluated locally. The system analysis for determination of fluid production rate and pressure at a specified node is called Nodal analysis in petroleum engineering. Nodal analysis is performed on the principle of pressure continuity, that is, there is only one unique pressure value at a given node no matter whether the pressure is evaluated from the performance of upstream equipment or downstream equipment. The performance curve (pressurerate relation) of upstream equipment is called inflow performance curve; the performance curve of downstream equipment is called outflow performance curve. The intersection of the two performance curves defines the operating point, that is, operating flow rate and pressure, at the specified

node. For the convenience of using pressure data measured normally at either bottom hole or wellhead, Nodal analysis is usually conducted using the bottom hole or wellhead as the solution node.

6.2.1 Analysis with the Bottom Hole Node When the bottom hole is used as a solution node in Nodal analysis, the inflow performance is the well Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) and the outflow performance is the Tubing Performance Relationship (TPR), if the tubing shoe is set to the top of the pay zone. Well IPR can be established with different methods presented in Chapter 3. TPR can be modeled with various approaches as discussed in Chapter 4. Traditionally, Nodal analysis at the bottom hole is carried out by plotting the IPR and TPR curves and visually finding the solution at the intersection point of the two curves. With modern computer technologies, the solution can be computed quickly without plotting the curves, although the curves are still plotted for visual verification. Consider the bottom hole node of a gas well. If the IPR of the well is defined by (6.1) and if the outflow performance relationship of the node (TPR) is defined by

(6.2)

then the operating flow rate qsc and pressure pw* at the bottom hole node can be determined graphically by plotting Equation (6.1) and Equation (6.2) and finding the intersection point. The operating point can also be solved numerically by combining Equation (6.1) and Equation (6.2). In fact, Equation (6.1) can be rearranged as:

(6.3)

Substituting Equation (6.3) into Equation (6.2) yields:

(6.4)

which can be solved with a numerical technique such as the NewtonRaphson iteration for gas flow rate qsc. This computation can be performed automatically with the spreadsheet program BottomHoleNodal.xls. Users need to input parameter values in the Input Data section and run Macro Solution to get results. Example Problem 6.1 Suppose that a vertical well produces 0.71 specific gravity gas through a 2 7/8-in tubing set to the top of a gas reservoir at a depth of 10,000 ft. At tubing head, the pressure is 800 psia and the temperature is 150 0F, the bottom hole temperature is 200 0F. The relative roughness of tubing is about 0.0006. Calculate the expected gas production rate of the well using the following data for IPR: Reservoir pressure: 2,000 psia IPR model parameter C: 0.1 Mscf/d-psi2n IPR model parameter n: 0.8 Solution This example problem is solved with the spreadsheet program BottomHoleNodal.xls. Table 6-1 shows the appearance of the spreadsheet for the data input and result sections. It indicates that the expected gas flow rate is 1,478 Mscf/d at a bottom hole pressure of 1,050 psia. The inflow and outflow performance curves plotted in Figure 6-1 confirm this operating point.

**Click to View Calculation Example
**

Table 6-1 Input Data and Results Given by BottomHoleNodal.xIs3 Instructions: 1) Input your data in the Input Data section; 2) Run Macro Solution to get results; 3) View results in table and in the Plot graph sheet. Input Data Gas-specific gravity (yg): Tubing inside diameter (D): Tubing relative roughness (e/D): Measured depth at tubing shoe (L): Inclination angle (6): Wellhead pressure (phf): Wellhead temperature (Thf): Bottom hole temperature (T^). Reservoir pressure (p): C-exponent in backpressure IPR model: n-constant in backpressure IPR model: Solution

q s c (Mscf/d) 0 191 383 574 765 956 1,148 1,339 1,530 1,721 1,817 1,865 1,889 1,913 Operating flow rate = Operating pressure = a.

IPR 2,000 1,943 1,861 1,764 1,652 1,523 1,374 1,200 987 703 498 353 250 0 1,478 Mscrf/d 1,050 psia

TPR 1,020 1,021 1,023 1,026 1,031 1,037 1,044 1,052 1,062 1,073 1,078 1,081 1,083 1,084

This spreadsheet calculates well deliverability with bottom hole node

P IR T P R Bottom Hole Pressure (psia)

Gas Production R a t e (Mscf/d) Figure 6-1 Nodal analysis for Example Problem 6.1 .

6.2.2 Analysis with Wellhead Node

When the wellhead is used as a solution node in Nodal analysis, the inflow performance curve is the Wellhead Performance Relationship (WPR) that is obtained by transforming the IPR to wellhead through TPR. The outflow performance curve is the wellhead Choke Performance Relationship (CPR). Some TPR models are presented in Chapter 4. CPR models are discussed in Chapter 5. Nodal analysis with wellhead being a solution node is carried out by plotting the WPR and CPR curves and finding the solution at the intersection point of the two curves. Again, with modern computer technologies, the solution can be computed quickly without plotting the curves, although the curves are still plotted for verification. If the IPR of the well is defined by Equation (6.1), and TPR is represented by Equation (6.2), substituting Equation (6.2) into Equation (6.1) gives

(6.5)

which defines a relationship between wellhead pressure phf and gas production rate qsc, that is WPR. If the CPR is defined by Equation (5.5), that is,

(6.6)

then the operating flow rate qsc and pressure phf at the wellhead node can be determined graphically by plotting Equation (6.5) and Equation (6.6) and finding the intersection point. The operating point can also be solved numerically by combining Equation (6.5) and Equation (6.6). In fact, Equation (6.6) can be rearranged as:

(6.7)

Substituting Equation (6.7) into Equation (6.6) gives

which can be solved numerically for gas flow rate qsc. This computation can be performed automatically with the spreadsheet program WellheadNodal.xls. Users need to input parameter values in the Input Data section and run Macro Solution to get results. Example Problem 6.2 Use the following given data to estimate gas production rate of the well: Gas-specific gravity: 0.71 Tubing inside diameter: 2.259 in Tubing wall relative roughness: 0.0006 Measured depth at tubing shoe: 10,000 ft Inclination angle: 0° Wellhead choke size: 16 1/64 in Flowline diameter: 2 in Gas-specific heat ratio: 1.3 Gas viscosity at wellhead: 0.01 cp Wellhead temperature: 150 0F Bottom hole temperature: 200 0F Reservoir pressure: 2,000 psia C-constant in backpressure IPR model: 0.01 Mscf/dpsi2n n-exponent in backpressure IPR model: 0.8 Solution: This example problem is solved with the spreadsheet program WellheadNodal.xls. Table 6-2 and Table 6-3 show the appearance of the spreadsheet for the data input and result sections. It indicates that the expected gas flow rate is 1,478 Mscf/d at a bottom hole pressure of 1,050 psia. The inflow and outflow performance curves plotted in Figure 6-2 confirm this operating point.

**Click to View Calculation Example
**

Table 6-2 Input Data and Solution Given by WellheadNodal.xIs*

Instructions: 1) Input your data in the Input Data section; 2) Run Macro Solution to get results; 3) View results in table and in the Plot graph sheet. Input Data Gas-specific gravity (yg): Tubing inside diameter (D): Tubing relative roughness (e/D): Measured depth at tubing shoe (L): Inclination angle (9): Wellhead choke size (Dck): Flowline diameter (Dfi): Gas-specific heat ratio (k): Gas viscosity at wellhead (|i): Wellhead temperature (Thf): Bottom hole temperature (T^). Reservoir pressure (p~): C-constant in backpressure IPR model: n-exponent in backpressure IPR model: Solution

a.

This spreadsheet calculates well deliverability with wellhead node.

**Click to View Calculation Example
**

Table 6-3 Results Section of WellheadNodal.xls qsc (Mscf/d) 0 191 383 574 765 956 1,148 1,339 1,530 1,721 1,817 1,865 1,889 1,913 Operating flow rate = Operating pressure = WPR 1,600 1,554 1,489 1,411 1,321 1,218 1,099 960 789 562 399 282 200 1 1,470 Mscf/d 797 psia CPR 0 104 207 311 415 518 622 726 830 933 985 1,011 1,024 1,037

W P R C P R Wellhead Pressure (psia)

Gas P r o d u c t i o nR a t e( M s c f / d ) Figure 6-2 Nodal analysis for Example Problem 6.2.

6.3 References

Greene, W. R. "Analyzing the Performance of Gas Wells." Journal of Petroleum Technology (July 1983): 31-9. Nind, T. E. W. Principles of Oil Well Production. 2 n d Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. Russell, D. G., J. H. Goodrich, G. E. Perry, and J. F. Bruskotter. "Methods for Predicting Gas Well Performance." Journal of Petroleum Technology (January 1966): 50-7.

6.4 Problems 6-1 A vertical well produces 0.75 specific-gravity gas through a 2 7/8-in (ID 2.441 in) tubing set to the top of a gas reservoir at a depth of 8,000 ft. Tubing head temperature is 90 0 F, and bottom hole temperature is 160 0 F. The relative roughness of tubing is about 0.0006. Calculate the expected gas production rates of the well at wellhead pressures of 200 psia, 300 psia, 400 psia, 500 psia, and 600 psia using the following data for IPR: Reservoir pressure: 1,800 psia IPR model parameter C: 0.15 Mscf/d-psi2n IPR model parameter n: 0.85 6-2 6-3 Calculate the expected gas production rates of the well described in Problem 6-1 for a 2.259-in ID tubing. Use the following data to calculate expected gas production rate of the well: Gas-specific gravity: 0.75 Tubing inside diameter: 2.259 in Tubing wall relative roughness: 0.0006 Measured depth at tubing shoe: 8,000 ft Inclination angle: 0° Wellhead choke size: 24 1/64 in

Flowline diameter: 2 in Gas-specific heat ratio: 1.3 Gas viscosity at wellhead: 0.01 cp Wellhead temperature: 120 0 F Bottom hole temperature: 180 0 F Reservoir pressure: 2,000 psia C-constant in backpressure IPR model: 0.01 Mscf/dpsi2n n-exponent in backpressure IPR model: 0.8 6-4 Modify spreadsheet program BottomHoleNodal.xls to incorporate the Forchheimer equation for IPR. Solve Problem 6-1 using estimated A and B values from C and n values. Modify spreadsheet program WellheadNodal.xls to incorporate the subsonic choke flow equation. Solve Problem 6-3 for flow line pressures of 200 psia, 300 psia, 400 psia, 500 psia, and 600 psia.

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