ARCHITECTURAL

BUILDING
MATERIALS
• THE NEW LADDER
TYPE CURRICULUM
GEORGE SALINDA SALVAN ... uap
• ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
College of Engineering and Architecture
Baguio Cotleges Foundation
• First and tone graduate of B.S. Archifecture, 1963
in Northern Luzon, St. Louis University Baguio City
• Former instructor 196!). 1969 at St. Lc;>uis Uoiversity
• Recipient of various ACE certificates, Architects Continuing
Education Program
• A licensed Architect, active practitioner and
a licensed building constructor, inventor and a board topnotcher.
• Past president of United Architects Phils Baguio Chapter.
• ·Elected National Director; UAP, Regional District I for the year 1987.
•· Member, College of Fellows, UAP 1988
JMC PRESS, INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Copyright © 1986 by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
and
GEORGES. SALVAN
All rights 1'9$8rved.
No part of this book ma'f be reproduced in any
manneJ without permission of the publisher.
FIRST EDITION
ISBN: 971-11-0321-4
Published and Printed by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Distributed by:
GOODWILL BOOKSTORE
Main Office: Rizal Avenue, Manila
P .0 . Box 2942, Manila
Dedicated to all future
Architects and Engineers
The hope for a functional, comfortable
and convenient designs for better living.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of this book was made a reality through the patient and hardworking efforts
of the artist and graduate of architecture, Mr. Fermin 0 . Balangcod.
Special thanks are also acknowledged to the artists who contributed in making the drawings
notably, Clamor C. Lecitona from NU, who also helped in the cover design; Johnny Camsol,
Jeny Jun Suyat, Roy Pagador, Rev Puno, and James Fioresca, all from BCF, Baguio City.
To the ones who lent unselfishly their books, like Dean Avelino Cruz of BCF, and to the BCF
librarian Mr. Macabiog, .. to Arcnitect Rogelio Naz of St.·· Louis University, Companies or
of materials a!!K> eent _han<!books and catalogues.
To Mr. Luis V. Canave who guided me on the comp\ete process of publishing and printing of
books and to Mr. Francisco C. Ma6csi, Teresita G. Espinoza, Eduardo C. Villanueva and
Enrico P. Gomez for their untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts typewritten by
Thelma T. Viilareal in computerized typesetting.
To the many students of architecture whose curiosity about and interest·in the Building
Materials and its realization in book form have been a source of inspiration.
v
PREFACE
Design and construction in the Philippines for the past 20 years had grown steadily and the
. continuous introduction of neW products made it-difficult for those who are-not aware of.
these new materials in the market to cope up with their specifications.
In the many years of teaching the subject of building materials and in the experience of the
author in actual practice, it was found out that there is a need to compile and arrange these
building materials in such a way that the topic is discussed with an accompanying illustra-
tions, brief specifications and labelings for easy comprehension.
This book discusses the properties of building materials, their application and articulation,
system of construction, methods for specifying and their character in use. It is arranged in
such a manner that the reader is provided with adequate knowledge on the characteristic
uses Of building materials. It also equips the reader with sufficient skill in the selection of and
specification of building materials.
With the new curriculum revised by the Ministry of Education with the United Architects of
the Philippines, the syllabus of instruction has been changed to include practically all the ma-
terials involved in the building construction field. This book is arranged in such a manner as
to introduce to the reader the qualities of wood, concrete, stone, steel, plastic, bituminous
materials and others. After the reader is equipped with these knowledge, the author arranged
the chapters in such a way as to place the materials in its proper order as flooring materials
whether wood or concrete, walling materials for use in interiors and exteriors, and ceiling
materials and roofing materials. Another important topic included is the chapter on building
protection which include among others the waterproofing, fijtproofing, fireproofing, burglar
proofing and many other protections which is common to buildings especially when it is
already existing .. At the end of the chapter is also included the summarized form of a bill of
materials and specifications which is commonly encountered in the. actual field.
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 CONCRETE AND CONCRETE PRODUCTS .............................. 1
Cements, 2
Types of Aggregates, 2
Concrete Mixes, 2
Concrete Additives, 4
Concrete Products, 9
Construction Equipments, 12
Concrete Price List, 14
Chapter 2 CERAMICS AND CLAY PRODUCTS ....................................... 15
Brick, 16
Tile, 18
Terra Cotta, 21
Ceramic Veneer, 21
.:h3pter 3 BUILDING STONES, GYPSUM AND LIME .............................. 23
Building Stones, 24
Stone Construction, 25
Gypsum, 29
Chapter 4
WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS ............................................. 33
Wood,34
Moisture in Wood, 35
Seasoning of Lumber, 36
Unit of Measurement, 37
Glue Laminated Timber, :rl
Glue Used in Laminating, 39
Chapter 5 RECYCLED WASTE PRODUCTS BUILDING
BOARDS AND PAPERS ........................................................... 41

Building Boards, 42
Building Papers, 48
Chapter 6 BITUMINOUS MATERIAL .......... 0 ........................................ •••••• 51
Bitumen, 52
Chapter 7 FERROUS AND NON FERROUS METALS .............................. 55
Ferrous Metal, 56
Non Hlrrous Metal, 61
Chapter 8 GLASS AND GLAZING ............................................................ 63
Glass, 64
Glass Products, 68
Chapter 9 PLASTICS AND RELATED PRODUCTS ................................... 71
Plastic, 72
Chapter 10 ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS ................................................ i7
Glues, 78
Sealers, 79
Glazing and Caulking Compounds, 81
Chapter 11 INSULATING MATERIALS ......... ·-···-························----·········· 85
Thermal Insulations, 86
ix
·chapter 12 BUILDING PROTECTION .................. .. .............. ....................... !n
Water Proofing, 95
Damp-Proofing, 114
Clear Silicone Water Repellant, 116
"ANAY" Proofing-soil Poisoning, 117
Wood Preservation, 119
Fire Protection, 121
Rat-proofing, 123
Rust Proofing, 123
·Floor Protection and Surfacing, 126
Descalers, Paint and Chemical Strippers, 129
Chesterton Descaler and Chemical Cleaner, 129
Control, Project and Manage, 129
Chapter 13 PAINTS AND COATINGS ................................................. .. .... 131
Paint, 132
Varnishes, 134
Enamels, 135
Shellac, 135
Lacquers, 135
Stains, 136
Fillers, 137
Sealers, 137
Silicone Water Repellant, 137
Product Names, 138
EXTERIOR WORK PAINTING
- Cement Plaster Sprayed Cement and Concrete, 139
- Hollow Block Masonry, 140
- Woodsiding, Paneling, Trims, Fascias Eaves, Soffits, 141
- Galvanized Iron Sheet Roofing, Gutters, 143
- Cappings, Conductors, Flashing, 144
- Asbestos and Ceramics, 145
EXTERIOR & INTERIOR WORK PAINTING
- Metal Sash, trims, mullions, ornamental iron and
other Ferrous Metal Surfaces, 146
- All non-pai nted concrete, Synthetic finishes, rubble,
brick and washout, 147
INTERIOR WORK PAINTING
- Woodwork, Plywood, Wall and Ceiling, 147
- Acoustical Wall and Ceiling, 149
- Wood Paneling; D9or, Closet Gabinets, 150
- Doors, closet and Cabinet work (Kitchen subjected
to Water), 151
INTERIOR WORK
- Cement Plaster Sprayed Cement and Concrete, 153
- Hollow Block Masonry, 156
- Application of Paint, 157
- Brands of Paints, 157
Chapter 14 HARDWARES ...... ..... ... .... . : ....... ............ ......... ........... ......... ... .
Doors, 160
To Hung a Door, 164
159
Rough Hardware, 168
To Fix One Sash, 172
To Lock the Door, 174
Automatic Door Closer, 178
H·inges (Light), 181
Catch, 186
Knobs, 185
Pulls, 185
Hook and Eyes, 187
Screws, 169
Washers, 170
Bolts, 170
Nuts, 170
Door Stoppers, Bumpers; 188
Chapter 15 PLUMBING MATERIALS .... ... .. ... ........ ...... ... . .. .. . .. .. .. ... . . . .. . . .. .. .. 189
Cast Iron Pipes and Fittings, 190
Special Cast Iron Fittings, 194
Plastic Pipes and Fittings (Drainage), 195
Asbestos Pipe and Fittings, 196
Vitrified Clay Pipes, 197
Galvanized Steel Pipe Fittings, 199
Plastic Pipes and Fittings, 201
Plumbing Fixtures, 202
Chapter 16 ELECTRICAL MATERIALS ...................................................... 211
Types of Convenience Outlets, 212
Types of Switches, 212
Junction Boxes, 213
Porcelain Insulators, 213
Fuses, 214
Conduit Fitting, 215
Conductors, 216
Switch Box, 216
Architectural Lamps etc., 217
Chapter 17 .FLOORING MATERIALS
Wood Flooring, 222
Concrete FJooring, 224
Clay-tile Flooring, 226
Asphlat Flooring, 232
Terrazzo Flooring, 233
Plastic Flooring, 234
Magnesite Flooring, 235
Rubber Flooring, 235
Cork FloorinQ. 236
Pebble Washout, 236
Marble, 237 ·
Crazy Cut Marble, 237
221
Chapter 18 WALLING MATERIALS ............................................................ 239
INTERIOR FINISHES MATERIALS:
Wood Finishes, 240
Gypsum Finishes, 241
Clay Finishes, 242
Stone Finishes, 246
Concrete Finishes, 246
Building Boards, 248
Wall, Paper, 249
Wall Coverirn:J, 24.q
xi
Chapter 19
Chapter20
Glass, 251
Steel, 252
Non-Ferrous Metals, 253
Plastics, 253
Paints, 254
EXTERIOR WALL MATERIALS
Types of Walls, 256
Curtain Wall, 25e
ANISHING MATERIALS:
-Stucco, 256
- Brick Veneer, 258
-Artificial Stone Veneer, 258
-.Natural Stone Veneer, 258
- Terra-Cotta Facing, 259
- Wood Siding, 260
- Boards an<:t Battens, 260
- Aluminum Siding, 260
- Meta4, 261
- Plywood, 261
- Wood Shakes and Shingles, 262 .
- Hardboard Siding, 263
-Asbestos-Cement Siding and Siding Shingles, 263
-Brick, 264
- Tile, Ceramic, Veneer and Terra-Cotta, 264
- Stone (Marble}, 266
· - Precast Concrete Slabs, 266
Washout Finishes, 267
Synthetic Adobe Brick, 2ffl
Sandblasting, E
Bush-hammered Finish, 268
Gtass, 268
Plastic, 268
Logs, 269
CEILING AND ACOUSTICAL MATERIALS . . . . .. . . ... .. . .. .. . ....... .. . . 271
Suspended Ceiling, 272
Material$ Used for Ceiling Panels, 273
Brand· for Sprayed on Materials, 273
Acoustical Materials, 274
ROOFING MATERIALS . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. 281
Roof Styles, 282
. Roof Slopes in Run & Rise, Pitches and Degrees, 284
ROOFING MATERIALS:
- Shingles; Wood Shakes, 286
- Roofing Tiles and Sheathing, 285, 290
-Sheet Metal Roofing, 293
-Asbestos- Cement Sheet, Roofing, 298
- Built-up Roofing, 300
- Rolled Roofing, 302
- Sprayed on asphalt Roofing, 302
-Glass Roofing, 303
- Pl'astic Roofing, 303
- Milano Design Roofing, 303·
- Banaue Design, .304
Chsptel' 21 SAMPLE FORMS ...................................................................... :J:TJ
Outline Estimates (Bill of Materials),
Outline Specification,
xii
CHAPTER
2
CEMENTS
PORTLAND CEMENT
Made from mate.rials which must contain the proper proportions of lime, silica, alumina and
iron components.
Four parts of limestone to one part clay are the basic ingredients. These are mixed, burned
. then pulverized.
Portland cement is sold either in cement bags of 40 kilos weight or in BULK into cement
trucks.
SPECIAL CEMENTS
1. White Portlahd Cement
Same materials as normal portland except in color. The manufacturing process is con-
trolled to produce a pure white, non-staining cement. It is used primarily for architectural
purposes such as curtain wall and facing panels, decorative concrete stucco and tile
grout, or wherever white or colored concrete or mortar is specifted.
2. Masonry Cement
Has been specially designed to produce better mortar than that made with normal port-
land cement or with a lime-cement combination . The mortar made with this cement has
particularly good plasticity and workability, good adhesion and bond.
3. Air-entraining Portland Cement
Small amounts of certain air-entraining agents are added to the clinker and ground with it
to produce air entraining cements, effective use for resistance to severe frost.
4· Oil Well Cement
This is a special portland cement used for sealing oil wells. It must be slow setting andre-
sistant to high temperatures and pressures.
5. Waterproofed Portland Cement
Normally proauced by adding a small amount of stearate, usually calcium or aluminum to
the cement clinker during the final grinding.
TYPES OF AGGREGATES USED IN CONCRETE
Concrete can be considered to be an artificial stone made by binding together particles of
some inert material with a paste made of cement and water. These inert material are the ag-
gregate_. Aggregates used are sand, gravel crushed stone, cinder, crushed furnace slag,
bumed clay, expanded vermiculite, and perlite .
. sand -foUnd in riVerbeds, free of salt and must b8 washed.
fine aggregate-smaller than 1/ 4" diameter scones.
course aggregate - bigger than 1/4'" diameter stones.
CONCRETE MIXES
Class "AA''
I
Class A
Class B
Class C
1:11/2:3
1:2:4
1:2 1/ 2:5
1:3:6
Example of Class "A" mix:·
concrete under water, retaining walls
footings, columns beams. R.C. slabs
slab on fill, non bearing walls
concrete plant boxes, etc.
One part cement is to two parts sand plus four parts ·gravel.
The designing of concrete mixtures is based primarily on the water-cement ratio theory,
which states that the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to the amount of water
used per unit (1b) of cement.
This means that if. for example, 68 lb. of water per lb. of cement will produce concrete cap-
able of developing 2,500 psi in 28 days, then less water per bag will produce stronger eon-
crete and more water will produce concrete of lesser strength.
Compressive strength of concrete for various water-cement ratios
Water cement ratio
lb. per lb. of cement
0.75
0.68
0.62
0.56
0.50
0.45
0.41
0.38
0.34
CONTROL OF CONCRETE MIXES
Probable compressive at
28 days, psi
Plain concrete
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
5,500
6,000
Slump test-When;frellhlymixed concrete is checked to ensure that the specified slump is
being attained consistently. A standard slump cc;me is 12 inches high (0.30) and 8 inches
(0.20) in diameter at the bottom and 4 inches (0.10) on top which is open on both ends.
X=2'" to 4" or 0.05
to 0.10 for beam,
12" column, slab.
1
The cone is filled in t"ree equal layers, each being tamped or ro.dded 25 times with a
standard 5/8" bullet nosed rod. When the cone has been filled and leveled off, it is lifted
carefully and the amount of slump is measured.
Allowable Deflecti on 'X'
Beams and columns
Slabs and tunnel inverts
Tops and walls, pi'ers, parapet & curbs
Side walls and arch in tunnet lining
Canal lining
Heavy mass construction
7.5 em (.075) 3"
5.0 em (.05 ) 2"
5.0 em (.05 ) 2"'
10.0 em (.10 ) 4'"
7.5 em (.075) 3"
5.0 em (.05 } 2"'
3
4
Compressive Strength Test-Common quality-control test of concrete, based on 7 and 28
day curing periods. SPecimens are usually cylindrical with a length equal to twice the
diameter. Standard size.is 12 inch high and 6 inch diameter. Filling is done the same·way
as the slump test but taken out from the mold in 24 hours. It is then sent to a compression
testing laboratory, by marking the cylinder while still wet. Some compressive stresses
are 2,000 psi, 2,500 psl, 3,000 psi.
BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT
1. Island cement 6. Filipinas cement
2. Continental cement 7. Pacific cement
3. Hi-cement 8. Fortune cement
4. Union cement 9. Republic cement
5. Rizal cement 10. Northern cement
BRANDS OF WHITE CEMENT
1. Prime White cement
2. Keene
3. Trinity
4. Snowcrete
CONCRETE ADDITIVES
In addition to the basic ingredients of concrete. other materials are often added to the mix or
applied to the surface of freshly placed concrete to produce some special result. These ma-
terials are known as concrete additives and may be used for one of the following reasons:
1. To speed up the i ni 1 ial set of concrete.
2. To·retard the initial set.
3. To make the concrete more resistant to deterioration due to repeated freezing and
thawing cycles. ·
4. To prevent bleeding of watet to the sur:face of concrete.
5. To improve the workability of the mix.
6. To improve the hardness or denseness ot the concrete surface.
7. To render the concrete more water tight.
8. To improve the bond between two concrete surfaces.
9. To inhibit the set of cement oaste.
10. To produce a colored surface.
11. To produce a nOt tskid sur:face.
12. To prevent the evaporation ot water from thP. newly placed concrete.
13. To help develop all the potenti ai strEngth of a given water -cement paste.
14. To decrease the weight of concrete per cubic foot.
,ACCELERATORS
An admixture which is used to speed up the initial set of concrete .. Such a material may be
added to the mix to increase the rate of early-strength development for several reasons. For
example, this will allow earlier removal of forms and in some cases reduce the whole curing
period.
RETARDERS
The function of a retarder is to delay or extend the setting time of the cement paste in con-
crete. In hot weather hydration is accelerated by the heat, thus cutting down the time avail-
. able to place, consolidate, and finish the concrete. High temperatures, low humidity and
wind cause rapid evaporation of water from the mix during summer. This drying of the con-
crete leads to cracking and crazing of the surtace.
An initial set retarder will hold back the process, leaving more water for workability
and allowing concrete to be finished and .protected before drying out.
A retarder is usually used in bridge construction, since girders or beams are designed with a
camber and will be deflected as the load of the bridge deck is applied. The initial pours may
be partially set before paving of the bridge deck is complete if a retarderis not used. As fur-
ther deflection takes place, this concrete being no longer plastic. will be subjeC?ted to stress
and may crack. It is also important to use a retarder in casting prestressed concrete.
members. Since prestress beds are usually long, up to 300ft. or more, it takes a considerable
time to place and consolidate the entire pour. It is desirable to keep the concrete plastic until
vibrating is completed to ensure a good bond between concrete and prestressed steel along
the entire length of the bed.
Retarders are also helpful for concrete that has to be hauled long distances in transit mix
trucks, to ensure that it reaches its destination in a plastic and placeable condition. .
AIR-ENTRAINING AGENTS
Air entrained concrete contains microscopic bubbles of air formed with the aid of a group of
chemicals called surface active agents, materials that have the of reducing the sur-
face tension of water intended for use when be:tter resistance to frost action is concerned.
DISPERSAL AGENTS
When cement and water are mixed, the cement particles tend to gather in clumps, or to floc-
culate. As a result water does not reach some of the particles and some are only partialiy
hydrated. Sometimes only 50 percent of the cement is hydrated.
Water trapped within these clumps later bleeds to the surface of the concrete, because of the
weight of the other materials. The voids left by the forcing out of the water later become
passages through which water can penetrate the concrete.
A cement dispersal agent such as calcium lignosulfonate causes cement particles to sepa-
rate by imparting like electrostatic charges to them.
CONCRETE HARDENERS
Plain concrete surfaces which are subjected to rolliog live loads, the impact action of foot
traffic, and other types of wear begin to dust and crumble at the surtace after a period of
time. This condition worsens with time, finally resulting in the destruction of the surtace.
5
6
To prevent this, two types of concrete hardeners are used.
1. Chemical hardeners-liquids containing silicoflourides or fluosilicates and
ting agent which reduces the surface tension of the liquid and allows it to penetrate
the pores of the concrete more easily. The silicoflourides or fluosilicates combine
chemically with the free lime and calcium carbonate which are present in the con-
crete.and bind the fine particles in.to a flintlike topping; which is highly resistant to
wear and dusting.
2. Fine metallic aggregate -are specially processed and graded iron par which
are dry-mixed with portland cement, spread evenly over the surface of freshly
ftoated concrete, and worked into the surface by floating. The result is a hard, tough
topping which is highly resistant to wear and less brittle than normal concrete.
WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURES
A material used to reduce the amount of ·water necessary to produce a concrete of given
consistency or to increase the slump for a given water A typical one is made from
the metallic. salts of figninsulfonic acids.
More water than is actually required for the hydration of the cement must be used in any
given concrete mix in order to give it placeability. Unless the water content is carefully con-
excess water may bleed to the surface of the concrete, causing segregation or sur-
face laitance, or may evaporate, leaving voids which decrease strength and increase per-
meability. Excess water will also dilute and weaken the cement paste. Therefore an agent
which will decrease the amoung of water required while maintaining consistency and work-
ability is a useful addition to the mix.
CONCRETE. WATERPROOFERS
Water under pressure and in contact with one surface of the concrete can be forced through
channels between inner and outer surfaces. A measure of the amount of water passing
in this way is a measure of permeability; any admixture used to reduce this flow is really a
perrriea bil ity reducer.
Water also can pass through concrete by the action of capillary forces. If one side is exposed
to moisture and the other to air, the water reaching the dry side evaporates, resulting in a
flow of moisture through the concrete. Materials used to reduce or stop this type of flow are
more properly called damproofers.
Materials used to reduce permeability and also a damproofers •.
a. Air-entraining agent-because it increases the plasticity of concrete and therefore
help to make placing easier and more uniform. They also reduce bleeding by holding
the water in films about the air bubbles.
As damproofer because the small disconnected voids produced by air entrainment
break up the capillaries in the concrete and therefore offer a barrier to the passage of
water by capillary action.
b. Cement dispersal agent-Since it tends to reduce voids formed when water is
trapped in groups of cement particles.
c. Water repellents- Used as damproofing. The materials used are compounds con-
taining calcium or ammonium stearate, calcium or ammonium oleate, or butyl stear-
ate. These substances are generally combined with lime or calcium chloride.
d. Film applied to surface-'-preferab!y the one adjacent to the water source. The
common materials are those containing asphalt or sodium silicate and one which
contains a metallic aggregate. ·
,.
The asphaltic products from an impervious coatings. over the surface. The sodium sili-
cate compounds enter the surface pores and form a gel which prevents water from
entering the concrete. The metallic aggregate type of waterproofer consists of fine
cast-iron particles, to which is added a chemical that causes them to oxidize rapidly
when mixed with portland cement.
BONDING AGENTS
When fresh concrete is poured against another' concrete surface already set and at least par-
tially cured, it is often difficult to obtain a bond between the two surfaces unless special pre-
cautions are taken. Fresh concrete shrinks when setting, and unless there is a very good
bond th.us shrinkage makes the new concrete pull away from the old surface.
a cement - Paste ·slurry is often applied to such an old surface immediately prior to
pouring new-concrete to increase the amount of paste. When such a treatment cannot
be applied, bonding agents are used to"join the two surfaces.
Two Types:·
1. Metallic aggregate -iron particles are larger, but with same materi als as the permeabili-
ty reducer. Bonding takes place through the oxidation and subsequent expansion of the
iron particles.

-2. Synthstic latex emulsion -consists of a highly polymerized synthetic liquid resin dis·
persed in water. When it is sprayed or painted on a concrete surface. the pores in the·
concrete absorb the water and allow the resin particles to coalesce and bond.
CONCRETE COLORING AGENTS
1. Use concrete paint, applied after the concrete surface has been neutralized, either
through exposure or by using a neutralizing agent such as zinc sulfate.
2. Integrating color into the surface concrete while it is still fresh.
a. Natura= mettalic oxides of cobalt, chromium, iron etc. have distinctive colors. The
ochres and umbers are fine dry powders. They are usually mixed into a topping mix,
since this is the best way of distributing the color evenly throughout the concrete.
b. The coloring agents made with synthetic oxides are usually a mixture of the oxide with
one or more additional crying ingredients. The color is sometimes mixed with fine pure
silica sand and applied by shaking the mixture over the freshly poured and floated sur-
face.
SET-INHIBITING AGENTS
Specifications sometimes require that concrete surfaces be produced in which the aggre-
gates are exposed for architectural effect.,
Certain inhibiting agents will prevent the ceme.nt paste from bonding to the surface aggre-
gates but will not interfere with the set throughout the remainder of the pour.
Two materials are used for this purpose.
a. a liquid which is applied to forms for vertical surfaces immediately before pouring
concrete and a
b. powder which is applied directly to freshly poured surfaces
7
8
The depth of penetration· of the innibitor depend's on the amount used per square foot. Usual
rates of application will vary from 1 1/ 2 to 3 lb. per sq. ft. of surface.
After three or four days of curing, the retarded surface concrete should be hosed or brushed
off, exposing clean·aggregate and leaving a rough cast effect.
NON-SKID SURFACES
To avoid making concrete surfaces slippery, use wood or cork floats which will leave a rough
surface instead of steel .trowelling operation during ttie floor-finishing process.
Another method is to use an abrassive material in the topping, applied as a dry shake in
much the same way as metallic-aggregate topping is applied. The abravise material is
f loated, into the top and the steel trowel operation is omitted. Materials commonly used for
·this purpose are fine particles of .Flint, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or emery.
SURFACE SEALING AGENTS
Used for two purposes.
1. To form a watertight coating which will prevent water from evaporating f rom a con-
crete surface and aiiC\111 it to be retained for hydration.
2. To seal the pores of a concrete surface after it has hardened in order to prevent the
p&ssage of water and the absorption of spilled materials such as oil, grease, or paint.
Sealing agents used to prevent water evaporation are usually liquid waxes which can
be sprayed over the surface but which are easily removed after curing is complete.
GAS FORMING AGENTS
Under normal conditions concrete undergoes settlement' and drying shrinkage, which in
some situations, can result in undesirable characteristics in the hardened concrete. For
example, voids on the underneath side of forms, blockouts,. reinforcing steel , or other
embedded parts such as machinery bases may interfere wit h the bond and allow passage of
water and reduce and strength.
One method of reducing such voids is to add an expanding agent to the concrete. Aluminum
powder, when added to .mortar or concrete, reacts with the hydroxides in hydrating cement to
produce very small bubbles of hydrogen gas. This action, when properly controlled. causes
a slight expansion in plastic concrete or mortar and thus reduces or eliminates voids caused
by settl.ement.
POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURES
Materials sometimes used in structures where it is desirable to avoid high temperature or in.
structures exposed to seawater or water containing sulfates. These pozzolanic; materials are
generally substituted for 10 to 35 percent of the cement. may be added to con-
crete mixes - rather than substituting for part of the cement- to improve workability, imper-
meability, and resistance to chemical attack. ·
A number of natural materials suches diatomaceous earth, opaline cherts and shales, tuffs
and pumicites, arid some artificial materials such as fly ash are used as pozzolans. (Fly ash is
a fine residue which results from the combustion of powdered coal and may contain various
amounts of carbon, silica, sulfur, alkalies, and other ingredients).
CONCRETE PRODUCTS
Made of lightweight and heavyweight materials for use in exterior and interior load-bearing
walls, firewalls, curtain and panel walls, partitions etc.
CONCRETE BLOCK
Made with both stone and lightweight aggregates.
1: Hollow load-beari(lg concrete block-an 8 ... x 8N x 16" will approximately weigh
40 to 50 lb. made with heavyweight a99regate and 25 to 351b. when made with light
weight aggregate.
2. Solid load bearing block --defined as one having a core area of not more than 25
percent of the gross cross-sectional area.
3. Hollow; non load bearing concrete block -one in which the core area exceeds 25 .
percent of the cross sectional area.
4. Concrete building tile.
5. brick.
COMMON SIZE
4" x 8 .. x 16" -for non load bearing partitions
6" x 8,. x 16 .. -for load bearing walls
QUALITY
a. Hand made-backyard i-ndustry
b. Machine sold
c: Steam cured-manufactured by big and nationalty known factories for load bearing
waifs. Usually specified for government and multi..m>rey boifdings.
9
10
Some manufacturing steam cured blocks
1. Ramrod
2. Jackbilt
4. Permanent
5. Superior
d. Lightweight blocks-when perlite is added to the aggregate to reduce the weight to
almost 50%.
#
CAST STONE
Used -to simulate stone from concrete methods.
a. By splitting a solid concrete block to expose two rough surfaces.
b. By making a mortar of cement and very high quality silica sand and casting it in molds
which produces a unit with the face shaped to simulate chipped sand stone, shale or slate
done either by placing coloring material on the mold or either by mixing the color to the
mortar.
c. By mixing granite or marble chips with a mortar made with white cement and cast the
mortar in a mold with a hard, smooth face. When the unit is. partially cured, it is ground
off to expose some stone in the surface, resulting in a terrazo-like appearance.
· PRECAST FACING SLABS
Units that can be custom-made any size to fit a particular structure.
Facing slabs are precast with either or lightweight aggregates and
are fixed to the building by pins or dowels to a steel frame and by
metal strap anchors to a concrete or backup wall.
CELLULAR CONCRETE BLOCKS
A lightweight block which is outstanding in thermal and sound insulation qualities. The
basic ingredients are cement -made from silica-rich sand and lime-water, and al uminum
powder. They can be easily cut or sawed to any desired shape "Yith woodworking tools and
are laid up in masonry cement or cement -lime mortar. Stucco and plaster can be applied
directly to the face of the block, and other materials may be nailed directly to them.
Another type of lightweight block Is made by mixing chemically treated wood shavings with
cement paste and forming the resulting r. :ixture into blocks. Three types are made. a. form
blocks, b. insulation slabs, c. ceiling blocks.
OTHER PRODUCTS
1 . Decorative and concrete blocks- used for sunbaffles and for fences.
· 2. Concrete sewer and culvert pipes
Diameter - 4"0, 6"0, 8"0, 12"0, 24"0
length- 1.00 meter
This are the reinforced except the 4"0 d.
3. ConcNte balusters
4. Cement tiles-1" X 8 H X a ..
11
CONSTRUCTION EQU IPMENTS
1. One-bagger concrete mixer
2. Two-bagger concrete mixer
3. Hoist
4. Concrete vibrator
5. Vibratory compactor
6. Conveyor
7. Porta-lift
8. Hollow block machine
9. Buggy-fixed or tiltable
10. Tamping rammer
11. Bar cutter
12. Terrazzo floor grinder
13. Concrete pipe mold
14. Decorative mold
15. Pavement breaker and drilling machine
16. Self-priming pump
1- eAGGER CONCReTE
MIXER
12
£-BAGGER CONCRETE MIXER
. GdGCUNE eNGINE" -,.s
TO 1G 8+-IP
I Eki?A?L> l=l.a)R
GJ.<INDER .
1."-3'!.4" PUMP
E M ~
7M-g'
10 MT<;
c.oNVEYOR.
13
PRICE LIST EFFECTIVE JAN. '86
' ·
PEBBLES: U/COST
Black #5, '10, 16.. ... .. .. .. .. .. fl14.00
Buracay 16, 10 . .. . . . . .. .. .. . . 36.00
Buracay (Ml #10 .. .. .. . .. . . . 28.00
Assorted #5, 10, 15 .. . . . . . .. 18.00
Bohol Beige#5 ... . ...... ..... 60.00
· Bohol Beige #10..... ...... .... 50.00
Quezon 16, to, 15 .. .. . . .. . . . . 25.00
CRAZY CUT MARBLE:
Beige ......................... ..
White Mindoro ............. ..
Mariposa Red ........ . ........ .
Gray .......................... .
BabyPink .. .... .... ... ...... ..
ADOBE RUBBLES:
P240.00/T
750.00/ T
750.00/T
800.00/ T
no.oo!T
,16.00/lyr. ·
50.00/ lyr.
50.00/lyr.
53.30/lyr.
61.30/lyr.
Selected White #5.. ..... .... . 90.00 4x 12..... .. .. . ....... ...... . .. . P 4.00/ pc.
6.50/pc.
7.00/ pc.
8.50/pc.
Selected White #tO 75.00 8x 12 ......................... ..
Selected White #20 . . . . . . . . . 45.00 12x 12 ..... .......... ...... . .... .
SYNTHETIC ADOBE:
White or Natural ........... .
Yellow Brown ............ .. .
Red ............................. .
Black .. ..... .. ..... ... .... ...... .
Dark Brown ................ ..
Small Shell ... ..... .... .... .. .. .
MARBLE CHIPS:
White 15, 10, 15 .............. .
Beige #5, 10, 15 ...... .. ..... ..
Pink 15, 10, 16 .. ........... ..
Gray #5, 10, 15 ............. ..
Black 15. 10, 15 ............. ..
Mariposa #5, 10, 16
MARBLE DUST:
, 7.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
, 7.00
P22.00
16.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00
12x 18 ..... ................... .
16 X 24 .......................... .
6x 12 . .... ... .. . ..... ... ....... .
10x10 .. . ....... ... ... ........ .' ..
12 X 16 ...... . ................... .
12x24 ......................... ..
MARBLE ASHLAR:
4 x 8 ......... P240.00/m2
2 x 8 .. .. .. .. . 225.00/m2
2 x 12 .. .. • .... 186.00/m2
3x 12 ......... 200.00/m2
4 x 12 ..... .. .. 210.00/ m2
MARBLE CUTTER:
Tylorit · .. .. .. P 90.00/pc.
Rasta ...... ... 85.00/pc.
Sait... ..... .... 85.00/pc.
16.00/ pc.
7.00/pc.
7.00/pc.
8.00/pc.
15.00/ pc.
note: 3"-4"'

VIGAN TJLES:
12x 12 ... :.. , 6.00/pc.
10 x 10 ..... : 5.00/ pc.
8 X 8.. ..... .. 4.00/pc,
WOOD STRIP:
1/4 .. . .. .. .. .. . fl 3.00/pc.
3/ 4 ........ ... . 3.30/pc.
1/2 .. .. .. .. . .. . 3.50/ pc.
Marble Dust White P22.00
Marble Oust Beige.. ... ....... 12.00 BRASS STRIP:
DECORATIVE ROCKS:
Coda ............. :............. p
Teresa Rocks ................. .
Petrified Rocks .............. .
Flyfly Quarry ................. .
Pink Teresa ............... .. .
Mindoro Flat ..... .... .. ..... ..
Red Corals ........ ........... ..
AatStone ... .... .... .. ..... .. .
Decorati.ve Shell .......... . .
Flyfly Quarry fsm) .......... ..
Petrified Rocks (sm) ..... .. . .
14
2mm ......... P 11.00/pc. · 3 mm .. ..... .. tt14:00/ pc.
25.00/ can
800.00/m3
1,400.00/mJ
1,200.00/m3
1,000.00/ mJ
1,400.00/m3
1,600.00/ m3
25.00/can
15.00/ can
75.00/can

4mm ......... 19!00/pc.
CARBORUNDUM:
Tylorit .. .. . . P210.00/ pc.
Semi Rough .. ... .. . . . 210.00/pc.
Fine Carb:.. .. ... .. .. . 130.00/ pc.
Fine Czec. .... ..... ... 75.00/pc.
Carb. Czec. . .. .. . . .. 80.00/ pc.
Horshow .. ...... .... 250.00/pc.
CHAPTER
CERAMICS & CLAY PRODUCTS
16
BRICK
The basic ingredient of brick is clay-clay which has some specific properties. It must have
plasticity when mixed with water, so that it can be molded or shaped; it must have sufficient
tensile strength to keep its shape after forming; and clay particles must fuse together when
subjected to sufficiently high ten:tperatures.
,
Clay occurs in three principal forms.
a. surfsce clsy-found near the surface of the earth.
b. shllltiS-Ciays whi ch have been subjected to high pressure until they have
relatively hard.
c. fire clays -are found at deeper levels and usually have more uniform physical and
chemical '
:rwo classes of clay
1. Calcareous clays·- contains about 15 percent calcium carbonate and burn to a yel-
loWish color.
2. Noncalcareous clsys -composed of silicate of alumina, with feldspar and iron ox-
ide. 'These clays bum buff, red or salmon depending on the iron oxide content which
vary from 2 to 10 percent.
Standard Brick size is 2 1 I 4 x 3 3/4 x 8 in.
BRICK TEXTURE
Texture are applied by attachments which cut, scratch, brush, roll, or roughen the s"'rface or
by applying or spraying glazes on the brick before or after burning.

matt
Typical ones are 1) ceramic glaze, consisting of spraying a coating of a mixture of mineral in-
gredients on one or more surfaces of the brick. The glaze melts and fuses to the brick at a
given temperature, producing a glasslike coating which is available in almost any color and
2) salt glaze, consisting of solution of sodium iron silicate. Salt glaze is transparent so the
color of the is presented under a lustruous gloss.
BRICK BOUNDS
1. The method of laying bricks in a wall in order to form some distinctive pattern or de-
sign is referred to as the pattern bond.
2. The method by which the individual units in a brick structure are tied together either
by overlapping or by metal ties is known as the structural bond.
3. The adhesion of mortar to bricks or to steel reinforcements used in conjunction with
them is called the mortar bond.
tmJ
J1J1Mirt 9 1xnd
1 JOt :n:::u: Jo
=:1or JCJr JCJ..__l _
D U :JI JJ :
l[ ll ll
_---J:JDl. lDl r:.
:J'-l _ _ __,][
JC.
a} PATTERN BONO

WALL
b) SlRUC.TURAL BONO
. .
BRICK VENEER a.IER A WO(.Qat.J
SACK UP
17
18
C.. MORTAR BOND
V-j01nt
c f l l l ~
TILE
STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE-are hollow units as opposed to brick which is solid. Tiles are
made from the same material as brick, but all clay tile are formed by extrusion in the stiff-
mud process.
Types of Tiles
1. Load bearing wall tile-used for the bearing watts .of light buildings, the height
usually restricted to four stories. Struc1uralload bearing wall tile are made in 4, 6, 8,
10 and 12 in thicknesses.
2. Partition tile-non-load bearing ..
3. Back-up tile-intended for use in both bearing and non-bearing walls which will be
faced with brick or facing tile. The facing is bonded to the back up and the loads are
supported by both.
,,
e
4. Furring tile-used on the inside of extericr walls to provide air spaces for insulation
to prevent the passage of moisture an9 to provide a suitable plastering surface. Clas-
sified as non-load bearing.
,l
SPLIT F U R R I ~ G TILE
SOLID FURRING TILE
5. fireproofing tile-structural steel must be insulated in fireproof contructiori. One
method of doing this is to cover it with fireproofing tile.
19
20
SOFFIT TILE.
COLUMN
6. Roor Tile-one way nbbed concrete floor and roof slabs can be formed by
using structural clay'floor tile. They are manufactured in both load-bearing and non-
load bearing grades in standard thicknesses ranging from 3 to 12 in and standard
length and widths of 12 in; ·
. ~ ~
:. /> ' A••·
0 . .. "'. • .
.... ...... _.J>.· I
' ·. .
a:tu:r.Bt,g and t i l ~
L..Rihl19
7. Structural Clay Facing Tile- unglazed tile and may have either a smooth or a
rough textured finish. They are designed to be used as exposed facing material on
either exterior or interior walls and partitions.
2 Classes
a. Standard ti/e......:suitable for general use in either exterior or interior locations.
b. Specialized tile -have heavier shells and webs and are intended for greater re-
sistance to· impact and moisture penetration.
8. Structural Glazed Facing Tile -produced from high-grade light burning clay
which is suitable for the application of ceramic or salt glaze. Two types are single
faced units and two opposite faces glazed.
TERRA COTTA
Meaning "fired earth" is a clay product which has been used for architectural decorative
purposes, since ancient Greece and Rome. Modern terracotta is machine-extruded and
molded or pressed. The machine-made product is usually refered to as ceramic veneer.
and is a unit with,' flat face and flat or ribbed back.
Ceramics veneer is made in two types.
a. Adhesion type -heli::l to the wall by the bond of the mortar to the ceramic veneer
back and to the backing wan.
t>. Anchor type- are held by mortar and by wire tiles between the terracotta and the
wall behind adhesion type ceramic veneer is available in face sizes up to 600 sq. in.
and 24 in. max. widths. Lengths can be up to 36 in. thickness limited to 1 i in.
21
22
CERAMJC
latth
'/4 S?r [()4t

l.4rattiC.
. METAL
.
. .
-·- -:::- ... butldtn9
• ......,_· nn-t.ar 6J.at

· 4- . --+1-l"+t-- t..,pat
·. "':.
:.PLJttf1tL

·.
.
.:t
::,·: . .
woo.o
.,.
BRICK.

' 0 ... :. :.
. . .
t. ;"" .. ·""" .:· t't:t:+-
.. . :. :
. • ·: : : ..... .. 111c1rtJ"
,. ·• • ·: ·. teramu.
. '•.
0
CONCRETE:.
, -
CHI'PTER
.
BUILDING STONES &
GYPSUM AND LIME
24
BUILDING STONES
Stones usually blocks or pieces of the basic material rock.
CLASSIFICATION
Rock can be into three general categories.
1. Igneous-formed as the result of the cooling of molten matter.
2. Sedimentary -formed by the action of water either by .depositing minerals at the bot·
tom of a water body _or depositing them on the earth's surface.
3. Metamorphic - rocks changed from their original structure by the action of extreme
pressure, heat, or various combinations of these forces.
Stone used for building purposes also can be classified according to form in which it is avail-
able commercially.
1. Rubble- includes rough fieldstone which may merely have been broken into suitable
sizes, or it may include irregular pieces of stone that have been roughly cut to size (usual-
ly used for and filling material) (escombro and lastillas).
2. Dimension (cut stone} -consist of pieces that have been cut or finished according to a
set or draw;ngs (For facings of walls).
3. Flagstone (Flat slabs) -consists of thin pieces (1 /2 in. and up which may or may not
have had their face dimensions cut to some particular size. (For walks and floors.)
4. Crushed rock -Stones consisting of pieces varying in size· from 3/8 to 6 in. and is used
to a large extent in concreting.
BUILDING
1. Argillite -one formed ·from clay, commonly dark-blue with faint shades of green, used
· for floor tile, stair treads, coping stones, interior wall base, interior window stools of exte·
rior window sills.
2. Granite-is of igneous origin and composed quartz, feldspar, hornblende and mica. Its
generally very hard, strong durable.and capable of taking a high polish. For use in flooring
wall paneling, column and mullion facings, stair treads or flagstone. Comes in colors of
red, pink, yellow, green, blue, white and brown.
3. limestone-is a sedimentary rock which is either oolitic, ·or calcite cemented calcareous
stone formed of shells fragments, particularly non-crystalline in nature, it has no cleavage
lines and uniform in structure and· composition. Dolomitic - a limestOne which is rich in
magnesium Carbonate and frequently somewhat crystalline in character and crystalline
limestone-is prodominantly composed of calcium or carbonate crystals it has high com-
pressive and tensile strength. Very low in absorption, and has a smooth texture .. The col-
or is a fairly uniform light gray.
\ ..
4. Travertine-a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate. It ·has been
formed at the earth's surface through the evaporation of water from hot springs. It is
used as an interior decorative stone because of its pleasing texture and its tendency to
show small, natural pockets on a cut surface.
5. Marble-Metamorphic rock, one that has been changed from its original structure in
this case, limestone and dolomite have been recrystallized to form marble. Famous types
are carrara parian. numidiam, onyx, vermont, colors are frQm yellow, white, shades of
gray tQ black, violet, red and green used for wall or column facing and for f loorinQ.
6. Serpentine -Igneous rock with the mineral serpentine. The mineral is olive green to
greenish black, but impurities may give the rock other colors, Used for interiors only due
to deteriotation from weathering.
7. Sandstone-a class of rock composed of cemented silica grains. Colors include gray,
buff, light brown, red. Texture range from very fi11e to very coarse and ~ m e are quite
porous with as much as 30 percerit of their volume composed of pores.
8. Slate rock -formed by metamorphosis of clays and shales deposited in layers. A unique
characteristic of the rock is the relative ease with which it may be separated into thin
tough sheets, called slates, 1 I 4 in. or more thick. Slates are black. green, red, gray or
purple. Slate is commonly used for flooring, window sills and stools, stair treads, facing.
STONE· CONSTRUCTION
Stones are largely used as a facing material for large buildings with steel or concrete frames.
When used as a facing stonework may be divided into four categories.
1. Paneling- consists of using slabs of stone cut to dimension
and thickness to cover backup walls and provide a finished ex-
terior.
2. Ashlar-work requires the use of cut stone and includes broken ashlar, irregular coursed
ashlar, regular coursed ashlar.
25
26
3. Rubblework - used as random when no attempt is made to produce either horizontal or
vertical course lines. Small spaces are filled with spalls, ~ m a l l stones and used as cours:.·
ed rubble work, horizontal coorse lines are maintained but no vertical course lines used.
4. Trim ...:....involves use f!llf stones cut for a SPecific purpose and include Quoin -stones laid at
the intersection of two walls. They are emphasized by using a contrasting color or ·type
and by projecting beyond the vertical plane of the wall. Usually they are laid so that they
appear alternately as !ong and short stones on each side of the corner. ·
asj11mbs-stones which form the sides of window and door openings.
as sills -stones which form the bottom of window and door openings.
as belts-special stone courses which are built into a wall for a particular purpose. One
reason is to provide architectural relief to a large wall of one material or to provide a break
in the vertical plane of the wall another reason is to hide a change in the wall thickness. All
~
Jamb stone
sills should have a wash or slope or the upper surface to provide for water run off. Sills
are also provided with a drip to prevent water from running back to the wall along the
uhderside of the sill.
11s Copings -one which is cut to fit on tHe top of a masonry wall. It prevents the passage
of water into the wall, slieds water to either inside on outside, and gives a finished ap-
pearance to the wall.
liS cornices -specially cut stones which are built into and project from, a masonry wall
near the top to provide the appearance of a cave.
27
28
as Lintels -stones which bridge the top of door and window openings.
. .
li"
•·
.... .
II ··., 1 ' ~ ; • ;, ' A , •.'
411 • ••• • • •••• •
0 . .. 1J
. .. .. . · . ..
~ - L - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - -
.
as Stone Steps - made to fit over an inclined concrete slab or to cap steps cast in con-
crete.
/
as an Arch Stone - cut to form some particular type of arch over a door or window
opening.
as Stone Rooring ..... walks and patios, made by covering a base of stone concrete, brick
or tile with Flagstone. They may be random flagstones, Trimmed flagstone Trimmed rec-
tangular and square.
GYPSUM
A soft mineral consisting of a hydrated calcium sulfate-from which gypsum plaster is made
(by heating); colorless when pure used as a retarder in port.land cement.
GYPSUM PRODUCTS
1. Plasters
a. Plastsr of hris-made from carefully selected white_rock .. mixed with water
to form a paste, it sets in about _1 to 20 minutes. It is used for small patching jobs on
plaster walls and for making molds; When lime putty is mixed, it makes a. plaster
finish coat which hardens fast and free from shrinkage cracks.
b. Keene's Cement -It gypsum is subjected to a temperature of 750°F, it is completely
dehydrated. When this material is ground and alum added to it, it is known as keene's
cement. Used where sanitary conditions or moisture makes it necessary to
specify a hard impervious, smooth surface since it is highly resistant to moisture pene-
tration.
c. Casting Plaster - This plaster is made from specially selected rock and ground much
f iner than plaster of Paris. It is slower setting aOd cooler working, which make it
adaptible for ornamental molded plaster work.
d. Hard wall plsster-This is a neat gypsum plaster, containing hair or fiber, widely
used to form 'the first (scratch) coat and the second (brown) coat on plastered walls
and ceilings. ·
e. Cement bsnd plaster-intended for application to concrete surfaces. -Aimost any
finish plaster can be applied over th is coat.
f. Finish Plaster - This material is made specially to produce the finish (Putty) coat for
plastered surfaces. It has to be mixed with hydrated Ume putty and water.
g. Prspal'fld finish only water. It contains no lime, so the plaster sur-
face can be decorated as soon as it is dry.
h. Textul'fl Pl•ster- Used when a rough surface is required.
29
30
i. Acoustical Plsster - calcined gypsum mixed with a light weight-mineral
gate to make a type of finish plaster that has a high rate of sound absorption.
j . Joint filler- Uke texture plaster is used to make the plaster for filling nail holes and
-covering joints in gypsum wall board. Also used to make adhesive, used in laminating
two sheets of board· together. -- -
2. Gypsum Boards

a. Gypsum wsllb011rd-A fireproof sheathing for interior walls and ceilings. It is made
of a core of gypsum covered on each side by a heavy specially manufactured kraft
paper. The paper on the exposed surface is ivory·colored, while the back is gray. Used
to make partitions in which there is no framework, can also be applied directly to the
··walt ffame of used over sheathing by a single or double nailing or scr8W-tastanlng ·
size iS 4 feet by up to 12 feet .- - · -
b. Gypsum Lath- Agypsum core is covered on both sides with a heavy paper, but in
the case of lath, the same paper is used for both back and front, size 3/ 8" x 16"' x 48'"
packed in bundles. Used as a base for plaster, providing adhesion for gypsum plaster.
c. Gypsum Precsst Roof Decking- Precast from gypsum containing various types of
fiber are made in either the square-edged. plank from 4 to 6 feet or metal - edged
plank 10 feet long.

.. ...
... __ _
"'!' -- -
15'.
·EDGED G't'PSUM PLANK
3. Gypsum Tile
a. Psrtitlon snd Furring Tile - made for specially calcined gypsum, to which is usually
about 5 percent wood fiber in the form of chips and sometimes some perlite.
The wood fiber allows the tile to bind together better, while the perlite reduced the
. weight. Both solid and how tile are made, dimensions being 12 X 30 in width thickness .
f rom 2• to 6'".
b. Fireproofing Tile -made to cover steel members in a building to pro!ect them
against fire.
4. Gypaum Precast Wall Panels. -Made by casting in mold a panel consist of two outer
shells 5/ 8 in. thick reinforced with viscose fiber and separated by a core of hexagonal
cells, it is made 2 feet wide, 2 to 6 i,n. thick and up to 10ft. long. Each panel is tongue and
groove along its long edges to f9rm an interlocking wall.
LIME- Used in the making of the finish or putty coat for interior plaster. The lime used is
hydrated or slake lime which is mixed with water to form a plastic, putty like material to
which is added gauging plaster. The mixture is applied in a thin coat over the bare ~ t e r
and troweled to a smooth finish. The lime in the putty begins to recarbonate, and this
hardening continues slowly for a long period of time.
31
· ~
CHI' T E ~
WOOD
Wood is traditional building material,· it is easily worked, has dural;)ility and beauty. It
has great ability to absot'b shocks from sudden load. In addition, wood has freedom from
rust and corrosion, is comparatively light in weight, and is adaptable to a countless variety of
purposes. .
Cl ... lflcation of Trees
Trees generally f!!re.classified into two kinds:
· 1. Hatdwood8-'deciduous' trees that have broad leaves which are normally shed in
the winter time.
2. Softwood- 'conifers' trees that have needles rather than leaves and that bear their
seeds in cones.
Examplee of PHILIPPINE TIMBER
Four Categories:
a. First Group
Narra-,most expensive, .used for furniture and panelings, for expensive floorings,
door panels, stairs and plywood veneer or facings.
Yacal and Guijo-both hardwoods, used for posts and girders, or jambs attached tO
concrete and also for wooden decks having flooring and railings exposed to
weather.
Pine Benguet -SOftwood, used for panelings, sidings, flooring and furniture. Also
used for framings. trusses.
Tanguile and Apitong-the most common lumber in the market. Used generally for
fr:amings, joists, trusses, nailers, etc.
White and Red lauan-for framings, chests, jewel boxes
Kamagong-hardwood for chests, jewel boxes, stair ff'ames.
Oao-used for 'panelings and plywood veneer.
AJmaciga-simifar to pine for paneling.
Mahogany
lpil
Kalantas
Kalamansanai
Supa
b. Second Group
Acacia (rain tree) for wood carvings
Agoho ·
Oita
Oak
Phflippine Chestnut
Pili
Malabayabas
c. Third Group
Bakawan
Malakamias
Malasaging
Matamata
Nangka
· Santol

d. Fourth Group
All other ordinary wood s,8cies
..... .
MOISTURE IN WOOD
The moisture content of wood is_ usually expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry
weight and can be detennined by the oven-dry method or by an electric_.moisture meter
method.
For the oven-dry method, they should be cut the full width of the bOard and from 1/2 to
3/4 inches long. The sections should be cut at least 2 feet from the end of the board to eli-
minate a sample that may have end-dried: The pieces are weighed and the results recorded
as the, original weight. The samples are pfaced in an oven heated to 212°F and left until all
the moisture has been removed. The weights are then checked several times until it is found
that the pieces are no longer- (osing weight, and are constant. The pieces are removed from
the oven and weighed immediately.
This result is recorded as the oven-dry weight. Then the moisture content can be cal
culated using this formula.
Moisture content
(tn percent)
Three (3) categories of Lumber
original weight - even-dry weight x 100
oven-dry weight
1-. Yard Lumber-Ufed for ordinary light construction and finishing work arid consists
of 1 and 2 in. material manufactured into common boards, shiplap, shelving dimen-
sion lumber (2 x 2 in to 2 x 12 in.) Center match, flooring, roof plank, siding, V-joint,
trim and molding of all kinds. These are usuaHy found in retail lumberyards.
Exsmples;
Tand G-tongue and groove (for flooring)
1,. X 4'", 1 "' X 6" and 1'" X 8"
S-Cut -stone cut (for sidings)
1"x4", 1"x6"and 1"x8"
-,
Bead
V-cut (for sidings)
Lj
"'51Z*(
~ ~
Rizal Cut
Concave
mnf]))JD
r;J17llr?
1·xs"
. .._,..{ /2
tS
2'"x2"
n
2"x to•
35
36
Mouldings
Convex
Quarter round a
2. Shop Lumber-usually left in 1 in. and 2 in. rough thickness often containing knots
or defects not ordi narily permissible in other categories. It is intended for use in
shops or mills making sash, doors and cabinets where it will be cut into relatively
short pieces and the defective material discarded.
3. Structui'BI Lumber - is intended for use in heavy construction for load-bearing pur-
poses and is cut into timbers of lluger size than yard lumber. 3 in. or more thick and 4
in. or more wide. It is made from the heartwood of the log.
Finishes of wood
- surfacing or planing of o.1e side
- two sides planed
- four side$ planed
- as sawn and not planed
Wood GRAIN
a. Edge grain-annual rings run approximately at right
angle to the face.
b. Flat grain-_when the annual ri ngs run mbre or less
parallel to the surface.
c. Angle grain-when the annual rings are at about 45° to
theface. •
SEASONING OF LUMBER
As clay is burned, steel is tempered, so lumb"r must be dried. Water content represents 30
to 100 percent or more of the dry weight of a Two methods .for drying of lumber.
1. Air-drying -lumber is strip-piled at a slope on a solid foundation. This allows air to circu-
late around every piece while the sloping allows water to run off quickly.
.........
. 2. Kiln-drying IK.O.) more expensive lumber which is required for more refined uses so as
wood will not move, such as furniture. Flooring and general interior use. It must be dried
to a moisture content of not more than 5 to 10 percent. This is done in a dry kiln -a large
airtight structure, scientifically heated by steam pipes- in whi ch the lumber is artificially
dried to the correct moisture content. K.D. takes days or weeks as opposed to sun dried
which will take months in a drying yard.
Treated Lumber
Pressure treated lumber-when lumber is subjected to pressure and injected with
chemicals or salts to insure it from rots.
a. wolmanized -wolman salt
·b. tanalized
c. permanized
d. boliden
These are some patented pressurized lumber in the market.
UNIT OF MEASUREMENT
The board foot, a piece of lumber 12 in. wide and 1 in. thick and one foot long is the unit of
measurement. 1" x 12"i < 1'-0" or 1 x 12/12 x 1'-0" = 1 bd. ft .
Example: 18 pes. - 1 "··x 12" x 20 feet - 360 bd.ft. ·
So
18 pes.- 1" x 6" x 20 feet - 180 bd. ft.
Convert the width into feet by dividing into 12
18 - 2" x 8" x 24 feet
18 - 2" X 8/12 X 24 - 276 bd. ft .
22 - 3 X 10 X 18 - 990 bd. ft.
SPECIFICATION WHEN BUYING LUMBER
Indicate no. of pieces, thickness, width, length, total bd.ft . . kind of lumber and finish.
. .
Example: 6 - 2" X 8" X 14' -0" = 112 bd. ft. tanguile S4S
GlUE lAMINATED TIMBER
Term used to describe a wooden member bu"ilt up of several layers of wood whose grain di-
rections' are atl substantially parallel. And held together with glue as fastening commonly
·used for beams, girders, posts, cOlumns, arches, bowstring truss chorps, usually softwoods
are commonly used because ·of their low cost, lightness and strength.
37
--


38
Advantages of Glue-laminated timbers
1. may be built up to any desired size from small components, easing up of transportation

2. trees which are too small for production of large sawn timbers will produce material
which is perfectly satisfactory for laminated members.
3. low grade lumber can be used in sections of laminated timbers, reducing the overall
cost.
4. lumber to be used in laminating can be seasoned much more quickly and easily while in
small units.
5. laminated members are dry when erected resulting in the minimum amount of deflection
due to loading.
6. a camber or crown can be built into laminated timbers to take care of deflection due to
loading.
7. curved members such as arch ribs are easily made by bending thin sections to the re-
Quired curvature and laminating them.
8. it is possible to taper certain sections of a member in proportion to the diminishing
stresses, producing more graceful structure.
9. in general, variation in strength from one timber to arlother will be lela than with sawed
timbers.
10. subject to certain limitations, it is possible to use two or more speciel together combin-
ing advantages of economy of low strength species and superior qualities of high-
strength wood.
Preparation and Arrangement of Laminations
Laminations should be dressed to uniform thickness to avoid thick .-..lftes, Of unglued
areas. When end joints have to be made; the should be scarfed
}
and end joints should be spaced as show below.
JL+ ft.
r--.
--
'
.,.
GLUE USE IN LAMINATING
a. casein glue- satisfactory for use in dry -lOcations not exposed to rain or water.
b. Ur:es-lormaldehyde resins - cheap al)d .well cure at from 70°F up. Will withstand
soaking in cool water.
c. Phenol-formaldehyde-resin gfues :..... not usually recommended because of the
high temperature needed to cure them·. Useful for combining timber and plywood
and are very water-resistant.
d. Resorcinol- phenol- _glu.es are expensive _but have ex-
cellent qualities of durability arid water resistance. •
5TREG5ED Q<JN PANELS
39
BOXED BEAM
l
CURVED

r J
r
I
:1
TAPF-JC!ED

LAMINATED BEAM5
LAMJNA'TED .ARCHES
40
.CHAPTER
BOARDS
A group of sheets of building materials often faced with paper or vinyl, suitable for use as a
finished surface on walls, ceilings, etc. This group.of boards are all flat, relatively thin in sec-
tion and have been made to standard sizes, usually 4 x 8ft. These building boards are made
of several materials and used for a variety of purposes.
KINDS OF BUILDING BOARDS
· · ·1. Plywood
·
a:· frisulating fiberboard
4. · Chipboard
5. i,',article board
6. Gypsum board
7. Strawboard
8. Asbestos-cement board
9 .. Corkboard
10. Paperboard
11 ... Mineral fiberboard
foamboards
PROPERTIES OF WOOD
One of the main advantages of plywood is that it has good strength across as well as along
the panel. The more plies there are in a panel, the more nearly equal the strength in both di-
rections will be.
The tendency to swell and shrink is neutralized to a large extent, because in plywood ap-
proximately half the wood grain runs in one direction and the other half at the right angles to
it.
Plywood has a greater to blows. than ordinary wood.
Plywood cannot be split in the plane of the panel because of its successive layers at right
angles to one another. Nails and screws can be driven very close to the edge of the panels
without danger of splitting.
Plywood can be bent more easily then ordinary wood of the same thickness. The radius of
curvature depends on the thickness of the panel and is limited by the strength of the outer
piles in tension and by the strength of the inner plies in compression.
Plywood offers innumerable possibilities for decoration because of the great variety of colors
and textures that can be produced on'the face piles.
Decorative effects also can be applied to the face ply by sandblasting, by pressure, or by
etching with wire brushes.
1. PLYWOOD
42
Plywood is made by bonding together thin layers of wood in a way the grain of each
layer is at right angles to the grain of each adjacent laye.r.
"l!

Each layer of plywood is called a Veneer,and commonly made by rotary cutting-a method
of cutting wood veneer in a log is fixed in a lathe and rotated against a knife so that ·
the veneer is peeled from the log in a continuous sheet.
Waterproof glue is applied by machine to the face plies, core, and crossbonds. They are
assembled into plywood form and placed in hot presses which compress the veneers into
Solid.Sheela of approximately th8 ·,;Riper thickness. At the same time the heat cures the glue,
a process whiCh takes trom 2 to 20 minutes.
TYPES OF Pl YWGlOD
1. Marine plywood -absolutely waterproofed
2. Fancy plywood -non waterproofed for panellings and cabinets.
Narra bookmatched
Kalantas rotary cut
Ribbon grained tanguile
lal.Mif'l rotary cut
Dao bookmatched
Rosewood
Tanguile
3. Ordinary plywood
4. Form plywood
5. Pre-finished plywood paneling (Brand Danarra)
a. Paper-overlaid
b. in 14 color tones, no need to varnish or paint. Nailed through
V-grooves or glued. Comes in three pre-cut sizes and two series, the morocco
aeries and papyrus series.
43
44
book matched-the assembling of wood veneers from the same flitch so that successive
sheets are alternated face up and face down.
ribbon grained -a seri es of strips uniting several parts.
Sizes
Common size is 3 x 6 feet and 4 x 8 teet. Other panels special sizes are 3' x 7'. 4 x 6', 4 x 7'. 4'
X 9', 4' X 10', 5' X 8', 5' X 9' and 5' X 10'. .
Thickness
6 mm - 1 I 4" - double walling
g mm - 3 / 8 " - double walling
12 mm - 1 /2 " - drawers, shelves
15 ·mm - 5 / 8" - drawers, shelves
18 mm - 3 /4" - cabinet closet doors
25 mm - 1 " - cabinet closet doors
2. HARDBOARD
Made from processed wood chips. Chips of controlled size are subjected to high-pressure
steam in pressure vessels. When the pressure is released the chips " explode" and the cellu-
lose and lignin are separated from the unwanted elements and then mixed into a homo-
genous mass and formed into a continuous board which is. cut up into convenient lengths.
These are pressed into uniform, hard, grainless sheets in heated presses. The'?'are smooth
on one side and with a overlap-like impression on the other side.
Three grades of board
a. Standard-fl exi ble to be quite easily bent. It is light brown and is produced in thick-
nesses of 1/ 8, 3/ 16, 1/4, and 5/ 16 in .. Boards are 4 feet wide and are available in
lengths of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 and 16 feet. This grade of hardboard is not suitable for
exterior work.
b. Tempered hardboard- is made by impregnated standard board with a tempering
compound of oil s and resin and baking it to polymerize the temperi ng material.
Tempered hardboard is dark brown in color and is available in thicknesses of 1/8,
3/ 16, 1/ 4, 5/16 and 3/8 in. This board is brittle and stiff, has improved machining
qualities and much greater resistance to water penetration, making it suitable for ex-
terior use-.
c. Low-density hardboard - Not as strong and durable as standard hardboard.
Some specially products of hard board
,,. · ~ ~ ~ · ~ : ~ ? ' ·
.. ~ > ~ · · ... ·.
·-::::'!
r:
:_' _j
PLAIN MOROCCO LEATHER GTUCCO
r--,

l
-..

·;

.,
'
.

SAWALl
LOWER BQARO
I
o o :· o o o
(?. .: .. ,q'!: 0." 0 0
'' ,; ' ''
· O:;j.o · o 0 .Q
o ?< o o ci '1 · •
. .. . "· .
.
· o o o ·.
PERFORATED OR
DISPLAY. BOAAo
GROOVED BQ.o\RD f='INE WEAVE
LACE. OR
3. INSULATING FIBERBOARD
Made from three types of fiber-wood, sugar cane, and asbestos, and binder, formed into a
board.

a. Wood fibers are produced by pressing logs against a grindstone
which breaks down the wood into fibers or by making 5/8" chips
from logs and charging them into pressure vessels where they are
softened with live steam. They are then sheared to break chips
down into fibers.
Two basic grades of board are made:
a-1 Insulating grade -made up as insulating, decorative p(lnels, -
decorative ceiling tile, V·notch plaster base, and roof insula-
tion. Standard thicknesses are 1/2, 5/8, 3/4 and 1 in.
a-2 Sheathing grade - Oroe having both surfaces and all edges
coated with asphalt and the other with the fibers impregnated
with asphalt during manufacture.
b. Cane fiberboards is· made by shredding cane and processing the fibers in much the same
Y"av as wood fibers.
c. Mineral fiberboard is made from asbestos fibers mixed with a cementing agent. This type
of board is used primarily for fireproofing and acoustical purposes.
45
46
4. CHIPBOARD
A large class of building board made from wood and particles and a binder, often faced with
veneer. Chipboard is made by binding phenolic resin or urea formaldehyde glue in the
form of a 4ft. wide ooard, length from 8to 16feet long with thicknesses 1/ 4, 5/ 16, 3/ 8, 1/ 2,
5/ 8, and 3/ 4 in.
Panefs.are made in two types, plain and pattemed. Plain panels may be unsanded, sanded
on one side, or sanded two sides. Patterned panels have one grooved surface, either evenly
spaced or random.
Chipboards are used both for interior and exterior which include sheathing for walls, and
roof, subflooring, fence panelling, and commercial exteriors and interiora. The board lends
itsetf to a range of stain and paint finishes, an advantage for interior use, while at the same
time, its weather resistance make it valuable as an outdoor material. Hardwood plywood can
also be laminated to chipboard for interior finishing panel.
5. PARTICLE BOARD
A,hardboard made from relatively small particles. The particles are graduated from coarse at
. the center of the board to fine at the surface to help produce a product; with a smooth, dense
8oth aurfacae are sanded, and one lllrface.and the edges may be fined to provide a
still smoother denses surface for particular uses.
Common uses are floor underlay, using polyvinyl acetate adhesive-, divergent point staples
Qr annufar-grooved underlay flooring nails for fastening. .
,..
.. ;.,. ...
.-..;-"':.t·:.'-·
.-... · '· . ,..:
:_ •, r-; ; : :
:P'·: ';..: .. ,.,. .',"

_,. __ ·: . .,.
. .
... -
. : . .,., ....
·: .. :_ '
"";. :., ... --
-
-- ,
-
.-
6. GYPSUM BOARD
Also use for shelving, with fined edges, as core stock in
mfllwc.dt and furniture manufacturing, and as a base to which
may · be ·applied wood veneers, plastic laminates, printed
wood grain patterns, chalkboard coating. Sizes are 4 x 8ft, 2
x 4ft, and 4 x 4ft. includes 1/ 4, 5/ 16,3/ 8, 1/ 2,
5/8, 1 1/16, 3/4 and 1 in .
A wall board having a gypsum core. One type is a pcard with a special paper face on which a
variety of wood-grain patterns may be printed. Such a board may be nailed with special co-
lored nails, or glue laminated to an interior surface to produce a wood-grain effect.
Another type is a gypsum board faced with a vinyl sheet, made to imitate a textile surface.
This is. either glued in place or held by afuminum or plaStic moldings.
7. STRAWBOARD
A hardboard made of compressed wheat straw, processed at 350 to 400°F and covered with
a tough kraft paper. ·
Two grades:
a. Structurttl boardt-is manufactured 2 in. thick, 4ft. wide and 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10ft.
long. It is used for nonbearing partitions, as a plaster base, for insulating purposes
exterior sheathing, roof decking, and as an inner form face for concret& basement
wall forms.
b. Insulation gl'tlde-also 2 in. thick and 4ft. wide but comes in 5 ft. lengths onty. It is
intended primarily for roof deck insulation.
8. ASBESTOS-CEMENT BOARD
A dense, rigid, board containing a high proportion of asbestos fibers bonded wiih portland
cement, resistant to fire, flame, and weathering, has low ; esistance to heat flow. Used as a
building material in sheet form and corrugated sheeting.
Flal boards are made 1/8, 1/4, 3/8, and 1/2 in. thick; 4ft: wide, and from 6 to 12 feet long.
Various types of corrugated sheets are made from the 5ame material.
All types of asbestos-cement boards must be drilled for the insertion of screws, bolts, or
other fasteners.
9. CORKBOARD
From the outer bark of the cork oaktree, cork granules is mixed with synthetic resin, com-
pressed· and formed into sheet from 1 to 6 in. thick and baked under pressure into rigid
boards. ·
The standard board length is 36 in. and widths are 12, 18, 24, and 36 in. Corkboard is used
almost exclusively for thermal insulating material and vibration control.
tT:'i .. , ....
. . .
' . . ...· . .... .
·10. PAPERBOARD
Made In two different types:
a. A paper rntfp pressed into boards 3/ 16, or 1/ 4 in. thick, 4ft. wide, and 6, 1 or 8ft.
long. Usually one surface is primed fpr finishing.
b. A layer of stiff paper folded into corrugated form and faced on both sides with a
thick paper backing, cemented to the core.
zsz
:s: z-
I
47
48
11. MINERAL FIB.ERGROUND
. .
Thick mats of mineral fibers, usually glass or rock wool are covered with a backing of sti ff
paper on one or both sides to form rigid boards, ranging in thickness from 1/2 to 2 in . . The
usual board size is 24 x 48 in. These units are used for roofdeck insulation and are cemented
to the deck with asphalt adhe.sive.
12. PLASTIC FOAMBOARDS
Polystyrene and polyurethane P.lastics are formed by a patented process to about 40 times
their original volume. This foamed material is molded into boards fro'm 1/2 to 3 in. thick, 12
or·24 in. wide, and from 4 to 12ft. long. Used for perimeter insulation for concrete floor slabs,
for wall and roof-deck jnsulation, and for roof decks when properly supported.
These plastic boards have high insulation value and relatively high compressive strength,
and are flexiple enough to fit over curved surface.
BUILDING PAPERS
In building construction, paper is used for sheathing, roofing and insulation, in making
asphalt shingles, laminated and corrugated building products, and concrete form materials,
as a moisture and vapor barrier: as a cushioning material; as wall-paper; as an envelope or
sheathe for other materials; and as a fireproofing material.
Most paper is made from cellulose fibers which comes from wood pulp, but wastepaper. jute
waste, Manila hemp, rags, straw and bagasse (cane and corn stalks) are also utilized.
TYPES OF WOOD PULP
a. Mechlutical Pulp -or groundwood, is by grinding blocks of wood against a
revolving abrasive stone or by grinding steamed wood chips in a grinding mill.
b. Chemical pulp -produced by digesting wood chips in various chemicals to free the
cellulose fibers from the liquid binding.
c. Semi-chemical pulp -wood chips are first subjected to a mild chemical treatment and
then mechanically disintegrated in rotating disk refiners.
TYPES OF PAPER
1. Sheathing paper - paper used to provide an airtight barrier over walls, floors etc.
Two Types:
a. Plain psper-either a low-cost paper made from a mixture of semichemical pulp and
waste paper or a tough paper made from kraft pulp.
b. ASfMhlllt lmpregltlltfld or·costed felt or kf'llft PllfiM-varioos amounts of asphalt ·
are used per hundred square feet of paper so that papers of various weights are
made, from 4 to 10 lb. per square. These are what is known as breather papers. im-
pervious to water but not to water vapor .
..
2. Roofing Paper
a. Roofing felts-those which are used in making a built-up roof and are pro-
duced in 36 in. wide rolls, in various weights from 3 to 20 lb. per square.
b. R e l l e ~ roofing -a heavy, mineral surfaced paper used as a final roof covering,
made 18 and 36 in. wide, in various weights from 45 to h20 lb. per square.
3. Insulating Paper
The primary obj ective in the production of this type of-paper is to secure bulk and en-
trapped air with as much strength as possible. Insulating papers are made both from.
a. We_ad-fiber insulating paper -- is made from groundwood or bagasse with some
wastepaper pulp added. The paper is usually gray, produced in 36 in. wide rolls,
weighing about 9 lb. per square. It is used for insulating walls, ceilings and floors.
b. Asbestos fibers -a soft, pliable paper used for insulating p1pes carrying steam,
boilers, and other vessels with high temperatures. It is produced in various weights
from 5 to 10 lb. per square. a heavier asbestos-felt paper is prortuced for use as a
built-up roofing material. It is saturated with asphalt and producerl in rolls 36 in. wide
weighing approximately 15 lb .. per square.
4. Cushioning Paper
Similar to wood-fiber insulating paper, but less attention is paid to strength. Its Ghief use
is for cushioning under linoleum, carpets, or slate roofing.
5. Vapor-Barrier Paper
These paper, which are intended to prevent the passage of moisture vapor through
walls, ceilings and floors, are made in three different types.
a. Wsxf!d papsr-made from strong light kraft in three grades commonly known as x,
XX, XXX.
b. Two thicknesses of paper laminated together with a film of asphalt. Two kinds of
paper is used - One is a kraft paper, the other, a mixture of ground wood pulps,
treated by the sulfite and the kraft methods.
c. A sh·eet of kraft paper laminated to copper foil by an asphalt f ilm. This is a heavy duty
material used for vapor barrier and· tor flashing.
6. Laminating Paper
This is a special, high strength kraft paper made for use in the production of plastic lami-
nates. The thin, strong paper is impregnated with liquid_plastic resin and several sheet
are laminated together under heat and pressure to form the- base for the plastic sheet.
' '
·:...
50
7. Concrete Form Paper
a. A form made from strong kraft paper in the form of a spiral tube. These are used as
column forms and as ducts and core forms in concrete floors.
b. A boxlike form made from corrugated container paper. This is unbleached kraft paper
sized with resin and coated with wax sizing and starch to make it abrasion resistant.
These forms are used in forming ribbed concrete slabs.
8. Wallpaper
Paper from which decorative wallpaper is made. This is produced in two grades.
a. No. 1 hanging-made from bleached sulfite or bleached soda pulp, mixed with not
more than 20 percent high-quality groundwood. Talc is used as a filler, rosin and
sodium silicate as sizing. The paper is coated with a clay film bound to the paper with
case in, and the design is printed over the clay coating.
b. No.2 hanging - from 72 to 90 percent ground wood and the rest unbleached sulfite.
Little filler is used, but the paper must be sufficiently sized to stand the application of
water paste without wetting or breaking through.
9. ·Envelope Paper
Paper is used as an outer covering or envelope for a number of building materials. One
of these is gypsum board, composed of a layer of calcined gypsum covered in both sides
by a sheet of kraft paper. A number of insulating materials are enveloped in a kra'ft paper
cover, sometimes plain, sometimes asphalted.
10. Fire Proofing Paper
Made from asbestos fibers, since this is an incombustible material. The material maybe
in the form of matted paper, similar to asbestos insulating or roofing paper, or it may be
in the form of a bloth woven from thread spun from asbestos fibers.

CHAPTER
52
BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
BITUMEN
I
A generic name applied to a semisolid mixture of complex hydrocarbons, derived from coal
or petroleum, as a coal-tar pTtch or
Tar - the resulting condensate when destructive distillation is carried out on sikh ma-
r:·· terials as wood coal, shale, peat or bone.
Pitch -a solid or semi-solid residue produced from partial evaporation or fractional dis-
•. · · tillation of tar.
Coal-tar pitch-most common material of this kind of pitch.
,..... .. . . r
brown or black solids or which are found in the natural
state and are also produced by the refming of petrol eum.
Bitumens are useful in construction industry since it has the tendency to adhere to a
solid surface. It has good water resistance.
TYPES OF BITUMENS
1. Tar and Pitch - made by the distillation of coal. Tar is used to saturate felt paper and to
coat kraft paper to render it waterproof. The coal -tar pitch is used in making pitch and
gravel built-up roofs.
2. Asphalt-asphalt used results from the refining of naphtha crude oils. which produce
aviation grade gasoline, fuel oil, cold test lubricating oils. and asphalt. The properties of
this residual , known as straight run asphalt, depend on the nature of the crude oil from
which it was refined and the conditions of refining.
Three main gro!JpS of asphalt products produced from straight-run asphalts.
1. hot asphalts, those softened by heat.
2. Cutback asphalts, 'those dissolved in mineral solvents.
3. emulsion asphalts-those dispersed or suspended in a water base.
USES OF BITUMENS
.. , . Adhesiveness and· water proofing qualities, along with IQ$f cost, make bitumens useful as a
· protective agent in built-up roofing, prepared roofing, and prepared siding. They are used as
water proofing and damproofing agents and as vapor barriers. In addition, they are widely
used as adhesives and Sealants. ·
The forms in· which bitumen is used for any of these purposes depends on the quality and
characteristics
a. felts:-used in built-up roofing, as a base for prepared roofings and
as a membr_ane for proofing, and as underlays for floors-require a
parttcular grade of bttumen. The asphalt commonly used in the preparation of such
felts has a softening point of approximately 140°F and a penetration value of 50.
b. roofing products are coated with asphalt after being saturated. The coat-
tng grade asphalts used are generally no. 1 cutbacks with softening point of from 200
to 240°F. ·
.. -......
c. As waterproof coating for walls and to make waterproof membranes in buildings and
other structures.
d. Used in the manufacture of sealants, acoustical coatings paints, floor tile and mastic
flooring, wt)erein mineral matter is added.
e .. Used as a binder for aggregates in pavements, the asphalt is made into liquid by
heating, cutting with sotvent, or by emulsifying with water and in its capacity as a
cement, mixed with gravel , crushed stone and sand.
Liquid Paving Asphalts-liquid asphalts used for paving are cutbacks. When gasoline is
used as a solvent, a rapid curing liquid . asphalt is the result; kerosene, medium curing
asphalt; a heavier fuel oils produce a slow-curing asphalt. -
Asphalt paving cements -used as binders for more expensive asphalt pavements.
53
/
CHAPTER
56
FERROUS AND NONFERROUS METALS
FERROUS-metal in which iron is the principal element.
NONFERROUS -containing no, or very little iron.
I. FERROUS METAL
Steel - a malleable alloy of iron and carbon produced by melting and refining pig iron and/ or
scrap steel, graded according to. the carbon content. Other elements such as manganese and
silicon may be incl uded to provide special properties.
Produce by three basic raw materials, iron ore, and limestone. (coal is converted into coke in
coke ovens} Five particles of all three basic ingredients of steel, which otherwise would be
waste, are blended and burned on a moving gate to cause the formation of clinkers. These
are catted sinter, a high-grade blast-furnace charge material.
From These, raw materials which is melted into ingots place in molds, a great variety of pro-
ducts used .in construction are made. They include: ·
.1. Rolled structural shapes 7. Bolts
2. Rods 8. Rivets
3. Bars 9. Nails
4. Plates 10. Sheet Steel
5. Pipe 11 Others
6. Wire
Cold- rolled sheets are glavanized (given a zinc coating). Pig iron is used to make cas1
iron which is high i n compressive strength but low in tensile strength, and has little use for
construction. However since it is cheap and easy to cast, it is used for pumps, motors,
c;ngines and because of its corrosion resistance it is used for pipes to some extent.
Wrought iron is produced when pig iron is metted in such a way as to remove nearly all of
the ·carbon and other impurities. It is ea€ily worked and is tough and ductile. It's main u s e ~
are for roofing sheets, wire and metal ornaments.
Alloy steels are made by combining others elements with the molten steel. Nickel,
chromium copper and manganese are used.
Nickel steel is stronger than carbon steel and is used to make structural members for
buildings chromium steel is very hard and corrosion-resistant.
Stainless steels are made with chromium or a combination of nickel and chromium used in
buildings for exterior wall panels, frames for doors, expansion joints, flashings, copings,
fascia and gravel stops.
Copper - bearing steel has high resistance to corrosion and is used for making sheet steel
and metal lath.
Manganese steel -offers great resistance to abrasion and finds important use in the cut-
ting edges of heavy digging tools.
Weathering steel-recently developed grade of steel. It forms its own protection against
atmospheric corrosion and thus requires no painting. It also undergoes a unique color
transformation during ·the weathering process, from orange to brown and finally to blUe-
gray. This is used on bridges, buildings and other applications.
..
STEEL PRODUCTS
1. Rolled Structural shapes
z
wrre FLANGr!
•/10.:
T
L
T
ANGLE J: -BEAM
2. Sheet pifing -sections are made to interlock and are available in several s h a p e ~
3. Steel pipe -seamless or welded. small diameter pipe and electrically welded large dia·
meter pipe.
*seamless pipe made by forcing a solid hot rod over a· pointed mandrel to
form a hollow tube.
* either hot-rolled or cold-rolled steel strip called skelp, can be used to make
resistance-welded pipe or tubing. Coils of skelp are welded together end
to end, and rolls form the strip into a continuous cylinder.
A large diameter pipe is made by having plates with proper width, beveled
edges and placed in a press wl1ich forms them into cylinders. The two
edges are welded together and the pipe is brought to its final diameter by
hydraulically expanding the welded sheet against a retaining jacket .
t
58
4. Reinforci ng steel-made from new steel or from discarded railway-car axles or rails.
ReiRforcing steel comes in plain or deformed bars, that is, bars which have lugs or de-
formations rolled on the surface to provide anchorage in concrete. ·
OR
SIZES-start with no. 2 or 1/4 in. (divide a number of bar by 8 to get the equivalent in
inch diameter).
No.2 = 2/8" or 1/4" 0
=
8mm
No. 3 = 3/ 8" - 3/ 8" 0 10 mm
No.4 = 4/8" or 1/2" 0 12 mm
No. 5 = 5/8" - 5/8" 0 16 mm
No. 6 = 6/8" or 3/4" 0 20mm
No.7 = 7/ 8" - 7/ 8" 0 - 22mm
No. 8 = 8/8" or 1" C!f
=
25mm
No. 9 = 9/8" or 1 1 /8" 0
=
3omm
5. Welded Wi re Fabric - another type of reinforcing material. lt consists of parallel, longi-
tudinal wires welded to wires at regular intervals. (cold drawing process)
u
(i>
.....,
1
I
cF-1
'1.''
04
6 in x 12 in x 1 0/4
First .Figure spacing of longitudinal bar.
Secol")d Figure spacing of transverse wire.
Third Figure gauge of16ngitudinal bar.
Fourth Figure gauge of transverse wire.
in rolls-5 to 6 feet wide and up to 200ft. long
in sheets- up to 32ft. long, not usually ·over 8ft. wide .
6. Steel Wire-over 150,000 uses for wire including pins, needles, nails, bolts, cables,
piano wire, fences.
7. Bolts and Nuts ..._ (either hot forged or cold-formed from wire of the appropriate dia-
meter). For .. bolts, wire is fed .an automatic bolt-makiQ..o which cuts to
length heads, trims, points, and, in many cases rolls the thread.
8. Steel strapping-made from high-tensile flat wire in a number of sizes. Used for band-
ing column forms to keep them from bulging under the pressure of freshly poured con-
crete. A tightener tightens it and the.two lapped ends is sealed.
9. Open web steel joists -lightweight w,arren-type trusses made in several different
styles.
59
..
10. Sheet Steel -black and galvanized, can be used to manufacture corrugated roofi ng
and siding and formed steel decki'ng·. Corrugated sheets have one edge turned up, one
down.
Comes in 27 1 /2" wide and lengths .5 ft . up to 12ft. Siding sheets are made with both
edges turned in the same direction.
il
Corrugated roofing sheets are al so utilized as decking for flat roofs with light loads. In
such cases the corrugated deck is used as a base on which to" pour a concrete slab or· as a
base for a built-up roof.
Formed-steel decking is produced in a variety of shapes and styles using various thick-
nesses of metal. from 12 to 22 gauge and sections are made in spans of from 4 to 36
feet.
Two basic styles are open-faced decking and cellular decking which allow easy distribu-
tion of electric systems and outlets.
J! 1 w
1 r L
60
OPEN -!=AGED
CELLULAR
11 . Steel studs -lightweight, reqUirtng minimum storage space and does not warp or
shrink. Fasteners do not pop, and joints stay· Much faster to install than wood-
stud installation. Availabl e in 1 5/8, 2 1/2 and l' 5/8 inches.
Plumbing ·stacks and electrical components fit easily into a steel-framewall.
12. Pans and domes - manufactured for use in forming one-way and two-way ribbed con-
crete floor systems.
MOULDS
II. NONFERROUS METALS
£HAPE OF CONCRETE CEILING
~ GEEN BELOW
..
ALUMINUM -Its ore, bauxite, requires 10 kilowatt hours for each pound of metal alumi-
num extracted. The reddish brown ore is washed and treated in a soda solution to yield a
chalky-white powder called alumna, containing a high concentration ot aluminum.
Aluminum is a lustrous, si:ver-white. nonmagnetic: lightweight metal which is very mallea-
ble; has good thermal and electrical conductivity; a good reflector of both heat and light. In
construction, most aluminum is used in alloy form (manganese to increase strength, silicon
or magnesium producing alloy which have good corrosion resistance, also copper and zinc
to produce alloy with high strength to-weight ratios} because of added strength; further
strengthened by heat treatment; used in extrusions, castings and sheets. Excellent resist-
ance to oxidation; often anodized for better corrosion resistance, surface hardness, and/ or
architectural color requirements.
Structural shapes are used as structural members in building construction. in the same
way that steel structural members are used.
Architectural shapes are widely used for door and window jambs, curtain-wall, panel
frames; thresholds; treads, handrails; door and window stiles, rails, muntins and bars.
DOOR RAIL
0 tu81NG
One of the advantages of the extr.usion fabricating process is that components for cer-
tain parts of a building may be designed to interlock.
61
62
Sheet aluminum, plain sheets are used for flashing, roofing, roof drains, chimney caps,
air ducts, louver blades, etc.
To improve its appearance and to increase its resistance to weather and corrosion, A
treatment called Anodizing is done. This is a combined electrical and chemical process,
which hardens anci increases the thickness of the natural oxide coating on aluminum and to
provide a hard, noncorrosive, electrolytic, oxide film on the surface of aluminum or other
met<Us, by electrolytic action.
Such anodized sheets are used for shingles siding, curtain wall panels, and acoustic
ceilings.
• Aluminum Foil - used as a vapor barrier on walls and ceilings and as reflective insulatiofl.
Copper ...:.. a lustrous reddish metal , highly ductile and maUeable; has high tensile strength, is
an excellent electrical and thermal conductor, is availabfe in a wide variety of shapes; widely
used for downspouts, electrical conductors, flashings, gutterS, roofing, etc.
Copper alloys are brasses, and bronzes.,which contain primarily zinc and tin, respective-
ly, and the alloys containing nickel.
• Brasses are used in architectural and hardware applications. Bronze are used rn the product-
ion of springs:
Lead -a soft, malleable, heavy metal; has low melting.point and a high coefficient of ther-
mal expansion. Very easy to cut and work, enabling it to be fitted over 'uneven surfaces.
Used fCir roofing, flashing and spandrel wall panels.
Tin -a lustrous white, soft and malleable metal having a low melting point; relatively unaf-
fected by exposure to air; used for making alloys and solder and in coating sheet metal.
CHAPTER
64
GLASS
A hard brittle inorganic substance, ordinarily transparent or translucent; produced by
melting a mixture of silica, a flux and a stabilizer; while molten, may be blown, drawn, rolled,
pressed or cast to a variety of shapes.
Giass has no definite melting point . When it is heated, it first softens so that it can be bent.
Further heating brings it to the point when it becomes thick, syrupy liquid, a state in which it
can be worked. Fif.!ally at still higher temperatures it becomes a thin, watery liquid.
MANUFACTURING
1. SHEET GLASS (ordinary window glass)
The raw materials, sand, soda and limestone, are first ground to a fine state and mixed in
the proper proportions. This mixture, known as frit, is tied into the filling end of a furnace
and melted. Sometimes, cullet (broken glass) is also fed in to the furnace.
To form the glass into a sheet, it first passes from the furnace tank into a drawing kiln,
from here it is drawn up in the form cif a sheet into a series of rollers. These sheets of flat
drawn glass are cooled slowly in a cooling chamber known as annealing lehr. This type of
glass is used where vision is required but where cost is an important factor. The surface is
good but never free from distortion as the two surfaces of the sheet are not perfectly pa-
rallel. ·
2. PLATE GLASS
A high quality glass sheet of the same chemica! composition as sheet glass. Plate glass
can be produced in thicknesses of from 1/ 8 to 1 1/ 4 the special thick glasses
ate usually cast rather than made by the continuous flow This is special because
both surfaces of the 100 in. wide ribbon of glass is simultaneously grinded by a twin
grinder unit, then when cut is polished with a jeweler' s rouge to give undist.orted, clear
vision and reflection.
3. FLOAT GLASS
A f lat glass produced by a new process. It combines the fire-finish of sheet with the per-
fect flatness of plate frit, the usual combination of raw materials is melted in an oil or gas-
fired furnace. The melted glass leaves the furnace and passes to a float bath where it is
supported on molten tin. Gravity keeps the liquid tin very flat, and heat, applied from
above melts out any irregularities in the glass, which is free to conform to the perfectly
flat til). As the ribbon of glass passes through the float bath, the heat is reduced until the
glass is sufficiently hard to be fed on to the rollers of the lehr without marking the
undersurface. After leaving tl)e lehr, the glass is cut into long lengths. This process is
suitable for thi cknesses of 1/8, 3/16, and 1/ 4 in.
TYPES OF GLASS
1. REFLECTIVE GLASS
Used to control glare and reduce solar heat. It is the product of a glass-coating process
which is carried out in a large, rectangular vacuurri ' chamber. The glass is coated with
micro-thin layers ·of metallic films which provide the performance characteristics of the
glass. It reduces solar heat gain by reflecting the sun's energy, resulting in savings in ini-
tial and operating costs of air conditioning. The reduced light transmission also dimi-
nishes interior glare and brightness . .
Manufactured in two types, silver and gold, the glass can be specified in any one of three
nominal light transmittances of 8, 14, or 20 percent. A chrome coating provides silvery
outdoor reflections and creates a cool effect during the while being neutrally
transparent from the inside. At night. the glass "reverse" itself by being transparent from
the outside and semireflective from the inside.
2. ROLLED AND ROUGH CAST GLASS
Similar to the process of making plate glass. Glass of this type is used where clear vision·
s not reqUired, such as by factory roofs and walls, windows for halls and staircases, sky·
lights, and partitions in offices. Cast glass diffuses light, and because of its low reflecting
and absorption index, transmits 90 to 93 percent of light rays striking it.
3. CATHEDRAL AND FIGURED GLASSES
Manufacturing is similar to rolled and rough cast glasses. However, they contain a pat-
tern or texture impressed usually on one surface by a patterned roller. Thicknesses vary
from 1/8 to 3/8 in. stock widths, from 40 to 50 in. with lengths up to 100 in.
Example of pattern glass
WALIN6 WAL.IfiG RS
AURORA R1
LUNINGNING R4 OAHUA RZ. 5AMPAGUITA
4. WIRED GLASS
Simply a rolled glass into which wire mesh is inserted during the process of manufacture.
The' wire greatly inqreases the resistance to shattering through impact wired glass as
made in thicknesses of 7/32, 1/4 and 3/8 in. Stock widths 47 to 49 in. and lengths up to
178 in. are produced.
65
66
5. HEAT-ABSORBING PLATE GLASS
This glass is made by adding ingredients to the mix used in making regular slate glass so
that the finished product is pale bluish-green or gray. Because of its chemical composi-
tion, this glass absorbs a significant percentage of the sun's radiant energy, thus reduc-
ing the build up of heat within the building . Its color and the fact that it possesses lower
light transmission than regular plate means that glare and brightness in the room are
reduced. This type of glass is quite widely used for glazing in office buildings, schools,
and hospitals.
6. TEMPERED PLATE GLASS
Three to five times as strong as regular plate. of. the same thickness- and area in resisting
compressive forces and fracture due to strain ()r thermal shock. It is made by reheating
and suddenly .cooling plate glass. As a result, the outer surfaces are under high compres-
sive stress, while the center portion remains in tension. This produces a condition that is
highly resistant to breakage. Tempered plate glass is used for swinging doors, sliding
patio doors. windows in gymnasiums and sports areas, skating rink enclosures, etc.
Available in thicknesses of 1/ 4, 3/ 8, 1 !2, 5/ 8, 3/ 4 and 1 in.Sizes of sheets vary with the
thickness, but the normal maximum size is 96 x 120 in.
7. VITREOUS COLORED PLATE
Polished plate glass can be heat-strengthened and coated on one side with vitreous color
which is fire-fused to the surface. The result is an opaque glass which is widely used in
curtain wall construct ion, store fronts, showrooms, laboratories and industrial buildings.
It should not be used as a glazing material but instead should be applied against a backup
of masonry or have some type of insulative backing. Normal thickness is 1/4 in.; maxi-
mum standard size, 72 x 120 in.
8. LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS (Bullet proofing)
Widely used in the automotive industry and transportation, but now finding some uses in
the buil ding industry, like glass that can withstand firearm attack and explosions. This is
made of two thicknesses of plate or sheet glass bonded by a thin, tough layer of
butyral resin, a transparent plastic.
Safety glass made from sheet glass Is produced in thicknesses of 9/64, 7/32, 15/64, and
1/ 4, maximum size of 7 sq. ft. for 9/ 64 thickness and 15 sq. h. for the rest.
Safety glass rnade from plate glass in produced in thicknesses of 1 I 4, 3/ 8, 1 / 2, 5/8, 3/4,
7/8 and 1 in. Units of all thicknesse.s are made in a miximum size of 72 x 138 in.
a s22lRA to tkB
.an.d by .ac;t..31n!k6 ¢MI fram.e . A y2'':¥
31r 12ft briWUI'l 'V+
or 4/s 111 .
.. ...
. '
9. INSULATING GLASS
This consists of two sheets of plate or sheet glass, separated by an air space, and joined
around the edges to produce a hermitically sealed unit.
There are three methods of sealing and all these sealed units provide thermal insulation
and greatly restrict condensation. They reduce external noise but stilt permit the entry of
natural light.
- Fused Gitis
an electrically fused all glass edge
sheet glass 3/ 32 or 1 / 8 in thick is used
with an air space of 3/ 16 in.
CLASSIFICATION OF SHEET GLASS
--lead
(
use of a strip of lead sealed to the
edges of the glass.
1. Window glass - used for gtazmg w1ndows doors and storm sash in residential buildings
where good light and vision are required at moderate cost. ihicknesses are 0.085 to 0.01
in. and 0.115 to 0.133 in.
2. Heavy sheet glass - used for glazing windows and doors where greater strength is re-
quired but where slight distortion is not objectionable. Commonly used for display cases,
shelving, window ventilators furniture tops and jalousies made of two thickrlesses 3/ 6
and 7/ 32.
3. Picture glass -used for covering pictures, photographs, maps, charts projector slides
and instrument dials. Thickness vary from .043 to 0.053 in., O.o58 to 0.068 in. and 0.07 to
0.08 in.
JALOUSIE
67
...
GLASS PRODUCTS
68
I. GLASS BLOCKS
Two types:
Compa_rable in many ways to unit masonry bi.Jt have the
added feature of transmitting light. They are made into
two· separate halves, which are heat-sealed together to
form a hollow unit with reasonably high thermal efficiency
and sound insulation. The edge surfaces of the block are
coated with a gritty mortar bond.
1. Functional blocks -direct or diffuse the daylight whi ch passes through them to im-
prove the illumination of the building interior.
Three styles of functional blocks:
a. A light directing block-directs incoming light upward toward the ceiling. Used
always above eye level.
b. A light diffusing block -diffuses incoming light evenly throughout the interior of
the room.
c. General purposes block
Size-S x 8 in. and 12 x 12 in. 4 in. thick ·
2. Decorative or architectural glass -available in a wide range of styles and patterns.
These glass masonry units provide almost unlimited design versatility when used in
window, openings and facades, as interior walls and divider paneling. Also used for
ceilings. Method of attachment is by gluing to a plywood background using rugby.
II. SOLID GLASS BRICK
Also made to admit light into a building, because of its solid construction, it offers greater
protection against vandalism than conventional window glass or glass blocks. The ability
of the brick is to allow undistorted passage of light.
Sizes 6 x 6 in., 8 x 8 in., 12-x 12 in., and 4 x 12 in.
·-
...
MILWAUKEE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING) INC .
.
.. mtrror
:. 11 Yz''x

AVail 1t1 it!b foUOwtt1g :
NSI! 105
Net 501
StU: z4•x (t'x3') pia111
Two
303
69
.,;
70
BJ:atk :arzhlt&.turJI m1rrZJr
· :arLhrtAt:furJjf mtrmr
>IU: 11Vi'x 11Y2.'' .
Z4''x 36'' .go) p/21n wrthout

A· 21 8t US. JALOUSIE- GRILL
JALOUSIES
MQOF SlATS STANOARO HEIGHT GLASS
OR WOOD
4 14"7/8
10
s
, . .. 3/8 ..
6
21• 7/8
11
7
2&·11a•
8
28- 718.
9
:a- 3/8.
10
35•7/8"
If 31•318"
12 42-ue•
TWO LEVERS
13 •
14 ··718
11
15 as-w•
16 K-718
11
17 so·Mt'
18
a - 718 ..
18 •7-v8·
20 70-'t/8
11
21
74- lf8.
22 77"718
23
81"3/8.
24 84•7/8
11
25 ee-318"
26
lt-7/Jr
21'
H-v8•
28
••·ue•
CHAPTER
..
o - . · · ·

72
PLASTICS
A large group of synthetic materials which are made from a number of common sub·
stances such as coal, salt, oil, natural gas, cotton; wood and water. From these, relatively
simple chemicals known as monomers, which are capable or reacting with Qne another are
produced. These are then built· up into chainlike molecules of high molecular weight called ·
polymers.
These polymers has low extensibility, can be molded, extruded cut, or worked into a
great variety of objects, rigid or non rigid, relatively light, are formed by condensatiQO
polymerization and py vinyl polymerization.
Plastic can be hard-soft, clear or opague., light or heavy, some are heat resistant and
some softened by hot water.
Two general classifications
1. Thermoplastics...: become soft when heated and hard when cooled. regardless of
the number of times .the process is repeated. Included in the thermoplastics are
acrylics polyethylene, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polysterene, polyallomers
polycarbonates, polyimide, polypropylene, polysulfone, phenylene oxide, nylons,
methyl pertenes,Jonomer;fluoroplastics,acetal and acryonitrilebutaqieniene sly_rene
lABS).
2. Thermosetting Plastics -set into a permanent shape when heat and pressure are
applied to them during the forming stage. Thermosetting group includes phenolics,
aminos (urea and melamine) epoxies, polyesters, polyurethane, alkyd silicones and
diallyl phthalate (OAP).
PRODUCTION
Plastic.products are formed by a number of methods which include:
a. Injection Molding Process- measured amount of powder or granules is heated
and when flowing forced through. the nozzle of the barrel into a shaped cavity,
Where it cools of solidities. (gears, knobs, wastebaskets)
b. Blow-Molding Process-an extruder extrudes a hollow tube whi ch is captured
between the two halves. of a hollow mold. As the mold closes, air is blown into the
tube and expand it ·to tit the inside surface of the mold. (water cans and bottles}
c. Rotational Molding -Used to form hollow units with complex shapes and heavy
walls, a premeasured amount of powder or liquid resin is placed at the bottom
half of a cold mold which is then closed. The mold is rotated horizontally and verti-
cally to distribute the material evenly over the inner mold surfaces, passed through
an over to heat and cure the plastic cooled, and finally opened to eject the product.
(Typical products are tanks·and heater ducts).
d. Expandable Bead Molding -a process used to produce light weight products of
polysterene foam, small granules of polysterene with a small amount of an expand-
ing agent are praced in a rolling dtum and steam heated. heat softens the granules,
and the expanding agent enlarges their size. When they reached their required size,
they are cooled, apd the expanded beads are transferred to a closed mold where
they are heated by steam. This softens them again, and they fuse together into a
block t Flotation equipment,. shipping containers and are typical pro-
ducts).
e. Compression Molding-A measured quantity of powder is placed in a heated
mold, which is then closed. Heat and pressure are applied to the powder which
melts and flows to all parts of the mold.
There it sets and is removed from the mold to cool. Thermosetting plastics are form-
ed by this method, tand radio, television chassis, handles and knobs are typical pro-
ducts).
f. Transfer Molding-similar to compression .molding except that the powder is
heated and liquified outside the mold and injected into the mol.d under heat and
pressure, where the forming and setting takes place. Phenolic is the most common
used plastic.
g. Foamed Plastics -are made by expanding agent with either granules or powder
and then heating it. Heat melts the plastic and causes the formation of a. gas which
expands the molten material into a foamed structure. It is quickly cooled to set the
material in its expanded state (upholstery, insulation and packaging fill}.
h. Thermoset Foam-Made by mixing the appropriate resin with a curing agent and an
.expanding agent and then heating them in a mold. The heat activates the expanding
agent and subsequently the cuFing agent so that the expanded material is set in that
state. (Usual products are thermal insulation shock absorbing pads, mattress pads
and furniture curshions).
i. Extrusion Forming-Used for mass-produced materials which have a constant
cross section, and it is done in two ways by forcing of semiliquid plastic through a
die of the proper size and shape in a manner similar to that used for forming brick by
extrusion. (Tubes, rods, water hose, drainpipes house siding and molding trim are
formed in this way}.
The other extrusion method involves forcing wire, cable or cord through a die
along with the plastic so that the material emerges with a plastic coating.
j. Thermoforming process-sheet plastic is heated until soft and then forced by air
pressure against a cold and hardens in shape (typical products include domed sky-
lights, refrigerator liners, cups etc.t
k. laminating Process-consists of impregnating sheets of paper, glass fiber, or
cloth with a thermosetting liquid resin and then applying heat and pressure to a
number of sheets to form a laminated product. (Plain and patterned wall paneling,
table top material and industrial laminate board)
I. Casting -a simple in which liquid plastics, with their appropriate curing
agents, are poured into molds and set, with or without heat. (typical casting pro-
ducts are pipes, rods, sheets).
m. Calendaring Process -plastic is fed to revolving rollers which turn out a thin sheet
or film the thickness of the product is by the roller spacing, and-the sur-
face of the sheet may be smooth or matted, depending on the roller surface.
In a somewhat similar process paper, metal, fabric, ceramics or other plastics
·are passed between roller which apply a plastic coating to one or both surface.
USES IN CONSTRUCtfON
Some plastic products are used as structural or semi-structural components, some as
auxiliarv materials ·and some as one of the components of a composite material.
a. Structural-a common plastic product used for this purpose is a glass. fiber rein-
f?rced corrugated sheet, made from acrylic, polyvinyl chloride, or p
0
1yester. These
plastics are not only transparent but also highly resistant to discoloration. They have
good resistance to weather, breakage and chemicals. Good for roliing .material
made in a variety of colors, sheets are normally 18 or 24 in. wide and up to 14ft.
long.
73
74
The 5arrie plastic materials are used to produce flat sheets, with or without
glass fiber reinforcing. In flat form the sheets may be used to replace glass in
ows or may be molded by the thermoform process into any roof shapes.
Plastic materials are widely used in the manufacture of sandwich panels used in
curtain-wall construction. In some cases only the sandwich core is a plastic material
and in some cases even the face is plastic. Other. sandwich panels are made by
bonding plastic sheets to an aluminum grid core:
One of the important reasons for using plastic in place of glass is the great dif-
ference in weight. Normally glass weighs about seven times as much per lineal foot
as the plastic substitutes. ·
Reinforced acrylic is used to make the dome pans employed in forming a two-
way rib, or waffle-type, concrete slab.
.
Rigid slabs of foamed plastic are finding increasing use structural purposes
slabs of expanded polystyrene are used to form the roof deck for a hyperbolic para-
boloid roof. Because of their flexibility the slabs can readily be fitted to the contours
of the roof. Later the deck will be covered by concrete.
One of the most important uses made of is in the manufacture of insu-
lation an standard size is 24 x 96 in., thicknesses .of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in.
On the site, foa{Tled insulation maybe produced by foaming-in-place, using po-
lyurethane or epoxy two-par:t resins. The process consists of. injecting controlled
amounts of resin liquid, a foaming catalyst, and a curing agent into the enclosed
space to be insulated. The reaction forms a foam .. which expands and sets, filling a
certain portion of the space. ·
Polysterene is one material ideally suited for structural components. 1t has ri-
gidity, lightness, good impact.resistance and structural strength. It has the ability to
be molded in any shape. It is resistant to shuttering, is weather and corrosion-resist-
ant and is dimensionally stable.
Nonstructural m..§lterials used in construction using plastics are wall and floor
coverings, vapor and moisture barriers flashing material, water stops expansion
joint material, pipe and conduit; hardware products.
Plastics are also used for rigid and resilient floor coverings Vinyl and vinyl-as·
bestos tile are resilient type floor coverings in common use.
Plastics are used in the manufacture of plastic wall tiles, usually made from
molded styrene.
Rigid panels or sheets in color patterns are made from syrene, acrylics, and
vinyl plastic. Hardboard plasteboard and paperboard are plastic-coated or covered
with a thin film of vinyl containing a printed pattern.
Steel and aluminum -backed vinyl sheets are produced which can be formed
and shaped without damaging the vinyl covering.
Plastic lamlnatesi are. so called. because they consists of three or more layers •
of material bonded or laminated together with plastic adhesive under high pressure. ·
The base is made up of multiple layers of strong kraft paper, impregnated with
phenolic, amino, or epoxy liquid resin. This is covered with a printed pattern sheet
saturated with melamine resin. A picture top sheet is also saturated with melamine
or pherolic resin, and in some cases a sheet of aluminum toil is inserted between the
base and the .decorative center layer to dissipate heat and prevent marring the sur-
face with burns.
These layers are used as cabinet and tabletop. Standard thickness are 1/32
1/16, 1/10, and 1/Sin. and widths are 24, 30, 36, 48and 60 in: Length range from S'
ft. to 12ft. A great variety of pattern and colors are available .
. protoLtiV.B top
wrfh
t;.atur2Jt/M Wtth
.alum•num fat (optton.al)
-lay.er t.«l! of kraft
_1mpreqnatM wrth r15111.
Films used as moisture and vapor barriers are commonly made from polythy-
lene, and polyvinyl chloride in thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6 mils.
Water stops (strips placed across construction joints in concrete walls to pre-
vent water passage and strips to be used to form control joints in concrete block
walls are made from polyvinyl chloride.
Several types of plastic are used to produce rigid and flexible pipes due to its re-
sistance to rust and corrosion, ease and economy of installation and long lengths
available.
75
CHAPTER
,
78
ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS
materials have at least two common characteristics. Cohesiveness- the abili4
tv of material to cling t ightly to one another ·and adhesiveness- the ability of a -
matenal to frx rtself and cling to an entirely different material.
1. GLUES
a. Animal Glue -Available in either solid or liquid form. Solid glue is.melted and applied
hot. It is slow setting _,nd allows time for adjustment to the glue joint. Animal glue has ex-
cellent bonding properties with wood, leather, paper or cloth developing up to 12,000 psi
in. shear. h has moderate resistance to heat and good resistance to cold but poor resist-
ance to water. It cures by air drying at room temperature.
b. Blood
4
Aiuminum Glue-a special animal glue made for use particularly with leather
and paper. It has only very moderate bonding/power with wood. It is usually sold as a dry
powder which is mixed with water. It has fair resistance to both heat and cold but poor
resistance to water, will dry from 150 to 200°F.
c. Casein Glue - made·from protein materials, is a dry powder to be mixed with water. It
has good bonding powder for wood-to:wood or paper
4
to-wo0d applications and will
develop the full strength of the wood in most Casei n glue has good dry heat
resistance and moderate resistance to cold. It has moderate resistance to 'J'' .. ter but does
not perform well when subjected to high humidity or wetting.and drying cycles. It is sub-
ject to attack from molds, fun.gi, and other wood organisms, will dry to as low as 359f
· with moderate pressure.
d. Starch and Dextrin glues-available in both dry and liquid state, the dry glue being
mixed with water. They have good bond with paper or leather and fair bond with wood,
but strength does not compare with those of animal or casein glues. They have fair re-
sistance to heat and cold but poor resistance to water. They dry at room temperature.
e. Asphalt Cements - are thermoplastic' materials made from asphalt emulsions or
asphalt cutbacks. They have a good bond to paper and concrete and are used mainly for
roofing applications and for laminating layers of wood fiberboard. They·have relatively
poor resistance to heat but good resistance to cold and good water resistance.
f. CelluJose Cements-are thermoplastic in nature and have good bond to wood, paper,
leather or glass, developing up to (400 psi in shear with wood. They have moderate re-
sistance to both heat and cold and good resistance to water. A common solvent is ethyl
acetate. Cellulose cement cures by air drying and setting.
g. Chlorinated-rubber adhesive-is usually a liquid; it has good bond for paper and fair
bond with wood, metal or glass. Strength does not compare with animal or casein glues.
It has moderate resistance to heat, cold, and but poor resistance to creep. It cures
by drying at room temperature. The usual solvent is ketone.
h. Natural-rubber adhesives -are usually latex emulsions or dissolved crepe rubber. They
have a good bond with rubber or leather and fair bond with .wood; ceramics, or glas$,
_devel<;lp_!nQ strengths of _about __ They haw fair resistance to
heat and cold, good resistance to water, but poor resistanee to creep. Room tempera--
ture is su!f_!cient
i. Nitrile or Buna N rubber adhesive -available in both thermoplastic and thermosetting
types. It has good .bond with wood, paper, porcelain, enamel and polyester film or sheet.
The thermosetting type will develop up to 4,00 psi shear and the thermoplastic type up
to En> psi. It has good _resistance to heat a!'ld cold and excellent water resistance, while
its creep resistance is fairty good. This adhesive cures under heat.
.··•
j. Neoprene-rubber adhesives-are essentially thermoplastic in nature, though they may
have some _thermosetting characteristics. They have excellent bond with wood, asbes-
tos board, metals, glass and some plastics with up to 1,200 psi in
They have good resistance to heat and cold and excellent resistance to water. Creep re-
sistance is fairly good. Used to cement' plastic laminates to walls o.r flat surfaces. Aiso
used in cementing gypsum board to studs and ceiling joists and for laminating one layer
of gypsum board to another ..
Urea formaldehyde resin glues -available in powder-form to be mixed with water,
·and in liquid form, which requires the addition of a hardener.
They are thermosetting in nature, with excellent bond to wood, leather, or paper having
a shear strength of up to 2,800 psi. They have good resistance to heat and cold and fair
resistance to water. Creep resistance is good. Wood welding can be done by applying a
high-frequency electric current directly·to joint for rapid curing.
I. Phenolic Resin Glues-are made )n both dry and liquid form. They are thermosetting
glues with excellent bond to wood and paper. Shear strengths up to 2,800 psi are deve-
loped. They have excellent resistance to heat, cold, creep, and water. Some set at room
temperature, while others require a hot press. These hot-press glues are commonly used
in the manufacture of plywoods.
m. Melamine Resins -thermosetting glues manufactured as a powder with a separate
catalyst . They have excellent bond with wood or paper resistance to heat, cold, creep,
and water are all excellent. Melam_ine resins are cured under hot press at 300°F. Mela-
mine-formaldehyde resin glues are manufactured as a powder mixed with-water and may
be either hot setting or intermediate-temperature·setting types.
n. Resorcinol resins-are usually made as a liquid with a separate catalyst. They have
. good bond with wood or paper, developing shear strengths up to 1,950 psi with wood.
They have very good resistance to heat, cold and creep and are generally used where a ·
water proof joint is required. Some cure at room temperatures, while others require_ mo;
derate heat, up to 200°f. ·
o. Epoxy resins -are thermosetting in nature, manufactured in liquid form with a separate
catalyst. The amount of catalyst added determines the type of curi ng required. They
have excellent bond with wood, metal, glass and masonry and are widely used in tbe
manufacture of laminated curtain-wall panels of various kinds. They are also used in
making repairs to broken concrete. They have excellent resistance to both heat and cold,
while creep resistance and water resistance vary widely, depending upon how the glue is
compounded. Adding a regular catalyst, curing is by hot press, up to 3900f while adding
a strong catalyst results in glue which will cure at room temperature.
p. Polyvinyl-resin adhesives-in the form of an emulsion. They have good bond with
wood or paper or vinyl plastics and reasonably good bond with metal. Shear strengths
up to 1,000 psi are developed with wood. Resistance to cold is good, but heat, s;reep,
and water resistance are only fair. These glues cure at room·temperature.
q. Sodium silicate adhesives-are liquids which have excellent bond with paper or-glass
and reasonably good bond with wood or metal. Resistance to heat, cold ·and creep are ..
good, but water resistance is poor. Some cure at room temperature. while other require
moderate heat, in the 200°F range.
2. SEALERS
Sealirtg compounds are products which are used to seal the surface of various materials
against the penetration of water or other liquidS or in some cases to prevent the escape of
water through the surface. To do this they must have some adhesive qualities and the ability
to fiU the surface pores_and form a continuous skin on the surface to wtlich they are applied.
79
80
In many applications,· the adhesion should be permanent, while in others it need only to be
temporary.
Types of Sealers
a. liquid asphalt - either in cutback form or as an asphalt emulsion. Uses are, to coat the
outer surface of concrete below ground level to prevent the penetration of water to the
interior through pores in the concrete.
Another similar use is to seal the inside surface of wooden or concrete water tanks.
Another use is as a sealer or primer over a concrete slab before asphaltic tile adhe-
sive is appfled. Here, the sealer prevents liquids from being withdrqwn from the flooring
or aphesive, allowing it to become dry and hard.
In order to be effective as a membrane, ·sealers must be elastomeric
in character. That is, they must be resilent enough to be able to expand over small cracks
in the base surface 'without losing, their effectiveness and be able to bridge joints bet-
ween members without rupture, in. case of movement at the joint.
b. Polysulflde polymers -this has excellent adhesive qualities, are highly flexible, and
maybe applied either by ha_nd or by spray. They are being used in exterior wails of found-
ations, between two-course concrete slab floors, on roof decks, as swimming·;lool
waterproofing and under roof flashing,
These polysulfide-polymer sealers are two-component, chemically curing materials
which are produced for either hand or machine mixing.
The hand-mix sealer has a work life of approximately A hours and curing time of 24 hours
at 75°F.
The machine-mixed variety will have a work life of about 5 minutes and curing time of
approximately 45 -minutes.
One gallon of prepared sealer will cover approximately 25 sq. ft. or about 3 to 5 sq. m.,
with a membrane of 60 mils thickness, which wiU expand and contract the base without
cracking.
c.· Solution of sodium silicate-used to seal the inside surface of concrete li!:luid contain-
ers. The sodium silicate forms a gel-like fi lm on the surface to prevent water pemitra-
tion.
d. W.ax compounds-made in the form of emulsions to be sprayed over the surface pf.
newly placed concrete. The wax oxidizes to form a continuous film prevents the evap<ira-
tion of water from concrete in this case the adhesion is only temporary. As the con-
to oxidize it becomes hard and brittle and flakes or is worn off the concrete by
traffic.
Other waxes are used to make sealers for concrete and terrazzo floors which prevent the
penetration of oil and grease into the floor surface.
e. liquid silicones-are used as sealers over concrete, brick and tile masonry to prevent
the penetration of water into the surface.
The absorption of water by masonry walls often ieads to staining and efflorescence. The
silicone sealers are particularly valuable for such applications because they are colorless
and do not affect the aPJ)eai'Snce of the waU.
f. Oits and turpentines -sealers used to seal wood surfaces before the application of
paint or varnish. They penetrate into and are absolbed by the wood fibers so the
vehicle in paints and varnish will not be similarly absorbed. Similar sealers are used to
seal wood which will not be painted against moisture penetration.
g. Synthetic plastic products-sealers for wood which form a film over the surface and
allow better bonding of synthetic lacquers to wood ..
h. Thin solutions of animal and casein glues -are used to coat the surface of plaster
and gypsu.m board under paint. These products are commonly known as wall sizing.
i. Epoxy-resin formulation-used as sealers over concrete, wood, or. old terrazzo sur-
faces before epoxy-resin terrazzo is applied. The thin liquid adheres to and seals the okt ·
and provides good bond tCx- the new application. Similar sealers are used under
concrete surface repairs. ·
3. GLAZING AND CAULKING COMPOUNDS
These are similar materials, but difference is that when used for sealing glass they are
known as glazinij compounds.
Properties of caulking materials.
a. it must be able to adhere to the surfaces with which it comes in contact.
b. it must remain workable.ovef a considerable range of
81
82
. . ··'···
c. it must be able to form a tough, elastic skin OYer the surface, while the interior of the
ITI8SS remains flexible. ·
d. it must be able to stretch or elongate with changes that may occur in the width of the._
joint.
e. it must have good movement capability that is, it must have movement in either exten·
sion or compression from that mean.
f. it must be able to recover well after having been extended or compressed.
g. it mll st have very low sensitivity to water.
h. it must have low volatility.
i. it must be able to provide good service performance.
Five f51 groups of caulking compounds.
a. Mastics-group of caulking compounds includes linseed-oil-putty, Hnseed-oii:isobu-
tylene caulks, mastic glazing and caulking compounds, this has a recovery of 0 to 10 per-
cent. ·
b. Elaatomastics ...,..includes butyl caulks having a solvent base, acrylic caulks with solvent
·or emulsion base, and acrylic caulks which are 100% Solids and one part polymer cap-
tan. This has a recovery of 10 to 49 percent. ·
c. one and two part polysulfides containing 100 percent solids one
· part silicone with 100 percent solids. one and two part urethanes with 100 percent solids,
vinyl chloride polymers, andlbutadiene- styrene coi:)olyme..S .
d. Elastoplastics-include neoprene and hypolon caulks with a solvent base.
e. Plastics-include high-molecular weight caulking materials which are specially treated
to be extruded. as plastic or cellular sheets or strips.
Materials for caulking
a. Unseed-oil putty-most common. Used almost exclusively for glazing wooden .
sash. It is made by mixing very finely ground calcium carbonate with raw linseed oil . Put-
ty tends to become harcl and brittle with age, but its life can be extended by priming the
sash before glazing and by frequent painting.
• Mastic glazing and caulking compounds are composed of a number of materials blend·
841 to prOduce ·a substance which has a much life than putty and which may
have an elongation rate of up to 10 percent. They are made up of:
1. drying oil-a vegetable. oil such as soya-bean or linseed oil to provide the cohesion
and absorbs oxygen from air to produce a dry film.
2. Mondrylng oil -a hydrocarbon - oil is included to plasticize and to help the
material maintain itS fle.xibility with age ..
3. A driflr-used to accelerate the formation of a.surface skin and is usually a metallic
salt.
4. Solvflllts-used to adjust workability.
5. Mineral stabilizer - often an asbest os fiber, which helps the caulking to maintain
its position or Shape prior to set.
6. R//er- usuafly· a very low finely powdered limest one which gives the caulking
body, and reduces shrinkage.
The caulking materials described above are oxidizing types and are used in exposed areas
where painting aVer their surface may be desirable.
b. and polybutene caulking compounds - are mastic materials. They are non-
and set through tfle evaporation of the solvent. Both may have tmers and stabi-
combined with them and give good results where· a skin is not required. Uke under
flashmgs, between lapped joints, and in hidden joints between wood and masonry.
c. eiastomers-two types one is a two-component type of caulking, consist-
•ng of a base compound and an accelerator. It cures by polymerization. The rate of cur-
ing increased with increasing temperature and humiditY. It is normally applied by-a
caulk109 gun .

Aluminum - colored polysulfide-based caulking is also popular for use with a
aluminum-frame window units.
d. Silicone mastic caulking -one component product which cures on exposure to air . It '
has exce."ent adhesion and can be used where high elongation properties are requir8d. ·
This caulking is available in a of colors.
e. Butyl, neoprene and hypalon mastic caulkings are solvent types made with fillers
and pigments and are thus available in a of colors.
f. Cellular sponge sheet and strips- produced from high-molecular weight materials,
with similar properties as mastic caulkings. The disadvantage of using tt:lis is that special.
adhesives are required to join strips, and mav·not be· available in the field.
Backup Materials
Are important part of a good watertight joint.
The purpose of such a material is to control the depth. of joint, to prevent moisture frQm at·
tacking the bond between caulking and the sides of the joint, and to serve as a bond breaker,
so that the material can elongate.
Backup materials are sponge rubber, nontarred oakum, fiberglass insulation, polyure-
thane ·foam, closed-cell polyethylene foam; neoprene or butyltubes and cords, fiberboard,
· and corkboard strips. Do not use any oil, t8r or asphalt impregnated materials, moisture-
• absorbing materials and polystyrene foams.
83

C H A P T E ~ ·: ·. l . • '- . . . .
INSULATING MATERIALS
86
THERMAL INSULATION
l•l cold weather, we are interested in transferring heat from
furnaces, radiators, heating panels, into various rooms of our build-
ings. At the same time we are interested in preventing that heat
from being transferred from the interior of the building to the out-
side.
During the summer. it is important that we prevent the trans-
fer of hot outside temperatures to the working and living space
within our buildings.
All of these are done by .the Judicious use of materials which
best prevent the transfer of heat, and this we call Thermal insula-
tion.
There are three ways wherein heat is transferred.
a; Conduction-The of Q concrete wall which has one side exposed to outside
winter temperatures feels cold to the touch. Heat is being conducted from the side
of higher temperature to that of lower temperature.
b. Radiation-from ltlis point, it is transferred to the outside air by radiation.
c. Convection-When air is heated, it expands and begins to circulate during the
culation, it comes in contact with cooler surface, some of its heat is given up to
them. It is therefore important to try to prevent air currents (Convection Currents)
from being set up in the walls and ceilings of our buildings. This can be by
keeping the layer of air relatively thin-not over lin. -and by dividing the space into
small enclosed compartments.
The convection currentS-set up in -the confined .spaces. are insignificant and can
causes little heat transfer to prevent heat loss by conduction, we must use the mate- ·
rials that ars poor conductors to prevent loss by radiation materials must be used
which will reflect rather than radiate heat.
KINDS OF THERMAL INSULATION
There are nine basic kinds of thermal insulation:
1. Loose Fill-This bulky and divided into:
'
a. Fibrous Type - made from mineral woolrock wool,
glass wool, or slag wool-or vegetable fiber-usually
wood 'fiber.
b. Gnmular insuliltlon -are made from expanded
minerals such as perlite and vermiculite or from ground
vegetable matter such as granulated cork.
Flbmus Loose Fi/t ...:. is used to insulate walls of build-
ings that have been built without insulation. In such
cases holes ·are drilled in the wall between each pair of
studs, a hose inserted .and the insulation blown in until
the space in filled.
Granules-are graded into four sizes, 1, (3/8 in. to no.
16 sieve) and sizes 2 (no. 4 to no. 30 sieve) used as
Loose-Fill insulation for sidewalls and ceilings over
suspended ceilings, between wood over a con-
crete floor slab, as fill for the cores of concrete blocks
and sizes 3 (no. 8 to no. 1.00 sieve) size 4 (no. 16 to 100
sieve). · ·
2. Blanket Insulation- is made from some fibrous material such as mineral wool. woOd
fiber, cotton fiber, or animal hair, manufactured in the form of a mat, 16, 20 or 24 in.
width, in 8ft. lengths or put up in rolls of from 40 to 100 linear feet, with controlled thick-
nesses of 1, 1/2, 2, 3 and 4 in. \
Some are made with no covering at all, some with a paper back on one side only,
some with vinyl cardboard or wire mesh one side, while others are completely enclosed in
envelope.
Those with backing or envelopes are usually provided with a stapling flange so that
they can be stapled to the sides or edges of studs a·nd Joists.
Blankets are used where large areas m.ust be insulated. These include such places as
sidewalls in new construction, over head in floored attics between joists in unfloored at-
tics, in craw·l spaces and over suspended ceilings.
TO
OF 5TUOf>
TABS STAPLED TO
SlOE CX:
87
88
l. _Batts -similar to blankets "but they are restricted to 48 in. long or less they are always
with paper, and made especially for installation between stud spacings. Batts
usually have paper tabs along the edges for easier attachment to the frame.
4. Structural Insulation Boarit -made from organic fiber-wood, cane, straw or cork. The
wood and cane .raw material is first pulped, after which it is treated with waterproofing
chemicals. The fibers are then formed into sheets of various thicknesses in a continuing
process and cut into standard lengths. Some boards are impregnated with asphalt during
the manufacturing process, while others are given a coat of asphalt they are made.
Strawboard-is made from carefully selected straw, fused under heat and pressure
into a panel 2 in. thick and 4ft. wide. Boards are completely sealed in paper covers of
various types to provide the proper surface for painting, papering, plastering, .stucco or
roofing.
Corkboard-is made from granulated· cork mixed with resin and pressed into
sheets of several thicknesses. depending on the use to which they will be put. A common
thickness is 3 in. the board being used for roof insulation. (see ceiling acoustical board)
Structural Insulation Board - is used in exterior wall sheathing roof decking, roof
insulation under built-up roofing, shingle backer. interior finish board and insulating form
board.
Sizes
Exterior Shflllthing - 1/2 in. thick, square edged sheets, 4 ft. wide and from 6 to 12ft.
long, impregnated with asphalt. ·
Shingle Backer -made 5/16 or 3/ 8 in. thick in strips 11 3/ 4, 13 1/ 2. 15, 15 1/2 in wide
and 48 in. long. · ·
Roof Insulation- made from 1/ 2 to 3 in. thick in single or multiple layers and in several
dimensions.
Interior WallBoard- made 5/16, 3/ 8 and 1/2 in. thick in sheets of 4 x 8 and 4 x 10ft.
5. Block or Rigid Slab Insulation- This type of insulation is so called because the units
are relatively stiff and inelastic. In most cases inorganic materials are used in their manu
4
factures. This include mineral wool with binder, fratned plastic, cellular, glass, foamed
concrete, cellular hard rubber, shredded wood and cement. The basic material is a non·
conductor and that the finished product contains millions of isolated air cells·. which
makes these materials high in insulative value.
Mineral wool from perlite or vermiculite, when mixed with a binder and processed or
fixed to a rigid back, sheets are produced which are -suitable for roof-deck insulation.
Foamed Plastic Insulation-is made from expanded polystyrene' and expanded
polyurethane formed into slabs of various dimensions ·and thicknesses_ (one popular
brand is styropor)
Ce/lulllr Giau Jnsullltion- is 11\ade frOm expanded molten glass cast into block
fonnand cut various s.izes and shapes, thicknesses. of 2, 2 1/2 and 3 and 4 in. are available
in 12 x 18 in. blocks, a 1·112 in thickness is produced in 24 x 48 in. slabs. Method of appli-.
cation on flat surface is in bot asphalt or asphalt emulsion. For vertical surface, mastic is
Used.
Foamed Concrete as desc:ribed in chapter is an importai1t insulating material because
of its closed ..cell construction. Foamed concrete precast roQf slabs are used for insulative
as well as structural purposes and can have a built-up roof applied without further roof in-
sulation.
Cellular hard rubber is a synthetic material containing cells filled with nitrogen, It is
formed into siabs of varying sizes and thicknesses.
Shredded wood or wood Fiber by itself is a form of blanket insulation but when ce-
ment slurry or special cements are added, it sets; up int o a rigid block with similar insula-
ting qualities.
Rigid Slllb lnsul11tion -are paqicularly useful for such aP-plications as roof-deck in-
sulation, perimeter insulation, pine i\)sulation, cold storage work, and cavity wall insula-
tion . . It can-also insufate masonry without furring . .
. PERIMETER INSULATICN
buktpma01ry
t-------r- ng1J n$Ulatltlf1
Rigid insul11tion -which are impervous to moisture penetration resulting from con-
tinuous contact with the earth and moisture are useful as perimeter insula-
tion.
6. Reflective Insulation-made from such materials as aluminum or copperJoil or sheet
metal, with bright 'surfaces that reflect heat rather than absorbing it.
Aluminum Foil - is produced ' in or rolls and made up into blankets.
Copper·Foil·lnsulations--is commonly made in the form of a thin paper core covered on
one or both sides with copper.
. . LE' IUN& J<> 5I
·.
ltL \.JMINUM -fOil.. .
89
90
Rsflectiv's -can be used in stud!_ rafter and joist spa1:es, to insulate
walls, roofs, ceilings and _floors.and for cold-storage
Sheet Foil-is cor.1monly made 36 in. wide and on stud walls should be installed vertical-
ly for maximum benefit. A 36 in. width will span two 16 in. stud spaces and drape back
each pair of studs to form an air space between it and the inside finish.
,----- •rt$UIJtl011 batt

GM.afh1119
fintGh qyp.;;um )4tH

-- ·tn5UI3t"JOI1
7. Foamed-In-Place Insulation-This is polyurethane product made by combining a poly·
isocyan.ate and a ployester resin.
This type of insulation can be applied either by pouring or by spraying. The basic in-
gredients for both are drawn from their containers, measured, and mixed by machine.
Application by Pouring -a carefully measured amount of the mixture is deposited
in an existing cavity. The mixture reacts and foams up to fill a predetermined portion of
the space to be filled. This volume of foam is called a "LIFT", and normally Is limited to a
height of about 14 in. when the foam has set, a new ·rrft is poured and this process is
repeated until the space is completely Filled.
Application by Spraying -a number of thin coats of foam are applied, are over the
other, with sufficient time being left betWeen each application for the foam to set up. Bv
any desired thickness of insulation can be applied.
ij. Sptayed-on-lnsulations- materials used are polyurethane foam asbestos fiber mixed
with inorgan.ic binders, vermiculite aggregate with a binder such as portland cement or
gypsum and perlite aggregate using gypsum as a binder. Machines are u·sed for blowing
insulations into place; as a result the shape or irregularity of the surface being in-
sufated is of little consequence.
Asbestos-Fiber insulation is usually applied over a base coat of some adhesive,
often a latex-type water emulsion. The primer should ·be applied to only as much of the
surface as can be sprayed with fiber while the adhesive is still tacky. Application direct j.O
metal lath does not require the priming adhesive .
. This type of insulation also seals cracks a'nd crevices to prevent dust from shifting
through and eliminates joint and lap problems common to corrugated bliliding materials.
It also tends· to protect' metal fro":' corrosive action:
· Vermiculite and Perlite aggregate can be sprayed over a .base of gypsum lath, base
coat plaster, masonry surface or lath.
9. Corrugated Insulation-This is usually made from paper formed into shapes that pro-
duce enclosed air pockets. One type is produced by shaping heav¥ paper into a series of
small regular semicircular corrugations and covering a both sides with a sheet of flat
paper to give strength and produce the air pockets. This can be done using either single
or multiple layers of corrugated paper.
= . <>IN6LE
MULTIPLE CLlRRUGATION
This type of insulation is produced either in sheets or rolls, depending on the thick-
ness of the mat, and is applied in strips fitting between studs or in large sheets cemented
to a flat surface.
A more rigid type of corrugated insulation is made by forming a honey comb-shaped
mat with paper and covering both sides with flat paper sheet. The whole thing is given its ·
rigidity by spraying with a thin coating of portland cement slurry or other type; of stiffener.
The resulting paper mat, from 1 to 4 in. thick is quite strong and may be
1
tised tor non-
bearing partitions. without further surport, plastered on-both sides.
91
CHAPTER . .
94
PREVENTIONS
1. WATERPROOFING- a method of protecting surfaces against the destructive effects
of water .
2. DAMP-PROOFING -protection from the outside is provided by water repellent materi-
als which tum water aside and force it to return to the earth. The dampness that some-
times occurs inside the building can be caused by penetration of moisture from the out-
side or by condensation of water vapor generated on the inside.
3. CLEAR PROTECTIVE TREATMENTS FOR MASONRY, CONCRETE
This is a clear, invisible silicOne water repellent specially formulated for application on
masonry and bricks (standard silicone repellant) and for limestone and concrete that ·
seeps much rai nwater (special silicone repellant). The silicone liquid is ap- ·
plied by brush or low pressure spray and does not affect ;,the color or naturalness of the
material. ·
4. ANAY !Termite) proofing by Soil Poisoning
It is important to poison the soil against anay (white ants) in order to stop the anay from
infesting the mainp<lsts, walls and flooring.
5. WOOD PRESERVATIVE (Powder Post Termites) a chemical liquid painted and applied
to lumber to pr•rve it for years. It protects wood against powder post beetles (Buk-
bo1d powder post termite (unos), decay causing funQi, such as sap stain and dryrot.
6. FIREPROOFING -a clear liquid applied easily on woOd, plywood, lumber and other
board that retains the natural. beauty, gives added strength and protects materials
against fire, weather, decay, insects and warping. Since the liquid penetrates into the
wood, when there is fire. tt reacts by dispersing the flame, preventing progreSsive bum·
ing.
7. RATPROOFING-A method of protecting rooms against the Intrusion of rats and
other small destructive animals from gnawing the wooden parts of the house, habit8ting
on ceilings and floors of. houses and buildings.
8. RUSTPROOFtNG -a method of protecting the ferrous materials like steel, iron from
rusti ng. or corrosion.
9. FLOOR PROTECTION -when floors are subjected to wear and tear, or from chemical
abrasions and heavy use, a special kind of material should be used to protect the floor-
ing.
10. DESCALERS; Paint and Chemical Strippers
When an old house having old paint is in need of repainting, paint remover is appliea to
the surface which softens and lifts the paint.
For cleaning of buildings from stains, rUSt, algae or even cement build up from forms or
etc. a chemical .stripper or desealer Is used. ·
11. CONTROL, PROTECT AND MANAGE
For buildings that need total control of the incoming and outgoing individuals for the
protection of the building as a whole from robbers, stealers, etc. There are so ma.nv
equipments which can be installed.
DISCUSSIONS:
1. WATERPROOFING
This is a.,.,Cied on the following locations:
@ WATER TANKS

\8' . GUTTERS
RCG'MG, AJR<VN .f-

@ REFR16ERA110N of, at.o
Ra:'>MG
Three of waterproofint:
1. INTEGRAl in powder form is added and mixed with the aggregates of
concrete. In this case, one pack of usually .908 kilos is added to one bag of kiios cement ..
Some of the -known brands are sahara and sakura. -
96
: I'''
2. MEMBRANE TYPE-recommended for use where direct rain, or standing. water are
eminent, as seen in the illustrations, there are about 14 uses. The materials used depend-
ing on the manufacturer is .either asphalt paper laid with hot asphalt, impregnated asbes-
tos felt, sometimes thick polyethylene sheeU is also used. Other materials are performed
setf sealing asphalt.
LA\0 ON C O N C R E T ~ GLAS
3. FLUID APPLIED-a fluid applied eSastomeric coating based on heavy solids elastomer
compound formulated to waterproof and preserve the substrate, like concrete, wood,
bricks and steel. The waterproofing is monolothic, seamless, flexibte and etastic over a
wide temperature range, withstands extreme thermal movement, settling and cracking. It
resists puncture and tearing abrasive overlayments.
This e&astomeric fluid can be applied by roller, brush, spray or squeegee.
I. INTEGRAL TYPES -ul8 Sahara or Sakura brand in packs.
II. MEMBRANE TYPE
A. JOHN'S MANVILLE (Norton andHanison Inc.)
ROOFING FELTS:
The base fetts used in Built-up Roofing are available in two basic types-ASBESTOS
FELTS and ORGANIC or RAG FELTS. They look alike, superficialty, bt.rt they differ
. widely in service.
Comparison:
ASBESTOS
1. Asbestos Fefts -composed primarily of asbestOS fiber, a non-rotting, non-wick-
ing inorganic mineral fiber.
2. Identical expansion and contraction to finishing fefts.
3. Minimum stretch and shrinkage or wetting or drying which meane minimum diF
tortion.
4. Loses strength stowly while aging.
5. Excellent resistance to "burnout" in hot climate.
6. Aot resistant.
ORGANIC
1. Organic Felts-composed of fibrous organic materials. Subject to deterioration
by oxid4ltion and to wicking.
2. DiffMent eKpansion and contraction properties from finishing plies.
Maximum stretch· and shrinkage on wetting and drying which means maximum
distortion.
4. Loses strength rapidly while aging.
5. Poor resistance to "bum out" in hot climate.
6. Poor resistance.tQ rot.
98
FINISHING. 11LES
SAND · ·
·:· .: ·.
...
PLY IMPREGNAll:D Fa. I
ROOFiNG
·- ! .. .. .. .. ... .. .. g ... ... ... .. PLY
. · · -: · • ! . : : • ·:'! . ..
6
. :... ':. •.. • A.;;Be>TOS PRIMeR.
: · .. ve
SPECIFICATIONS FOR 3-PLY 15LBS. ASBESTOS FELT
ON ASBESTILE CEMENT FOR CONCRETE
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
Allautfaces must be smooth, clean and dry and free from foreign materials. The surface
.shall contain no projections or holes, and shall prov!de a solid base for the membrane
waterproofing. Where horizontal meets vertical wall, : a cant shall be prOvided.
MATERIALS:
1. Concrete Primer
2. 15-lb Asbestos Felt
3. Asbestile Cement.
APPLICATION:
1. Coat the entire surface with concrete primer Up to aU surrounding vertical surfaces.
2. Over this primed,' surface apply three (3) layen of JM 15-lb. asbestos felt, cemented
to each layer with asbestile cement in the following manner:
Start applying one (1) 12;. width, then over that, one (1) 24"' wide, then over both, a
fulf 36• wide. Following felts are to be applied full width, over lapping the preceding
felt by 24-2/3"'. .
3. Over the felts apply a finishing coat of asbestile cement.
4. The instaUation of the membrane wat\\rproofing shall be done by an appro.ved roof-
. ing contractor authorized by the manufacturer.
5. No stibstitution of materials shall be made unless .authorized in writing by the ar-
chitect (or engineer) prior to starting the work of waterproofing.
TWIN 20 BUILT-UP ROOFING SPECIFICATION
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
The roof deck.shall be trowelled smooth; firm, dry, clean and free of rubbish, loose .or
foreign materials and obstruction9. The deck shall be properly graded to drain water freely
into gutters and downspouts. Dr$inage connections shalf be set up to permit the free flow of
water;. Installation of cut-out flashing.and cants in the angle formed by the deCk and vertical
surfaces, as well as the installation of metal fittings and similar work, shall be completed
b8fore roOfing work shall be started. ·
MATERIALS:
Materials be as follows;
1. N&H Concrete Primer ·
2. JM Asbestos, Roofing Fett, Perforated, 20 lbs. per square
3. Roofing Asphalt ·
4. N&H Asbestile Cement (for Flashing)
APPLICATION:
Roofing shall be applied as follows:
1. Coat the entire deck with N&H Concrete Primer up to 6" of all surrounding vertical
surfaces. ·
2. On slopes up to 1,. apply felts perpendicular to the starting at the low point of
. each slope .. On slopes over 1" apply felts parallel to the slope, ·nailing into nailing
strips at the top of each run of felt on not over 9" centers. If run of fett exceeds 20',
an additional nailing strip and line of nails shaU be used at 20'
3. Starting at the low edge (on slopes up to 1") apply one 18'" wide, then over one
full 36'" wide JM Twin 20 ·Asbestos Felt. Following felts are to be applied full width
overlapping' the. preceding felt by 19"' in such manner that at least 2 plies of felt cover
the deck or insulation at any point. Broom each felt so that it shall be firmly and uni-
formly set without voids into hot Roofing Asphalt applied just before the felt at a mi-
nimum rate of23 lbs. per square uniformly aver the entire surface.
4. Flood the surface with Roofing Asphalt at a minimum rate of 60 lbs. per square and
while it is still hot embed therein acceptable gravel at the rate of approximately 409
lbs. per square or an acceptable slag at a rate approximately 300 lbs. per square.
FLASHING: ·
Where the deck meets vertical surfaces, apply a five-course Asbestile Flashing to consist of
two layers of JM No. 15 Asbestos Finishing Felt and three layers of N&H Asbestile Cement,
extending 6" high on vertical surfaces and 4" on the roof.
SPECIFICATION FOR BUILT-UP ROOFING CONSISTING OF 1 PLY JM 50 LB. BASE
FELT & 2 PUES JM 16 LB. FINISHING FELT FOR NON-NAILABLE DECKS (EXCEPT
METAL DECKS) .
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
The roof. deck shall be wood-trowelled smooth, firm, dry, clean and free of rubbish, loose or
foreign materials and obstructions. The deck shall be properly graded to drain water freely
into gutters and downspouts. Drainage connections shall be set up to. permit the free flow of
water. Installation of cut-Out for flashing and cants in the angle formed by the deck and ver-
tical surfaces, as well as instatlation of metal fittings and work shall be completed
before built-up roofing work shall be started.
MATERIALS:
Materials shall be as follows:
. 1. N & H· Concrete Primer
2. JM No. 50 Asbestos Base Felt, Perforated, 43 lbs. per square
3. JM No. 15 Asbestos Finishing Felt, Perforated, 151bs. per square
· 4. Roofing Asphalt
5. N & H Asbestile (For Flashing)
99
:.;, ' ..
.. :···:·· .. .
·: ... .
. ..
. : ... ..... ·.
APPLICATION:
Roofing shall be applied by a roofing contractor approved the manufacturer, as fol_lows:
1. Coat the entire deck with Concrete Primer up to 6'" of all surrounding vertical sur-
faces. (If deck is of precast units, omit the primer 4"' each side of all joints).
2. Apply one layer of JM No. 50 Asbestos finishing Felt, Perforated on Roofing As-
phalt, lapping each felt 2"' over the preceding one.
3. Apply. two layers of JM No. 15 Asbestos Finishing Felt, Perforated on Roofing As-
phalt, laid in shingle .fashion, lapping each feJt 19" over the preceding one.
4. Where the deck meets vertical surfaces,-apply a five-course Asbestile Flashing to·
consist of two JM No. 15 Asbestos Finishing Felt and three layers of N & H Asbestile
Cement, extending 6" high on vertical surfaces and 4'" on the roof.
5. (a) For Smooth-Surfaces Roof
, Finish the entire surface with a uniform coating of Roofing Asphalt.
-- ...... . . . - -
(b) For Gravel-Surface Roof
Finish the entire surface with a uniform coating of roofing Asphalt. While hot,
embed pea gravel or course clean sand. Broom off excess loose particles after-
wards.
SPECIFICATION FOR BUILT-UP ROOFING CONSISTING OF
FIVE (5% PLIES JM 15-LB. ASBESTOS FELT)
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:
All su·rfaces must be smooth, clean and dry, free of loose materials and obstructions. The
surfaces shall contain no projections or holes, and shall provide a solid base for the mem-
brane waterproofing. Installation of cants in the angle formed by the floor and vert}cal wall
shall be completed before roofing work shall be started.
MATERIALS:
1. N & H Concrete Primer
2. JM 15-lb. ASbestos Felt Perforated
3. Roofing Asphalt
APPLICATION:
Waterproofing shall be appHed by a roofing contractor approved by the manufacturer, as
follows:
1. Cost the entire surface with concrete primer and allow to dry.
2 .. Lay two (2) plies of JM 15-lb. Asbestos Felt over the primed surface, lapping each
sheet 13" over the preceding one on asphalt.
3. Over these fefts, lay three (3) additional plies· of JM 15-lb. Asbestos Felt on asphalt .in ·
the following manner: .
Starting at the low edge, apply one 12'" wide, then over the one a 24N wide, then
over both a full36" wide. Following felts are to be applied full width overlapping the
preceding felt by 24-3/3".
SURFACING:
.. : , ) {;;. Finish the surface with 'roofing asphalt, and while not, sprinkle clean-pea gravel. The
: -· . . . pealJtavel topptng shall be broomed afterwards to remove excess loose .
. ::: \ .. . . . ' 100· ,. .
\ J
-... -... -.. y.,.v
Mr:THOO OF
LAYJNG
SUBSTITUTION OF MATERIALS:
No substitution of materials shall be made unless authorized in writi ng by the Architect (or .
Engineer) prior to starting the waterproofing.
B. CEMVATHENE BRAND-cemvathene membrane is a specially formulated water·
proofing material to suit tropical weather conditions. It waterproofs, damproofs and pre·
vents sepage. It is a preformed membrane made of a combination of asphalts, high
grade plasticize.rs and 0.006 inch (6 mill thick polyethylene sheet and supplied in rolls of
91.4 em. (3ft.) wide and 304.8 em (10ft.) long. The membrane is self-sticking with a
special release plastic sheet that protects the adhesive surface before installation.
..
reglet 4c.m deep by :4cm
w1de
mvocoie binder
cemvoproym .-
5
G.!!lt
,nstallation Procedure
1. Surface PTfiPIJretion
cemvoseol (11(:lS1ic
on c.onnetions
a. The horizontal surface should be graded to drain water freely to gutters &
downspouts and must be smoothed and fully cured.
b. Inside colders should have a 5 em cant.
c. Provide reglets on vertical surface 20 em above of + em deep & 4 em wide.
'
2. Priming
Applyi cemvapraym primer to impregnate the surfaces of the base substrate by
brush at a coverage of 10 sq. meters per 4 liter container which is diluted with
50% water.
3. AppliC8tion
a. Peel off the plastic covering of the sticky side and unroll slowly into place.
Firm1y press the sheet to the surface and force out any entrapped air.
b. Install subsequent sheets with 5 em minimum overlaps on all joints. Bond all.
overlaps ·cemvacote binder.

101
c. Corners and construction should be double covered with a strip of cem-
vathene. Membrane of about '30 em. wide.
/ r.eady made d. All edges should be sealed with a troweled bead of cemvaseal mastr'ic.

· L_ l . J t 4. Protectice Coating · . .
llJjJ ILJ
bJnMr a: Concrete topping for light walking, use concrete topping of 5 em minimum.
b. For heavy traffic or with high hydrostatic pressure reinforced conrete topping
of about 8 em. 08 m. thick is required.
Grades or Thicknesses
Description
Preformed single 1 .00 mm thick
Uses
Damproofing
Grade
Cemvathene 2
Cemvathene 3 Preformed single 1.50 mm thick For areas with low hydrostatic
pressure as office toilets, kitchen
Cemvathene 3A Preformed single 2.00 mm thick
Cemvathene 5
·· · · zmm
Preformed double membraned
eleastic self sealing 2.15 mm.
· floors, pantries, janitor rooms. · -
Ideal for waterproofing of de-
fective or damaged G.l. roofing
and as water barrier between
plywood and tile roofing or wood
shingles.
For roof decks canopies, ter-
races, bathrooms, elevationpits,
basement refrigeration rooms.
:!¥t?t:Z .' h.et
1nlnt
.
102
Cemvathene 5A
ha--.1 msnbr.a11e(1.s
.umv.uote mm)
1. mm
Preformed double membraned
elastic bitumen. The weatherside
consist of .. 1 hard bituminous
membrane that is mineral filled
and the other side is made of
asphalt that is capa-
ble of sealing structural cracks'
up to 1/8 in. (3.17 mm).
Ill. FLUID APPLIED
A. One product is ELASTOMARK
Ideal for- exposed applications,
that is, waterproofing with no
concrete topping like roof deck,
top layer for wooden or G.l. roof_-
ing water barrier between ply-
wood on concrete and shingles ·
rooting.
. .
This is fluid-applied Laradek Elastomeric coating based on heavy solids elastomer
compound 'formulated to waterproof and preserve the substrate, like concrete,
bricks, steel and wood. The waterproofing system is monolithic, seamless, flexible
and elastic ovl3r a wide temperature range, withstands extreme thermal movement,
settling and cracking, strong durable, resists puncture and tearing abrasive overlay-·
ments.
Elastomark can be-applied by roller, brush or spray or squeegee, ·packing is available
in one (1) drum, 20-liter and 4-liter containers. Comes in seven different colors.
Thicknesses recommended
for' exterior walls
irregular concrete roof deck
regular concrete roof deck almost
·flat, planters, toilet$
for gutters. basement and sub-
merged areas
- 12 to 20 mils
- 20 to 30 mils
- 30 to 40 mils
- 40 to 70 mils
B. Another known product is WEATHERKOTE Type 3
one mil = l,Ooo Qf an inch
by Shell Phils. A generaf purpose ·waterproOfing material for use on concrete, roof-
ing feet and asphalt for water and ·moisture barriers and for metai protection. When
diluted with water it can be used as a primer coat on permeable surfaces such as con-
crete, plaster, etc.
This material is a non-fibrated, stable, bitumen .emulsion. It is dark brown in colour
and dries to a black flexible coating which is odourless and non-tainting. Applied by
orush or spray.
MAIN WATERPROOFING TREATMENT
1. P,rime the surface with a 60/50 mixture of weatherkote type 3 and water using
112 gals. of type 3 per 100 sq. ft. Allow this to dry.
2. Apply a heavy brush c Q J ~ t of weatherkote type 3 ·at the rate of 1 1/2 gals. per
100 sq. ft. and allow this to dry.
3. Apply another heavy brush coat of weatherkote type 3 at the rate of 1 1/ 2 gals.
per 100 sq. ft.
4. While the above is stm wet embed into it the open woven Weatherkote glass
fiber reinforcement .. Allow this to dry.
5. Apply a heavy brush coat of weatoerkote type 3 at the rate of 1 1/2 gals. per 100
sq. ft. and allow this ~ o dry.
6. Apply another heavy brush C04Jt of weatherkote type 3 at the rate of 1 1/ 2
gals/100 sq. ft. ·
7. While the above is still wet, embed the second layer of the weatherkote glass
fiber reinforcement and allow to dry.
8. Apply another heavy brush coat of weatherkote type 3 at the rate of 1 1/2
gals/100 sq. ft. Allow this to dry. ·
103
104
9. Apply another heavy brush coat of weatherkote type 3 at the rate of 1 1/ 2
gals/ 100 sq. ft. Allow this to dry.
10. Trowel to about 1/4" thick the Abrasion resistant weatherkote mastic blended as
follows:
1 volume cement- 1/ 3 bag/ H)() sq. ft.
2 volume weatherkote type J.!.-- 5 1/ 2 gals/ 1Cl0
8 volume sand-3 cu. ft./100 sq; ft.
To expedite drying, the applicat ion of weatherkote tvi:>e 3 could be done in the
form of an emulsion cement slurry mixed as follows:
1 volume cement
1 volume water
10 volumes weatherkote type 3
. The mix shall be formed by mixing the cement and water to a smooth slurry and
t ~ e n slowly adding this to the weatherkote type 3 until a uniform mix is achieved.
3" CEMENT FILLET
,.·
C. WEATHERKOTE DECK ROOF WATERPROOFING
General
Introduction: The Shell Weatherkote system of roof waterproofing consist of a
built·up application of several coats of Shell Weatherkote.Bitumen Emulsions applied
·by spray or brush.
Fiberglass Membrane: The inclusion of fiberglass membrane is recommended to
act as a reinforcement should fine shrinkage cracks occur in the reinforced concrete
roof. Use Weatherkote 3401 fiberglass or approved equivalent.
Falls: All roof surfaces should have adequate fall for purposes in accor-
dance with good engineering practice.
Sub-tropical or tropical
Remainder minimum
1:60
1:80
Dt!corative or Ught: · Reflective finish- For a decorative and light reflecting finish,
allow 2 full weeks to elapse after the Bitumen Emulsion is dry, before applying Wea-
therkote Aluminum or alternative.
Drying Time: A Shell Weatherkote Bitumen coating can be considered sufficient-
ly dry to proceed with the next coat when on rubbing vigorously with a wet finger no
brown stain is produced on the finger. Shell Weatherkote Bitumen coatings normally
reach this stage in 6 to 12 hours depending on atmospheric conditions. Shell Wea·
therkote Bitumen coatings must not be applied if rain Is imminent before the coating
has dried. ,-!
Spraying: If spraying is preferred, Shell Weatherkote Type 3 and 5 can be sprayed
by suitable equipment at no more than 2 1/2 gallons per 100 sq. ft. per coat. The pat-
tern of any embedded fiber glass membrane must not be visible when the final spray
has dried.
Expansion Joints: Expansion joints must be so designed as tobe waterproofed, ir-
respective of the main waterproofing system.
1. Finish the concrete to a smooth surface, free from dirt, dust, etc. To a dry sur·
Shell Weatherkote primer-consisting Typej mixed with equal volume
of water. Allow it to dry.
2. Apply a heavy brush coat of Shell Weatherkote Type 3 and immediately embed an
open mesh fiber glass membrane. The apPlication of the membrane should ex-
tend beyond the joints about 2 inches on bo1h sides.
Flashings: Flashings are not normally required.
Skirting: Where skirtings occur the Shelt Weatherkote treatment should be taken
some 9" up the wall. Where there is existing metal flashing, the Shell Weatherkote
should be carried up under the flashing sufficient distance to give an adequate lap.
A Preparatory Work
1. Any roughness of the concrete should be removed from the areas to be waterproofed.
2. The concrete surface should be brushed clean and any cracks or holes in it made good
. . -
B. Main Waterproofing
1. Apply a brush of 50/50 mix Weatnerkote Type 3/Warer. Allow to dry (Type 3.
- 1/2 gal. per 100 sq. ft.)
105
..
106
2. Apply a heavy brush coat of neat Weatherkote Type 3 over the primed area
and immediately embed an open-mesh fiberglass membrane. Allow to dry.
(Type 3 - 1 1/2 gal. per 100 sq. ft .
Fiberglass membrane -110 sq. ft . 10% for overlaps.
3. Apply a Heavy brush coat of Weatherkote Type 3. Allow to dry. (Type 3 - 1
1/ 2 gal. per 100 sq. ft.).
4. After the application of the two coats of Weatherkote Type 3. apply a brush
coat of Weatherkote Type 7 appUed preferable in three coats (6 gals. per 100
sq. ft.).
5. For an Abraison-resistant finish, appl y Weatherkote/sand mastic. The mastic
flooring consist of 1 volume Weatherkote Type 3 and 4 Volumes sand.
6. For heat reflecting and decorative finish, apply Weatherkote Bituminous Alu-
minum Paint ( 1 /2 gal. per 100 sq. ft.}.
D. ESTIMATED QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS REQUIRED
PER 100 SQ. FT. OF AREA
Weatherkote Type 3
Weatherkote Type 7
Weathorkote Aluminum
Sand
Fiberglass membrane
- 9 gallons
- 6gallons
- ·. 112 gallons
- 3 cu. ft.
- 110 sq. ft.
. (10% for overlaps}

NOTE: Weatherkote Type 7 may be substituted with Weatherkote 5. However,
please consult the Spe:cial Products Dept., Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corp. on any
substituti on in the specifications.
E. ADVISORY SERVICE - Specific details regarding Shell Bituminous prOducts and
their application are available on request.
....... . -.. .
WEATl-IERKOT£ 1'YPE 1
FIBERGLASS MESH
:141,._- 50/50 WEATMERKOTE TYPE 3/WATER
MESH EMSEOOEO IN WEAll1ERKOTE TYPE 3
WEATHERKOTE TYPE 3/ WATER
3" CEMENT MORTAR FILLET
SPECIFICATIONS:
D. CONCRETE TANK WATERPROOFING
Introduction:
This specification applies to the waterproofing of reinforced concrete water tank
built underground. For overhead installations, the interior waterproofing specified
herein requires further reinforcement with one extra layer of fiberglass mesh and
another coat of Weatherkote Type 3 cement slurry, before applying the last 2 coats
of Type 5 or Trowel coat of Type 7.
General
A. Preparatory Wort<.
1. Provide sand-cement fillets, about 3'" wide at all internal angles, i.e., wall to
floor, wall to wall and base slab to exterior wall .
2. Remove any projecting nibs of concrete on the surface, and holes and depres-
sions made good using cement mortar.- The surfaces to be treated present a
smooth wood float finish.
3. Make sure, all surfaces must be free of dirt and dust before treatment !>tarts.
107
108
B. Treatment of Fillets
1. Prime strips approximately 11" wide, centraliy along the fillets, brushing on to
the surface a mixture of equal volumes of Weatherkote . Type 3 ancfclean
water. Allow to dry. ·
2. Over the primed areas, apply a heavy brush coat of Weatherkote Type 3 ce-
ment · .
3. Immediately _after. the above application, embed 11" wide strip of ·closely
woven fiberglass. Ensure that the fabric is pushed well home into the comers so
that it is in complete contact with the surface and wrinkles contact with the
surface and wrinkles eliminated. Allow at least 3" overlap at all ends.
* Mix 1 volume of portland cement to 1-volume water, then add this slowly to 10
volume of Weatherkote Emulsion stirring in thoroughly to achieve uniform disper-
sion. The mix must be used within an hour.
Waterproofing the Exterior
1. Apply Weatherkote Emulsion primer on all untreated areas including the top and let
dry.
2. Lay heavy brush coat of Type 3-cement slurry on all exterior areas, ob-
serving special attention to the continuity between the base slab and exterior wall.
Before application, the base has to be thoroughly cleaned to expose the waterproof-
ing. It may be necessary to wipe off the surface with solvent soaked rag to remove
stubborn dirt. ·
3. Embed over the still wet coating fiberglass reinforcing mesh.
4. Apply another heav-Y brush coat of Weatherkote Type slurry. Allow to dry.
5. Trowel to about 1/8" Weatherkote Type 7-cement slurry.
6. Provide sufficient protection of the waterproofing from possible damage by the back
fill.** .
Waterproofing the Interior***
l. Apply Weatherkote Emulsion primer on all untreated surfaces and allow to dry . .
2. Brush on a heavy coat of Weatherkote Type 3-cement slurry including previously
treated strips.
3. Immediately, lay fiberglass reinforcing mesh on the. still wet coating, observing at
least 3" over.lap on all edges. Avoid wrinkles.
4. Lay another heavy brush coat of Weatherkote type 3-cement slurry and let dry.
5. Trowel to about 1 /8" thick, Weatherkote Type 7-cement slurry for a tank depth of
10", and ·another trowel coat for every 10" additional ..
Fill the tank with water after 14 days under good ventillation conditions. Before this,
clean tank interi.or, hosing down the surfa<:e with water, then draining it off.
Where topping is reQuired, proceed as'follows:
a. Over the still wet last coating, sprinkle liberal amount of sharp and fine•
sand. Allow the waterproofing to cure for about a week so that the wet thick-
ness is substantially reduced to its dried thickness before laying the concrete .
topping.
b. Install wire mesh or welded wire anchored to the waterproofed tank walls with
the use of concrete nails and Gl wire ties.
c. ·Seal the nail hole with Weatherkote Type 3.
d. Install 1 1 /2" cement mortar plaster at the tank walls. and floor.
e. Apply the desired finish after sufficient curing.
* Buried or underground concrete tank is constructed over a lean concrete base,
poured .on compacted base course. This base slab is waterproofed with heavy
brush coat of Weatherkote Type 3 over a dried primer, f inished with a 3
mm trowel coat of Weatherkote·Type 7-cement slurry. The tank is now constructed
within the slab leaving at least 10" allowance along perimeter.
** Depending on the :.everity of expected damage, such protection varies from sand
cement topping. Weatherkote-sand-cement mastic, brick cement blocks.
etc.
* •• It is recommended that the tank floor be treated last to avoid possible damage to it
while waterproofing the side
**** Weatherkote Type 7-cement slurry is prepared in the same manner as Type 3 and
Type 5 cement slurry except that the cement water ratio is 1:2.
WIATHf:RKOTE TYPE 7
50150 WIATWIUII KOTE TYPE 3/ WATEA
FJ8ERGlASS WESH EMIIEOOEO IN WEATHER KOT'f TYP£ 3
50150 WEATH£1111COTE TYP£ 31 WATER
"-----------+-+-...;._ 3* CEMENT MORTAR FILLET
Waterprooimg
Interior
109
WV.TMERI<OTE SANDI CEMENT MASTIC----.
WEATHE!AKOTE 1"'tP£ 1 ----___,
WEATHERI<OTE TYPE 3 ------.
FIBEROL.ASS
WEATHERKOTE TYPE 3 - ------,
50/SOWEATHEflKOTE TYP£3/WATEA - - ----,
Waterproofmg
Exterior
110
SPECIFICATIONS:
CONCRETE TANK WATERPROOFING
WATER CONTAINMENT
CEMIHT FLLET
7"7"""--;1'9;-...--- W&\T!1EN«)TE TYP£ 7
'7""7J:f.MCL...--- WEATHERt<OTE TYPE 3
Ftl!ltRGLASS MESH
TYf'E 3
50150 WEATWt:RKOTE TYPE 3/WATER
A relatively new material which is used to contain water or as a reservoir.
Some known products from Chevron S.F. U.S.A.
1. CIM-(Iiquid) Chevron Industrial membrane is a pourable, polymerizable black liquid
which, when properly mixed with activator CIM, becomes an elastomer which fully cures
in 24 hours. It forms a tough durable, resilient, impermeable barrier to water and most
queous reagents. It may be sprayed or squeegee applied and retains excellent physical
characteristics through hot or cold enl{ironments.
The material is laid directly on compacted soil.
AGI':WT
{ ( WH<"AE €
\._ MAIEJML(SOUP fA&RU: LIKE

.,
Ml)(: ONE VOUIME 0:: AGIVATOR
NINE VOLUMES a= ffifMIX OM
saut£6EI!-t; .... ·
From Denver, Colo. U.S.A.

.. _ .... . .... ·-·· ·
.. - - .. . -·- .. . - -
2. Water Saver-(ready made! membrane LININGS- The brand is called Hypalon (Chloro-
sulfunated polyethylene).
"
Provides excellent resistance to weathering and chemical attack. Hypalon is available ont·
ly as a reinforced membrane and does not require a protective cover for most applica-
tions. Hypalon is approved for potable (drinking) water containment.
111
Another brand is PVC- (polyvinyl Chloride) membrane offers good chemical resistanCe,
sealabllity and serviceability is unexposed applicationt, good as a liner for recre.tional
lakes, canals, sewage lagoons, etc. It is recommended that an earthen cover be provided
for PVC to maximize its service life as a fluid barrier.
True knes5.b$
ZC!, (. Of.O lt10t)
?JO mils(· o3o 111d1)
mils (, mch)
45 ( · Oi5 H1C..h)
tJ.16 M. (''').earth toiJ!!i
P.V. c.. lm.er
21 n·ul of an u1c.h
112·
Another brand is CPE (Chlorinated Polyethylene)-Specially formulated. for resistance to
oils. Membrane features excellent weatherability, sealability, chemical resistance anct
long ' Term durability. CPE does not require a cover material for rriost application,
3. From imper - ltalia
The brand is paralon NT4.:.... a pre-fabricated waterproofing membrane having an asphaltic
base. 1' l'tt.6¥S x %.a
WATERPLUG -this is in dry-powder form and mixes easily with water to becOme a
heavy-duty patching material and is available in 1 pint cans ( 1 1 /2 lbs.) 1 quart cans (2 1/2 .
lbs.) 1 gallon cans (10 lbs.) and 5 gal. drums (50 lbs.) or 567 gm., 1.13 kg., 4.5 kg. and 22.7
kg. containers. ·
This is used to seal cracks and holes in your basement walls. Whether water is pouring in
under pressure or seeping in as slow leak, waterplug stops it. Fast! Running water is stopped
in 3 to 5 minutes. It is non-shrink -expands as it sets and won' t pull away from the edges of
the patch area. It even sets up under water.
It's durable as the masonry concrete to which it is applied.
It's simple to mix and apply.
It requires no special skill or tools.
It's non-metallic-won't trust out or deteriorate.
You can also use Waterplug to seal cracks at the junction of your basement floors and walls,
and to anchor bolts and metal fixtures to concrete floors.
Waterplug is available in 1 pint cans (11/41bs.), 1 quart cans (2 1 /21bs.), 1 gallon cans 110
lbs.) and 5 gaL drums (50 lbs.) [567 gm, 1.13 kg, 4.5 kg, and 22..7 kg containers.] Waterplug
is packaged in dry-powder form, and mixes easily with water to become a heavy-duty patch-
ing material.
THOROSEAL-a cement-based, heavy-dutY. easy-to-apply, water proof sealant and coat
ing. Thoroseal is ideal for basement.walls. · · ·
The concrete or masonry which comprises your basement is porous, permitting dampness
to enter and turn the space into a dank, unattractive void.
Thoroseal ends all that by going deep to fill and seal the pores and minor surface; imperfec-.
tions, becoming as it hardens, a totally waterproof skin; positively prohibiting moisture
penetration.
Thorosea! is not a paint. Although it comes in attractive colors, and is itself a natural painting
surface. Thoroseal is cementitious. That means it chemically combines with the concrete or
masonry surface it's applied to, to become an actual part of the wall.
~ n d thoroseal is a perfect decorator surface. Normally applied by brush, it can easily be mix-
ed to troweling consistancy to achieve the popular modern textures. What all this adds up to
is no more soggy insulation. No more warped paneling. And no more flaking, peeling paint.
. . .. ... -...... .. ·· .···: / ! ,'
114
2. VAPOR INSULATION (OAMPROOFING)
The dampness that sometimes occurs inside buildings can be caused ·by penetration of
moiStUre from the outside or by condensation of water vapor ·generated on the inside.
Protection from the outside is provided by water repellent materials which tum water aside
and force it to retum to the earth down the outside of the building.
Moisture vapor on the other hand can permeate most ordinary building materials such as
wood, paper, lath plaster, untreated brick, etc. The moisture 11apor will condense v.iater
when its temperature is reduced by contact with a cool surface or cool air. Hence, high
humidity In a building may result in condensation of water not only on the inside of walls and
windows··.but also on the outside or within the exterior walls, ceiling or roof. ·
Moisture vapor is produced by cooking occupants, laundering, earth crawl spaces, base-
ment floors, etc.
VAPOR BARRIERS (Damproofing Materials)
These are materials which effectively retard or stop the flow of water vapor and normally are
produced in sheets or thin layers:
Vapor barriers should be installed on the warm side of the insulation. They should be conti-
nuous surfaces of asphalt or wax coated paper, aluminum, or other metal foil sheets or polye-
thylene film. They can be attached to the insulation as part of the manufactured product or
installed separately in or on the warm side of the wall, floor, or ceiling. They must be conti-
nuous and allow no openings through which vapor may pass.
Although asphalt paper is a goOd moisture barrier, it .is not a vapor barrier, and should be
used·on the outside of a building for that purpose.
NO VApC>R BARRIER
WITH BARRIER
M•teri•l• Used as Vapor Berrien
1. Fil;,; .....:_Thus is chemically inert plastic, un-affected by acids, alkalis and
caustics, produced in rolls .of 3 to 20 ft . wide. Common thlckn8sses are 2, 3, 4 and 6 nVI ( 1
mil = .001 in).
This film is useful not only as vapor barrier for cemngs, and floors but also as a bar-
rier to prevent the passage of moisture from the earth upward through a concrete stab
lain on the ground.
Polyethylene film can be applied vertically in 36 in. wide strips to studding on 16 in.
centers with a full on alternate studs. Films are stapled to studs. "'verlaps and ex·
tensions to floors and walfings shall be 6 in.
WATER WHEN IT Ret.c..HE$
wAAM AS li

Mot sture fi"001 ear111
L.CNGRETE GLA8
Pa . .'fETI·fT"LENE
. 2" So\ND C.USHION
A tour or $IX mll f1\m for
moJsture
2. Aluminum Fo//-used as vapor barrier as a single sheet, or as a thin layer of foil
laminated to a heavy backing of asphalt-impregnated Kraft paper. This is also done with
two layers of foil laminated with asphalt cement.
GINGLE SHEET
WITH I<RAFT PAPER
SA)ojDWtCH WitH
CEMENT
3. Kraft paper coated with asphalt or wax. Sometimes two layers of paper are cemented
with a continuous layer of asphalt.
Another materials used for damp-proofing of concrete walls is "WEATHERKOTE" Bitu-
minous Emulsion, by SHELL.
115
These are high-grade between emulsions, which, after drying, provide pliable, fir,mly
adhered waterproof coatings over dry or de,np surfaces such as concrete, brickwork, ma-
sonry, wood, steel, etc. they are always applied cold.
All surfaces should be brushed to remove aU dust, loose particles, etc. Wash off with
water, if necessary. If cracks or unusually rough areas are present, these should be pro-
perly chipped out and brushed clean of loose'-particles and dirt. Prime such areas with
equal volume of Weatherkote type 3 and water by using a piece of sponge or similar ma-
terial. Fill. these areas slightly proud of the general surface using 1:4 mastic or a Weather-
kate/cement slurry of 1:1:12 mixture. (One volume cement, one volume water, 12
volumes weatherkote type 3)
To Damp-proof tor to Waferproof)
1. Prime all untreated areas by scrubbing in a mixture of equal volume of weatherkote
type 3 and water, that is 1 gallon of mixture per 100 sq. ft. (type 3-1/2 gal. per 100 sq.
ft.)
2. Apply a heavy brush coat of weatherkote type 3, allow to dry. (type 3- 1 1/2 gal. per
100 sq. ft.)
3. CLEAR SILICONE WATER REPELLENT FOR
LIMESTONE, CONCRETE
·a. THOROCLEAR SPECIAL -by Jardine Davies
Description
A clear, invisible silicone water repellent, specially formulated for application on aged
limestone and horizontal concrete. Furnished in liquid form application by.brush or low
pressure spray.
APPLY BY BRUSH OR
BY SPRAY
116
u •••
For invisible protection of most limestones (slight darkening might occur on some lime-
stone containing slate or iron teSt panels are suggested} horizontal concrete surfaces,
highways, ·bridge abutments, bridge decks, driveways and sidewalks. Do not use Thoro- ·
clear Special on brick or freshly quar:ried stone 'wse. Thoroclear mJ.
AdVImfllges
• Prevents water penetration.
• Nonflammable
• AHows the wan to breathe.
• Reduces freeze damage.
• Extends life of Portland cement ·con-
crete.
• . One-coat application.
• Can be applied to slightly damp surfaces.
• High resistance to salt.
• Reduces water absorption on limestone
to less thaill%.
• No objectionable chemical odor.
• darkening of "wet" concrete
highways, imp.roves night visibility.
• Clean up application tools with water.
Umit11tion
Do not apply when temperature is below
40°f (4.4°C) Or is expected to fall below
40°F (4.4°C). Do not apply to frozen or
frostfilled surfaces.-
Cover11ges
100-400 square .t per gallon (2.4-9.7m211)
varies with porosity of surface.
b .. THOROCLEAR m

Limestone or other surfaces to be treated
should be, clean, sound, free of stains, in
good repair and flushed free of dust, etc.
New stone should age for about one year
before sealing. Completely flood entire sur-
face with one coat of Thoroclear Special so
that there is a rundown of 6 to 12 inches
(15-30 em). Avoid longer runs. Low-pres-
sure spray applications are preferred, but
brushing is acceptable (do not use alumi-
num equipment). All shrubbery and adja-
cent surfaces not to be treated, particularly
aluminum should be protected. Care
should be taken to t reat in one coat; :after
dfying starts T'tior.oelear special will repel it-
self. To remove Thoroclear Special from
surface not to be coated, use xylol or
toluol. Do not use.lf rain is expected within
8 hours or apply to water-soaked masoory
as after a heavy rain. (Prior to applying
Thoroclear Special to loose, weak, cracked
or structurally defective masonry joints,
Dryjoint pointing mortar should be used.
P11ck11ging
1 and 5 gallon cans, 30 and 50 gallon
drums, (3.7 and 18.91 cans, 113.5 2.aJ
drums). ··
. Clear Protective Treatments for Masonry, Concrete, Bricks, Synthetic Adobe
· Silicone liquid is used to be spread around the surfaces by using paint brush. Silicone li-
quid is clear and does not change the natural color of the materials. One brand used is
Thoroclear by Jardine Davies.
4 ... ANA Y" PROOFING-SOIL POISONING
It is important to poison the soil against Anay (white ants) or termites otherwise an expen-
sive house will be eaten away by these insects in a few years. To protect your
soil poisoning is done. This stops the anay from infesting your main posts, walls and floor-
ing. One known brand is ALDREX by shell which will last up to 30 years, and is not harmful
to This liquid can be applied with an ordinary garden water can. A gallon of Aldrex
solution made up of 1 part aldnlx·and 36 parts water or a gallon of Aid rex 4 solution made up
of 1 apart Aldrex 4 and 95 part of water is enough to a square meter Of floor area for
years and years.
117
·. 0
0
0 ,
. .. : . \ ·-., ·c, .... . p 0
b
,..
Application is made after excavation and placing of footings, after grading and leveling, after
construction and after earth filling.
1
. ;
2

.
...
fw4¥ui$ll4f
1 pJ)RT
1 I=¥RT
.
..
RENTOKJL TERMITE PROOFING
When the subterranean termite infestation is located, Rentokil termiticide solution is intro-
duced into live mounds found within the premises. Trenching of the ground at 15-inch depth
immediately adjaeent to the outside faces of the walls and drenching of the trenches with
Rentokil termiticide solution at .the rate of two (2} gallons per lineal meter.
Drilling 3/4 inch diameter holes .at 18.inch (0.45 m) cel'ltres and (0.075 m) distance
from the outside/inside faces of main walls with the use of portable automatic roto-hammer
drills. Drilling of 3/4 inch holes around the infested post areas.
Application by pressures of the solution into each drilled. hole at the rate of two (2) gallons
per hofe by means of sub-slab injectors. ·
Application by brush or spray· of Rentokil woodworm killer and/or dusting with chlorinated
hydrocarbon powder on wooden parts attacked by subterranean termites.
5. WOOD PRESERVATIVE (termite wood rot, fungi)

This is a wood preservative, which when thoroughly applied protects lumber for years. It is
recommended for protection of wood against powder post beetles (BUKSOK) powder post
termites (UNO$), decay causing fungi such as sap stain and dryrot. One brand name by shell
is ALOAITE. This is applied undiluted with a paint brush (2 or 3 coatings) or a sprayer. A liter
of this preservative can treat a minimum of 10 $Q. m. of lumber per coating. This come in
two grades, clear and broWn, another brandname is XYLADECOR by Boysen. This is light
and weather resistant which protects the wood while beautifying it. Xyladecor is highly re-
commended for exterior use and is available in eleven colors. Other known brands are cupri-
nol of Dutch Boy. Solignum and many others. Cuprinol also contains water repellent addi-
tives to protect wood against weather and comes in 5 colors such as teak, nut tree, pine,
chestnut and rosewood.
i
1 '•
I V
1.19
120
SOLIGNUM PRODUCTS (Jardine Oaviesl
a. Exterior . Brown - (self staining external wood preseNative} a low-:cost, self staining
wooef preservative for the treatment of alt external timbefs. It is av8Hable in three co&our
. shades, lighr medium and dark
b. Colourt ... -a cl8ar wood preservative fluid for the Pf8I8I'Y8tive tr8!8tment of al new and
existent external and intemal timbefs . which witt afterwai-ds be protected wtth a double
surface coating.
·c. Solignum Timbertone-an organi9 solvent decorative wood preservative which
imparts colour to wood whilst allowing the grain to show through. It is of the pigmented
fungicidal type and is compatible with wood preservative treatments and most proprietary
exterior wood stairs. It is available in range of ten decorative shades for use on external
. internal timber. The timbenone colour ral)9e includes cherry red, mahogany. Birch
gray, golden oak, black, forest green haz8l, Oxford blue and walnut.
. .
For use 011 doors and windows, sheds, fences, wooden balcony floor and balusters, pa-
nelings.
d. Pre-treated Lumber-are lumber that is imp{egnated vvith a preservative through
vacuum p;_.ure. One source is PACWOOD INC. which uses TANALISEO lumber,
which is treated· at their factory and delivered to the site. The preservative used is
Tanalith CCA-Type C which penetrates the wood from one and a half inches and deeper.
6. FIREPROOFING
a. To prevent the fire from spreading at once, lumber, plywood, wood doors, etc. are
painted with a liquid that penetrates into the wood. When there is fire, it reacts by disper-
sing the flame, preventing progressive burning. One brand name is RESIST-A-FlAME.
This liquid, when applied, retains tbe natural beauty, gives strength and more mar-
ketable value as it protects materials against fire, weather, decay, insects and warping
painting can be applied over this liquid. One gallon of this liquid can cover from 200 to 300
Sq. ft.
b. Another good method is by using asbestos fireproofing boards instead of plywood.
c. Provision of the Fire Code or Fire Safety Construction, Protective and Warning System.
1. Fire protectton features. such as sprinkler systems hose boxes, hose reels or stand-
pipe systems and other fire fighting equipment.
Sprinkler Sysjem-Automatic fire suppressiOn ·is an integrated system of un·
derground or overhead piping or both connected to a .source of extinguishing agent
or medium and designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards
which when actuated by its automatic detecting device suppresses fire within the
areas protected. ·
..
121
PENDANT
t ... § ?> a__..,
. 1\80 V'c f I p1 tJ Go WHElJ
8E1-0W •
lo()ftf.?)J f>\fE$ 1\Rf:
corJCEALeO ON CEIUNG
papa \.-. ·
Dry Stllndpipe System -a type of standpipe system in which the pipes are nor-
mally not filled with water. Water is introduced into the system through service
connections when needed.
2. Fire alarm systems.
SIAMESE. TWIN
· fbr

tla'l
3. Fire walls to separate adjoining buildings, or warehouses and storage areas from
other occupancies in the same building.
4 .. Provisions for confining the fire at its source such as fire resistive floors and walls ex-
tending up to the next floor slab or roof, curtain boards and other fire containing or
stopping components.
· 5. Termination of all exits in an areas affording safe passage to a public way or safe dis-
persal area; ·
6. Stairways, vertical shafts, horizontal exists and other means of egress sealed from
smoke and heat.
7. A fire exit plan for· each floor of the building showing from each room to
appropriate exits, displayed prominently on the door of each room.
8. Self closing fire resistive doors leading to corridors.
9. Fire dampers in centralized airconditioning ducts.
10. Roof vents for by fire fighters.
11. Properly_ marked and lighted exits with provision for emergency lights to adequately
exit ways in case of power failure.
7. RAT·PROOFING
There are so many chemicals, powders, medicines rat food poison, that are being sold to kill
rats but these are temporary as rats proliferate in all nooks and spaces, gnaws al most-any-
thing and moat of an which is very disturbing, they make holes on th& corners of floors and

One way of discouraging rats and preventing them from gnawing the wood is to put a gal-
vanized sheet on the corners of a room. Science had proven that r.ats almost always start to
chew or gnaw only at the corners of a room and not on the midd!e. (The natives of Bontoc
had used this theory although they used thick wood t o protect their floor placed on the four
(4) postS of as a protection from ·other small animals).
,_.t:--- plaw1 g .1. g,m
.r-T { 6 fla?r
8. RUSTPROOFING
A. GALVANIZED Iron prote-ction System
HOW. THe
DO IT ·
One brand name is WEATHERKOTE Type 5 by shell which is an emulsion to be applied
G. I. sheets installed 6 months and more.
PREPARATION
1. The surface to be treated: shall be clean, firm and free from grease or oil. Rust, flack·
ing paint, etc. shall be removed by wire brushing.
2. Treat any weak areas as·
a. Thin or weak areas, laps and nail holes shall be primed to approximately 4 .. (0.10 m.l
each side of the weak area with Weatherkote block, diluted if necessary with mineral
Allow to dry for a minimum of 24 hours under average outside conditions.
b. An undiklted brush coat of Wll81herkote Type 5 Bitumen ErnWsion shaD be appled-
over the primed area. ·
c. While the above coat is wet, an openly woven fiber membrane such 8S'
therKote Fiber Glass Membrane 3401 shall be embedded into and covered by the· wet
film of Type 5 Emulsion, ensuring that the membrane is less in width than the film
Emulsion. Allow to dry.
3. After the surlace has been cleaned ohust by wire brushing, it shall be primed with a
brush or spray coat of Weathercote Black, diluted if necessary with Mineral Turpen-
tine. Allow to dry for a minimum of 24 hours under average out side conditions.
4. One heavy brush or spray coat of undiluted weatherkote type 5 Bitumen Emulsion
shall be applied to the whole area at the rate of 1 to 1 1/2 gallons per 100 sq. ft. Allow
to dry. · · ·
123
124
- - ~ -
5. Apply one brush or spray coat of weatherkote Aluminum at the rate of 1/3 91allons per
100 sq. ft. Other colours, green, red, and blue are available, with a spread of 25-30,
square meters per gallon.
When a colored finish is applied, sand blinding of the last coat of Weatherkote Bitumen
Emulsion (4) while still wet, is advisable. Brush off excess sand When dry and apply the
colored finish. Allow a period of two (2) weeks after drying of the Bitumen Emulsion be.-
fore applying Weatherkote Coloured finish.
·ESTIMATED QUANTITIES OF MATERIALS REQUIRED PER 10 SQ. METERS OF
AREA.
Weatherkote Black
Weatherkote Type 5
Weatherkote Aluminum
Weatherkote Colours
B. COLD GALVANIZING COMPOUND
1/3 gallon
1_to 11/2 gal.
1/3 gal.
25-30 sq. m. per gal.
Another brand name is CHESTERTON, a zinc-rich coating that protects iron, steel and
aluminum surfaces against corrosion. It also protects all iron and steel industrial equip-
ment. piping, ducts, structural work, water tanks, automotive. marine, etc. Use indoors
or outdoors-above, around or under water. Effective to 300F 1149°C).
* A superior one·package, smooth flowing cold galvanizing compound.
*Microscopic pure zinc particles give intimate bond to iron or-steel. Self-forming oxide
prevents rust and corrosion by galvanic action.
* Dries to a flexible, noncracking coating that permits bending without chipping.
• Protects welds on both bar metal or previously galvanized surfaces.
• Use as a touch·up or marred, hot-galvanized surfaces.
• Forms strong base primer for painting or may be left as final protective surface.
CHESTERTON COLD GALVANIZING COMPOUND is a zinc rich compound with 95%
zinc in the dried film. Unlike hot galvanizing, it well readily take a top coating. It is an ex·
cellent primer for painting providing three optimum benefits: (1) bonds to metal, (2• pro-
vides rough surface allowing the paint to bond to the primer. In large scrapes, it will pre·
vent rust creeping under the area still coated. In production it provides a quick, low cost
way to cold galvanize parts of finished products. In maintenance or construction, it elimi-
nc!tes costly down time and provides years of protection for all iron and steel surfaces,
structures or equipment such as air conditioning units, agricultural machinery, automo·
tive bodies, fences, _marine equipment, oil rigs, and offshore drilling structures, oma·
mental iron works, pipe lines, railroad equipment, structural steel tanks, transmission
towers, underground pipe lines, etc.
C. ROOFING GALVANIZED IRON G.t SHEETS
To prevent rust and insure longer life to galvanized iron sheets, apply red oxide primer to.
the roofing sheets, or apply REO LEAD PRIMER. When dry, apply an all weatber .roof
paint or galvanox roofing paint. (see Chapter or paints for different brands).
D. GALVANIZED METAL WATER TANKS
A known brand used is Shell Weatherkote Bitumen Emulsions which may be used for
tanks containing drinking water without fear of contamination but complete drying of
the Bitumen Emulsion is essential before placing the vessel into service. This should not
be used in tanks where the temperature of the water is in excess of approximately 100°F. ·
Where the entry of water would impinge directly on the bituminous surface this should
· be protected by setting tiles in the Bitumen Emulsion. Galvanized must be
allowed to weather for approximately six months before treated as under.
PREPARATION AND TREATMENT OR SURFACE AREA
The surface shall be thoroughly cleaned of light rust deposits by wire brushing or sand
blasting (or. if heavily deposited with rust or mill-scale, the surface shall be thoroughly
cleaned by grit blasting, flame cleaning, mechanical chipping, etc.) and must be com-
pletely dry. Neutralizing rust solutions can be used to give satisfactory results.
1. A priming coat of Weatherkote Black shall be applied at the rate of 1 gallon per
300-400 sq. ft. Allow to dry for a minirm:.m of 24 hours under average outside weather
conditions.
Mineral Turpentine may be used cautiously to dilute shell Weatherkote black of consi-
dered necessary to facilitate ease of appiication.
Note: Oil based Primers are not suitable for this application.
2. Apply at least two heavy brush or spray coats of shell Weatheri(ote Type 3 Bitumen
Emulsion, each coat being .laid on the rate of 1 1/2 gallons per 100 sq. ft. Each coat
shall be allowed to dry (no brown stain when rubbed with a wetted finger). Brush
coats should be applied at right angles to each other to minimize the effects of brush
marks.
Note: Where water is of neutral or alkaline reaction, a cement slurry should be
added to the Bitumen Emulsion before it is applied consisting of 1 volume
cement, 1 volume water and 10 volumes shell flintkote type 3 Bitumen
Emulsion which is added slowly to the cement slurry. ·
CURING: The above pr.otective coating shall be completely Clry and cured before 1he
tank is filled with water. This may take a week or more, depending on
ing conditions and some form of artificial drying may be required in order
to accelerate the drying process.
Estimated Quantities of Materials Required:
1 gallon of Weatherkote Black per 30()...1100 sq. ft.
3 gallons of Shell Wea1herkote Type 3 per 100 sq. ft.
125
126
9. FLOOR PROTECTION AND SURFACING
A. FLOOR SEALER (Anti Skid)
By Pilipinas shell is in synth,etic resin-based coating incorporating an abrasive aggregate
to provide an anti-slip finish: Nonnally applied by tr.owel. It comes in different like
blue, green, grey, red, yellow.
This is an anti-sUp coatjng over many types of base, especiaUy in location$ where wet or
oily conditions prevail, ex: on steps and ladder treads, around machinery, or inclined .
ramps, platforms, steel or wooden decks, around swimming pools and showers, in kit-
chens, garages,· etc. It may also be applied to steel, wood, aluminum, filed surfaces but
should not be applied to asphaltic surface.
APPLICAt'ION
1. Always ensure that the surface of the base is clean, dry, sound and free from oil,
grease, flaking paint, etc.
2. Stir the material thoroughly before use.
3. Apply the material thinly by means of a steel float with as 1ittte trowelling as A .
one-coat application of 1 mm (approx. 1/32") thickness is normally sufficient. (for ex-
posed steelwork, 2 coats is nonnal).
Covemge:
5 liters per 10 sq. m. at l mfT1 thickness.
B. WEARSCREED
Wearscreed is a three-component flooring unit containing exact quantities of epoxy
resin base and hardener with specially selected aggmgates. A coloring pigment may be
used when a coloured finish is required. Priming must be carried out with Wearsereed
Primer a two-component unit containing measured quantities of epoxy resin base and
hardener, ready for mixing. Application is done by stiff bristle brush for the Primer and
steel trowel for screed mix.
The POT life for primer is approximately 1 hour and for screed mix by approximately 46
minutes curing time: after laying, a minimum of 24 hours should elapee before light traf-
fic. is allowed. Heavy traffic only allowed after 72 hours the coverage: Primer-approx-
imately 8 sq. m. per unit, Screed mix: approximately 1. 7 sq. m. per unit at .6 mm thick-
ness.
C. TENNIS COURT SURFACING
This is a brand name by shell Filipinas. Weatherkote sand ·mastic playing surfaoe for ten-
nis, pelota, squash, and basketbaU courts is a 12 mm thick topping laid on such base as
asphalt, concrete,· asphaltic concrete, steel or any·firm base that can withstand the load
requirements. This is a resilient, jointless and quiet surface recommended for both· in-
doors and outdoor applications with good sufficient drainage in case of the latter.
a. Baae Preparation
1. Observe proper slope, ex: 1 inch for every 12 feet from end to end.
2. Remove all debris, dirt, dust and loose materials.
3. Repair cracks, patch up holes and uneven or broken areas.
b. Mastic Laying (on concrete base)
1. Suction: Wet out the concrete surface by hosing-down widl clean tap water. At-
low to soak overnight. Pooling of water should be removed before priming.
2. Priming: Mix thoroughly Weatherkote type 3 with equal amount of clean water,
using a suitable stirrer. Apply the primer with a stiff brush in a scrubbing action to
achieve good penetration and bonding with the surface dust. Allow the primer to
dry.
3. Bonding: :ro achieve positive bonding of the mastic on to the base, apply undi-
luted Weatherkote type 3 over the dry priming coat, using a soft broom or brush
just prior to laying of. the mastic. Don't lay over dry bonding coat, care must be
taken to keep the area free of all foreign matters.
4. Mixing: The Weatherkote sand mastic comprises Weatherkote type 5, clean
fine sand, .and water in 1:4 ration. (1 part Weatherkote ahd 4 parts sand by
volume). A pan type mixer is recommended, although in its absence it could be
done manually with shovels in the following sequence:
Add one volume of weatherkote to 4 volume of sand and mix.
Add water to obtain proper consistency. 'tt is essential that the quantity of water
be established at the first and second mix. On subsequent mixes retain 10% of the
water required to adjust mixing consistency. Mixing must continue until uniform
color and homogenous mixture is attained. ·
5. /..Bylng: It is suggested that the mastic mix be laid in alternate bays of 2 m wide
using 12 mm screed bars. However, it has been found out that with the aid of
gauge No. 18 G:l. wire as levelling guide, the mix is poured and spread in bays' Qf
. about .SO. em. Atong the length of the court. No screed bars are used, hence no ir-
·. regular edge. In a way this helps in minimizing directional cracks. This .could be
done ·as follows:
a. Over the still wet bonding coat spread the·mix borrowed from the mixer.
b. Level the mastic with a wooden float at the same time it.
c. After the initial set, that is from 40 to 90 minutes, after laying, finish the surface
with a steel trowel.
6. Rolling: The second stage of compaction is with the use of a 200 kg. roller,
done as soon as the surface can take the weight without pick-up .. This is done
along the whole length of the court, then across, observing an overlap of 3 .. to 4"
in each stroke. If rolling is delayed, a much heavier one is required. If the next bay
is laid to form a joint with an existing dried edge, apply a bonding coat where the
new mix lap with the old bay.
7. P.lnting: Pri""t the rolled and cured surface with acrylic latex paint and allow to
dry. Paint the primed surface uaing two undiluted coats of filled acrylic latex obser-
ving proper color combination8.
' ·
D. ACRYLIC FLOOR FINISH -a brand name by CHESTERTON is a clear, high-glass, non·
flammable copolymer, Chesterton Acrylic floor finish can be used as received for as·
phatt, vinyl, linoleu·m rubber or terrazo floors. It is specially formulated for high traffic
areas such as public buildings, offices, schools, industrial plants, institutions, hospitals
and shop floors.
Chesterton Acrylic Floor finish is an effective, tetSgh, water base surface floor finish that
needs to buffing after it is applied. Acrytic floor finish is an acrylic base, self-polishing,
non-scuff, floor finish that provides a bright, durable, protective coating on all typeS of
floors. using an acrylic copolymer emulsion of optimum particle size to as-
sure a dean, smooth, glossy film: .
Chesterton Acrylic Floor Finish will resist repeatesJ mopping-, scrubbing, water 8pills and
detergents, yet can be easily removed with Chesterton Ammoniated stripper and ·cleaner
when desired. When it is uneconomical to buff and where heavy traffic areas are sub-
jected to frequent scrubbings, Chesterton ac.rylic floor finish, a metallic crosslinked acry-
lic copolymer is recommended.

E. CHESTERTON URETHANE ENAMELS -a brand name used for protective coating for
floors, walls, machinery & equipment. It is super-tough, abrasion and chemical resistent,
high-g1088 and aetf-curlng. Chesterton urethane Erlamets comes from a family of synthetic
reeana used ae protective coatings. The aelf-curing, oil modified,
rathane floor enamels are recognized for their superior toughnela, wearabilty and good
cheriicaltllilnance: Th8'v yield ... th8t are touqh, ltard end flaxi)le. They pan8ball8 and-
seal porous yet retain a surfac' that gives a tough, resistant, high gloss or nevv
or old floOrl. It is excellent abrasiOn resistBnce to withstand heavy traffic in work area&.
Chemical resistance permits use' in loartions subject to spills, drips and leaks.
Coverage is 400 sq. ft./gal. or 37.2 aq. m/1. and comes in variety of colors like black,
clear, tile red, white, medium gray, light gray, medium brown, yeiiQW, forest green, raw
lienna.
, .
F. POLYURETHANE FLOOR.VARNI.SH
Another brand name for protection of wood floor especially gymnasiums is HUDSON
polyurethane floor varnish by century chemical corp. This is a sealer-topcoat floor finish-
ing .system that cures to a tough, non--slip glcuy polymhane film. This is tlef'd.
film which does not crack, peel ·or chip off. Reaists staining scratches and abrasions.
Aoor washes dean ta.t and eaay with plain wet-mopping. One application works for
years. ft aa.o emphasizes woOd grain. Its cofoumess formulation enhances the natural
shede ancf beau1y of wooden .fl0of8. ·Wood -colour .stains accentuate wood grains. tt
adheree firmly to propelty sand&d and cleaned wood and parquet floors with ordinary
paint brush.
·.
10. DESCALERS, PAINT & CHEMICAL STRIPPERS
A. CHESTERTON PAINT STRIPPER·-is a brand name which is a heavy duty gel that
softens and lifts paint from wood, metal, plaster, concrete, etc. It atso removes var-
nishes, lacquers and industrial finishes.
All brand names in the.paint industry has also their own paint remover brands.
B. CHESTERTON DESCALER and CHEMICAL CLEANER
Another brand name which etches concrete prior to painting. It cleans stains, rust, algae
fron1 concrete buildings, walks, etc. It removes cement build-up from forms, trucks,
equipment, tools, etc. It removes hard water ·build-up, lime scale, corrosion from boiler
tubes. Concentrated formula may be diluted with water.
Chesterton Descaler and Chemical cleaner with. Metal Acid inhibitor is a strong, mutti:-
use, liquid a<:id, formulated with a compatible inhibitor for a wide range of applications.
In use, its dissolving action on rust and scale is fast and thorough. Its acid formulation
dissolves lime scale and rust right down to the base metal or concrete with the e l ~ i v e
inhibitor protecting metal surfaces.
11. CONTROL. PROTECT AND MANAGEMENT
Actrol Systems PTE ltd. of Singapore is supplying and installing these systems for the.con-
trQi, protection and Management of Buildings. Some of the protective and controling items
are Architectural Hardware, Electric locks, alarmed Exit Devices, Gentral lighting control,
Central Proprietary Management System, Access Control Systems and Others.
129
CHAPTER· · . ·
. .
~ ~ ~ ITi1 u ffl1 ffi1 [Q)
~ c g @ J ~ ~ rnJ ~ .
PAINTS and PROTECTIVE COATINGS
132
Painting is done for the reason of decoration, to be used tor sanitation, preservation, im- ~
proved lighting effects, improved heating effects, improved working conditions, safety, and
economy.
MATERIALS:
1. PAINT -a mixture consisting of vehicles or binders, with or without coloring pigments,
adjusted and diluted with correct amounts and types of additives and thinners, which
when applied on a surface, forms an adherent continuous film which provides protection,
decorati on, Sl'nitation, identification and other funct ional properties.
Drying:
Paint dries by evaporation, oxidation, condensation, polymerization, or any combination
hereof.
a. Oil Paint - The components of an oil base paint are:
1. Body - That sol id, finely ground materi81 which gives a paint the power to hide, as
well as color a surface. In white paints the body is also the pigment. The products
most widely used for paint body are white lead, zinc oxide, Lithopone, and Tita·
nium white.
2. Vehicle - a nonvolatile f luid in which the solid body material is suspended. The
vehicle should consist of !rom 85 to 90 percent drying oil and the remainder thinner
and drier. The drying oils include linseed oil, soya-bean oil, fish oil, dehydrated
castor oil, tung oil, perilla oil, and oiticica oil.
3. Pigment-materials which give the paint its color. In the case of white paint, the
body is the pigment. Color pigments are classified into two basic groups.
a. natural group - obtained from animal, vegetable and mineral . sources, such as
iron oxides, chrome oxide, cobalt oxide, siennas, ochres, umbers and also car-
bon black.
b. synthetic pigment group ...,.- phtalo-cyanines (coaltar derivatives) similar to those
used to make dyes.
Red pigments - red lead, vermi lion red ochres.
Brown pigments - burnt ochre, burnt sienna, burnt umber
Yellow pigments- chromium oxide, zinc oxide, cadmium oxide
Blue pigments-cobalt blue, prussian b t u ~ , ultramarine blue
Green pigments- chrome green, viridian and emerald green.
Black pigments- carbon black and lampblack
4. Thinners -are volatile solvents, materials which have a natural affinity for the
vehicle in the paint. They cause the paint to flow better; They evaporate when the
paint is applied. The most common thinner is Turpentine, made from distilling gum
from a number of pine trees.
5. Driers - organic salts of various metals such as iron, zinc, cobalt, lead manganese,
and calcium, which are added to the paint to accelerate the oxidation and harden-
ing of the vehicle.
Oil paint therefore signifies a paint in which the vehicles is a drying oil. Linseed oil is
most generally used due to its great ability to absorb oxygen and change to a solid
state. This oil vehicle is modified by the use of thinners and driers, for which the best
thinner is Turpentine.
'
b. Alkyd Paints-so called because of the syr:tthetic resin-alkyd resin, used in the
paint formulation. Alkyd resin is obtained by the combining of an alcohol and an acid.
Alkyd are produced by combining a drying oil, such as Linseed oil .or dehy-
drated castor oil with glycerine (the alcohol) and phtalic anhydride (the acid).
Styrenated oils are also used to produce paints that possess fast drying and ex-
cellent adhesion characteristics.
Alkyd paints have mild alkali resistance but excellent water resistance because of
its excellent weathering ability, alkyd paint is particularly useful for porch and deck
enamel and paints for other such exposed conditions.
With modifications, it is used in making white baking enamel, such as is used on
stoves, refrigerators, etc. Linseed alkyds give fast drying times and tougher films.
Alkyd resin may also be mixed with latex paints. They usually produce greater per-
manence and better adhesion properties.
c. Resin- Emulsion Paints (latex) - paints iA which the vehicle is a synthetic resin
emulsion, usually made from one of four basic resin types:
but11diene-styrene, polyvinyl acetate, epoxy resin or acrylic resin.
The body of these paints is usually titanium dioxide or lithopone, and soya·bean pro-
teins are added to the formulation using butadiene-styrene and polyvinyl acetate to in-
crease consistency and stability.
The thinner is water. and it must be added a dispersing agent to keep the pig-
ment and other materials suspended in the emulsion. These emulsion-based paints ,
tend tO foam, so as a defoaming agent, usually tributyl phosphate is added. Finally
methyl cellulose is added to improve the floor qualities of the paint.
Polyvinyl acetate emulsions produce a much tougher skin than the butadiene-sty-
rene types and so can be used as exterior as well as ·interior paint. One of its most im-
portant applications is in exterior finishes for and stucco.
Acrylic and epoxy-resin emulsion paints require no oxidation to form a film and
remain flexible after drying. They exhibit great resistance to weathering and no
tendency to lose their adhesive qualities or color with age. They contain no protein
and therefore are not subject to deterioration. However they are more costly than
other emulsion paints.
d. Metallic Paint - consist of a metallic pigment and a vehicle. The pigment is very fine
flakes of aluminum, copper, bronze, zinc, or tin. They are suspended in a vehicle
which may be a natural or synthetic varnish, a quick drying lacquer, special bronzing
lacquer, or bituminous-based vehicles, depending on where the paint is to be used.
Spraying is the best method of applying metallic paints as it permits the spreading
of a uniform film and encourages even depositing of the metallic flakes used for decor-
ative purposes.
e. Luminescent Paint -made by adding fluorescent and phosphorescent pigments to
any one of a number of drier free vehicles. including alkyd marine varnish, spirit var-
nish, or quick-drying lacquers. Color also may be incorporated into luminous paints.
Luminescent paints may be used in buildings to produce special effects.
They are used in hospitals, schools, factories, hotels, etc.
f. Intumescent Paints (Fire-retardant) paints which retard the passage of fire to the
surfaces beneath them. When a surface coated with an intumescent (fire-retardant)
paint is exposed to heat or fire, it puffs up and forms a thick, insulating crust which
greatly retards the penetration of heat to the coated surface.
These crust is composed of tiny air cells which build up to a thickness of about 3
in. It seals out the ai r, or oxygen, required for combustion so that only very intense ex-
posure to heat will result in charring the undersurface.
133
134
A variety of these paints are available, with a vinyl, alkyd, polyurethane, epoxy or
solvent base. Both opaque and transparent products are manufactured in flat, semi-
gloss, gloss, or satin finishes.
They may be applied by brush, roller or.spray over a variety of surfaces such as
wood, paper, acousticaltile, concrete, stucco, plaster, conventional paint, enamel or
varnish.
Drying time to a dust free condition will vary from 30 minutes to 20 hours, cover-
age will vary from 150 to 500 sq. ft. per gal, depending on the particular type of paint
used and the kind of surface to which it is applied.
g. Polyester-Epoxy Coatings - a heavy-bodied paint used on concrete and mason-
ry walls and has a higher percentage of solids than normal. The coating system con-
sists of high - solids vinyl filler material to be applied directly over a concrete block or
other masonry surfaces, and high-solids, pigmented polyester epoxy topcoat.
The filler material may be applied by brush, roller or spray at a which
will give approximately 16 mils of dry film. The top coating, available in either semi-
gloss or gloss finish in approximately 90 different colors, will add another 6 mils of dry
film to the coating.
This coating system creates a tough, long-lasting finish which is highly resistant
to water I grease and many chemicals and which can be cleaned with harsh caustics.
This is suited to areas of heavy traff:ic such as schoolrooms corridors, kitchens, cafe-
terias, laboratories. '
A similar top-coating material is available for a clear finish, in either gloss or semi-
gloss. It is to be used over previously painted surfaces or to preserve the natural ap-
pearance of wood, brick or stone.
Both filler and top coating overnight drying time before applying a second
coat and approximately two weeks for complete cure.
2. VARNISHES
Varnishes constitute a group of more-or-less transparent liquids which are used to
provide a protective surface coating, at the sametime they allow the original surface to
show but add a lustrous and glossy finish to it.
All varnishes have basically the same components as paints, body, vehicle, thinner, and
drier. However, varnishes may be divided into three groups.
a. Naturai·Resin Varnishes
Made from natural resins, or exudations from living trees, while others are fossil
resins. Some of these must be heat-treated to produce an oil -soluble gum, white
others are naturally soluble in oil.
Resin, a by-product from the distillation of iurpentine, is also used to make var-
nish. Varnishes made from a combination of oil and natural resin are known as oleore-
sinuous varnishes.
The best thinner for varnishes is turpentine, a distillate of gum from a group of
pine trees. It evaporates slowly and gives varnish brushing and flowing qualities that
no other solvent can give. It also aids oxidation of the drying oil by absorbing oxygen
from the air and passing it to the oil. ·
Marine and Spar varnish are classified as long-oil since it contains from 40 to 100
gal. of oil per 100 lb. of resin. The result Is a varnish which will produce as tougher,
more durable and elastic film.' but which takes longer to dry and produces only mode-
rate gloss.
Floor Varnishes are classifiP.d as medium-oil varnislles. It contains 12 to 40 gat of
oil per too lb. of resin. They dry faster and have a harder film than long oil varnishes
but are not as impervious to water-.
Rubbing and Polishing varnishes belong to the short-varnishes. It contain from
5 to 12 gal. of oil per 100 lb. of resin. They dry quite rapidly and form a hard, brittle film
that will not stand much rough usage.
b. Modified N.aturai-Resin Varnishes
This group of varnishes is made with a natural resin which has been altered by
chemical action. Common Resin is heat treated with glycerin to form an ester gum,
and this gum is used as the body for the varnish. T-his varnish is less expensive than
oleoresinuous varnishes. ·
c. Synthetic-Resin Varnishes
These are varnishes produced by the plastics industry, including phenolics, nitro-
cellulose, amino resins, alkyd resins, vinyl resins, polyethylene, polysterene, silicone,
acrylic resins, and epoxy resins.
Some of these are thermoplastic, and some are thermosetting. Many varnishes
made with plastic resins reach their greatest potential only when baked.
3. ENAMELS - when pigment is added to a varnish, the result is an enamel. Any of the var-
nish types can be used, and the durability of the enamel depends to a large extent on the
quality of the pigment. Since varnishes do not contain the opaque body material which
paints do, enamels do not have high covering power for best results, they require an opa-
que undercoat.
Baking enamels, made with synthetic resins are used on most household appliances,
curtain-wall panels of various kinds, aluminum shinSies and sidings, and various interior
and exterior trim materials.
4. SHELLAC - shellac is the only liquid protective coating containing a resin of animal
origin. The resin is an exudation· of the lac insect of India and Southeast Asia, deposited
on the branches of trees.
The resin accumulations are collected, crushed and dissolved in alcohol to produce
orange shellac, so called because of its color. By bleaching the resin, pure white shellac is
produced.
Various grades of shellac are made by varying the amount of resin dissolved in a gal-
lon of solvent. These grades are known as cuts; a 4 lb. cut means that the shellac con-
tains 4 lb. of lac resin per gallon of alcohol.
The al cohol used is usually special denatured alcohol or proprietary denatured alco-
hQl. Shellac dries quickly, is easy to apply, and produces a tough, elastic film on wood,
metal glass, cork, and leather. However, it should not be used on work exposed to out-
side conditions especially under strong sunlight since it will discolor and to water contain-
ing alkali since it causes the shellac to soften and whiten.
Shellac finds considerable use as a seal coat over stains and fillers and is sometimes
used as a complete finishk1g material by itself. This is known as french polish, using a lin-
seed oil -soaked applicating cloth, co"nsists of many layers of shellac applied one over the
other.
5. LACQUERS -a new product made from synthetic materials to take the place of varnish
for clear finishes. Most modern lacquer is based on nitrocellulose used in combination
with natural or synthetic resins and plasticizers. There ingredients are dissolved in a mix-
ture of volatile solvents which evaporate, leaving a film to form the protective coating.
Thinners are mixed with lacquer just prior to application to reduce the consistency
for spraying, to control the rate of drying, and to reduce the cost of lacquer. They include
a group of alcohols ethyl, butyl, amyl and isopropyl.
When another class of materials, "pigments" are added to clear lacquer, the result is
lacquer enamel, available in a wide range of colors.
135
136
Eight varieties of clear and colored lacquers:
'1. clear gloss lacquer-a clear lacquer that dries to a glossy finish in one to four hours. It
1 may be rubbed and polished with oil.,
2. clear flat lacquer-dries without gloss. 9ften used to produce satin effects.
3. Tinting lacquer-a concentrated colored lacquer mixed with clear lacquer to produce
lacquer enamel.
4. Brushing lacquer-a slc:>w-drying lacquer formulated specially for brush application.
5. Bronzing lacquer-a clear lacquer into which are mixed metallic pigments to produce
metallic effects.
6. Shading Lacquer- a slightly colored lacquer used to produce wood color tone effects
on furniture.
7. Water-white lacquer-this is an exceptionally clear lacquer that produces a protective
coating of greatest transparency over pale finishes.
8. Dipping lacquer-this is designed for1application by the dip-tankjmethod and is avail·
able both clear and in colors.
6. STAINS-materials used to apply color to wood surfaces. They are intended to impart
color without concealing or obscuring the grain and not to provide a protective coating.
They may be used to accentuate the color contrast of a wood grain, to even up color
differences or to imitate expensive wood colors on surfaces which lack desirable color or
grain.
There are a number of types of wood stain available, based on the kind of solvent
used to dissolve the coloring matter-
a. Water-soluble stains -synthetic dyes, many of which are coal tar derivatives manu-
factured in powder form and in various strengths. They are dissolved in hot water at a
specified rate in ounces per gallon, depending on the depth of color required.
Water stain is easy to apply by brush, sponge, dipping or spray. It is nonfading
and nonbleeding, and it gives deep, even penetration. However, it has a tendency to
raise the grain of wood. thus roughening the surface and necessitating careJul sand-
ing. Water stain will air dry in about 12 hours. -
b. Spirit Stains-made from dyes which are soluble in alcohol and are manufactured
both in powder form and in ready mixed liquid form.
This type of stain produces the brightest and strongest colors but is most sus·
ceptible to fading. It also tends to bleed and to raise the grain of the wood. Because
they dry rapidly spirit stains are usually applied by spray; because of their high pene-
tration quality. they are often used for iefinishing, repair work, and for staining sap
streaks. Drying time is usually from 15 minutes to 2 hours.
c. Penetrating OU Stains -made by dissolving oil-soluble dyes in coal tar solvents such
as tolnol, benzol, or xylol and further thinning the vehicle with common petroleum sol-
vents. Oil stains are usually produced as a ready mixed liquid.
Stain is easy to apply by the sponge, spray or dip method, but the surface must
be wiped after application to remove excess stain. Oil stains have a tendency to bleed
into finish coats and are not as light-fast as water stains but have no tendency to raise
the grain. Drying time varies from 1 to 24 hours. ·
d. Non Grain-Raising Stains-this type of stain is made using light-fast dyes which are
soluble in such substances as glycols, alcohols, and ketones. They are designed to
produce all the advantages of the stains previously mentioned with none of their dis-
advantages. They moderate penetration, do not raise the grain of wood, and dry
in from 15 minutes to 3 hours. They do not run or bleed and; because of their fast-
drying properties, are usually applied by spraying.
e. Pigment Wiping Stains-this type are made from translucent mineral pigments
ground into a drying oil. They are applied by brushing or swabbing the surface with a
cotton cloth and are allowed to set for various lengths of time after application.
They have good light resistance, no tendency to raise the grain, and color uni-
formity. However, they lack the staining capacity of many other stains, and, because
they are not as transparent as some others, tend to obscure the fine grain of wood.
7. FILLERS-finet'S are finishing materials which are used on wood surfaces, particularly
those with open grain, to fill the pores and provide a perfectly smooth, uniform surface
for varnish or lacquer. Filler is also used to impart color to the wood pores and so empha-
size the grain.
Two general types of
a. Pasta fillers-used on open-grained woods. This consist of a base or body, pigment,
nonvolatile vehicle and thinner. The body is generally a translucent, inert material
{such as silica, some silicates, and carbonates of calcium and magnesium) which will
fill the pores withoufstaining the wood.
Color pigment is usually umber, sienna, or similar colors which will give the filler
the desired color. Use thinners similar to those used in varnishes:
Filler is applied by brush, by spray or by dipping and must be thinned to the pro-
per consistency for the method of application used. It is then wiped off, acr.oss the
grain, before it sets on the surface.
b . Liquid Filler-used on closed-grained woods. Usually a varnish with a small amount
of body material added. It is used on medium, close-grai ned woods in essentially the
sa.me way as paste filler but has much less filling capacity.
..
8. SEALERS- the primary purpose of a sealer is to seal the surface of the wood and pre-
vent the absorption of succeeding finish coats. It· may be 3pplied to bare wood that has
been sanded smooth or applied over the stain or filler:
A sealer also tends to seal in the filler, blend the stain, stiffen any raised wood grain
and thus make sanding easier, and form a bond between the wood and the finishing
coats.
Shellac is a widely used sealer. Thinned out to a 2 to 41b. cut, depending on whether
varnish or lacquer is to be used.
Varnish sealer is available for use under varnish or lacquer. It is similar to varnish cut
back until the material contains 30 to 35 percent solids. This type of sealer air-dries in
about 8 hours or may be force-dried in 1 to 2 hours at 150° F. The surface must be sanded
after the sealer is completely dry.
Lacquer sealer is the type of sealer most commonly used under lacquer finishes. It
consists of the same type of resins from which lacquer is made, with plasticizers and sol-
vent and, in addition, solid content in the form of zinc and calcium stearates.
These are called sanding agents and increase the ease with which the sealer surface
may be sanded when dry (Sanding Sealer!:
9. SILICONE WATER REPELLANT
To be used on all non-painted concrete, synthetic finishes, rubble, brick, and wash-out
finishes as a protection trorn absoiJ)tion of water and prevent moss, alkali, fungi to
destroy the surface. · ·
137
138
PRODUCT NAMES
INTERIOR & EXTERIOR FINISHES
All of the finishing paints have different product for each brand of paint an example is
as follows:
Nalcrete flat paint is Dutch Boy
Tropicote flat paint is Sinclair
Product to use as per Location of Surface
1. For interior and exterior concrete surfaces
a. concrete sealer
b. stucco and concrete primer
c. interior flat paint
d. exterior gloss paint
e. quick dry enamel
f. portland cement paint-oleoresinuos base paint.
g. gloss or semi-gloss AQUA paint-thin with water
Note: before painting newly plastered concrete surface apply a mietralizer an alki free
concentrate (using 1/2 liter per Bottle to 10 liters of water of any brand) used to
wash unfinished interior or exterior stucco, concrete masonry, or plaster surfaces
before painting where free alkali may be present, or where moisture conditions
may cause efflorescence
2. For exterior wood.surfaces
a. Exterior Gloss House paint
b. enamelized house paint
c. latex house paint
Note: before painting exterior wood surface, apply wood primer which is fungi-
cidal of any brand. (non-fungicide is also accepted)
3. For exterior galvanized iron roof. Tiles of asbestos
a. portland cement paint
b. ·tatex roofing paint
c. acrylic roof paint
Note: before applying paint. Apply red oxideprimer or red lead primer-(a high quality
· rust inhibitive primer formulated to prepare iron and steel surfaces for subsequent
coats). ·
4. For interior wood surfaces
a. flat wall enamel
b. satin egg-shell semi-gloss finish
c. interior semi-gloss finish
d. interior gloss enamel finish
e. latex semi-gloss finish
(ideal for acoustic boards)
Note: before applying paint, sand paper and apoly interior primer ana sealer-an alkyd-
based sealer for interior wood panels, cabinets. Thinner is added.
5. For interior & exterior ferrous metal surfaces
a. Quick drying enamels
b. aluminum paint
c. slow chalking tank enamel
Note: before applying paint, coat ·surface with red oxide. primer or red lead primer, or
zinc chromate primer.
6. For furniture and wood craft finishing
a. wood pasta seeler-designed to fill and seal open grain interior wood used for
paneling, ftoor, furniture it will produce an even level finish. Use thinner or oilwood
stain.
b. oilwood stains - for staining open-grained or close grained wood filler.
c. lacquer sanding sealer-a clear sealer f or wood to be finished with lacquer. It has
excellent holdout properties requires pess sanding.
d. clear gloss lacquer -top quality high gloss clear lacquer for cabinet fixtures, doors,
paneling and furniture. Use lacquer thinner.
e. clear dead flat lacquer-flat finish for wood cabinets, doors and. paneling and other
surfaces requiring a flat finish thin with lacquer thinner.
f. super dead flat lacquer
g. natural finishing oil
h. polyurethane clear or pigmented finish -is a tough, floor varnish recommended
for wood tiles especially for basketball Gyms. (Hudson brand) .
i. lacquer glazing & spot putty-is a heavy-bodi ed putty and glaze for filling dents
and imperfections on metal or wood surface use lacquer thinner .
• Gladng putty-:-a high quality alkyd resin fitler for repairing dents, holes and cracks oo
metal or wood surfaces. Use thinner and tinting colors:
EXTERIOR WORK
MATERIAL TO BE PAINTED:
1. Cement Plaster Sprayed
Cement and Concrete
SPECIFICATIONS:
For FLAT, WATER-
BASED FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Fi nish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Fi nish coat
First coat
Finish coat
MATERIAL BRAND
Sinclair's 18 Epoprime
Sinclair's 475 Stuc-o-life
Fuller's 70-W-6 Acrylic
primer
Fuller' s 820-Speedflo
Exterior Latex #1436
concrete white
Dutch Boy's Flat
Nalcrete Thinned with
1/2 liter water per 4
liters of paint
Dutch Boy's #55 BOO
Flat Nalcrete
Sherwin William's
No. 650 S ~ W House
Paint
Sherwin William's
No. 551 S-W Exterior
house paint
Boysen's Permacoat
concrete sealer
Boysen's Permacoat or
Monol(ote
139
··'
2. Hollow Block Masonry
II II II
II
II II
II ll
I[
:11
II I
140
First coat ·
Finish coat
For GLOSS, WATER-
BASED FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
. First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
For FLAT, WATER-
·BASED FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
f::irst coat
Davies #1350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies #600 Acrylic latex paint
Sinclair's 18 Epoprime
Sinclair's 5000 Aqua
Gloss
Fuller's 70-W-6 Acrylic
primer
Fuller's 3200 Gloss
Latex
Dutch Boy's #100x
Exterior gloss latex
house paint
Dutch Boy's #100x
Exterior gloss latex
Sherwin William's
No. 650 S-W Exterior
house paint
Sherwin William's
No. 550 S-W Exterior
house paint
Boysen's #7{E, white
permacoat concrete
sealer
Boysen's permacoat
gloss latex
Davies #1350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies #525 Acrylic glass latex paint
Sinclair's 1010 HoHow
Block primer
Sinclair's 475 Stue:-o-life
Fuller's 70-W-6
Acrylic primer
Fuller's 820-Speedflo
Exterior latex
Dutch Boy's Flat
Nalcrete
Dutch Boy's #55 BOO
Flat Nalcrete
Sherwin William's
No. 650 S-W Exterior
house paint
3. Wood Siding, Paneling, Trims,
Fascias, Eaves, Soffits
\1 ·H'· II I II
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
For GLOSS, OIL
FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
Sherwin William's
No. 561 S-W Exterior
house paint
Boysen's #705 white
permacoat concrete
sealer
Boysen's permacot or
monokote
Davies #1350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies #500 Acrylic latex paint
Sinclair's 289 Exterior
Wood primer
Sinclair's 500 SPI
Exterior House Paint or
290 100% Exterior
House Paint
Fuller's Exterior Wood
Primer No. F-3588
Fuller's 2900 Exterior
Gloss house paint or
620 Exterior Glossy
house paint or 8605
Exterior Semi-gloss or
8100411 purpose Latex
Dutch Boy's #25 F
Exterior Wood Primer
Dutch Boy's #100x
Latex house paint or
#113 Enamelized
house paint.or #10x
exterior gloss house
paint
Sherwin William's
No. 450 S-W
undercoat
Sherwin William's
SWP Gloss house
paint
Boysen's #302 white
exterior wood primer
Boysen's Exterior house
paint

Davies #1320 Exterior wood primer
Davies 1200 Exterior gloss house paint
141
Fo! CLEAR, VARNISH
FINISH
Two coats Sinclair's 460 Varshield
Gloss Varnish or
Sinclair's 463
Varshield Flat Finish
Door, Trim primer Fuller's 17782 Sanding
Sealer
Two coats Fuller's #7737 Clear
dead Flat lacquer
#34-F1 Clear Flat
laquer
#34C-7F Clear gloss
lacquer
#6500. Heavy duty
varnish gloss
#6502 Heavy duty
varnish flat , #V-223
Water resistant SPAF
Varnish
Two coats Dutch Boy's TT-V-lZC
versatile Spar Varnish
Two coats Sherwin William's
LIN-X Clear Gl oss
Varnish
Two coats Boysen's 154 Supper
Varnish (for eaves
only)
TV'!O coats
lJavies #68 Daxpar varnish
Two coats
. or #69 Urespar
~
For SEMI-TRANS-
PARENT STAIN
FINISH
One coat Sinclair's 3900 Stainteke
semi-Transparent
stain
One coat Fuller's Non-grains
Raising Wood stains
or (Oil woodstain)
penetrating
One coat
Dutch Boy's
One coat Sherwin William's
penetrating oil stains
One coat Boysen's oil Wood
Stain
One coat
One coat
Davies Oil woodstain
142
4. Galvanized, Iron Sheet
Roofing
For FLAT, OIL
FINISH
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment.
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 12 GALVA-
wash
Sinclair's 26 Zinc
Chromate Primer
Sinclair's Portland
Cement Paint
Fuller' s Turco prepaint ,
or Redipaint
Fuller's Red lead primer
R-4171 or 83-Y-1F Red
oxide primer
Fuller's #2200 series all-
weather
#1400 series Galvanox
#3001 series roof Decor
Dutch Boy's tex thin
Dutch Boy' s #041 zinc
Chromate Primer
Outch Boy' s Portland
Cement (3 coats)
Sherwin William's
Galvanized Iron
Primer, B50 Ax1
Ner roofl
Sherwin William's
Galvanized Iron
Primer, B50 Ax2 or
S-W Kromic Metal
primer or S-W Red
Lead Primer No. 1-A-.
Sherwin William's
S-W exterior house
paint
Boysen's
Boysen's 1009 Acrylic
Roof Paint
Boysen' s 100% Acrylic
Roof Paint
Davies Wash Primer
Davies #940 Zinc chromate primer
Davies Portland cement or
Davies Acrylic roof paint
143
144
5. Galvanized Iron Gutters, Cap-
pings Conductors, Flashing
For GLOSS, OIL
fiNISH
Pretreatment
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First eoat
Second coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Second coat
SinClair' 12 GAL VA-
Wash
Sinclair's 26 Zinc
Chromate primer
Sinclair's 248 Sash and
Trim primer
Sinclair's Sinco lux
Quick Dry Enamel
Fuller's Turco red
paint or WO #1 or 7861
acid component
Fuller's Red oxide
primer 83-Y -1 F
Fuller's 2900 or 620
Exterior Gloss house
paint or Galvanox or
roof decor Acrylic Latex
Boysen's
Boysen's 100% Acrylic
Roof Paint
Boysen's 100% Acrylic
Roof Paint
Boysen's 100% Acrytic
Roof Paint
Sherwin William's
Sherwin WiHiam's
S-W Galvanized Iron
Primer or S-W grip
primer
Sherwin William's
S-W metal tastic
S-W-P house paint or
sitver brite aluminum
paint 115
Sherwin William's
Same on 2nd coat
Dutch Boy's #61-006
metal treatment
solution mixed with
equal proportion of
tap water.
Dutch Boy's 1040-Zin
Chromate Primer
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's exterior
house paint or
nalcrete
Davies Wash primer
Davies #940 Zinc chromate primer
Davies Exterior house paint or
Davies Roofshield
6. Asbestos and Ceramics
Finish coat
Pretreatment
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
For FLAT WATER·
BASED FINISH
FirSt coat
Finish coat
First c o a ~
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
EXTERIOR & INTERIOR WORK
MATERIAL TO BE PAINTED:
1. Metal Sash, Trims, Mullions
Ornamental iron and other
Ferrous Met&J Sutfaces
SPECIFICATION:
For FLAT, OIL
FINISH
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 100% Acrylic
Roof paint
Sinclair's 100% AcryUc
Roof paint
Fuller's Roof Decor
Acrylic Latex paint
Fuller's Roof Decor
Acrylic Latex paint
Dutch Boy's Flat
Nalcrete
Dutch Boy's gloss of
Nalcrete
Sherwin William' s
Sherwin William' s
Loxon' s Exterior
Masonry Acrylic
Latex Paint, K12 W x7
Boysen's #705 White
Permacoat concrete
sealer
Boysen' s permacoat or
Monokote
Davies 11350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies Acrylic roof paint
MATERIAL BRAND
Sinclair's S-15 Chrome
oxide pnmer or
Sinclair's SP.01
Red lead primer
Sinclair's 248 Sash
and Trim primer
Sinclair's Sirico Lux
Quick dry Enamel
145
Apply
Turco WO #1
146
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
Fuller's 183-R-9F Red
oxide
#R-4171 Red
Lead
#567-Y-1 Sine
Chromate
Fuller's #2900 Exterior
Glossy paint
#620 Ext. Glossy
paint
#4720 Series
· Synthetic ODE
or Quick drying
Glossy
Dutch Boy's #057 Red
Lead or #056 Red
oxide #041 Zinc
Chromate Primer
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's #6-105
silver Finish Aluminum
Paint or Quick drying
Enamel in 25 popular
colors.
Boysen's #371 P.O. Red
Lead primer
Boysen's #1070 Red
Bootoping Paint
Boysen's same as 2nd
coat
Sherwin William's
Kromik metal primer
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's Keon
Lustral Enamel
Davies #950 Red Lead or #940 Zinc chromate
or #915 LZI or 910 Preparakote
Red Oxide
Davies #400 Series quick drying
Enamel or Davies ffl-00 Series
Marine Finish
2. ALL NON-PAINTED
Concrete, Synthetic Finishes,
rubble, brick and washout
INTERIOR WORK
1. WOODWORK, Plywood, Wall
and Ceiling
For FLAT, CLEAR,
FINISH
Two coats
Two coats
Two coats
Two coats
Two coats
Two coats
For FLAT, OIL
FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
(Use Fulatile. or
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 445 Water-
shield (Silicone Water
repellent)
Fuller's #6610 water
repellent sealer
Dutch Boy's #4-()45
Concrete Sealer, #103
tucco and concrete
primer," #61-198 clear
masonry water
repellent
Boysen's #99 Aquaseal
(water repellent)
Sherwin William's
Weather Clad
Penetrator
Davies #400-X Silicone Water Repellent
or Davies #100-X Aqualock
Sinclair's 975 Since
prime undercoat
Sinclair's 1900 Canyon
color Flatwall Enamel
Fuller's Sinto Seal 4789
Fuller's 420 Int. Flat
wall paint
Fuller's 4440 Flat wall
enamel
400..000 Fulcoat
Flatwall
Dutch Boy's #001
Interior primer and
sealer
Dutch Boy's #813 Flat
Wall Enamel
Sherwin William's S-W
Wall primer and
Sealer No. 25
Sherwin William's S-W.
Flat tone alkyd Flat
Enamel
Boysen's 1300 white
interior primer and
sealer
Boysen's Flat'Wall
Enamel
Davies #1360 Interior primer & sealer
Davies #3/X) Flatwall enamel
147
148
For SEMI-Gl:OSS OIL
FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
For FLAT, TEXTURED
FINISH
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 975 Sinco
prime undercoat
Sinclair's 1000 Sinco
Satin
Fuller's Sintoseal 4789
Fuller's 520 semi-gloss
Enamel or 300-000
Fulcoat semi-gloss or
8600 ODE or 200..000
Fulcoat ODE
Dutch Boy's #001
Interior Primer and
sealer
butch Boy's #22-101
· Interior semi-gloss
finish
Sherwin William's S-W
. Flat rite enamel
undercoat
Sherwin WiHiam's S-W
Flat rite enamel
Boysen's 1300 white
interior primer and
sealer
semi-gloss finish .
Davies 11360 Interior primer & seater
Davies #600 Interior Semi-gloss finish
Sinclair's 890 Pigmented
Sealer
Sinclair's 975 Prime
undercoat
Sinclair's 515 Nusurf
Textured .Paint
Fuller's 18300-AB-02
Textured Acrylic Bond
Fuller's #8301-W-01
Gloss white
gloss
white
18303-W-01 Flat white
Fultex Latex Textured
. paint ·
Acrycast' S<;>lvent acrylic
Textured paint
2. ACOUSTIC WALL and
CEILING
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
I
For BLEACH FINISH
Wear rubber gloves for
protection. May be ap-
plied either by brush or
spray. Always start with·
wood;,leach No. 1 first
while it is w t, follow im-
mediately with wood-
bleach No. 2. Do not
wait for woodbleach No.
1 to dry up before appl-.:-
ing woodbleach No.2 in
order to obtain a good
bleach.
For FLAT, WATER
BASED FINISH
One coat
One coat
One coat
One coat
One coat
One coat
One coat
(1/4 liter
of water per
41iter can
of paint)
Boysen's #300 white
interior primer and
sealer
Boysen's wondercoat
Boysen's same as above
Sherwin William's S-W
Wall primer and
sealer No. 25
Sherwin William's S-W
tone alkyd Flat
Enamel
Sherwin William's same
as 2nd coat
Dutch Boy'!;
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Davies #1360 Interior primer & sealet
Davies Classitex textured coating
Sinclair's 1100 10-sountt..
Dutch Boy's #88-510 x
Latex semi-gloss
finish
Sherwin William's ·
Boysen's
Davies #500 Series latex paints
Davies #25 Paste woodfiller natural
Davies #20-00 Series oil woodstains
149
3. Wood Paneling, door, closet
cabinets '
150
Prepare sur:face with
one coat of Paste wood
Filler. If stain is·required,
use colormat ic wood
stain
For CLEAR, LACQUER
FINISH
Rrst coat
Finish coat ·
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 50 paste wood
Filler
Sinclair's wood color-
matic woodstain if re-
quired
Fuller's #1205 natural
paste wood filler
Fuller's #779 Water
clear gloss
Dutch Boy's #23-11
natural wood paste
Dutch Boy's #13-56
clear flat lacquer
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Boysen's tlfl) Natural
Wood Paste Filler
Boysen's
Davies #25 Paste woodfiller
Natural, Davies 20-00 Series
Oil woodstains
Sinclair's CL-101
Sanding Sealer
Either one of the
following:
Sinclair's CL-150 High
Gloss Lacquer
Sinclair's CL-151 water
white High Gloss
Lacquer
Sinclair's CL-156 Flat
Lacquer
Sinclair's CL-157 Water
white Dead Flaat
Lacquer
Fuller's
Fuller's
Boysen's lacquers
primer surface
Boysen's gloss lacquer
enamel
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Dutch Boy's #23-11
Natural wood paste
filler
Dutch Boy's #13-56
clear flat lacquer
Davies #701 Hi-solids
First coat
Rnish coat
Davies #702 Hi-solids clear gloss lacquer
or Davies #703 Hi-solid dead flat lacquer ·
or Davies #704 Water white gloos lacquer
4. DOORS, CLOSET and
CABINET work (Kitchen)
Subject to water
For FfNISHING OIL
FINISH
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
One or Two coats
For QUICK DRY
ENAMEL FINISH
SPRAY APPLICATION
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Sinclair's n7 Finishing
oil
Fuller's
Sherwin William's
penetrating oil clear,
V82 V X 50
Dutch Boy's #31-001
Natural Finishing Oil
Boysen's
Davies #66 Finishing oil
Sinclair's AF-22 Sinlux
Primer Surfacer
Sinclair's AF-24 Sinlux
Glazing putty
Sinclair's AF-22 Sinlux
Primer surfacer
Sinclair's Sinco lux
Quick dry enamel
Fuller's
Fuller's
Fuller's
Fuller's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's ·
Dutch Boy's lnsanto
Primer surface.
Dutch Boy's lnsanto
Glazing putty
Dutch Boy's lnsanto
Enamel
Dutch Boy's lnsanto
Reducer #1 076
Boysen's #303 white
Enamel undercoat
Boysen's Quick drying
Enamel
151
r
152
Third coat
Finish with two or
more coats
Rrst coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
For DUCO FINISH
(Pigmented lacquer)
SPRAY APPLICATION
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
Rrst coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two- or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
. more coats
Boysen's same as 2nd
coat
Boysen's
.Davies Pro-lux primer
Davies Pro-lux glazing putty_
Davies Pro-lux primer
Davies Quick-drying enamel
Sinclair's LU-100 lacquer
Primer surfacer
Sinclair' s LU-202 lacquer
Glazing & Spot putty
Sinclair's LU-100 lacquer
Primer surfacer
Sinclair' s AL-100
Automotive lacquer
F u ~ e r ' s
Fuller's
Fuller's
Fuller's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Boysen;s
Boysen's
Boysen' s
Boysen' s
Davies l1f1J LacQuer Primer surface
Davi es 1700 laCQUer putty
Davies 1700 lacquer primer surface
Davies 1700 Series automotive lacquer
INTERIOR WORK
MATERIAL TO BE PAINTED:
1. Cement Plaster Sprayed
Cement and Concrete
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
First coat
Second coat
Third coat
Finish with Two or
more coats
SPECIFICATIONS:
For FLAT,
BASED FINISH
·First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
MATERIAL BRAND
Sinclair's 300 Acrylic
primer
Sinclair's 475 Stuc-o-life
or 1600 vinytife
Fuller's Acrylic
primer
Fuller 88 Flat Emulsion
Latex 100-000 Fulcoat
Latex
Sherwin William's S-W
Wall Primer and
Sealer No. 25
Sherwin William's S-W
Flat tone alkyd Aat
Enamel
Dutch Boy's #4-046
Concrete
Dutch Boy's #105
Stucco and concrete
paint
Boysen's #700 white
permacoat
Boysen's #703 white
permacoat tinted to
desired shade.
Davies 11350 Acrylic concrete seater
Davies #500 Series acrylic latex paint
153
154
For FLAT; WATER
BASED TEXTURED
FINISH
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
For SEMI-GLOSS
WATER BASED
FINISH:
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
First coat
Sinclair;s 300 Acrylic
primer
Sinclair's 515 Nusurf
Textured Paint
Fuller's
Fuller's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Boysen' s
Boysen's
Davies #1350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies Classitex textured coating
Sinclair's 300 Acrylic
primer or SP-4000
Acrylic Emulsion clear
sealer
Sinclair's 4000 Aqua
Satin
Fuller's 70-W-6 Acrylic
prir.1er
Fuller's 3400-semi-gloss ·
,..latex
Sherwin William' s S-W
Wall Primer and
sealer No. 25
Sherwin William's S·W
Semi lustre
Dutch Boy' s
Dutch Boy's
Boysen' s 1705 white
permacoat concrete
sealer
Boysen's permacoat
semi-gloss latex
Davies #515 Semi-gloss latex
For STIPPLE ENAMEL
FINISH
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat-
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
Finish coat
First coat
Second coat
For STIPPLE FLAT
FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
Sinclair's 890 pigmented
sealer
Sinclair's 975 Sinco
Prime undercoat
Sinclair's 782 Semi-
gloss stipple
Fuller's
Fuller's
Fuller's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Boysen's
Boysen's
Boysen's
Davies 11350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies Classitex 155-02 semi-gloss
Davies 156-m Gloss
Sinclair's 890 Pigmented
Sealer
Sinclair's 781 Flat Style
Fuller's 70-W-6 Acrylic
Primer
Fuller's 8300 Series
Textured coatings
Sherwin William's
Sherwin William's
Dutch Boy's ·
Dutch Boy's
Boysen's
Boysen's
Davies 11350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies Classitex 155-01 Flat
155
156
2. HOLLOW BLOCK MASONRY
OTHERS
Semi-gloss
or Flat
Semi-gloss
or Flat
Semi-gloss
or flat
Semi-gloss
of Flat
Semi-gloss
or Flat
Semi-gloss
of Flat
Semi-gloss
of Flat
For SEMI-GLOSS OR
FLAT WATER BASED
FINISH
First coat
Finish coat
Finish coat
First coat
Finish coat
• Finish coat
First coat
Finish coats
Finish coats
FirSt coat
Finish coats
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
Finish coats
First coat
Finish coats
Finish coats
First coat
Finish ci>ats
Finish coats
Sinclair's 1010 Hollow
block primer
Sinclair's 400 Aqua
Satin
Sinclair's 475-Stuc-o-life
Fuller' s 70-W-6 Acrylic
Primer
Fuller's 3400 Semi-gloss
latex
Fuller's 8100 all purpose .
latex
Sherwin William' s
Sherwin William's
Sherwin Wiiliam's S-W.
Flat tone alkyd Flat
Enamel
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's
Dutch Boy's #55 BOO
Flat Nalcrete
Boysen's 1700 white
permacoat concrete
permanent semi-gloss
latex
Boysen's
Bovsen's
Davies #1350 Acrylic concrete sealer
Davies 1500 Series latex paints
1. Neutralizer-for new masonry to neutralize the alkali and ensure adhesion.
2. Concrete putty Filler
3. Paste wood Filler-natural, oak, mahogany, walnut.
4. Sand paper
5. Turpentine
6. Lacquer Thinner
7. Latex paints
8. Paint and varnish remover
9. Blackboard Slating
10. Steel and Water Tank-red oxide primer then chlorinated Rubber paint.
11. Silk-Screen paints
12. Acoustical Ceiling paints
13. Polyurethane Gloss Finish - For wood surface, Heavy duty plastic varnish.
14. Tinting colors-yellow ochre, lamp black, purssian blue. Bulletin red, lemon yeflow,
medium chrome yellow, dark chrome yellow, chrl;)me green, dark chrome,..,e-
netian red, Burnt umber, Raw umber, Raw Sienna, Bumt
15. · Bleach Finish - use woodbleach No. 1 and woodbleach No, 2.
16. Sanding Sealer-a lacquer sanding sealer composed of nitrocellulose and hard gum
resin. Airdry to recoat or to sand in one hour. Any lacquer may be used over this sealer.
F:or " Interior use only"
Application of paint
a. surface· preparation c. First topcoat
b. primer
d. Second topcoat
.Methods of application of paints and coatings
1. Brush 9. Electrostatic Spray
2. Dip 10. Electrostatic Air1ess Spray
3. Handroller 11. Utho Coating roller
4. Decorative roller 12. Plywood coating roller
5. Cup Gun Spray 13. Flow coating roller
6. Pressure fed spray 14. Powder Dip Coating
7. Airless spray 15. Electrodepositlon
8. Hot airless spray
Brands of Painte
1. Davies
2. Fuller
3. Dutch Boy
4. Sinclair
5. Boysen
6. Sherwin Williams
7. Finch
8. Others
PAINTS
Paints - include the many fluid materials used as thin coating on wood, metals, cement
plasters, brickwork and stucco per protect fire or decorative purposes. These materials
are classified into true paint and varnish, the distinction being that the true paint is a
mixture of a pigment with a vehicle where as varnish contains no pigment. The vehicle
is the fluid portion which is oil and water. It is used for iron sheet and metal to protect
them from corrosion and for wood ·to guard it from decay and warping.
011 paint -this signifies a paint in which the vehicles is a drying oil. Linseed oil is most
generally used because of its great ability to absorbed oxygen and charge to solid state.
This oil vehicle is modified by the use of thinners and driers, the best thinner is turpen-
tine.
Water paint ...:..signifies a paint in which the vehicles is water paint includes white wash and
calcium. Water paint is made by the slaking quicklime in water, then straining to remove
the lumps and adding water. They are used in a powdered forrr •t) mix with water.
Varnish '(Surface)-varnish is a solution of resin in drying oil or in a Y\.. • .rtile solvent such as
alcohol in turpentine it contains no pigment and hardens a smoother, hard and gloss
coat by. oxidation of the oil or the evaporation of alcohol.
157
CHAPTER
160
HARDWARE
HARDWARE -metal products used in construction, such as bolts, hinges, locks, tools,
etc. They are classified as:
a. finishing hardware-Hardware, such as hinges locks, catches, etc. that has a finished
appearance as well as function, esp. that used with dooi'S, windows, and cabinets, may-
be considered part of the decorative treatment of a room or building.
b. Rough hardware -in bui lding construction, hardware meant to be conceafed, such as
bolts, nails, screws, spikes, rods, and other metal fittings.
Some Finishing t1ardware Brands:
1. Sargent
2. Stanley
3. Vale
4. Corbin
5. · Schlage ·
6. Kwikset
7. Rabbit
;
8. Universal
9. Eagle
10. Master
11. Alpha
12. Yeti
I. DOORS-an entrance way
a) TYPES
a. flush -a smooth-surfaced door having
faces which are plane which conceal
ns rails and stiles or other structure
when used inside, it Is of hollow
core, when used for exterior it is of
solid core.
' ~ -
'
b. Panel door - a door having stiles. rails and sometimes muntins, which form one or more
frames around recessed thinner panels.
Jod< r.21tl
Kinds of Doors
1. Swinging Door
open to
__,--t--tap

\
\
\
\
r-t-- lcXk
2. Overhead swing-up garage door - a rigid overhead door which opens as an entire
unit.

161
M*'Mf

162
3. Overhead roll-up garage door-a door which, when open, a8sumes a horizontal
position above the door opening, made of several leaves.
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL
4. Roll-up door (solid or see-through aluminum shutters)
a door m<!de up of small horizontal interlocking metal slats which are guided in a track;
the configuration cDils about an overhead drum which is housed at the head of the
opening, either manual or motor-driven.
5. Accordion Door - a hinged door consisting of a system of panels which are hung from
an overhead track. When the door is open, the faces of the panels close flat against
each other. When the door is closed, the edges of adjacent panels butt against (or in-
terlock) each other to form a solid barrier. ·

"
;I
ry
,.
.,

,:

i:

'$
>C
'I

!,
I
•' ••
'J
:J \}
:!
whgn
6. Bi-Folding door-one of two or more doors which are hinged together so that they
can open and fold in a confined space.

wtwJ-1
..
4
""
7. Revolving Door -an exterior door consi.sting of four leaves (at 90° to each other)
which pivot about a common vertical axis within a cylindrically shaped vestibule, pre-
vents the direct passage of air through the vestibule, thereby eliminating drafts from
outside.
8. Sliding Door -a door mounted on track which slides in a horizontal direction usually
parallel to one wall .
t-- --t
9. By-Passing sliding sliding door which slides to cover a fixed door of the same
width or another sliding door .
163
164
10. Sliding Pocket Door - a door which slides inside a hollow of the wall .
11. Dutch Door -a hinged door which is divided into two. The upper part can be opened
while the lower portion is closed.
12. French Door
Examples of finishing Hardwares
A. To Hung a Door
HINGE -a movable joint used to attach support and tum a door about a pivot, consists of
two plates joined together by a pin which support.the door and connect it to its frame, enab-
ling it to swing open or closed.
1. Butt Hinge-consist of two rectangular metal plates which are joined with a pin. in large
hinge, the pin is removable, it is fixed.
...
:r-
8 ,· ..
'
...
J' .
dYie of 'th2 0'ht1dnc.a/ly
.
,-\· .. .
..
of #Je


rnge tM>ugh wYr0J the
!
f'lrl
e e···
,
Ll
Fllst Pfn Hlng11-a hinge in whichJhe pin is fastened perma-
nently in place. '"

Full Surfllce Hinge -a hinge designed for attachment on
the surface of the dOOf and jamb without mortising.
z z ~ z z z z ,
L006• Joint Hinge -a door hinge having two knucktes,.
one of which has vertical pin that fits in a corresponding hole
in the other, by lifting the-door up, off the vertical pin, the
door may be removed withl unscreWing the hinge.
Loose Pin Hinge-a hinge having a removable pin which
\ permits its two parts to be·· separated.
165
166
Ptlume/16 Hinge - a type of door hinge having ·a single ;oint
of the pivot type, usually of modern design.
· 0/we Knuckle Hinge - a paumelle hinge with knuckles
forming an oval shape.
·2. Spring Hinges - a hinge c o n t a i n i n ~ one or more springs, when· a door is opened, the
hinge returns it to. the open position automaticaUy, may act in one direction only, or in
both directions.
b. Double action
ExceUent for u5e in restaurants, hospitals, kitchens, the door opens by just pushing it
with the shoulder or feet.
b. Single IH:tlon
C'i,'
-r:::::?·
_,:·.·e· ..
.,
e
e
:9
e
3. Pivot Hin .. - the axle or pin about which a window or door rotates.
VtHtk:tll Spring Pivot Hingtt -a spring hinge for a door which is mortised into the heel
of the doOr. the door is fastened to the floor and door head with pivots.
top prvot
167
From Sunut Magazine
How to make bookshelves ves p. 30
ROUGH HARDWARES
I. NAILS
C. W -common wire nail with head and for strength [! :>
-box nail also used for strength ..----------
FIN- finishing nail without head COl========;>>
-casing nail also withOut head
SIZES, 1", 1 1/2", 2", 2 1/2", 3'", 3 1/2", 4'", 6"
Masonry nails

or concrete nails
These are nails which can be driven 3/ 4 deep to concrete mortar, or brick.
NOTE: Choose a nail three times longer than the top thickness being fastened. For exam-
ple, use a 1 1/2 nail when nailing 1/2 plywood to a 2 x 4 stud.
Other common Hammer- driven fasteners
O:D ====-

. ,..
I ·. 'T
. .
168
II. SCREWS
Ctassified by gauge length, head type, and metallic make-up.
HEAD TYPES
FLAT HEAD
ROUND. HEAO
OVAL. H E:AD SCREW
PHILIPPG f-IEAD
-
.
.
Sl-fEET-ME'tZ'L

•I
:Gauge 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14
FLUSH
CruNTER GlMK
low

- 169
l lagScrew V
screw hooks and eyes can hang object
WASHERS
.i%14' tl4M
@
@
Tr
Flat
Counter Sunk ~ l u s h
BOLTS
Bolts have threaded shafts that receive nuts. To use them, a hole is drilled, pushing the bolt
through and adding a nut.
NUTS
Flat square nut
170
bolts tightened with screw while holding the nut with
a wrench.
Hex nut
Square nut
8
.
-
acomnut
Hunger bolt8- for hanging fixtures from walls.
L = 2" to 6" diam. 1/ 4•, 5/16", 3/ 8"
W/ll!ll/J.. ,. . UDStn
Wing nut
to attach flat surface to round poles or pipes.
Binding Sctews-Join two $lJrf&ces and are
demountable 1/ 4 .. to 4".
JOINERY BRACKETS
To form strong joints
for. decorative -Zinc-plated steel
for Hidden view...:.... steel ones
for "chest" type- brass-plated type
T ~ Pl.A"'fE
171
.17.2
L-BRACKET
JAW END 'TURNBUCKLE
B. To Fix One Sash
chain. head and foot bolt
Expanded Lath (HYRI8)
a IMtal lath having an open mesh
formed by t1tt1ng; metais sheet.
Used to admit mortar 0[ plastered
cement. ·
EYE .A.NO TURN9UCKU:
. : ... . '·
SURFACE BOLT
Cremone Bolt fused · to fasten·
upper end lower door
DOOR BOLT (BARREL BOLT)
FlUSH B.OL T - a door bolt so de·
signed that when applied it is flush
with the face or edge of the door.
CHAIN DOOR FASTENER
A,device attached to a door and its jamb which limits
the door opening to the tength of the chain. Usually
used in Hotel roOms.
~ C :::= .. ===:::l
~ ' ·
..
173
A variation of this is a mueical chatn -door fastener when door is opened the button ac·
n v a t ~ the battery operated button holder.
C. To Lock The Door
174
LOCKSET -a complete lock system including the
basic locking mechanisms and all the accessories,
such as knobs escutcheons, Plates, etc.
LATCH- a simple fastening. devi&e having a tatch
bolt, b\.lt not a dead bolt contains no previsions for
locking with a key, usually openable from both sides.
VIEW FROM ~ ~ ~
Wfta1 ~ PJn ~ tOOl.,, rt
I S ~ ~ iheblr ar
not M 6efllltf wrl1.a k.f)'.
NIGHT LATCH - Key operated Latch
LIFT LATCH-a type of door latch
which fastens a door by rl)eans of
a pivoted bar that engages a
hook on the door jamb. a lever
which lifts the pivoted bar used to
unfasten the door.
LATCH for
.doer
OEAO BOLT
Button-a small rejecting member used to
· fast<.:1l the frame of a door or window.
Knob -a handle. more or less spherical
usually for operating a lock.·
RABBETED LOCK
:a lade: or t1 Wh1d11h
2
faa fJuQ1 r.abbet·
on ;a r:abl).etAJ .&:A?r jamb
;nner Kndl
--- ·-=flhRa1
'---k:aJ
175
Escutc/Hion -a protective plate surround-
ing the keyhoie of a door or a light switch
(also a Flange on a pipe) .
Plllta -a thin flat sheet of material.
strikes -a metal plate or box h i ~ h is set
in a doorjamb and is either placed or re-
cessed to receive the bQit or latch of a lock,
fixed on door.
Lip Strike....:. The projection from the side
of a strike plate which the bolt of a lock
strikes first, when a door is closed; projects
0
ut from the side of the strike plate to pro-
tect the frame. ·
hpw-1kl
Bored Lock -a lock intended for install-
ation in a circular hofe in a door.
Roller Latch -a type of door latch has a
roller under spring tension instead of a
bevefed spring bolt, the roJier engages a
strike plate, having a recess formed to re-
ceive.
176
Use a different Lockaet for each room.
1. Entnmce Lockset - with a key and
universal button which when pushed
stays put and locks the door.
2. 8(JC/room Lockset - same as the en-
trance lockset but simpler in design.
3. Toilet Lockaet-without a key has a
button that is pushed to lock inside •.
lntegml Lock - ·a type of mordse lock
having its cylinder in the knob;
Cylinder Lock- a bored lock which ·has a
cylindrical case into which a separate latch
case fits.
OfLINOEQ LOGK
'

0
MllgiHitlc Ptldlock -a kind of lock which
opens by using the corresponding magnet
which goes with it.
paJiod<
Door Llltch-a small locking or
latching device used on screen .and
generated by a knob or lever handle, some- '
times equipped with .a dead bolt.
. .
Bored Llltch -a latch intended for instaD-
ation in a circular hole in 8 door.
Hasp -a fastening device consisting of a
loop or staple and a slotted hinge plate nor-
malty secured with 8 padlock.
Key-Ptldlock -a devjce which fastens in
position may be operated by a key.
.Huplock-a kind of hasp that has a bt,Jift-in locking device which can be opened only with a
key.
177
178
D. Automatic Door Closer
1. Pneumatic Type
2. Semi-Concealed Overhead Type
~ - Concealed Type
' ~ .
·4. Overhead Liquid Type
jamb - ···
.door -
'
'
~ ~ i
~ i
II
f
1 .
i .
J (' 11 ~
i 1 I
r j ~
('\ I I }i i
i l I : I
,. l f : '
' : ' ~ i ! l
\ j I!/)\ ! \\
1
' ! I 'l I ' I
1 iJ I .1 t I
I
' I l i ! i I
. ! I: r-. '
1 iii i . I
I 1/il ·II
179
SLIDING DOOR TRACKS
rdiAr
CABINET DOORS-Hinged, sliding, drop down, roll away.
a. Hinged Doors -are of 3 types, flush, overlapping and offset tlip).
180
HlNGES
a. Butt Hinges
loo.7A p11
LOmmon butt
p121110 (tOttlnuouf;) up f.B.et
... _. -- .------11-.
v il
up t1oor Ltm Pi? by
giVIng two
181
---.
\ /
\
I
--.--+- I
' .......... __ , ~ '-.._
', /
' /
____ ......
·-.
b. Offset Hinges-used for hanging lipped or overlapping doors, available in semi-
concealed and surface-mounted styles.
I
'\ .I
.... . /
, __ ..,..,.
c. Pivot Hinges -made for both flush and overlapping doors, come in three main
types:
1. side-frame pivot hinges that attach to a doors top and bottom edges.
2. side- frame pivot hinges that attach intermediately along a door's side edge.
3. Top and bottom-mounted "knife" hin_ges that are quite difficult to attach.
(This is recommended for use where !he cabinet door is touching the side wall).
Sometimes called the washington hinge.
· --- --)
__ "_[ /
' _,1
....... __ ,
182
l
I
--.:.--- I
II\ ·"" I
-.----·
', ,I
........... _,..,..
\
'., , , ____ ,
I
----.--' I
\'\ /
.............. ~ "
--
d. Invisible Hinges -don't show from the fr.ont and is expensive. They can be used
for both flush and overlapping door.
'
___ ..._ __ =:} I
r ~ , . , 1
I •
·--L\ I
-- ----• I
""" /
,. /
..... /
_"'1f" __ • I
' I
', //
~ - - . , .
...... ...,. __ ..,.
183
184
e. Flush Counter Hinge- for a drop down door that can be lowered to serve as work
surfaces (level with the cabinet's bottom) require hinges that lay flush in the surface,
mortise them into both surfaces, they don't show when the door is closed. A droP-
down door also requires a chain or stay to hold the door's weight when it's
open.
,.,--........ "'
/ '
__ > t :
_____ _
wunt2r
SLIDING CABINET DOORS
Use track hardware;
CATCHES FOR CLOSING OF CABINET DOORS IN PLACE
Three Kinds of Catches
1. Friction Catch -any catch which when it engages a strike, is held in the engaged posi-
tion by friction.
u
2. Magnetic Catch - a door catch flat that uses a magnet to hold the door in a closed posi-
tion.
3. Bullet Catch -a fastener which holds a door in place by means of a projecting spring
arctuated steel hall which is depressed when the door is closed. ·
KNOB£
ffiowi3
w
l<tlO D
KriOD
fa- !1h.d1i1 9
P.I}SI1B.d
111to Jni!PJ
FLUSH RING.
;a flush Joor pun · whrth
rnto a .Jcvr; a n11g th2t
fl2t 1nto the tup of 1M puR
whltl not JYI t.u.
Joor pulls
rnfo .dotJr
185

186
PULLS
OTHER FINISHING ACCESSORIES
Adjustable bracket comes in any width
from 4" to 1r.
Grab B•r-a hand grip usually installed in
a shower, which may be used for steadying
are self.
Self Bracket - any over hanging member
projecting from a wall or other body to sup-
port a weight. ·
M ~ t s l br•ckst-used to support any cabi-
net or shelf.
Spring Door Clo6w-attached above a
screoo door to automatically close it.
HOOk_S AND EYES
Hospital Arm Pull-a handle for opening
a hospital door without the use of. hands,
by hooking an arm over the handle.
Psnic Exit Device -Fire exit bolt a door
locking device used on exit doors; the door
latch releases when a bar, across the inside
of the door is pushed. {Convenient for use
in hospit.al theatres, Hotels, Schools, with
fire exits.
Eye Bolt - a. bott having its
head in the form of a
loop or eye.
187
co,bination Hook and Eye -Used for putting in place, a door or a window.
Concrete Insert-a plastic, wood fiber, or
metal usually' leads either built in a
· wan or ceiling or inserted by drilling, used
as an anchor or support to hold attached

DOOR STOPPERS OR 'UMPERS
ROLLER GTOP
/ -fla""J rubber
I
'---
Hook Bolt - a bolt having one end in the
form of a hook.
diameter 1/4" to 2"
lengths 1" io 4"
Threaded Rod - all thread from 2, 3, 6,
and 12 feet long (0.60, 0.90, 1.80, 3.60)
1/4N to diameter.
Door Stopper-to prevent the door its lockset from harming the wall or tiles ;
188
CHAPTER
PLUMBING MATERIALS
. 190
CAST IRON PIPES .AND FITTINGS
,----zt·-fl
·' .. . .
.. ,,
., •t
. ,..----"""---t.:
AND DOUQLE
COMBINATION Ye SEND
AND OOU9L..E
UPRIGHT WYI=
SNGLE AND DOUBLE
\NVSRTED
)lND DOUBU:

11
"1"1::5
4''x '1."
ICE
(-'ANfTAR'()
4"X4''
\
451>

. (.10 X lJ!5)
1?
"tAPPE=D 1EE
,, ,,
2. X 2.

·
"f!' ,.
4'j(4•(
1
z')( l' .11,: X z''
.,-,:e TEE


TEE
(TAPPED)

(TAPPED)
z'x2"
LEA() FeRRULE
191
GT"RAINER
( NICKLE PLATED )
(BRAS<;)
( &TE::.eL)
DRUM 'TRAP
RUNNING · ll<AP
192
C'i<ON t"OOI
FtTTINGE;
LEAD
'' P'' TRAP
P ,.
I RAP

RUNNING !RAP
DOUBLE VENT .
'5'' TRAP
WITH VENT
TYPES OF CA<;T IRON PIPE
[II
~ ~ J
STANCl'\RD PIPE
-
»=
h .
DOUBLE HUB
Ill
u b
4.SOM
0
]
SINGLE HUB
[
I
H UBLEGS PlPE
193
194
"'· ·
SPECIAL CAST IRON
( SEWs:< )
. l

f
DOUBLE HUB


P-ll<AP W/CRWJTHOUT
VENT<; AND CLEAN OUT<;
REOUCIN·G Q.IORT T
LONG TEE W'f'l:
RE:DUC.ING +S
0
Y
REDUCING LONG Y
PLASTIC. PIPES AND FITTINGS ( DRAINAGt::)
8.7.5
( IS<30°
OOOBLE gNGLE eRANQ1
e15 tJ 1£:E= · e1. 5 TSE · x 2''
P · TRAP W/ pu.JG
.

?/'
REDUCER TEE
OIAMETERc; - 50, 75 110111tt1
.

• 1111
11
,.. -:7 !'X 1 ;-q..
z''x 1
LENGTHS - 2.00M . .aHJ
CI...E;AN OUT
Q=' FITTINGs; IN t11n1 )
so ( ... J . 75 ( -5' 110 (+'')
COLOR COOING
wat.llr - bl .
-c::r-2k1ge or Jlfitt q;-3j
ll1dt.Jc;tnal gray ·
car1 muntc.atoo c.able - '#JloN ·
·
'
195
PIPE AND
TEE
SANITARY CAOS$ TEE
CROSS TEE
75fJ ELBOW
WYE
. 8:J
0
ELBOW
·.
RUNNING P-TRAP

:30°E'L90W
196
VITRIFIED CLAY PIPES
( <S 'eWER ~ ~ T E M )
~ L A N T
..
CUT L- CUT CURVE
TEE BRANCH
RUNNING "'TRAP OFFsPET
TEE BRANCH .
197
'
GAlE V A L V E . ~
198 .
GALVANIZED STEEL PIPS FITTINGS
HOT AND COLD WATER Dlf.;fRIBUTJON
SOCKET
REOUClN6
TEE
:•'
0
COUPLING
REOUClNG ELBOW
TeE
UN\ON

PUJ6
CAP
199
l l _ ~ l
llll
RETURN SI=ND FLOOR FLANGE SXTENgON PIECE
200 .
PLASTIC PIPE AND FITTINGS
I=)
COUPLIN6
ADAPTER
POLYTHYLENE FITTINGS
90°El...BOrV
POLYviNYL GHLORIOE ATTINGS (p.y.c.)
ADAPTER
POLYBUTYLENE S:ITTINGc; ( P.B)
~ T R A I G M T COUPLING
90° E.LBOW
201
COPPER PIPE FrrTINGS
R'R WATER , HOT WATER
6PhSOT .JOINT <:.OPPER TO
GAL.V.ANJZED STEEL
FLARED TEE
TO THReADED FITTING
SLIP k NUT
202
FLARED OR a:>MPRESSia-J
COPPER lOGAL.VANIZEO s;TEEL
FL.ARE.D FITTING
WATER CLOSET
VIC.TORIA ·FREE
PF ZJXJ0 WATERCLQ6ET
illr RXpmavA mamr izHIJrl


fa- totL#
t01Jet

GYLVANA
WA.TER CLOQ;i

for
.


.203
CARMeLA flu91 valve PF 3531-FV
bottom
Dt>wl.
fm-
Ltffimon !o!:by

FERNDALE PF Wli1?
f?Jr : nm.

ORIENTAL. BOWL PF 3446
V N.OtJOmlt.aJ Wrfh
fftp fur .a saf.er footk&

· low 6%t aHt:J rur2J] ha¥7Jt1'j
- publu:
OJ AMANTE PF 3'130
;a oowr ihat. pwvltks a
prat"hc.al mart; of
t;amt.atJon.
fa-:
- rural ar;ea
· low Cb;f-.
- todm
205
LAVATORIES
SABRINA LAVATORY PF 1005
206
hung l.avatry wrth rAar otJTftow
a1J
and lt1tAg"al d11t1a
for ram
VENTURA . PF 100Z
lava-tz:ry WJih
r.ear OJBrflcw aid

for #£:.
low

DIANA LAVATORY
PF -
Javztvry WJth rs-OJJr·
flow aid at7t"1H
-fur •
aJN'TESSA PF 5105 -
nm a1A
todot
LAVATORY·PF 1<X\9-
1t19 w11i1 fum overflow


hotBI
lttby
207
_URJNAL£
208
ADMIRAL P F
w.all hl11g wa4lrut unrtal
wrf11 9MJ/Js auf
Jnt.fgral flu91
r,et.ommPnJE.d for :
. mBn $
-?u,t.abJ.e for_ hots
COMMODORE. PF G6CXJ
wall·hung urrna/ vv1th
. · flu<;rung nrn ahd 111tB;T.al tr.ap.
5Utt for attd offrtpt;
60APANO SPONGE
HOLDER
SOAP HbLOER
P A P E ~ HOLDER
5HOWER HEAD
TONEL RAIL
209
.
CHAPTER·
-· ELECTRICAL MATERIALS
TYPES OF C.ONVENIENCE
2.. POLE - Z WIRE

e@e.·
.f-RJLE -3WlRE·

1'YPE5 OF SWITCHES
FL.U<;H MOUNTE.O
TRIPLEX
®®
· DUPLE><
CUTDOOR WEATHER PROOF
RECEPTACLE
0 OD
8
®1
0
J
GANG Z ·GANG
0
@
0
4-GANG
0
@
®
0
SWtrQ-1 W/ Pl LOT
LIGHT
pusH 8UTT0tJ PUSH SWITQ-f
ll.JM8L$R c:;WITCH
212
JUNCTION BOXES
XTAGON BOX
CSGUAJC?E
l:.EILING OUTLET
90X· c.JRCULAR

BUGHING
VARIOUS .OF PORCELAIN
INSULATORS
J:'ORCELAIN TUBE
·KNOB
c;R?OL INSULATOI<

213
'
• . . · . • ! • . : ' .
214
LAMP
1'1'l:?E:.
<:;OGKEI
SYl'/IEk'L
GElLING OUTLET
RU88ER WATSRPI<OOF
<;OGK.Er.;. FOR CUTI;IDE

PENDANT iYPE <;a.kET
CIRCULAR LOON\
u aif
r; ==ijJ
~
~ ~
~
ELECTI<ICAL TAPE.
TYPE<; C)F CONDUIT FITTING<;
215
c;
FLE.X'\9LE LLIMS (NOll MET.ALU(.)
FLEX18LE GTEEL CCNOOT
216

u:AD

BOX
C.LIP "TYPE OR
MOULDING

RACf:WAY
. FLEX'IBLE DUPLEX WIRE:.
6
A
p
PS
R F
c.
BULB .. TYPE
MINIATURE LAMPS
217.
INPIRECI'"
LIGHi
DIRECT
LIGHt
Dli<ELT
( . } ( )
GEN. DIFFUQ: JNDIFZEC.T
( )

GEN. CLAS51FJCA110N OF
60 WATT<; THREE:.- tOO
WATT<;
-iOOW16 .
THREE 40
THREE 40

218
. 100
Z.OWTG.



, .. ·

FOUR 30WATT
fi..UORESO:NT


TWO 40 WAIT

40

100W1.; .
40 WATTs.
75-W WAI"t?;
LAMP UGED IN


THREE

219
·cHAPTER ..
222
FLOORING MATERIALS
FLOORING MATERIALS
The final wearing surface which is applied over the subfloor.
Factors in Choosing Materials
a. Type of building involved - residential , industrial or commercial.
b. Type of usage to which the floor will be subjected- Light foottraffic, heavy foot
traffic wheeled traffic.
c. Special requirements-sound absorption qualities, resilience, color, smoothness
resistance to chemicals, resistance to abrasion, or ease of maintenance.
d. Cost- includes both labor and material.
. = -1 _ ___,

w c..apaoty of a
1 ongnal <S"tZI! an.d .
dBformat 1011


1. WOOD FLOORING -made both in softwood and hardwood.
SOFTWOOD (PINE)
a. Strip Flooring -standard strip is used for residences, offices and schools, heavy
strip is for industrial uses, bowling alleys and dance floors.


tor19u.e znd gf(X)vB locJtM
th.a LRrltBr
STANDARD

grcov60 for
HEAVY
HARDWOOD {NARRA, TANGUILE, YACAL}
This material is Kiln dried and made with tongue-and groove edgeS and ends and usually has
a channeled or grooved bottom surface. The purpose of the single or double channel or
groove is to equalize moisture absorption and reduce cupping, thickness is from 3/8 up to
1 11/16 in. width is from 1 1/2, 1 3/4, 2, 2 1/4, 2 1/2, 2 3/4, 3 1/4 in.
::- I §
J
Strip flooring is also available in what is known as colonial plank, strips of various
widths with round inserts of some contrasting wood. Usual thickness is 25/32 in. Widths
trom 3 to 8 in. Edges are tongue-and-grooved and the ends are grooved with splines sup-
plied.
[
b. Parquet Flooring-(Wood Tile) Consist of blocks or fillets of hardwood of various
sizes which can be laid in any number. of patterns such as herringbone basket
weave, and squares, common thicknessis 25/32 in. and dimensions are 2 1/4 X
1 3/4 in 9, 11 1/4, 13 1/2, 15 3/4 and 18 in.; or 18 x 18 or 12 in. x 12 in. Small fillets of
about 3/8" thick by 9/10" width by 41i41ength are assembled into blocks usually
18"' with 16 squares of 3, 4, 5 or 6 fillets each, with a gummed paper backing which
ill later removed upon installation. Parquet glue used for this flooring are the brands
of stickwell.
1
1e:'
J
GLOVER OESlGN
.. 18''---
RANDOM OftSIGN
223
STAR DIAMOND
c. Block Flooring-Floor blocks are individual pieces of wood with edge-grain face
made in a number of sizes a common one is 2 x 2 x 31/2'in. and laid down in mastic.
2. CONCRETE FLOORING
~ gran blot.k
m25""tlL
Concrete floors are done in the best of workmanship and materials since they are sub-
jected to every kind of wear and abuse, such as impact, abrasion, attack by salts and ag-
gressive liquids. It is the aggregate which lies at the surface of the floor that absorbs
abrasion and impact, and must withstand the wear and the tear of traffic.
a. Floors may be poured as single monolithic slabs or they may be composed of a base ·
slab covered by a topping. The base slab must be well roughened surface to provide
a good bonding surface for the topping mix.
b. · A particularly hard surface can be achieved by introducing metallic aggregates into
the topping. These consist of especially processed, size-graded iron particles, with
ofte.n a cement dispersal agent added. Metallic aggregates are normally applied to
the freshly ptiured surface as shake worked into the top by float and trowel.
c. Metallic-aggregate topping can be finished to produce a non-skid surface, Finish-
ing with a wooden or cork float produces a surface as shown in the illustration.
Nonskid surfaces can also be produced by using aggregate such as
aluminum oxide and silicon carbide in the floor topping. This is also done in stair
treads.
f?WL -aGt non LOI1Ll"Et.e
fioor tili! e"x 8"
non
d. Colored concrete floor'S are produced by adding some type of inorganic coloring
agent to the topping mix or by shaking it over the surface and floating it into the
top. One type of coloring agent consist of mineral oxides in powder form. The mix is
10 lb. or less per bag cement.
US.EO DRIVEWAYS
225
226
Cobalt oxide produces Blue color.
Brown oxide of iron Brown color.
Synthetic yellow oxide of iron produces Buffs.
Chromium oxide produces Green
Red oxide of iron produces Reds
Black iron a·xide produces Grays and Blacks
Another coloring agent consist of a fine grade of silica aggregate synthetic in-
organic pigment, and a water reducing agent thoroughly mixed together. This is ap-
plied as a shake over the freshly finished floor top at the rate of 1/ 2 lb. square
foot and floated into the surface. Final troweling produces as smooth surface
Metallic aggregates are produced which have a coloring agent added. It is a
synthetic, inorganic metallic oxide, and produces a nonsparking floor.
e. Concrete is also used to make Floor tile (Cement Tile) by forcing the concrete into
molds by hydraulic pressure and by allowing it to set and cure. Sometimes tile are
made in two layers, the upper one being made of mortar with white cement ·and
marble chips as aggregate. The upper layer can also be made of colored mortar .
After curing, the tiles are surface-ground to produce a smooth f inish.
p211t1 color
-1''i11Jtk Py 8"X8'' or 1Z
1
X1Z''
3. CLAY·TILE FLOORING
Clay tile are made by a process similar to manufacturing trick. Tiles are made into either:
a. Glazed Tile-a Tile composed of ceramic materials fused into the body of the Tile. ·
The body may be nonvitreous, semivitreous or impervious, and either white or co-
lored.
tVITREOUS)-descriptive of that degree of vitrification evidenced by low water ab·
sorption; generally signifies less than 0.3 percent absorption except for floor and wall
tiles for which it signifies less than 3.0 percent absorption ..
b. Unglazed Tile -a hard, dense ceramic Tile for floor or of homogenous com-
position throughout, deriving its color and texture, from the materials of which the
body is made and from the of manufacture.
"
1
Example is the Vigan brick Tile 1" x 12" x 12" or 16" x 16" _
VITRIFIED TILES
Manufactured by Pioneer Ceramics, Inc.
Advantages:
a. almost diamond hard, no chipping, no cracking or peeling.
b. Slip resistant (Matte Finished)
c. through and true colors (No wearing out)
d. completely waterproofed ,won't absorb moisture, warp or curl}
Grades:
Class A - These are tiles specially selected from the regular production run for their
superior quality. (no imperfections beyond 1/64"1
Mil/run - These are tiles from the regular production run. (imperfections between
1/32"1
Sizes:
Tile No.
001
00
0
1
2
Products:
1. Vitrified Floor Tiles
Basic size
41/4" X 41/4"
4 1/4" X 4 1/4"
4 1/4"' X 41/4"
4 1/ 4" X 4 1/ 4"
4 1/ 4" X 41/ 4"
Actual dimension
Greater by 1/16"
Greater by 1 ~ "
exact size
Smaller by 1/ 32"
Smaller by 1 / 16"
a. White Milltun 108 mm x 108 mm (1/4" x 4 1/4" x 4 1/4")
b. Porphery Colors Millrun yellow, blue, green, brown.
c. Matte-Semi glazed tiles, white
d. Matte-Semi glazed, color
e. Round-white and color
2. Grande Series (Dark Red)
a. Hexagonal 10"
0
b. Octagonal 10"
0
227
c. Diamond 8'"
0
d . . 6 X 12''
1 t •
e. 6" x 6"
0
f. 8" X 12"
D
3. Semi-Vitffled (Kitchen; Terraces, Din. BR)
a. Patio - 2 1/2" x 8" 63.5 mm x 203.2 mm
g. a· x 8"
D
h. 4,.x8"'x3/8" 0
101.6 mm x 203.3 mm x 9.53 mm
i. 4 1/ 4"· X 4 1/4"
[
1
b. Romana-3/8" x 4• x 6 ..
101.6mmx 152.4mm
c. Morena-41/ 4" x 41/4" 1 ~ m m x 108mm)
4. Quarry Tiles (Unglued)
a. Patio-2 1 /2" x 8" x 5/16"
[
1
163.5 mm x 203.2 mm x·7.9 mm)
b. Padana -2 1/ 2" x 8" x 5/ 16 ..
c. Chisel-5/16 .. x 8" x 2 1/2
(63.5 mm x 203.2 mm x 7.9 mm)
d. Roman
e. Morena
228
BRICKS
Floor bricks size 5 em x 10 em x 21.3 em
I I
i""""=
F=';
. -
229
be.d&ng
QtB$
230
.. .
tnldular
a1 tAus
11ntlll

1
-
...._

--
uri1t pme-n J
beLiding fJLA.s
.-
;:::::

I-

p..
..
=
1-


II
Ll II
PRODUCTS OF MARIWASA
··. a. Matt Floor Tiles


II
If
II
4 1/ 4 x 4 1/4 (108 mm x 108 mm)
White and colored
Millrun-more expensive .
ECO-cheaper
6" x 6" (152 mm x 152 mm)
white and colored
turning 2 LOrtU?I;
w. itJ f.ate>
l
231
b. Vitrified Floor Tiles
4" X 8" (1{)() X 200 X 9.5 mm)
1. White
splashing (white) millrun
Non,,Skid (white) millrun
Earthone (white} ·millrun
2. Colored
splashing Brown
carpet
Nuvolato
a -Series
Earthtone
Non-Skid regular colors
splashing blue
3. Seliniums
red
red-orange
c. Vitrified Floor 'tiles
8" x 12" {20() x 300 x. 9.5 mm)
same series as above
d. Matt Floor Tiles
6" X 12,.
4. ASPHALT FLOORING
Two types of flooring using asphalt as basic ingredients are:
(screed)- a long narrow strip of a. ASPHAlt MASTIC FLOORING-Made by
plaster applied .at intervals on a mixing an emulsified asphalt with portland ce-
surface to be plastered, carefully ment, sand and gravel, or crushed stone to form a
leveled and trued to act as a plastic mixture. !his is spread over the floor
guide for plastering to the speci - screeded, compacted, and floated to a depth of
tied thickness. 1/2 in.
232
The· mix is usually made in this proportion, 1
bag portland cement or { 1 cu. ft .) is to 2 cu. ft. ( 12
1 I 2 gal.) emulsified asphalt, 2 cu. ft. clean sharp
sand, and 4 cu. ft. hard washed gravel chips.
This asphaltic types of mastic flooring can be
applied over a wood, concrete, or steel base. In
each case the base must be primed with the pro-
pet type of asphaltic primer. In addition, a tack
coet of asphalt emulsion should be applied over .
the primer, in the case of a wood base.
Asphalt planks can also be made which is
precasted and formed in molds. They are laid on a
solid level base and cemented down with an as-
phaltic bonding preparation.
5. TERRAZZO FLOORING
b. ASPHAlTIC TilES-are COI!lPOSed ot asbestos
fibers bound together by a blend of selected as-
phaltic binders. Pigments· are added for color and
in some cases polysterene plastic is added to pro-
duce a stonger tile. The ingredients are machine-
mixed and formed into sheet of i/8 or 3/16 in.
thick under pressure. The sheet are then cut into
tiles of 9 x 9, 12 x 12 in., and 18 x 24 in.
Floor Patterns are done due to unlimited co-
lors and designs. Asphalt tile can be laid over a
wood, asphaltic mastic, or concrete base using an
asphaltic adhesive. The surface must be smooth
and even, those tiles are highly resistant to water
but not to organic acids or petroleum solvents not
preferable for industrial use.
Marble aggregate concrete that is cast in place or precast and ground smooth, used as a de-
corative flooring. ·
A base slab is poured first, reinforced with· wire mesh to reduce shrinkage and
ment.of cracks. Next, a layer of cement and sand, mixed very dry, is spread over the base,
worked Flat, and compacted. This forms a cushion on which the terrazzo is placed.
A grid-work, consisting of thin strips of brass, bronze aluminum or plastic, is laid on the
sand-cement cushion, bedded in and leveled. Standing approximately 1 in. above the
cushion.
The topping mix, consisting of cement, sand and marble chips or an abrassive material
as coarse aggregate is made up. It is mixed dry as is practical for placing. This topping is
spread over the floor and compacted until it is level with the top of the grid strips. After the
topping has cured sufficiently, the surface is ground and polished by machine.
Terrazzo has a tendency to be slippery, so on ramps, elevator entrances, where nonslip
surface is required, abrasive aggregates such as aluminum oxide should be used. By the use
of white cement, colored pigments and carefully chosen marble chips of one or more colors,
a great variety of effects can be produced. ·
TERRAZZO SURFACE
SECTION
br.a>> 5'trip
lerrAZZO tcp
ma-t.Jr
233
234
.
(Granolithic Concnite)-Suitable for use as a wearing surface finish to floors. Made of ce-
ment mix with specially selected aggregate (granite chips) of suitable hardness, surface tex- ·
ture and shape.
6. PLASTIC FLOORING
Used in several types of flooring, including plastic Terrazzo plastic topping, vinyl -plastic
tiles, vinyl asbestos t iles, and vinyl-cushioned Flooring.
a. Plastic Terrazzo-an epoxy resin is used instead of portland cement paste as a
binder for marble chips a mixture of a liquid epoxy· reSin, inert filler pigment, and color
pigment is used as the resin component. Formulation consist of 100 lb. of epoxy
resin, 50 lb. of fine calcium silicate, 2 114 lb. of titanium dioxide; and 314 lb. of
mineral pigment to this is added 10 lb. of a hardening and curing agent, an aliphatic
polymine. In this a'fnount of binder, 450 lb. of small marble chips can be used.
This plastic mixture is spread over the floor about 114 in. thick which weighs
about 3 lb. per sq. ft. 1 I 4 in. thick. After hardening (one to two days after applica-
tion) the topping can be· ground smooth and polished. This type of topping can be
applied over wood, concrete or old Terrazzo base. Mixes should be limited to about
100 lb. total because the .plastic has a limited pot life, about 1 to 1 1 I 2 hours at 75°F.
Metal grid Strips can be secured to the subfloor with an epoxy. resin adhesive.
b. Epoxy resin, are used to produce floor toppings in a variety of colors. The liquid
resin, color pigment, and curing agent are mixed and spread over the surface in
thicknesses of 1/4 to 1/2 in. The material may be troweled smooth or left with a
dimpled finish.
c. Vinyl Tile- is made of a layer of vinyl plastic bonded to a flexible backing. Tiles are 6
x 9 in. and 9 x 9 in. thickness of 3/32, 118 and 81100 in. feature strips 1 x 36 in. and
rolls 54, 46, and V in. wide are also made vinyl Tiles are laid in vinyl cement for con·
crete floors on grade, a special waterproof cement is used. Vinyl is highly resistant to
. fats, oils, most acids alkalies, and petroleum derivatives a wide range of colors and
designs available (This is resilient .., )
--== ---
d. Vinyl asbestos
1
Tiles are made a composition of thermoplastic vinyl ·and. plas-
ticizer asbestos fibers, pigments and filler. These are mixed hot and form of into
sheets 1/16 or 1118 in. thick under pressure. Tiles 9 x 9in. and feature strips 1 or 2x
18 in. are cut from these sheets. The same general large of colors is found as in as-
phalt and vinyl This tile is lain in an asphaltic base cement, and is highly resistant
to grease, acids and alkalies. (This Tile is non·resilient it breaks but is very durable
when finally laid ) · ·
\
e. Vinyl-cushioned flooring is composed of a thick sponge vinyl backing covered with
a layer of closely woven fiber 'glass fabric to provide strength and stabilitY. Over, this
is laid a layer of vinyl plastic imprinted color or colors desired, and finally a surface of
clear vinyl is applied. These layers are bonded together by heat and result in a flexi-
ble flooring material of approximately 0.15 in. thick. ··
This flooring is produced in rolls 54 and 72 in. wide and is laid in a special ce-
ment made of the purpose. Adjoining edges are joined with a special cement string
solvents should be used for cleaning and shellacs or lacquers should not
be apptied to the surface.
- -
f. Vintl inlaid wear-layer constructions (exclusive armstrong brand process call-
ed· coraon}.
The rolls are done in such a way that vinyl chips or cubes are inlaid, embedded
and bonded together by clear vinyl mortar. In this process, the coior and design of
the wear layer go through the backing. A moisture-resistant hydrocord backing
allows installation on any grade level.
Thesefloorsare made up in rolls six feet wide and up to ninety feet long, wh.ch
greatly reduces-the amount of Seams. Vinyl corlon floors be installed by either the
P&rimiflor or perimiflor plus installation process which uses a special adhesive that ·
chemicaliy welds the seams to provide a continuous monolithic surface. A small bead
of adheSive is forced into and up through the seam, providing a strong, tight bond.
The seams virtually disappear and are sealed against the penetration of moisture and
dirt. This is accomplished without the use of special tools or heat thus reduCing ir.-
stallation time cost. This eorlon vinyl sheet flooring is styled for high traffic areas
such as h0$pitals. Schools, commercial and shopping center interiors, lobbies, etc ..
--- h&.king
-dear Wl'yl rna-t.ar
in 5 styles;- the seagate, montina, sandoval, brigantine and palestra.
7. MAGNESITE FLOORING
Made from calcined magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride. These materials are
mixed into a plastic state and applied to the floor in two separate coats, totaling 1/2 to 3/4
in. thick. A considerable quantity of fibrous filler is mixed with the first coat to give it
strength and flexibility. The second coat has no ftber, but color pigment is mixed with it to
produce any color or colors required.
Magnesite flooring is applied over either a wood or concrete base. Sometimes metal
lath is laid over a wood base to produce a better bond. Marble chips may be added to the
freshly poured surface and rolled in to produce magnesite terrazzo such flooring is quiet, re-
silient, non-slip and fireproof but not completely water resistant.
8. RUBBER FLOORING
These come in the form of tiles. Synthetic rubber is used since it has less tendency to
oxidize than natural rubber. Pigments and plasticizers are mixed with the liquid rubber and
the mixture is rolled into sheets under pressure and cut into 6, 9 and 12 in. squares and 18 x
36 in. rectangles, in thicknesses of 3/32, 1/8 and 3/16 in.
235
236
Rubber tile is suitable for floors above grade and is latd in a rubber-base cement: It is
very pliable and provides good resilience and relatively good sound absorption.
9. CORK FLOORING
Cork-is·used as a basic ingredient in two types of flooring.
a. linoleum -linseed oil is used as the binder in the manufacture of linoleum. It is ox-
idized by air treatment until it becomes a tough plastic substance somewhat like rub·
ber. Powdered cork, resin gum, wood flour, and color pigments are then mixed
with it and the resulting mixture is spread over a· burlap backing and rolled into
sheets.
three grades are
grade A - 3/ 32 in.
grade AA - 1/8 in.
grade AAA - 1/4 in.
It is produced in rolls 6 ft. and as 9 x 9 in. linoleum tiles.
Two types of roll linoleum are made:
Plain -one single color
Inlaid-made several colors which extend through the burlap
linoleum can be laid on any wood Floors above grade and can be laid over sus·
pended concrete Floors, providing they are dry.
Two types of linoleum cement abused.
a. Plsin - for ordinary installation.
b. Waterproof-for kitchens and bathrooms.
linoleum and linoleum tile should be laid over a thick feet paper base, which can be
bonded to the subfloor with the same ..
b. Cork Tile -Made by mixing cork shavings with resin and compressing the plastic
mixture into molds. Tiles are baked to set the resin. Two thicknesses of tile are
produced, 3/16 and S/ 16 in. sizes include 6, 9 and 12 in. squares and,6 x 12 in. and
12 x 24 in. rectangles.
They are laid on Floors above grade in a special adhesive and rolled down with a
heavy roller. The surface l?f sanded and given a coat of filler and finally waxed.
Cork Tile are warm quiet and resilient but as durable as other materials. They
resist water but not oils and grease.
Resilient Floorings- The group of flooring materials which includes asphalt, vinyt,
yinyl-asbestos·, cork, rubber and linoleum (resilience_: The capacity of a material to
recover its original size and shape after deformation)
10. PEBBLE WASHOUT
Pea sized sandstones or pebbles either no. 5, no, 10 or no. 15 are mixed with cement
mortar. This is spread on the surface with or without brass strips. Before the cement dries
water is spread to remove the cement on the surface of the stone or by Rubbing sponge to
seep the water of excess cement. This is done until all the pebble stones are clearly exposed
recommended for balconies, walks, stair ways where slippery floor is being avoided.
11. MARBLE
This is a expensive flooring from Marble Stone Cut into one inch thick and sizes of .40 x
.40, .30 x .60, .20 x .40 and other extra special sizes. Laid on the floor with white cement and
when already set, a grinding machine is worked on the surface to smoothen .the face after
waxing is applied.
12. CRAZY CUT MARBLE
With granulithic: Odd shaped broken one inch thick mafbte is laid out on the floor with
mortar. After which the spaces in between will be-filled with granulithic a mixture of granite
chips of white cement. When the setting has hardened the floor is smoothened by using a
grinding machine then waxed.
237
.
CHAPTER
'
..
INTERIOR FINISHING MATERIALS
1. WOOD FINISHES
For interior use·, there are two basic groups:
A. To cover walls and ceilings.
a-1 Solid wood - Those in the form of boards which are 1/ 4, 3/8, 1 I 2 and .1 in. thickness
and widths of from 2 to 12 in. and lengths 4 to 10ft. The face of the boards may be
plain, saw-textured, V-grooved or channeled and edges may be square or tongue-
and-groove.
a-2 Wood sheets-Made from variety·of soft wood and hardwoods, kiln dried, and
edge-glued to form sheets which are usually 1 in. thick, 3ft. wide, and 8ft. long, in a
variety of face patterns. Surfaces are sanded and sheets may be factory sealed and
prefinished.
a-3 Plywood- See building board chapter for different types. One way of attachment
to studdings is by leaving a f /4" inch space using edge of plywood or a 4• c.w. nail
to separate edges to give an effect of planking.
PLAN
.
J•
·B. Those used as trim materials around door and window openings, as baseboard, and as
various decorative moldings. ·
· ~
DOORJAMB
MULLION CASING
· HANDRAIL
(:
L)
~ t?
w
.
.
NQS;IN6 CASING COVE. c.ROWN
'/.
:-j
(J
D
. .
.
:
ROJND
QUAQ"ft;R Ra.JNO
BASEBOARD
2. GYPSUM FINISHERS (plaster)
STIPPLED·
~ D FIHlSH
One of the best known types of intE!fior types of interior f inish produced by
plaster in which gypsum is one of the basic ingredients. Plaster surfaces can
be troweled smooth, stippled or sand - finished and can be applied over
gypsum lath, metal lath, fiberboard plaster base, or directly over a masonry
surface. In addition, acoustical· plaster, involving the use of lightweight ag-
gregate such as vermiculite or perlite, is used to produce a textured surface
and to provide sound insulation.
Gypsum board is also used as an interior finishing material. It is applied in
'either a single or double layer, using 3/8 in. board for the double or lami-
nated application. Joints and corners are taped and filled with joint filler,
after which .th,e surface· is sized. and painted.
Gypsum board interior paneling is also produced with wood-grain printed
surface. Such boards have beveled rather than recessed edges, so .that a
V-groove is produced at joints. Colored nails or gypsum cement is used in
applying the board to a wall· surface.
Square-edged gypsum board covered with a vinyl plastic fabric is also pro-
duced as an interior. finish, joints are usually covered with an aluminum,
plastic, or wood batten.
241
/'
2
I
I
.. ....
> ••
'•' ! ... .... '
. . ' .. ' ; ,•,
I
I
.
I
I
I
I

rt
I
:L. _s-
I
•• 1; ' ' •
, • • # ,
f ' I J. •
I
I
I I
• f • I
, . " r ; •
' . ,
,.
I I

______ ,,....- .
c r--
. 3. CLAY FINISHES (bricks and tiles)
Clay products of all kinds can be used for interior finishing. They include common brick, face
brick, glazed brick, structural"tile, gla{ed tile, ceramic veneer, ceramic wall tile, and ceramic
mosaic. In addition, several imitation brick veneer products are made, using lightweight ag-
gregates, cement paste and artificial color.
Common brick is usually used for interior work to 'produce a rustic or roughcast effect
often emphasized with extruded mortar joints.
t<?OI JOttrl
4"
SO\...lO BRIC.K
co111mon bnck us.M for wall
.,
, .
•'
2
242
WALL PATTERNS:

L
I
[
[
r
I
·
.1 . :101 IOf
01 !Dr
I 101 !01
:=JDI. 101 · JOI
IDC
I IOL 101 : JOC
FLEMISH BOND
I II [ I
DC
[: If II I

1 n . n 1
ENGLIGH BQND
..
I[
]I }
JC:
II
1
II
IL-
J
II
J[
I
II
]I
J
ll
II
J
STACK BOND
.
PROJECTING BRICKS,
GAPOEN WAI...L
243
244
GLAlED TILE -Ceramic tile having a fused impervious glazed surface finish (white or co-
lored or with designs! composed of ceramic materials fused into the body of the tile; the
body may be nonvitreous, semivitreous, or impervious.
Comes in sizes of
4 1/4"' X 4 1/4"'
2 1/2" X 6 1/2"'
6" X 6"
8 1/2'" X S 1/2'"
Ceramic wall die in various sizes and s h a p e ~ are usually 3/8 in. thick is used in kitchens,
bathrooms, washrooms, laboratories, for a feature wall, or as a dado or wainscot with ano- -
ther material covering the upper part' of the wall.
Ceramic mosaic -small pieces of plain or cotored tile mounted on a paper of cloth net-
backing-is used for similar purposes.
~
0
B D
Jl
I I
( 1'1115 t.at1 bA us.cul for ·floorn-tq )
GLAZED TILE
/
_, •.. ·
.. ··
·, _,;:-··· -iCC.
'.
CAPPING
245
tl
r'cc. - lt1tS"lor
0
EBB-
lm'tom
b.Q2d
GaPf'lt19
0

..
ITB- h1tbnar top
res- . tt1tk1a- botttm Mati
0
ETB - EXtMor top bJ!U
4. STONE FINISHES
This can be produced by using solid stone walls and exposing the interior as well as the exte-
rior surface.
The other method is to cover the interior surface with thin stone slabs, from 1 to 2 in. thick.
The stone is applied over a backup wall of concrete, concrete block, brick, ti le or hollow
blocks and is held in place with some type of stone anchor.
, GUT FINISH
246
ll II I
ETI
l
] [[
D
l
u
I[
10
DP
I
ID
ra:JUlzJr CH 9 Bl..Q';K
RANDOM FINIGH
5. CONCRETE FINISHES
a. Plain concrete walls may be used by giving them specral treatment to make them as
smooth as possible. This is done by rubbing down with abrasive stone or with an equip-
ment called a sander, and filling the holes and pores with cement grout.
b. Precast concrete sandwich panel-One face is finished for interior exposure. The
face may be textured, patterned, or colored, or it may of exposed aggregate •
. ROPE
c. Synthetic stone (adob.e, adobe with
sheii)-Mixture of plaster cement with grounded
adobe stones or sometimes with sea shells are
plastered on a backup wall . After it has.hardened,
the surface is chipped off with an axe or
tomahawk to bring out the aggregates.
d. Pebble washout finish - A mixture of plaster
cement with selected pebbles, white or gray in
color. Sizes are no. 5, no. 10 and no. 15. These
are plastered on a backup wall , usually a hollow
blockwal1 with brown coat. When the proper
sizing up of wall has done, a spray of water
is applied or in the absence of sprayer. a sponge is
used, to eliminate excess cement plaster to ex-.
pose the pebble stone aggregates.
e. Sandblasting-The final finish is done by mixing
plaster with colored cement or just plain cement.
This·is placed in a sandblasting contraption which
can be made at the site. When the handle is turn-
ed, the plaster mix is blasted and forced to· adhere
to the concrete back up wall .
247
248
\
6. BUILDING BOARDS
a. Plywood
1/4H x 4' x 8' ordinary
narra veneer
bookmatched
ribbon grained
pre-finished. wood paneling
already comes in color tones
(Danarra brand)
b. Hardboard-(lawanit brand)
See building beard chapter for designs.
c. Insulating fiberboard
d. Chipboard
e. Particle bbard
f. Gypsum board
g. Straw board
h. Asbestos-cement board
i. Corkboard
j. Paperboard
Wood slats or wood grilles- This comes in a form of panel screen and used as a wall pa-
neling, ceiling, ventilation, movable room divider, etc. available in a fine selection of kiln
dried philippine woods in standard and special design perforated panels. Widths are 2, 3 and
4 feet, height is 8 and 10 feet, thickness 1/2", 3/4 ... and 1 1/2 in .
.J011.e by router
7. \NALL PAPER
This is produced in a wide range of wood grain, fabric, stone, brick and mural patterns. Wall
papers are produced in single and double rolls 20 to 36 in. wide containing 36 sq. ft. per
single roll. Selvage edges 3/ 4 to 1 in. wide are removed from each end of a roll before hang-
ing. To install with a perfect fit, an overlap of 1 in. or more is done and a vertical straight
edge rs used to cut with a sharp blade.
l
8. WALL COVERING
The material comes in rolls of 1.00 m wide of either.
a. Wall paper or
b. Wall vinyl (washable)
It also comes in plain, colors, prints wood grain •.
mural patterns, or with texture, and about a thou-
sand different designs and colors, or even photo-
graph and view effects.
Method of laying:
Mix wall covering paste (suggested brand is muty-
. lan) with water and when it is sticky, use a brush
and spread on the back of the wall covering evenly
then make or loose fold with about 1 inch excess
on the ceiling, apply pressure on the meeting cor-
ner of the wall and ceiling with a squeegee and let
the wall cover fall freely.
249
250
The walling must be a smoothened. cured, cemenJ
plastered wall , or a well aligned plywood wall, (all
nails and imperfections must be puttied).
The walling must receive a thin coat of brushed wall
covering paste. Immediately squeegee the wallcover
from inside out and from top to bottom to spread and
to SQueegee the paste evenly and remove air. When
there is an air bubble, use a pin to punch a hole or in-
ject with glue. When in place, repeat a second wall-
cover but this time, allow another inch o_f side over-
lap. Squeegee all over again and when satisfied, using
a straight edge and a very sharp cutter, cut vertically
at the center of the overlap and remove all excess
while the paste is still quite wet then squeegee again
the joint.
--.
BRUSH
WAl..L PAPER ( ... ,, )
WALL VINYL W
04

Be careful that the design of the next piece must
coincide with the first piece to insure continuity of
material design.
Always allow at least ·one inch excess on all vertical
or horizontal corners and apply pressure at the corner
and edges. Then remove excess with a sharp blade.
,,
1 ex.L./!SS

NOT THIG
9. GLASS
Glass is used for finishing inside rooms. For light -diffusing or light directing, glass blocks are
used. For interior partitions, room dividers and screens, structural glass is used. Plate glass
mirrors and architectural glass with designs are used for interior decoration and to produce
special effects. Architectural glass comes in thickness of 1/16" or 3/32" and usually 111/2"
x 11 1/2" in. or 24" x 36" and in two types, clear glass mirror plain or black tinted. Glass tile
or panels are available also as a type of wall finish.
'--.....lo--.J•
e
f
h
The architectural glass is attached to a backup plywood walling with a rugby glue to form a
pattern. This can also be used for ceilings. (The back portion of architectural glass has a
ctothlike material for the glue to attach quickly).
251.
252
J
10. STEEL
Stael waH tile are made from thin-gauge sheet steel to. give them rigidity and coated with
porcelain enamel ·in a full range of colors.


Common sizes are 41/4 and 6 in. squares and 3 x 6 in. with cap, base, outside and inside
corners, feature strips, and others. Special tile adheswes are used to secure tile to smooth
surfaces.
Stainless steel wall tile are produced in 4 1/4, 5, 6,. and 10 in. squares and in 3 x 6 in. rec-
tangles in a polished satin fini.sh. Corners, caps, etc. are available to corresponding to field
sizes.
Galvanized sheet metal casing trim is frequently used in plac£ of wood casing around door
and window openings.
jamb
11.: NON FERROUS METALS
Aluminum, copper, and zinc are all used to make wall tiles. Copper tile are usually supplied
with a burnished finish, while aluminum tile may be enameled or anodized. Zinc tile are
chrome plated.
Cove base and window and door frame trim, are made from aluminum and chrome. These
are trim moldings to cover exterior corners of walls or edges of window stool.
12. PLASTICS
Plastic wall tile in 4 1/4 and 8 1/2 in. squares are maqe from polystyrene and urea formal·
dehyde re51ns in a range of colors. They·are applied with special adhesives, and joints are
pointed with special grout after the tile are in place.
Plastic laminate wall panels in wood grain, stone and mottled finish or patterns, as well as
solid colors, are applied with contact adhesives or as a facing over plywood sheets.
Special mouldings are used as panel dividers, edgings and corner trim.
COVE
D I V l ~ I O N
QIJTGIDE CDRNER
Plastic wall fabrics and films of vinyl are used in much the same way as wall paper.
Molded sheets of plastic reinforced with fiber glass which simulate brick and stone may be
used for either interior of exterior.
Molded plastic acoustical tile, backed by fiber-glass wool, along with opaque plastic ceiling
tile for use with suspended ceiling systems.
253
(
\
13. PAINTS
Are used to cover unsightly surfaces, to provide decoration and to prevent absorption of
moisture into the waU, to act as vapor barrier, and to provide a washable surface.
Three grades of paint are produced.
a. Gloss - walls of kitchen, bathrooms, washrooms
b. Semi-gloSs -other rooms
c . .Rat - usually for ceilings.
Two general groups of paint
a. Paints that flow out under a brush or roller to produce a flat smooth surface.
b. Paints that are stiff enough that when applied by rollers, the surface produced is
rough or stippled. This is called "Textured" paint.
Apply roller with sufficient pressure to impress
texture onto surface and roll in an upward motion.
EXfERIOR WALLING MATERIALS
There are three basic functions of walls.
a. As load-bearing component of the structure.
b. To protect the interior from the elements.
c. To present an attractive exterior appearance.
Types of walls
1. One made of a framework of studs and plates and having the upper-floor frame, the ..
ceiling frame, and the roof frame attached to it.
CAI•t1!1

w.all
.--+-+-- ffa?r
i.:..:.-:.-:...-:,..- ...... _L _-_ ..... •
If'---- wall
2. A second type consists of a framewall of wooden or steel ·arches, rigid frames or A ·
frames, which constitutes both wall and roof framework.
WALL ROOf: A- FRAMe
WALL- ROOF ARCH
255
/
256

. .
...
...
.. .
...
3. A soHd unit consisting of some type 9f masonry, hollowblock
wall or solid concrete wall .
4. A wall foond in large buildings, where skeleton of the
building is made from heavy timbers, steel .or reinforced con-
crete. The wall materials fills in the spaces between those mem·
bers. This is called curtain wall •
Curtain Wall - A no11 bearing exterior wall between piers or
columns, that is not supported by the beams or girders of a ske-
leton frame.
NOTE-stud walls are normally covered first with some types of sheathing-boards, ply-
wood, insulating fiberboard, or exterior gypsum board. This sheathing helps to give rigidity to
the frame, provides one weather barrier and acts as a base over whict) water proofing paper
and exterior finish are applied.
Often this sheathing is covered with one or.two layers of building paper. Over this is applied
. the exterior finishing material. For this type of wall, it may be stucco, brick veneer, artificial
stone veneer, natural stone veneer, terra-cotta facing, wood siding, boards and battens,
aluminum siding, plywood, insulating fiberboard siding, rolled siding, wood shingles, hard-
board siding, asbestos cement siding and siding shingles.
Kinds of exterior finishing material
FRt=.J\ICH
ANA'(
1. Stucco -a type of plaster made with portland cement which
is applied to exterior surfaces to form a finish coating. Com-
monly used treatments on finish coat to produce textures are
French trowel, Italian f inish, modern American, spatter dash,
English cottage and travertine.
Stucco can be applied directly to masonry walls, but over
wood sheathing, some type of wire must be used to tie the
sheathing and stucco together.
BROOM
Two types of wires can be used.
E)(.PANDED METAL LATH
( HYP.IB)
6ASE OR SCRATCH
C::.OAT .

• c c .. c

c: .. 4
c c


"
c: c:
c


i

"i 4

r

Stucco is applied in three coats, (or steps) a
base or coat, a second or brown coat,
and a final finish coat. All three coats are com-
posed of 1 volume of portland cement to 3 to 5
volumes of clean sharp sand, sometimes 1/ 4
volume of hydrated lime is added to increase
plasticity.
The scratch and brown coat should be applied
about 3/8 in. thick, each coat kept moist for at
least 48 hours. The finish coat should not be
l.ess than 1/ 8 in. thick applied within seven days
after application of the brown coat.
rlNAL CCAT
257

2. Brick veneer- Brick veneering over a iight wood frame is done either by using regular
brick taid up to produce as 4 in. thickness of veneer, or by :using thin slabs of brick rna·
nufactured for the purpoSe. ·
A regular 4 in. thickness brick is laid in two methods. One is to lay up the brick over the
sheathing, using metal ties nailed to the sheathing to hold the brick in place. The other
is to cover the studs with paper-backed wire mesh apply a 1 in. thick layer of mortar and
set the brick with their backs in the mortar.
4-' hriGk
· .
..
,,. a•r
..
c;}JQ;;ft11f179
..
.-1 '' m«t.ar
·.
p.apAr l?.ul<
..

IMtaf


plaG+Ar

When thin veneer slabs are used, they are set in a mortar base which is applied over a
stucco wire backing.
mortar
3. Artificial stone veneer-This is sometimes called cast
stone, made by casting colored mortar into molds which
turn out units having faces resembling roughhewn stone.
The units are about 1 in. thick and made in various sizes
such as2x Bin., 2x 16in., 4x 4in., 4x 8 in., 4x 16in., 8x
8 in. and 8 x ·16 in. These units are set in a mortar bed
which is applied over a stucco wire backing.
4. Natural stone veneer-Thin slabs of some natural stones such as sandstone, lime·
stone, riverstone, adobe, gray and black kermon stone, slate etc. with either regular or
irregular dimensions are laid up in a mortar bed in the· same way as artificial stone or
brick.
s:t ... AIE LIMe
F= LAT KENNON OR A009E
STONE
ADOBE
.C J

FLAT
,
5. Terra-Cotta Facing-Most commonly used. for buildings
with light frame walls is known as vitrolite. It is made from
china clay in thin s1abs.11/ 32, 7/ 16, 3/ 4 in. thick, Units
are made in 4 to 24 in. squares and 8 x 12 in., 8 x 16 in., 12 x
16 in., and up to 30 x 36 in. rectangles. Common colors in·
elude white, black, red, tan, ·blue, green and gray.
Asphaltic mastic is used to attach the vjtrolite units to exter-
nal surfaces, leaving joints of approximately 1/ 16 in. These are
later buttered with joint and painted. Direct contact
with metal concrete, or other hard substances should be
avoided.
jatl1t

259
6. Wood Siding-!he common wood specie usect. for sidings are Tanguile, or pinewood.
This is manufactured either in T and G, S-CUT or RIZAL CUT.
This types are either sun dried or kiln dried.
S
. -1" _. 4" 1"x8" 1"x12"
x , • ,
I G V·CUT
260
t1r
RUGTIC.
7. Boards and battens -When boards of various kinds, apitong, Tanguile, pine, rough- .
sawed or planed are applied to a wall vertically with narrow strips of the same material
nailed ovef the vertical joints.
I I
PLAN

a. Aluminum siding - Some types consist of a single thickness of metal formed into the
re.quired shape.
\
C..URVr::;.D FACE:
Otilef's have a rigid insulation backing. In addition, a baked on vinyl enamel is u_sed to
produce siding a permanently colored surface in a wide range of colors. The thick-
ness is from 0.02 to 0.025 in. th'ick. Siding is from 9 to 12 in. wide is sections, 12 feet
long, while vertical panels are made J2 and 16 in. wide and 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, ft. long.
'
I
9. Metat -made of pre-painted, baked-on zinc coated galvanized. iron used in curtain-
wall panels. Steel, stainless steel, ah.Jminum, galvanized iron, copper and brass are
.. metals commonly used. Colors are silver, champagne bronze, coppertone, brass. Gauge
range from 0.19" to .040". Gauge no. 3.1 to gauge no. 24.
Three types of colorgrip soandrel by metal forming corp.

i f
a
,...
t:lte
SPANDRI: L
wtd
. · · .
h<1rizartal s-tw
V4!?rtttal
lt .o' em


PLAIN GPANDRcL

I
SPANDREL
10. Plywood exterior finish- Marine plywood or waterproofed plywood are used either in
its full size of 4 Y.·8 ft . (1.20 x 2.40 m .) with the long edges vertical and the joints covered
with batten. or it can be cut in strips and applied horizontally.
r

'
_I
11. Insulating fiberboard siding - This material is made fro.rn 1/ 2 in. wQ.Od fiberboard with
one face covered with a heavy coating of asphalt. Finely crushed slate is embedded in
the asphalt in patterns imitating brick, stone and wood grain. The board is produced)n
strips 8 to 16 in. wide and 24 to 96 in, long, with shiplap edges.
261
262
12. Wood shakes and shingles-Jhere are two ways in applying shingles or shakes to
sidewalls one is by single course' and the other one is double course.
The maximum recommended exposure for 16 in. shingles on sidewalls is 7 1/2'". for an
18 in. shingle. It is 81/2" in. and for a 24 in. shingle it is 111/2 in. for a shake up to 32 in.
it is 15 in.
.GltfGLE. COURSeD 9De.WALL
s.HINGJ...J:iC;;
tx.>llSl..S -CQURQ:D


13. Hardboard •iding-Tempered hardboard cut 12 and 16 in. stdps 4, 8, and 12ft. tong is
used as siding. Three methods of application are used. One consists of applying the
strips in the same way that bevel siding is applied. Another method Is by using a rab-
. beted wood strip at the bottom of each course to .accentuate the shadow Jine. fn the
third method, preformed metal a strips hold the siding in place and give a deep shadow
line. These metal strips have .holes drilled in their bottom surface to provide ventilation
behind the board.

hllrJ
$ol.diH9
't'JOQ1


14. A1beato1-cement siding and siding lhinglea-Asbestos-cement-siding boards are
made in stripe 12 in • .,.vide, 481n. long, and 3/16 thick with a smooth face :and straight
edges. The shingles are 12 x 24 in. with deep vertical wood-grain pattern on the face and
a wavy bottom edge. Both siding and shingles are prepunched for application on 16 in.
centers. Walls are'usually .Strapped on 12 in. centers ' and the sh.ingles are fastened with
soft-headed nails, which will not crack the material;
-

.,Asae;TOG a:MB'IIT

..
G•lbeetoe-Consists of a core of sheet steel which is first dipped in a bath of molten-
zinc. Immediately a layer of asbestos felt is applied under great pressure and is bonded
to the zinc coat. The felt is then impregnated with asphalt, ctnd finally a tough, water·
proof colored coating is applied to both sides. Galbestos sheets are available in widths of
3Cr and 33 in. in lengths up to 12 ft.
263
264
15. Curtain walls-Materials which are fastened to the
frame and carry no structural loads themselves. The steel
framewall and floor decks carry the load.
Curtain walls are of masonry materials. Also wood, glass.
concrete and steel.
16. Brick-The wall can be made of face brick over a backup wall of common brick, clay
tile or concrete block.
bukup w/l
17. Tile, ceramic venettr and terra-cotta-Structural tile .and facing tiles are used in var-
ious ways in the construction of curtain walls. Structural tile is used as a backup wall for
face brick, facing tile, stone ceramic veneer or ar(;hitectural terra cotta.
Eight-inch through-wall glazed or textured structural tile can be used alone.
,,
. 6 THROUGH-WALL T I L ~
Two kinds of ceramic venner are produced:
a. Adhesion type -set on the wall in mortar bond only. Slab thickness is limited to a
maximum of 1 1 I 4 in. and the face area, which is normally glazed with ceramic colors
is limited to 600 sq. in.
( W f.6lr.atn!L VBM.ei!r
'lz;' mort31 a>at 2J:lPI!lid to
vt;HJu;.r
3J4' !bat
1
1z! co2t
-- h1gh nbbe.d
b. Anchor type -- ceramic veneer is fastened to the backup wall by some type of metal
anchor and supported at intervals by steel angles. Thicknesses vary from 1 1/2 to 3
in. and units are produced in maximum width of 24 in. and maximum length of 36 in.
265.
no
Terra-Cotta is a term used to describe a material consisting of a burned
clay body with some type of face, produced in slab form.
There are two general types, ceramic veneer which is ffat slab and ar-
qhitectural terra-cotta which usually has some sort of sculptured face.
266
18. Stone (marbla)-Stone facing can be used either over a backup·waU of masonry or
supported by a subframe of aluminum or steel.
. . .
. .
. . v:
: • • .. 0
;, .- ....
19. Preca1t concrete slabs-Made up as curtain wall using both standard and
lightweight concrete. Blocks may have a smooth, plain concrete surface, plain concrete
·with textured surface, or an exposed aggregate surface. A layer of colored aggregates
and white cement is sometimes used on the surface of the panel to produce a terrazzo-
like finish . . Slabs may also be faced with ceramic veneer.
20. Washout finishes-Concrete walls may be finished With either pebble washout, glass
washout, or even shell and granite washout.
The mixture of mortar and pebbles either no. 5, no. 10, or no. 15 is mixed in not too wet
mixture, applied to the brown coat and when the mixture is troweled and not yet dry, a
spray of water is applied to remove the excess cement and expose the stones. The same
· procedure is done with glass washout, however white or green or blue colored cement is
used.
· ·-,:: .• :. wall

. biO'M1
w.a@!t
21. Synthetic adobe, brick -The final coat is cement plaster mixed with grounded adobe
stones, grounded brick waste, sometimes mixed with\pebbles and sea .
. This is. then plastered to the wall from 3/4" to 1 1/4" thickness. When it has hardened, a
regular vertical chipping with an axe is done to expose the aggregate. Colored cement is
sometimes added for effect.
22. Sandblasting-The final finish is done by mixing plaster with colored cement or just
plain cement. This is placed in a sandblasting contraption which can be made at the site.
When the handle is turned, the plaster mix is blasted and forced to adhere to the con·
crete backup wall.
w()()J
267
268
23. Bush-hammered finish-A plastered wall which is hammered from a specially de-
signed hammer.
Bush hammer-A hammer having a serrated face
containing many pyramid-shaped points, used ·to
dress a conCJete or stone surface; (manual or power
driven).
Finishes:
Bush-hammered concrete - Concrete having an
exposed aggregate finish; usually obtained ·with a
power-operated bushhammer which rE'moves (by
percussive cutting) the sand-cement matrix . about
the aggregate particles to a depth ranging from 1 I 16
to 1/ 4 inch. (1.59 to 6.35 mm.)
Bush-hammer finish-A stone or concrete surface
dressed with a bush-hammer; used decoratively or to
provide a roughened traction surface for treads,
floors, and a pavements.
24. Glass -Glass is used in curtain wall construction in sheet, block and tile form. Glass
blocks are 4 in. thick and comes il') sizes of 6 x 6 in., 8 x 8 in. , 12 x 12 in., and 4 x 12 in.
They are laid in mortar in stack bond. The entire panel must rest on a resilient pad of
some kind so that blocks do not come in contact with the structural frame.


a>lum11
jamb
pad
biod: ..


25. Plastic - Plastic panels are produced in flat and corrugated sheets. and in sandwich
panels. Many of the sheet type panels are made from fiber-glass-reinforced polyester
plastic. They may be clear, translucent, or colored. Used in factory buildings.
26. Logs-Comes from medium trunks of trees which is either half log or slabs or full
trunk. ·
OTHEil STUCCO

FINI5H
,A,N,.\"f
W&Hi GTE!:L-ll?OW!:Ll.ED)
269
270
PNEwx:t> FJ".hGH
Bbwf«d1 r;Nwood) bru91.
'Mfl1· AFPY ftntt od, 111.en
iMA wald a' in;t;w.t li;
paoJ) *tt 'IJ(XNd imtt an.d
l.8ft1ent 'fin!Q1 wrU Ida wtcJ.
: .. 0
. . . . . . ,.
..
CEILING AND ACOUSTICAL
MATERIALS
272
Besides providing an attractive overhead surface in a room or space, ceilings may also be re-
quired to:
1. Function as the primary sound-absorption surface in the room.
2. Contain most or all lighting fixtures.
3. Conceal utility services including plumbing, wiring, heating, and air conditioning.
4. Provide outlets for heated and conditioned air.
· The most popular system for ceilings in commercial buildings is the suspended ceiling.
~ 1 ~ G·t. gaiVAnru..J W ! r ~
1 .
While residential buildings have ceilings generally fastened directly to the floor joists or to a
ceiling joists.
Suspended ceilings c.onsist of a grid of metal track suspended from the structural ceiling
with wires or cables, the grid openings of which are filled with ceiling panels, light fixture's or
other utilities. ·
The space created by lowering the ceiling in this manner is very useful, and is usually neces- .
sary for concealir:lg utility services. Residential construction utilizes attics and crawling
spaces for this purpose. The ceiling panels may be flat or shaped, and available in a wide
range of textures and patterns. Typical panels are 1/ 2 to 1 inch thick and (6() x 601 2 x 2 feet
or 2' x 4' feet !0.60 x 1.20) panels for residential ceilings are usually fi::Jt, and are applied to
plaster, drywall, or wood furring strips.
It is to be remembered tl')at the materials to be used for eaves or outside ceilings must be of
waterproofed plywood, tempered hardboard (Lawanit) flat asbestos sheet, kiln dried wood.
Sometimes the cardboard material egg container is used for decorative ceiling and acoust·
ical material.
.. Other material used in ·suspended ceilings are light diffusers of solid plastic, flat or moulded,
open grid or honeycombed design, or of metal AC louver and stainless steel for ceiling of
banqt.:et halls, lobbies, department stores and screens for shops and restaurants.
One of the most important materials used for c.eiHng panels is:·
1. Mineral fiber -a generic term adopted to cover several mineral based materials
used for similar purposes, including asbestos, perlite, vermiculite, and other less
common materials. For ceiling panels, mineral fiber with the addition of a binder may
be molded, pressed, or compacted to whatever density is desired, from a soft absor-
bent panel to a hard rock-like surface. One of the more common panels, once called
asbestos-cement board, utilizes portland cement as a binder. T',e face of mineral
fiber panels may be left natural, painted, or covered with a variety of materials from
plastic to aluminum. Mineral fiber products are.noncombustible, and thus enjoy a
very good fire rating.
2. ·Fiberglass- another popuiar material for ceiling panels. Most fiberglass are flat, and
the face side is typically covered with vinyl -paper, or aluminum. These may be ob-
tained with a variety of textures and surfaces.
3 .. Metal wall and ceiling panels are generally perforated for acoustical performance,
and are often backed with fiberglass batts to improve both insulation and acoustic
qualities. Metal panel may be narrow plank·like pieces about four inches wide.
Stainless Steei - (Tajima AC louver an·d S.S. Bishop II). A ready made metal louver with a
wide range of uses, it is light, durable, high precision and non-flammable. For banquet
halls., hotels, lobby ceilings, department stores, grilles and screens for restaurants and
shops.
273
274
,, \\ II. t.l. • "'
\. \. \\. . \\ II.
'\\. " 11. \\
ACOUSTICAL MATERIALS·
II /L /1 N N H 1/
Jl II fL /./H
ff
IL
,,
When sound waves strike a surface such as walls or ceilings, they are reflected and the ref-
lected sound, as well as the original. is heard by a listener, resulting .in an increase in sound
intensity. While a sound source is operating, a room become.s filled with reflected sound
waves and when the source is stopped, then r'flected waves continue to travel back and
forth between room surfaces. As a listener picks up these reflected waves, he hears them as
the original sound being prolonged and finalty becoming inaudible as the reflected waves
gradually lose their energy by absorption. This prolongation of sound is called reverberation.
Control of increased intensity and of excessive reverberation are two of the major problema
of sound engineering. Along with them are the problems of control of unwanted sound an.d
of transmission of sound from room to room through walls, floors and ceilings.
A large part of acoustical correction deals with the improvement of hearing conditions and
the reduction of unwanted noise in rooms by reducing the energy of refleeted sound. This is
done mainly by the use of acoustical materials. Materials which have a· substantially greater
ability to absorb sound than such conventional ones as wood, gins, hard plaster, or con·
crete.
Tlie percentage· of the energy absorbed by a material when a sound wave is reflected from, it
is called the sound absorption coefficient, or acous1ical absorptivity. This absorption coeffi
4
cient depends on the nature of the material, the frequency of the sound, and the angle at
which the snUnd wave strikes the material. When comparing materials to be used for the im-·
provement of hearing conditions, it is common practice to use the coefficient at h e frequen-
cy of 512 cycles. In comparing materials for noise-quieting applications, the noise reduction ·
coefficient (N.R.C.I which is the average coefficient for the four frequencies of 256, 512,
1,024 and 2,048 cycles is generally used.
Most acoustical materials can be classified in groups:
1. ACOUSTICAL TILES
These are made from wood. cane, or asbestos fibers, matted and bonded into sheets of
various thicknesses, ranging from 3/ 16 to 1 1/ 4 in: The h e e ~ are cut into tiles of several
Size,' ;ncluding 12 x 12 in., 12 x 24 in., 16 x 16 in., 16 x 32 in., Z4 x 2_, in., 24 x 28 in. Edges
nay be square cut, beve4ed or tongue and grooved. . . . .
. These tiles are intended primarily for ceiling applications, they can be applied to solid sur·
faces with adhesives, nailed to furring strips attached to a ceiling frame or the underside
of a solid deck, or installed in a suspended ceiling frame ..
GL.UEO aR
SU$PENDED
A great variety of designs, colors and patterns are available. The acoustic openings in the·
surface of the tile in themselves provide many different designs. The openings may be
holes drilled in uniform or random patterns or a combination of large drilled holes and tiny
punched ones.
0 0 • 0
0 0 .. 0
0 0 .. 0
.. 0 "
..
REGULAR t:J:liLLEO
. . . . :
o •. _o
: ••• C) • # :. • ••• It
C> •
• • -. C!
o ..
. " .
...
- . -
o.
. . . .
.. · .
· .. 0 ..
"·. 0
R1NOCN DRILLED
The openings may be slots, striations, or fissures, or the surface of the tile may be sculp·
tured in various patterns, with a factory painted surface so that it does not require paint·
ing after installation .
. r· ... ": . \ ..
. , .. \ .. , .... ·'
· .. : _ ... ·. . i
·' . .
·\ ... "\ . . ' ..
. . .. f ..
\. . . . \
. ''-'.
· ... . . . ..t ' ..
'. ' ... -
. ..;... .......... .
STRIATeD
The noise reduction coefficient of tiles of this type is about 0. 70 with some variations, de-
pending on the particular material, the thickness of the tile, and the kind of pattern used.
Asbestos-fiber tiles 12 x 12 x 3/4 in. weigh approximately 1 1/41b.; wood or cane fiber
tiles are slightly lighter. ·
275'
276
2. ASS.EMBLED UNITS
Consists of some type of sound absorbing material such as a rock-wool or fiber-glass
blanket fastened to an 'acoustically transparent facing. This facing is generally some type
of rigid board, such as hardboard or asbestos board, or a metal sheet. The facings are
perforated to allow the penetration of sound waves.
Such acoustical panels can be fastened to a wall over a frame work of furring strips or
suspended in front of the wall by some mechanical means. .

HbBrgla's
3 . . SPRAYED-ON ACOUSTICAL MATERIALS
There are two types of material used in this sound control application.
a. One type consisting of plaster made with vermiculite or perlite aggregate.
Vermiculite acoustical plaster is generally a premixed product, requiring only the addi-
tion of approximately 10 gal. of water per bag of mix. if applied by hand, two coats is
applied, 3/8 in. thick for the first and 1/8 in. for the finish coat.
If applied by machine, two, three or four thin coats are applied so that the total thick-
ness of plaster will ·be at least 1/2 in.
The noise reduction coefficient for 1'/ 2 in thick vermiculite acoustical plaster applied
by trowel is 0.65, a 1" thick is 0. 75. For machine-applied plaster 1/2 thick the coeffi-
cient is 0.55.
Perlite acoustical plaster is usually mixed on the job, using calcined gypsum as the
binder. lt can also be applied either by hand or machine.
The main advantage of using machine spraying as a means of application is that this
method presents no difficulties in plastering over irregular surface.
b. A coating of mineral fiber mixed with an adhesive.
Acoustical treatment with mineral fiber involves the use of specially prepared mineral
wool or asbestos fi,.bers and an adhesive to hold them to the surface.
The fibers are prepared and mixed with an inorganic binding material, which helps to
give them body, and packed in bags ready for application.
The area to be covered is first primed with a thick coat of ·adhesive, and the fiber is
then sprayed over the surface in one or more coats, depending on the thickness re-
quired. For thickness of over 1 /2 in. at least two coats are used. Each coat is tamped
to consolidate the fibers. The final surface can be sprayed with sealer or cooler.
POPULAR BRANDS FOR SPRAYED ON MATERIALS
1. Sprllrt!JX - usually for hotels, offices and residences.
2. Umplt $pray-usually for theatres, convention halls, radio statior:ts.
Transmission of sound through floors may be either of the im.pact or airborne type. 11"1-
pact insulation can be prevented by floating floors.


. .
..

Methods for _reducing impact t ransmission through wood-frame floors.
277
' 78
. : . ·... . : .·
......
4 CORK
a . Acoustical board -a popular material is the corkboard. This is agglomerated cork
from cork granules, toasted and mixed with special binders to form into a
mass. The mass is compressed inside moulds and finally baked under controlled tem-
perature. Its characteristics are:
a. efficient insulation
b. great acoustic absorption
c. light in weight, easy to install
d. excellent decorative appearance
e. a nay and rat proof
f . prevents condensation on walls and is
moisture proof
g. density of 6 to 9 Jbs. /cu. ft.
h. coefficient of thermal conductivity 0.29
Btu/ sq.ft./h/deg/F/in.
i. specific heat: 0.40 Btullb/deg/F
SIZES:
f / 2H X 12" X 36,. (.0125 X 0.30 X 0.90)
lH X 12" X 36" (.025 X 0.30 X 0.90)
r X 12" X 36" (.05 X 0.30 X 0.90)
J " X 12" X 36" (0.075 X 0.3() X 0.90)
Corkboard is installed by glueing (rugby) or nail-
ing.
b. Ceiling board-a popular brand is the 'WALCORK'. This is made from carefully
selected natural cork on agglomerated cork backing, agglomerated serected cork
granules or a combination of both. Walcork is both sound absorbing and heat insu-
lating. Its natural texture and easy-blending colours make it always delightfully pleas-
ing to the eyes. Best for use in conference rooms, offices, churches, and cQncert
halls. ·In residential homes, walcork is used f or living room, study room, dens, and
bedrooms. Its characteristics are:
a. decoratiVe
b. sound absorbing
c. heat insulating
d. comes in a variety of patterns and colored de·
signs,
e. durable and economical, requiring practically
no maintenance.
SIZES: available in sheets
2 mm. x 60 em. x 90 em.
3 fl1m. X 60 em. X 90 em.
4 mm. x 60 em. x 90 em.
Walcork is instaUed by using impact adhesive or
contact cement on smooth clear, dry surface from
which all loose paint, grease, wax are removed.
: •; '· .
CEILINGS:
Philippine wallboard corp. -lawanit
Sarmiento industries -plywood
Campos rueda -cork
Stainless steel industries inc.-Tajima ·stainless
steel
279

ROOF STYLES·
a. Common Tyjt8&
SHEO
WINGI=-0 GABLE
EUTTERFLY
6ABLE WITH 5Ht=O
282
FLAi

HIP
OUTC.H HIP

.WITH DORMeR GABLE: WITH VALLEY
C.LER ~ T O R Y
A- FRAME VAULTED
PLEATED
c.YUNDR1CAL PARABOLDIO HYPER80UC
PARABOLOID
coNOID
DOME PYRAMID
283
: PtTCH a_lll
a PITCH
4/5PITCH

·- •s·
58.
, ..
5!.

45.
. !9.
33..7.
2e.sr-
22•
Ia:!*
14*
gos•
-orr
16 ' '-
+ 24 P,.\RTS RUN -!
ca/b "6124 OR 1/4 PITCH
..
. SLOPE

12 RUN TO I 'RISE " 4Jf'
12 RuN TO 2 RISE·= 9.4•
' l2 RUN TO 3 RISE= J4•
12 RUN T04 RtSE = l&A•
= 22.,5•
l2 RU" TO 8 Rl SE = 26 .s-
ROOF GLOPES IN t. PITCHES AND. DEGREES
284 . .
. -
ROOFING MATERIALS
There are three components of a roof.
1r
1: Frame or skeleton
2. Rigid inner layer or skin which is fastened to the frame.,and supports the outer layer or
(only used for roofing materials that requires the roof to be waterproofed).
3. Exposed outer layer (roofing rnatenaO.

W.P.
rooftdA

··
When the roof is flat , the material used to form the inner layer is called a Decking.
When the roof is sloped, the inner skin material is called the roof sheathing.
azmvz nu;;&,npnununnz
Materials for roof deckings or sheathings may be boards, plywood, concret e, steel , gypsum,
rigid insulation boards, strawboards, or tile.
The exposed outer, waterproof layer of the roof is known as the rQofing.
Materials for roofing include shingles of all kinds, wooden shakes, clay roofing tile, cement
roofing tile, slate, sheet metal, asbestos cement sheet roofing, asphalt roofing, glass and
plastics.
1. SHINGLES (a roofing unit of wood, asphaltic material, slate, tile, concrete, asbestos ce-
ment or other material cut to stock lengths, widths and thickness; used as an exterior co·
vering or sloping roofs and side walls; applied in an overlapping fashion .
285
286
Different kinds of shingles
a. Wood shingles-Made ·from trees that are light when dry, has high crushing
strength, and slow growing trees which produce narrow rings. This in turn,
result in a fine, evenly grained wood with uniform texture. Wood shingles are also
made from large trees with few knots, so lhat shingles free should from blemishes and
distorted grains can be produced in large quantities. The tree should have a low coeffi-
cient of expansion and contraction due to changes in moisture conditions, so that in
changing. frorn a wet to an air-dry condition, the shingles are less likely to split or
check.
Carefully chosen logs are first sawed into 16, 18, or 24 in. lengths. EvefY'effort is made
to produce blocks which have and edge-grain face· upright, machines then saw these .
blocks into shingles, graded. a_nd packed into bundles containing enough to
cover 25 sq. ft. Shingles are packed green and .may be shipped green or stacked and
air dried or kiln dried.
No shingles is allowed to be wider than 14 in. or less than 3 in. standard lengths are 24,
18 and 16 in. ,
The amount that a roof shingles should be exposed to the weather depends on the
pitch of the roof and the length of shingle used. The maximum exposure on 1/ 8 and
1/6 pitches should be 3 3/4 in. For 16 in. shingles, 4 1/ 4 in. For 18 in. shingles and 5
3/ 4 in. for 24in. shingles. For roofs with a pitch steeper than 1/6, the maximum expo-
sure for 16 in-shingles should be 5 in., for 18 in. shingles 5 1/2 in, and for 24 -in.
shingles 7 1/2 in.

1&"'

b. Wood shskes -Shakes are used for the same purpose as shingles but are split rather
than sawed from the blocks. This produces a much rougher face than in the case with
shingles. . -
Three types of shakes are made
1. Hand split and resawed- made bY cutting planks of proper thickness and running
them throught a bandsaw diagonally.

-two
2. Taper split-Produced by hand-spliting. A shingle like ta!"ler is achieved by reversing the
block end-for-end with each split.
287
3. Straight-split shakes-Similarly done as taper split exceptAh,at
splitting is done from one end of the block only. ·· · .
Hand split and resawed shakes comes in 18, 24 and 32 in. length with
thicknesses of 1/2 to 3/ 4, 3/ 4 to l 1/ 4. The taper split comes in 24 .
in. long from 1 /2 to 5/ 8 in. taper. Straight split shakes are made in 18
and 24 and 3/ 8 in. thick.
c. Asplullt shingles - Made frrJITI heavy rag felt, saturated with as-
phalt and coated with high-rnelting point flexible asphalt. Ceramic-
coated mineral granules are into the asphalt coating on the
exposed face to provide. a fire-resistant surface . . A number of
weights and styles of shingles are made, each in a variety of co·
.lors. The weights refer to the weight of the quantity of shingles re·
quired to cover 100 sq. ft. usually referred to as a square of
shingles. This weight varies from 135·1b. for light shingles to 325
lb. for .very heavy ones. Weights are varied by altering the thickness of the felt used,
the amount of asphalt absorbed by the felt, the thickness of asphalt coating· and the
amount of mineral used on the surface.
Roof slopes should be at least 4 in., 12 shingles. Broad-headed roofing nails or staples
are used to fasten them down, and corners if exposed tabs should be cemented down
with asphalt roofing gum to prevent damage by wind.
SHINGLES STYLES:
\
n
}
TWIN TAB 1.2•
!10-2'-S /bG.
g_;.TAB HeXAGON
X 11 1'511:>.
.INTE"RL-OCKING
f10 lb.
[
·n
n
1
TRIPL...E TAB 3'"X1Z"'

3-lAB HEXAGON
11 Y3" 1'-5 lb.
IN·TERL.OC.KING 1b ''
1f5"- 1!>5/b .

Asphalt roof shingles are also manufactured with fiber glass self-sealing thermoplastic
agent which when activated by the sun, actoaJly ft.ISeS the shingles_ together to form a
" one piece root" no costly cementing operations ~ r e required. This shingle is firepro9f
since the mat base is fiberglass and coated with high grade waterproof asphalt. This
prevent rotting, curling and oxidation. This shingle also has a ceramic granule surfac-
ing and available in seven different colors.
si:ze - 13 1/4 x 39 3/8"
strips per square - 66
weight per square - 225 lbs.
exposure - 5 5/SN
head lap- 2"
I
r ~ - - - - - - ~ 9 ~ - - - - - - - - 1
lit'\A rnai'k ---
-----------------
1(
d. Asbestos cement shingles-Made from a combination of asbestos fibers in port-
land cement paste. To this mix is added quantities of small colored ceramic granules
to produce permanent colors. The material is rolled into sheets 5/ 32 in thiclc, often
with a wood-grain textured surface. Sheets are cut into shingles of various sizes and
shapes with nail holes predrilled. Because this type of shingle is hard and brittle, heavy
felt underlay is required and soft nails of copper or aiuminum should be used. Cutting
is done with special shear. ··
3o"x 1·4"
289

e. Aluminum shingi'es.-Made from sheet aluminum approximately 0.020 in. thick in
· the form of a 9 in. square. They are folded on all edges with folds so that ad-
jacent shingles will interlock. Starters are made by cutting a shingles as shown in the
figure. Each shingles is fastened down with a sjngle nail. This type of shingle may be
used on roofs with a slope of 3 in 12 or steeper. They .are manufactured with a plain
aluminum surface, with an finish, or with a baked-on vinyl-enamel finish in a
variety of colors.
2. ROOFING TILE
a. Terra·cotta - Because of jts weight, being a terra-cotta product, wood sheathing and
strong well-braced roof frames are necessary. All of the styles of terra cotta tiles
should be laid over an asphalt felt base and are fastened with copper nails. Elastic ce-
ment is use.d to caulk joints that are otherwise not watertight. Sometime corrugated
galvanized sheets are used for sheathing.
STYLES
<.1r G-.f . n.all

-1''lt't'' honztJttt.al b.attM
.__ _ __ .I.;)'/. 91Mt
lNOUlA
";------rN.rt
'-------rr fl. 7JI 6. L rir .Jp tor
1.00 111 .
A toRR. 61. SHEET SHEATHJNG
290
1
11
X4'' pJfflt]
r-------1".x 2" honzontaJ b:att£'n
--- - --2." tJr G.r.
r1Vi2TD.d -h/G.l .
for evs-y 1-c.tl f¥1.
r-::roof tde
.
;;-c._ ___ purhn
6 -J. roof
TILE ON SHEATHING
r------ - - - --t'xf"l1orrwntal H:aJli)J
,-------rbaf
w3fgprvofmg fAit or
'\....-...,,.c;_ __ ·1.
11
X 3'' purhn
* tX 1}'1."
.
ROOF" TILE ON PL'fWOOD g..rE4THIN6
291


pur!IJ1S
- ---- z"xs·' raftAr
FRENCH FLAT TOP
ST.PNDARO 41 )( Z.5an
SWISS SV\No-\RD ROOFING 1ll.J$

292
Manufactured by ERA Industries Inc. distributed by Rivera Filipina, Inc.
b. Concrete roofing tile-Similar to English tile but have a lug across th8 underside
about 3 in. from one end. They are laid without nails and rely on their weight to hold
them in place. The first course is by a horizontal furring strip. Each suc-
ceeding tile is supported by the one below.
ttiR
. . hoiJIHg sinp 1
11
X2"
1"EGULA
1' ytx13''
This type of roofing does not need any sheathing anymore and is laid direct on purlins,
if the slope is 25° or more or less than 25°, sheathing is
The first purlin near the Facia is one 1" bigger than all succeeding purlins. The suc-
ceeding tile is supported by the weight of the one above.
lug slidJng
t.''x4'' ftr>t pur:hrl
. 'the '1.' x ?Jif purlll1$
3. SHEET METAL PROOFING -Materials includl!, steel, stainless steel, copper, lead,
zinc, aluminum and galbestos. Joints are necessary between sheets to produce a water-
proof skin.
Different types of fabricated ·joints.
e. Flat seams are used when the roof is flat.
b. Ribbed .seams are used with heavier metal for appearance or where expansion of the
roofing material becomes a significant factor in the roof design.
c. Roofs withe slope over 4 in 12 may have unsolderiKid standing seams.
FLAT SEAM
Rl885.0 OR
BATTEN
s;TANDING
293.
294
a. Steel -Steel strip is coated with zinc, tin, lead, or combi-
nations of two of these to prodace steel roofing.
DOWNSPCUT
2 . . ' X 3 ' ~ ZJ<4''
a-1 Gslwmized steel-Steel coated with zinc. Produced
in corrugated sheet or in plain sheets.
g.yuges -(thickness) the lower the number, 'the
thi cker it is.
gauge no. 16 and no. 18-for water tanks '
GA no. 20, 22-car bodies
GA no. 24-gutters
GA no. 26-standard for rooting
GA no. 31 - for low cost housing
inch thicknesses-0.063, 0.051
0.039, 0.033
0.027,
0.021, 0.012
lengths-6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 feet
-standard lengths
-now up to 43 feet
-long (long span)
widths-32" (. 80) and 36H (901 wide
ACCESSoRIES
a ~ 2 .Long span roofing
- either coated with 2 in. only
- or colored, pre-painted
This long Span colored roofing employs a double
coating and double baking of zinc coated G.l. steel
sheets by a special epoxy-acrylic. Anti-corrosion sys-
tem as its primer coating and polyester as its finishing
coat. The factory delivers this colored roofing from
any size up to 60 feet .
Advantage of using colored long span
1. Eliminate painting work and labor costs.
2. Maintenance-free roof with its anti corrosion system that lasts 5 times much lo"nger
than ordinary manually painted sheets:
3. Long span panels up to 60 feet produce eave to ridge lengths which require less
fasteners and do away with wasteful end laps which are sources of leaks.
4. Stronger gauge because it is made of prime steel and the continuity of its length in-
creases rigidity .
.. 5. Different rooting sections available designed to withstand greater load.
6. Colored long span roofing can be roll formed, lock formed, deep drawn, punched or
pressed without suffering from cracking or removal of coating.
7. Comes in weather-resistant colors of red, green beige white and blue.
8. This roofing is also applicable as· sidings, ceilings, interior and exterior wall partitions,
curtain wall element, shp counters, truck bodies, cabinets and kitchen hoods.
DESIGN SECTIONS
Courtesy of metal forming corp. brand (Goloroof).
RIB GOOR.
( alurnmum )
i !---J
i
.eff.echve w!&th ·
b wl.dth -zg - - - -------t
11
/ --- anti-LapdJar"y
v- BEAM
maiB nb TWIN R 19
- - - r:..w.

295
( t.Urh cu.e)
U ·U
SOLO U-BEAM
..._,I •CORA
(?." c.orr) .
( .30
II
r=Y/. Z7. 75
s; frz:m Jnt. .
LOOP ·bra1d- (Kok:P;pa-1)
1'RI""WA\fe
296
L cr.J11?fY corru!jdtRA

,( 11 torrugati01 )
· ( :s2"w) ·
( e.w. zs")
frvm
br2lr0 · ( LOiorbonJ)
E.W. - 30 U1 ( 11'Jr?'l

TRIMDI!K HI -1'eN
CUiitt'OM ORB
ii-z,m s;tul urp. br.anJ (
__ f\ __ ....JA ___ _f\
aUAD -RIS

AV2!12bli2 n ( 666 rnrn t:=.r)
211J ( 710 mm E W) con-uqai"la-1
a-3 Bright plate- Steel coated with thi
a-4 Temeplate-When coated with a mixture of 75 percent lead and 25 percent tin.
Gauges and coating weights -0.29, 0. 73 and 1.47 oz. of tih-lead coating per sq.
ft.
b. Stainless steel-When chromium is added during the process of manufacturing
steel, this stainless steel has great resistance to corrosion, and is usually specified for
exterior use. Chromium content is 14 to 20 percent and because of"its high strength,
stainless steel for roofing is produced in relatively thin sheets, and because of its hard-
ness, all fabrication must be done in the shop. It is also expensive, so its use as roofing
is limited usuallY to special conditions. ·
c. Monel metal-This is an alloy containing about 70 percent nickel, Z7 percent copper,
and 3 percent iron. It is highly corrosion-resistant and does not tarnish easily. It is also
hard requiring shop fabrication, and expensive.
d. Copper-Roofing copper may be soft-roHed which is easily worked, or cold-rolled,
which is stronger, harder, but less ductile. This is produced in four thicknesses or
weights-16, 20, 24 and 32 oz. per sq. ft. and lengths of 8 and 10ft.
Copper is chosen as ths roofing material where dignity, warmth and charm as well as
long life are prime considerations. This is because in locations, an attractive soft
blue-green patina forms on copper so that its beauty is enhance with age.
e. Lead - is a very pliable and useful roofing material, it can be drawn and stretched to fit
wrapped surfaces. It weathers to a soft, even gray tone and is little affected by acids.
Sheet lead for roofing is usually at least 2 1/ 2 lb. hard lead, which means that it
weights at least 2 1/21b. per sq. ft. and contains between 6 and 7 1/2 percent antimo-
ny, dimensions of sheet are limited to 2 x 4ft. A heavy coat of asphalt paint is painted
on the contact side if lead work is in contact with fresh concrete.
297
t.
298
f. Zinc -Zinc is lighter and stiffer than lead but is affected by acids and has a high coef-
ficient of expansion. Rolled zinc sheet is sometimes used for roofing and flashing, but
zinc has a much wider application as a coating for steel roofing sheets.
g. Aluminum -Aluminum roofing is light,.'loncorrosive, rigid and durable. It has a very
high coefficient of thermal expansion. It is available in both sheets and coils in a
number of thicknesses. It comes in gauges 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22. 24 and 26 thick-
nesses are 0.081, 0.064; 0.051, 0.040, 0.032, 0.025, 0.020 and p.016.
Sheet range in width from 24 to 48 in. and lengths 4 to 12ft.
Aluminum roofing is produced in natural finish, in polished and oxide finishes, with a
painted finish on one or both sides and in eight different patterns.
Mechanical jointing is the most practical method of joining aluminum sheets. All types
of seams are used, but slip seam joints are used where connections are subject to
thermal expansion and contraction.
ORIGINAL SIZE
WH!:N EXPANSION
OCCURS
h. Galbestos- This is a composite roofing made up of a steel-sheet core covered on
both sides with a layer of zinc. While the zinc is still hot a layer of asbestos felt is press-
ed to it and the felt is impregnated with asphalt. Finally a c o l o r ~ d waterproof outer
coating is applied.
Sheets are·manufactured in 18, 20, 22 and 24 gauge and are made up into corrugated
panels 30 or 33 in. wide, in lengths up to 12ft. Joints are made by side and end lap-
ping.
4. ASBESTOS-CEMENT SHEET ROOFING
Asbestos fibers and portland cement are combined under pressure to form corrugated
roofing sheets. These sheets are used in the same manner as corrugated metal, asbestos-
cement sheets may be left unpainted, painted or factory finished with plastic coatings of
various colors.
Some designs from ETERNIT corporation
1. Ardex Lightweight Corrugated Sheet
Especially designed for buildings erected in places that are almost inaccessible and in-
volves transport by manual or else very expensibe means.
a. Standard ardex
7 mrrug21ftdn ·
b. Super ardex
e .w. :>B.35"(o.g7s}
.s.w. 41. 3d ( 1.tJ5
LBngths -a, 10 ;and 12 f.eet
2. 4-V Corrugated Asbestos Sheets
3. Kalantas
Lengths from 12 to 24 feet eliminates trusses, rafters, purlins for low cost housed.
4. Placa Ondula
( 1.007m} - ... .. --J
E.W. -og75 (:58
0-813 m ( 32")
299
300
brand (Philsteel)
COLOR BOND
Sempura tile, a new roofing concept made of longspan prepainted steel tile but retaining
the features of ceramic tiles, does not crack nor shatter before and during-installation.
The tile has epoxy primer and baked paint. It does not require yearly repainting. It is also
leak proof because it has less seams and overlaps.
5. Built-Up Roofing
A term applied to a type of roofing made by building up successive layers of felt paper
and asphalt over a solid roof deck of some description, with or without insulation.
Five types:
a. Roofing type consisting of asphalted felt paper, asphalt and gravel, or slag and is in-
tended to roof slopes from 1/2 to 3 in. per foot.
With a wood deck, the first step is the application of a single layer of 5-lb dry sheath-
ing paper .. Next two layers of 15-lb asphalt-saturated felt paper is applied dry and
nailed with broad-headed roofing nails. These are followed by three layers of 15-lb
asphalt-saturated felt paper, each layer being sealed in place with approximately 20
lb. of hot asphalt per 100 sq .. ft. Next a layer of hot asphalt is spread over the surface
at the rate of about 65 lb. per 100 sq . ft.
If the slope is 1 /8" to 1 in., use l40°F asphaltt
If the slope is 1 to 2 in., use 170°F asphalt
If the slope is over 2 in., use 210°F asphalt
Finally a layer of crushed slag or pea gravel is spread over the asphalt at the rate of
300 lb. per 100 sq. ft. for slag or 400 lb. per 100 sq. ft. for gravel. This type of roof
lasts 20 years.
For non wood ~ k s or over an insulated sl.lrface, a similar grade of roofing is applied
by sealing all layers of asphalt-saturated felt paper in hot asphalt.

nal
FOUR- PLY BUILT- UP ASPHALT ROOF
0\lt:R WOOD DECk
b. Roofing type no. 2 consists of tarred felt paper, pitch and gravel. This is intended for
roofs with slope of 0 to 1 in. per foot. Procedure is the same asphalt type.
c. Roofing type no. 3 consists of asbestos felt, asphalt felt, and a smooth flood
coat of asphalt, intended for roofs with a slope of from 1/2 to 8 in. per ft.
Over a wood deck, the dry sheathing paper consists of 9-lb. waxed kraft. A single
layer of 25-lb. asphalt saturated felt paper is laid over this held in place with roofing
nails. Next two layers of 15 lb. asphalt felt are applied, each layer being seated in
place with 20 lb. per 100 sq. ft. mopping of hot asphalt. Next to layers of 15 lb.
asphalt-saturated asbestos paper are applied in the same way. Finally a coat con-
sisting of 251b. of asphalt per 100 sq. ft. is applied, using proper grade of asphalt for
the roof slope.
d. Roofing type no 4 requires slate-surfaced roofing paper as well as
turated felts and may be used on roofs with slopes from 2 to 18 in. 12. Over a wood
deck, a single layer of 5-lb. dry sheathing paper is first applied. Next comes a single
layer of 15-lb. asphalt felt, held with roofing nails. Over this are laid two
layers of 15-lb. asphalt felt and two layers of 120-lb. Slate-surfaced felt-each of these
is sealed in place with 20 lb. per 100 sq. ft. of 210°F. asphalt. This type of roofing is
recommended as a 1 0-year roof.
301
.302
e. Roofing type no. 5 involves what is known as the cold process. The felts are cold
process felts, saturated with cold asphalt emulsion, and the asphalt top coating is
applied cold. Layers of felt are sealed together with asphalt adhesive. Roofing ot this
type is for slopes from 1/8 to 8 in-per foot. Over a wood deck, three layers of
cold. process 53-lb. felt. paper are applied, fastened down wiith roofing nails and as-
phalt adhesive at the rate of about 2 1/2 gal. per 100 sq. ft. This surface is covered
with a layer of asphalt-fibrated emulsion applied cold at the rate of 4-gal. per 100. sq.
ft. This type of roofing is also considered to have useful life of 20 years .
. 6. Rolled Roofing
This consists of very heavy asphalt-saturated felt paper, with or without finely crushed
slate embedded in one surface, put up is rolls.
Four basic type:
a. Smooth roll-consists of asphalt-saturated felt ranging in weight from 45 to 65 lb.
per 100 sq. ft. covered with a smooth coating of asphalt. ·
b. Mineral-surface roll ranges from 90 to ·120 lb. per 100 sq. ft. and has a layer of
crushed slate embedded in the asphalt surface coating, made in 36 in. wide.
c. Psttsrn-fldge roll-made in 32 and 36 in. and consists of a 105-lb. felt that is mine-
. rat-surfaced except for a 4 in. band down the center. The roll is semicut on a pattern
along this strip so that a roll produces 16 or 18 in. wide patterned roofing strips.
These are normally lapped 2 in. when being appl ied to a rooi.
d. The 19"in. selvage roll is made of fr()m felt weighing 140 to 150 lb. per 100 sq. ft. in a
strip 36 in. wide. A 17 in. wide band of this strip is mineralized, and the other 19 in. is
plain. When applied to a roof, each strip is lapped 19 in. over the one below to pre-
sent a completely surface and to provide double coverage. (a popular
brand is John_s Manville)
7. Sprayed-on Asphalt Roofing
This is a new technique for the application of asphalt roofing, using special equipment
for applying the material. A speCial gun with three nozZles and a fiber cutting chamber is
used. Glass fibers are fed into the chamber where they are cut to predetermined lengths
and blown out throught a center nozzle. Two side nozzles each deliver a spray of asphalt
emulsion which coats the glass fibers and carries them to the deck to form a reinforced
film of asphalt. The thickness of the film can be increased by repeated sprayings.
This type of roofing is applied over regular base· roofing felts of irregular shapes. This
method gives a monolithics film application over the entire surface, regardless of the
shape or contours .
8. Glass Roofing
Commonly used glass used for roofing are
a. Corrugated glass-made in sheets \rtith corrugations, which correspond with the
metal or asbestos board roofing. The glass is usually .3/8 in. thick, and sheet are
made up to a maximum size of 50 x 144 in. Glass sheets may be interchanged with
the regular roofing sheets to allow the entry of light through the roof. Glass sheets
are fastened in place and made weather proof by elastic caulking compound at side
and end laps. - • ·
.b. Wired glails-This is glass which has embedded in it wire mesh with not larger than
7/8 in. openings. The glass in 1/4 in. thick and may have a polished or patterned sur-
face. Sheets are made up to a maJSimum size of 60 x 132 in. This type of glass is held
in metal frames and is commonly used in skylights, etc.
9. Plastic Roofing
Used in three forms for roofing.
a. Corrugsted plastic sheet-made from glass-fiber-reinforced plastics in color or
translucent. Sheets are 34 in. wide and 8, 10, 12ft. long with 2 1/2 or 1 1/4 in. corruga-
tions. Such sheets may be interchanged with corrugated sheet metal, asbestos or
galbestos sheets to allow entry of light.
b. ShHts of cltNtr vinyl plastic used in green houses,conservatories, and factory
buildings. Used for the same purpose as glass sheets. Vinyl sheets can be much
larger because of their great impact strength.
c. Liquid plastic-Also sprayed onto roof decks and is known as the envelope rqofing.
This liquid envelope consists of a pigmented, opaque vinyl plastic which is applied by
means of spray gun tcdorm a continuous film 3Cfto 40 mils. thick. It can be appliec"
over -armos. "any-type of roof decK or existing roofing material except root WOOd
shingles. This is 'lery useful for roofs with irregular shapes or very steep slopes.
The plastic dries very quickly to form a film which, for a 40 mil thickness, has a tensile
strength of about 500 psi and elongation of 200 percent. The vinyl coat is highly re-
sistant to industrial atmosphere containing dirt, grime and mild acid fumes. It is also
highly resistant to deterioration due to extended exposure to sunlight.
NEW ROOFING DESIGNS: (1986)
10. Milano Design-by Philsteel-this is a long span steel tiles, solid steel sculptured to
match the beauty of ceramic roofing. It is leakproof because it has less seams and over-
laps, Polyester paint baked over epoxy primes which is virtually maintenance f r r M ~ It
consists of steps-better rigidity than ordinary Corrugated Sheets.
The total coated thickness is 0.43 mm (0.017 in)
The weight per unit area is 4.53 kg/m2
per unit length i ~ 3.44 kg/ml
coverage is 220 sq. cm/Mt.
available up to 6 meters factory cut-to-ordered lengths. It is packed by strapped bundles
or crated depending on the requirement. The recommended roof slope is 1 in 6 10°
30;j
'.
304
11. Banawe Design -by metal forming corporation. This is a horizontally laid colored·long
span metal tile.:which has conceafed fastening, cut to size, and most of all, an absence
of purlins which saves on this cost. It has sharp distinct horizontal rib lines and hook
action at overlaps. It prevents capillarity and checks the penetration of rain water with
wind velocity of 60 meters per second or 134.2·1 miles per hour.·
It Completely eJiminates the need for purtins because of its horizo11tal rib design which by
itself acts as the purtin. The intermediate rafters that are to be added are much less in
board feet measurement than the purlins required for the vertical roofing. It is also suit-
able for sidings, and can easily be replaced or taken out without damaging panel. Allows
construction, installation of a low pitch roof at 3' in 12". .
DETAIL a= RIDGE ROLL
o . ' l ~ ~
DETAJL OF BANAWE HORIZCNTAL PANEL
305
306
ha-twnt.al partAI
p!at1 c.hp
GUTTER DETAIL
0 ETAIL CF STARTER cliP
LDNG/1UDlNAL
-
/J.11 m
--
U)f
)
0
0

)
TQp VIEW OF Cl-EAT
Chapter
.

BILL OF MATERIALS
308
I. MOBILIZATION
___ rolls Sawali Fencing @
_ _ !roll of __ x
__ size@ P __ /roll ... '-----
--- pes. 2"' x 4'" 10' -0' up total
bd.ft. @ '-- I bd.ft. . . . '---.---
---pes. 2" x3'" X 10'·0' up total
bd.ft. @ , bd.ft. ...... , ___ _
___ pes. 1/4"' x4' x 8' plywood@
,_fpc . ... .... :..... ..... ... , ___ _
___ pes. corrugated G.l. sheet@
, __ /kilo..................... '-----
--- kilos 2'" c. w nail@
P __ lkilo............. ..... ... '-----
--- pes. drums for water@
P __ /drum .. ...... ... .. ..... '-----
- -- pes. concrete pail@
, __ / pc. .. ...... .. .. .. ... .... , ___ _
_ __ pes. shovels@
, __ /pc. .... .. .. .... ... .. ... . '--- --
---pes. 1" x 6'" x 12'-0 .. up total
bd.ft. @P __ / bd.ft. ..... P ___ _
Water Connections
& Permit . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . '--- --
Electrical Connections
& Permit .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . ... '-----
Septic Tank for Construction
Use.. ......................... '-----
, ____ _
II. EARTHWORK ........ ..... . ·...... ... ............................................ P __ ___.__
- ---'- cu.m. of earth to be removed
___ hrs: to be used when
bulldozing required @ ·
, __ /hr ........... :.......... '--- --
- --cu.m. of earth fill @
,_/cu.m ......... . . . . . . . . . . . '----...::;.
___ pes. of 100 ft . length pile @
, __ ! pile...... .... ........ ... '-----
--- cu.m. stones for riprapping@
P __ /cu.m. .......... .... .... '--- --
ESTIMATING GUIDE
Total cu.m. of Earth Multiply lt 25% plus loose volume cu •. = Compact Volume.
Dead load plus live load of building divided by approximately 160,000 lbs. carried by one 100
ft. pite- total numbers of piles. (approx 150 psf).
Riprapping -get total area ·in aq.m.
1 cu.m. Stone = .1 to 1.6 sq.m. of riprapping depends on thickness
Ul. Cc;>NCRETE WORKS
a) FOOTINGS _ _ cu.m. total
___ bags cement
, __ /bag ..................... , _ __ _
___ cu.m. stone fill @
P /cu.m. .... . ... .......... '-----
--- cu.m. gravel@
P / cu.m .............. -..... ' -----
- -- kilos of Steel bar@
, __ /kilo ... . ....... .......... ' - ----
--- rolls of G.l. Wire #16 @
P _ _ / roll ............. :.:..... ' -----
(or pes. 16 mm +steel bar x 6.00 m
@ , _ _ / pc. ............................ . , _ __ _
b ~ SLABS ON FILL
~ ·
___ bags cement @ , _ _ /bag ' - ----
- - - cu.m. stone fill @
P __ / cu.m. : ................. ' -----
--- cu.m. gravel@
P __ l cu.m. .................. ' -----
--- cu.m. 'riversand @
P __ icu.m. . . ..... .. .. ... .. .. '-----
- -- kilos of steef bar@
P kilo .. .. .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. P· _ ___ _
_ __ rolls of G. l. wire #16@
' / roll ..................... , ___ _
(or No. of pes size of Stee4
Bar x 6.00 m. @ p __ / pc. ...... .. ..... '----
c) COLUMNS A ~ O STAIRS
___ bags cement@
, _ _ / bag ..... .. ...... ........ , ___ _
___ . m . gravel @ ·
P / cu.m. .. .. .. .. .. .... .... '-----
- --cu.m. riversand@
P ~ /cu.m. .. ............. P·-----
--- kilos of Steel bar@
, __ /kilo ........ ............. P· ____ _
(or __ pes. size + mm x 6.00 m
steetbar@ , __ / pc. ... . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. , _ __ _
___ rolls G.l. Wire-116
@P __ /roll ....... ..... .... P·----
. d) BEAMS AND GIRDERS
___ bags cement@
, bag ............. . .. _,... ,. ___ _
___ cu.m. gravel @
,_. __ / cu.m. ............. ..... '-----
--- cu.m. riversan<iO
P /cu.m. ..... ............. P·-----
- -- kilos of steelbar 0
P /kilo . .. .. .. ... . .. ........ p. ___ _
,. ____ _
310
(or __ pes. size __ e mm x
600 m. St. bar @ P __ l pc. . . . . . . .... '-----
- --rolis G.l .. Wire #16@
p _ _ /roll ;........... .... ..... P _ ___ _
e) SUSPENDED R.C. SLABS
___ bags cement@
, _ _ / bag ·· ··· ················ ' ~ - - -
___ .. CI,.I.m. gravel@
P __ /cu.m. ........ ........ .. '-----
--- cu.m; riversand@
P __ /cu.m. ...... .. .. ........ P ____ _
___ kilos steel bar@
P __ /kilo ..................... P
(or __ pes, size e mm X ~ IT!
steel bar
@P __ / pc. ........... ...... .............. P _ __ _
___ rolls G. I. wire #16@
P _ __ /roll ........ ............. '-----
ESTIMATING GUIDE
Computations:
cu.m. = length x width x thickness
Class " A" mix generally used for computation
1:2:4
1bag cement: 2 bags sand : 4 bags gravel
for speed of computation with contingency. multiply
cu.m. x 10 = No. of bags cement
cu.m. x 0.5 = Total cu.m. Sand
cu.m. x 1.0 = Total cu.m. gravel
G./. Wire #16
Total Kilos of Steel Bar
No. of Rolls of
=
2,900 G.l. Wire
1 roll G.l. Wire = Kilos
Length =
STEEL BARS WEIGHT
SIZES
# 2 or 2/8"
II 3 or 3/8"
# 4 or 4/8"
# 5 or ·5/8 ..
# 6 or 6/ 8"
# 7 or
7/ 8 ..
I 8 or 8/ 8"
# 9 or 9/8"
#10.or 10/8 ..
#11 or 11/8 ..
#12 or 12/8 ..
=
=
=
=
=
1/ 4'"+ or 6mm
3/ B"+ or 10 mm.
1/2"+ or 12 mm
5/8 .. + or 16 mm
3/4"+ .or 20 mm
7/ 8"+ or 22 mm
, ...
or 25mm
1 1i'8"+ or 28 mm
1 1/4"+ or 32 mm
1 3/4"+
1 1/2"+ or36mm
kg/l. m.
0.248
0.616
1.007
1.'579
2.466
3.041
3.854
6.028
6.313
8.938
. ~
IV. FORMWORKS.... ... . .... .... . .. ... . .. . .. .. .... . .. ..... .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. ..... .. '----
a) R.C. Slab, beams, columns, stairs
___ pes. 1/2" X 4' X 8' plywood@
, __ /pc. . .. . ... .... .. .. ..... . , ___ _
(or __ pes. 1" x 6" T and G
Form) _ _ total bd.ft.
@ , __ / bd.ft . ................................. - ~ - -
--- pes. 2" x 4" x·12'-0" up
Apitong __ total bd.ft.@
, __ lbd.ft. .......... ........ ' - - - ~
--- pes. 2" X 3" X 12'..()'" Up
__ total and bd.ft.@
, __ / bd.ft. ............... ... , ___ _
___ kegs. 2" c.w. Nail @
, __ /keg .... . ........ ... . .... , ___ _
___ kegs. 4"' c.w. nal@
, __ /keg ...... ............... , ___ _
___ gallons fonii oil @
, __ /gal. .. ............... .... '----
ESTIMAT1NG GUIDE
Plywood = 4' X 8' .,;. 32 sq. ft. a ~
total area in SF = No. of pes. of 4' x 8'
32 1/2'" p4ywood
Total area of
Plywood x 60% == Total BF of 2" x 3"
(.60) = Apitong Fonn Lumber
Total area of
Plywood x 150% ::: Total BF of 2" x 4"'
(1 .501 = Apitong form Lumber
N•lls:
Total Area of Plywood
= No. of Kegs of 2" c.w. nail
2,500
(here 1 keg. = 80 plywood)
Total BF of Form Lumber
· = No. of Kegs. of 4'" c.w. nail
2,000
Form Oil:
Total Area of Plywood
= gallons· of oil
2,500
V. MASONRYWORK
.... '- ---
a) HOLLOW BLOCKS
--- pes. 4" x a· 16" CHB@
, __ /pc. ...... ............ ... ' -----
--- pes. 6" X a• 16" CHB@
__ ._ l pc. .... ... ......... ..... ' - ---
311
\
312
___ pes. 10 mm t> steel bar
x 6.00 m @ P __ / pc .... ... .
_ _ ___:· kilos G.l. wire #16@
, __ /kilos ......... .... .... .
_ __ bags cement for mortar@
, __ / bag .... .... ............ .
_ __ cu.m. sand@
P cu.m ................. ..
b) WALL FOOTING
___ bags cement@
P __ / bag .... .... ... ..... . .. ..
_ __ cu .m. gravel @
P __ /cu.m .. ............... ..
___ cu.m. sand@
P _ _ /cu.m ....... ........... .
_ _ _ pes. 12 mm + x 6.00 steel bar
@P __ /pc ......... ... .... .. .
_ _ _ pes. 10 mm + x 6.00 m. steel
bat@ P __ / pc. . ......... ..
_ __ kilos #16 G. I. Wire #16@
P __ / kilo .................. .. .
c) PLAIN CEMENT FLOOR TOPPING
Total Area _ _ sq. m.
x thickness __ cu.m.
___ bags cement@
P __ / bag .. ........... . .. .. .. .
___ cu.m. riversand@
P __ /cu.m .................. .
d) Plaster __ sq.m. total
__ cu.m. total
__ L.M. Total
___ bags cement@
, _ _ / bag .. .. .......... ..... . .
_ __ cu.m. sand@
P __ / bag .......... ....... . .. .
_ __ bags lime@
P __ / bag ........... ... .... .. .
el Decorative Blocks _ _ sq.m.
--- pes . • 20 )( .30@
.,
,
,
,
...
,
,
p
,
,
,
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
,. ____ _
, __ / pc. ....... ........ ...... '--- --
f) Pea Gravel Washout Finish
Total __ sq.m.
_ _ _ cans #5, #10 or #15
black pebbles @
P __ / can ....... , .. . . ..... .. .. P ____ _
___ bags cement@
, __ / bag .......... . ..... . . .. . , _ ___ _
___ cu.m. riversand@
P __ /cu.m. ...... .... .. ...... '-----
--- lineal meter 1 /8" x 2" brass
strip@ P _ _ /l.m. . . .. .. . . . . . P ___ __.__
..
..
g) Synthetic Adobe Finish
Total Area- . __ sq.m.
_ _ _ cans crushed adobe stones@
!' __ l ean .. ........ ..... .. .. . .
___ cu.m. riversand@
P _ _ /cu.m ... .... .......... . .
h) Bricks Walling
Total Area __ sq.m.
--- pes. 2'" X 4• X 8"" @
P __ /pc. · ·· ·· · · ····· ····· ····
- - - pes. 2H )( 2" X 8" @
, __ / pc . . ... ........... ... .. .
_ _ _ ~ - 1'"x2·x a· @
, __ lpc . ... . .. .. ....... .. ... .
--- pes. 2" X 4"' X 8"' chipped
or decorative @
, __ lpc . .......... .......... .
i) Adobe Stone Walling
Total Area __ sq.m.
_ __ cu.m. dressed stone@
P __ / cu.m . ....... .... ... .. ..
___ cu.m. rough stone @
1' _ _ /cu.m . ..... .... . .. ..... .
_ __ bags cement@
, __ /bag ........ .. .. ... .... ..
_ __ cu.m. sand@
P __ /bag ...... ....... ... .... .
j} Baguio Stones or other Walling Stones
Total Area __ sq. m.
,..._ __ cu.m. dressed t o n e ~
P _ _ / cu.m . ....... .. .. . : .... .
___ cu.m. rough stone@
P __ /cu.m ... ............... .
___ bags cement@
P __ /bag ...... .... .. .... ... . .
___ cu.m. riversand@
P __ /cu.m ... .... ... .. .. ... ..
ESTIMATING GUIDE
On Hollow Blocks ·
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
...
, ____ _
,. ____ _
,. ___ ....,....._
Compute total sq.m. of Walling then divide by 13 pes. sq. m. you get total No. of
Hollow Blocks including breakages.
To get the bags of cement and cu.m.
Sand for MORTAR.
For or a• x 8'" X16" ·CHB 3 cells
.003 cu.m. x 16 bags = No. bags cement
.003 cu.m. x 0.8 cu.m. sand = _ _ . _ cu.m. sand
.003 cu.m. /hollow b&ock
313
314
For a 4'" x 8" X 1.6 .. CHB
.001 cu.m./hollow block
.001 cu.m. x 16 bags = _ _ bags cement
.001 cu.m. x 0.8 cu.m. sand = cu.m. sand
.
To get number of STEEL BAR reinforcement, measure the total runs in meter for horizontal
and vertical bars + by 6.00 m. to get the number of pieces then multiply x factor of kg/m to
get the weight In kilos.
For G. I. Wire, multiply the hori:zontal bars to the number of vertical bars multiplied by 0.30
meters to get total length of G.l . Wire required, then convert into kilos.
For PLASTERING: maximum (.015 m thick) one face
For a 6 .. x 8" x 16.. CHB .0012 cu.m. / block
For 6"' x 8 .. 16.. CHB .0012 cu.m./block
(all single Face)
Multiply .0012 x No. of Hollow Blocks = Total cu.m.
Multiply cu.m. x 16 bags for cement
Multiply cu.m. x 0.8 cu.m. for sand
For pea gravel (pebble washout)
Measure total L M of brass strip
divide by 3:00 to get No. pes . @ 3.00 m length
Get total area in sq.m. for pebble washout. Use one (l) can of pebble stones to one sq.m.
Area to be covered. Mix 1 bag cement to 4 bags pebble mixture.
For Synthetic Adobe
Mix 1 bag cement to one bag sand and two cans synthetic adobe.
For bricks, and t iles, get total area in sq. meters then divide by the area in sq.m. of one brick
or the total area in sq. feet divide by the area in sq. ft. of one brick to get the number of
pieces.
VI. WOODWORK
a) posts Yacal or Guijo
_ __ pes. of 6 .. x 6"' x 10' ..()"
_ _ bd.ft.@
, _ _ / bd.ft. ..... ...... .. .... . , _ _ _ _
_,__ __ pes. of 4" x 4" x 10'-0"
_ _ bd.ft.@
, _ _ / bd.ft. ................. . , _ _ _ _
b) Girder Apitong
- -- pes, 3'" X 8" X 12' -0
6
@
. , _ _ / bd.ft. ..... .... ...... ... , _ _ _ _
- --pes. 3,. X 10"' X 12'-0" bcf .ft.@
, bd.ft .. ........ ....... :. , _ _ _ _
c) Floor Joists Apitong
- -- pes. 2" X 6" X 10'..(),. bd.ft. @
, _ _ / bd.ft. ....... . .. .. ... ... . , _ _ _ _
- -- pes. 2" JC: 8" x 10'-0" bct.ft.@
, _ _ / bd.ft. .. ........ ........ , _ _ _ _
d) Rooring-kiln dried tanguile
- --pes. 1" X 4" X 12'-0" bd.ft.@
, _ _ / bd.ft. . . .. ..... ... . .... . , _ _ _ _
___ pes. 1" x 6" 12'..0" bd.ft. ~
,_l bd.ft. .. ... .......... ... , _ _ _ _
, ____ _
e) Base Board
--- pes. 1" X 6" X 12'..(),. bd.ft.@
, __ / bd.ft..... .......... .... , ___ _
f) Studding Apitong
- - - pes. 2" X 4" X 10'-0" bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft.... ..... .... . ..... , ___ _
g) Stairs: Tanguile Red
Stringers:
___ pes. 3" x 14" x 16' -0'" bd.ft. @
, /bd.ft. .. .. ... .... .. . .... , ___ _
Treads:
___ pes. 2'" x 12" 12'-0'" bd.ft.@
, _ _ / bd.ft ....... .. ... ... .... , ___ _
Risers:
--- pes. 11/2" X 8" X 12'-0"
bd.ft.@ , __ /bd.ft. .. .. .. , ___ _
Balusters:
--- pes. 2" X 2" X 2'-Q" bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft. .... .. .. .. . .... ... , ___ _
Handrails:
--- pes. 3• X 5'" X 12'-0" bd.ft.@
, __ / bd.ft ......... ....... ". , ___ _
Newel Posts:
---pes. 3'" X 3" X 3'-6"' bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft ......... ... :...... , ___ _
h) Balcony Yaeal or Guijo
(Joists)
____ pes. 3" x 6" x 8'-0" bd.ft.@
, bd.ft. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. , ____ _
(Flooring)
--- pes. 1 1 / 2" X 3" X 12'·0'"
bd.ft. @ , __ / bd.ft. .. .. .. , ___ _
(Baluster)
___ pes. 2'" x 2" x 12'-0" bd.ft.@
, _ _ /bd.ft. ........ . .... ..... , ____ _
(Railing)
___ pes. 3" x 6"' x 12'-0" bd.ft.@
, __ / bd.ft . .............. ... : , ___ _
i) Ceiling Joists Apitong Ro.
---pes. 2'" X 2" X 12'-0"' bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft. ..... ........ ..... , ___ _
- -- pes. 2"' X 2" X 12'-0" bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft...... ... ...... .... , ___ _
- -- pes. 2" X 3" X 1 2 ' ~ 0 " bd.ft.@
, _ _ /bd.ft. ........ .......... , ___ _
j) Girt Apitong Ro.
--- pes. 3'" X 8" X 14'..()'" bd.ft.@
, _ _ / bd. ft ..... " ......... ". ,_....;._ _ _
- - -pes. 3"' .x 6" X 14' -0• bd.ft.@
• __ / bd.ft. ............ .... .. , ___ _
315 ..
k) Rafter Exposed Pinewood s .. s
. pes. 2" X 8" X 16'-0" bd.ft.
' /bd.ft. ... .. .... ... . . . .... , ___ _
I) Roof Truss Apitong ro.
Bottom chord
---pes. 3"' X 6 .. 12'..()" bd.ft. @ t
,_,bd.ft.·.. .. ...... .. ... . .. , ___ _
Diagonal and vertical braces .
--- pes. 2'"' X 4'" X 8' -0" bd.ft. @
,_,bd.ft ....... .. ... ..... ,. '----
Top Chord
--- pes. 3 .. X 6" X 12' ..()'" bd.·ft. @
,_,bd.ft . .. .............. ;.
'----
m) Purtins Apitong ro.
--- pes, 2"' X 3"' X 14'-Q" bd.ft.@
, __ /bd.ft . ..... "' ..... ·.. . .. , ___ _
pes. 2'" X 3" Jt 11 I -0" bd.ft. @
--- , __ /bd.ft... ......... ....... ----
n) Door Jambs S4S Yacal on Concrete
Wall (Tanguile Apitong on Wood)
--- pes. 2" X 6'" X 8'-0"' bd.ft.@
, / bd.ft. ....... ....... .. . . , ___ _
--- pes. 2"' X 6" X 10'-0'" bd.ft.@
, __ lbd.ft . .......... . .. .. ;. . ----
. o) WindoW Jambs S4S Yacal on Concrete
(Tanguile, Apitong on Wood)
p) Cabinets and Shelves
--:--- pes. 11/ 2" X 2" X 10'-{)"
bd. ft.@ , __ l bd.ft. ..... , ___ _
--- pes, 1"' X 12" X 12'-0"' bd.ft,
... .. t. . . ...... tt ___ _
q) Wall Paneling ($2S) Pinewood
--- pes. 1" :x $" X 10' -0'" bd.ft. @
, /bd.ft. .. . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. '----
--- pes. t" x a· x 1o·..o" bd.tt.@
, __ /bd.ft.. ................. , ___ _
--- pes. 1"' X 10 .. X 10' -0" bd.ft.
@, bd.ft. .... .. .. ... .. .. '----
r) Fascia Board Tanguile S2S
---pes. 11/2'* 12" X 14'-0"
bd.ft.@P __ /bd.ft........ P ___ _
s) Sidings-Tanguile S2S
___ pes. 1" x·6" x 12'-Q" v-cut
bel. ft . @ P __ /bd.ft. ..... '----
---pes. 1"' x 6" x 12'-0" e-cut
bd.ft. @ , __ lbd.ft. .. .. .. '----
ESTIMATING GUIDE
For str:ucturals like post, Girders, joists, and I"A88sure the total length in plan but do
not stop on <:enter to center. Add aUowance for overtaps.
316
For flooring and sidings divide the total width in feet by the proposed thickness one
inch. Suppostng-you will use a 4 inch flooring use 3 1/ 2 factor for safety on t he T & G joint.
For Fascia board. Measure the total length divide by 24 feet.
For jambs, measure the leng.:ns and widths with allowances.
For studdings, measure and count all verticals and horizontals {spacing @ 0.60)
For stringers, handrails and rafters. Measure the total lineal feet as it inctines and not as per
top new plan.
VII. ARCHITECTURAL FINISHES
1. TILEWORt<S (, ___ _
a) Vinyl Tiles either 118", 3/ 32"', '1/ 16"
- - - pes. 1/ 8" X 9" X· 9" Vinyl Tile_
@, __ / pc. ...... ............ ' -----
--- 1/ 8" X 12'" X 12' Vinyl
Tile@ P _ _ l pe . . ....... , .. P _ __ _
_ __ liter vinyl glue or rugby@ ·
P __ /liter .. . .. .... .... ..... ' - ----
b) Narra Parquet or Woodtile
Total-sq.ft. area
___ sq.ft. Woodtile @
, __ /sq.ft . ...... . -..... ... .. , _ __ _
___ gallons woodtlle glue@
, __ /sq.ft. .. . ....... .. .. .... , _ ___ _
___ sq. ft. sandpaper@
, __ / sq.ft . .. ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. , ___ _
___ gallons wax @
P __ /gal. .. .. 00... ..... .... ' - ----''--
c) Glazed Tiles 1/4" thick
_ _ _ pes. 4 l / 4" x 41 / 4" white
tiles@ P _ _ / pc .......... 00 ' - ----
- - - pes. 41/.4" X 4 1/4"' colored
tiles@ P _ __ l pc. .. .. . .. . .. . ' - ----
--- pes. mouldings ®
P __ /pc . .... ... 00 ......... 00. '-- ---
d) Unglazed Tiles .
_ _ _ pes. 4 1/ 4'" x 4 1/ 4"' white·
Tiles@ P _ _ / pe.. . . ... ..... P _ __ _
_ _ _ pes. 4 1/ 4" x 4 1/ 4" colored
Tiles@P _ _ P _ __ _
e) Semi·vitrified Tites
___ pes. 4" x 8"' ·Colored Tiles@
p_ . __ / pc ... oo .. , . ... . . ...... . . ' - ----
--- pes. x 6" colored Tiles@
, __ / pc. 000 • • ·----··""""" , _ _ _
_ __ pes. 12" x 12" colored Tlles@
, __ /pc. .. ..... .. ..... ..... .. , _ __ _
, ____ _
317
318
fl Marble Tiles
--- pes. 1• X 4• X 8'" colored
marble@ P _ _ / pc. . . . .. . . . '--- --
--- pes. 1" x 12" x 24" colored
marble@ P __ /pc.... .. .... P ___ _ _
--- pes. 1,. X 24* X 24" @
P _ _ ._ / pc. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . '--- --
--- pes. 1• X 36• X 36"@
p _ _ / pc. ......... .. ..... .. . . . '--- --
g) Crazy Cut Marble __ sq.m. total
___ cu.m. crazy cut@
P _ _ /cu.m.. ..... .......... .. P _ ___ _
___ Cans granulithic stones @
, __ / cans .. .. .............. ' - - - --
--- b8gs white cement @
P _ _ /bag .. ................ P--,---
h) Vigan Bricktiles
. pes. 1" )( 12" X 12"@
, _ _ /pc. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . . '-"------
--- pes. 1 1/.2" X 16" X 16•
, __ / pc . .. ··· ··· ·····. ...... .. , _ __ _
il Cement Tiles
___ pes. 1"' x 8" x 8" plain color @
P _ _ /pc........ .. .... ........ '-----
--- pes. 1 N X a· X 8" decorative@
, __ tpc. : ............. . j....... , _ _ _ _ _
ESTIMATING GUIDE
Get tt-e total area of in sq.m. divide by the size of material in metric size:
If in sq.ft. total area, divlde·by feet area of one material.
2. FENESTRATION (P ___ _
a) Windows
___ sq.m. steel window
casement@ P _ _ /sq.m. '-----
--- sq.m. steel window awnings@
, __ /sq.m... ... ... ... .. . . . .. ' -----
--- sq.m. window grilles@
P __ /sq.m...... ..... . .. .. .. . ' -----
--- sq.m. alumi num window@
p __ / sq.m............... ... . ' -----
--- sq.m. jalousie window@ ·
P __ /sq.m. .. .... ........ .... p ____ _
(sq.ft. is sometimes used)
b) Glass
___ sq.m. 1 + 8"' glass@
p __ / sq.m. .................. '--- --
--- sq.m. 3/16"' gJass@
p_·. _/sq.m.. ......... ... . .. .. '--- --
--- sq.m. 7/32"' glass@
. p __ /sq.m ... .. :............. ' - - - --
--- kilo glass putty@
, _ _ / kilo ..... :........ ....... ' -----
c) Doors
·--- pes .. 70 x 2.10 Flush door
for toilet 1 side W .P. @
, __ /pc. ..... ................ '-- - --
--- pes .. 00 x 2.10 Flush door for
bedroom@ P _ _ / pc. .... . ' -----
--- pes .. 90 X 2.10 Flush door
kitchen, balcony, guest @
, __ / pc. ..................... '-----
--- pes .. 90 X 2.10 panel door .
narra@ , __ /pc. .. . . . . .. .. '-----
--- sq.m. aluminum Sliding
Glass door@ tt __ /sq.m. ' -----
--- sq.m. W.t. Steel Gate@
p _ _ /sq.m................... '-----
d) Screen Door and Windows
___ sq.m. screen with aluminum
frame@ , __ /sq.m. . .. .. . '-----
3. Shelves, Closets and Cabinets (, _ ___ _
--- pes. 1/2" X 4'. X 8' Plywood @
, _ _ /pc. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . ..... ' -----
--- pes. 3/4'" x 4'" X 8' Plywood@
tt _ _ lpc. .... .. . .......... .... '-----
--- sq.ft. persiana or louver
door@ P _ _ / sq.ft..... ... . "-----
--- sq. ft. panel cabinet doors@
, __ /sq.ft . .... :......... .... , ____ _
4. Partitions
___ pes. 1/4n x 4 ~ x 8' ordinary
plywood@ P __ / pc. .. . . . '-----
- - - pes. 1/4" x 4' x 8' narra or
dao decorative plywood@
P /pc. . . .. . .. ..... . . ... .... ' -----
--- pes. 1/4'" x 4' x 8' Lawanit@
, _ _ lpc. . . .. . . ... . ..... .. ... . , _ __ _
___ pes. 1/2" x 4' x 8' particle
bOard @ fl __ / pG. . .. . . . . . . ' ----
5. Decorative Wall
___ sq.m. wall paper vinyl@
, __ /sq.m.. ....... .... .. . . . . ' - ----
--- packs walt paper glue@
P . pack . . .. .. . . . . ... . .. .. "-----
6. Wood Grilles
___ sq.m. wood grille@
, __ /sq.m. ..... ....... ...... '-----
319
·""
320
7. Ceilings Interior
--- pes. 1/4'" X 4' X 8' plywood @
, fpc. .. ............ .. .... . ,. ___ _
___ pes. 1' • x 12" ceiling
Tile@P __ /Pc,. ........... , ____ _
8. Ceiling Eaves Exterior
___ pes. 1/4" x 4' x 8'-0" Marine
or waterproof Plywood @
, __ /pc. . . .. ...... ... .. . . .. .. ,. ___ _
---pes. 1/4 .. X 4' X 8'-0"'
temPEtf8d or W.P. Lawanit@
, __ /pc. ..................... , ___ _
9. Fireplace
300 pes. @ 2" x 4' x 8' Firebricks
, __ /pc...................... ,. ___ _
___ bags cement@
, __ /bag .................. '----
--- cu.m. Sand@
P __ _ / c u . m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. ____ _
___ pes. 6'" CHB@
, __ /pc ................ ,..... ,. ____ _
___ pes. 12 mm +bars@
, __ /pc...................... ,. ___ _
VIII. HAROWARES . . . . . ... .. ... . . . . ... ...... .. . .. . ......... ............... ...... .. . . p. ___ _
A. ROUGH
___ kegs4" C.W. Nail@
, __ /keg..................... , ___ _
___ kegs 3'" C.W. Nail@
, __ /keg..................... , ____ _
___ kegs 2" C.W. Nail@
, __ /keg..................... ,. ___ _
___ kegs 1" finishing Nail@
, __ /keg..................... ,. ___ _
___ kilos concrete nails@
, __ /kilo..................... '-----
--- rolls G. I. Wire #16@
, __ /roll .. ............... .... ,. ____ _
___ pes. 5/8" + x 7" bolts with
nuts and screWs @
, __ lpc. ..................... '----
--- pes. 1 /2" + x 24'" tension bar
for truss@
, __ /pc....................... , _____ _
---pes, 1/4H X 2" X 24,. pOst
strap with bolts C.P.@
, __ /pc. . .. . .. .. ..... .. . .. .. . '----
(Steel bars, see concreting
world
B. FINISHING
1. Hinges
___ pes. 4"' x 4"' Joose pin 'hinges@
, _ _ f pc . . ,................... ,. ___ _
--- pes. 3• X 3• loose pin hinges@
p _ _ /pc. . . . .. ... . .. . . . . .. .. .. '-----
- --pes. 2• x 2" closet hinges@
, __ /pc. .. ....... ..... ....... '---- -
- -- pes. 1"' x t• closet hinges@
, __ /pc. .. .. .. ...... . ... ..... , ___ _
___ cps. washangton hinges @
, __ l pc . .. ... ........ ... ,. ___ _
___ 1 in. ft. piano hinges @
, __ /.pc. ........... .......... '-----
2. Locksets
___ pes. toilet Jockset buttom
.. press without key@
, __ /pc ..... ....... ... ..... ..
___ bedroom lockset buttom
lockset button press with key@
, __ / pc, .................... .
_ _ _ pes, main door with
special handle and key @
P __ / pc . .................... .
--- Pes: night latch @
, __ /pc .................... ..
3. Closet and Cabinets
___ pes. pullers@
, __ lpc • ......... .. ..........
___ pes. drawer knobs @
, __ l pc • .....................
4. Automatic Door Closers
_ _ _ pes. door closers @
,
,
,
,
,
...........
,
, __ / pc. .. . .. ...... .. .. ...... , ___ _
5. Sliding Door Track
_ __ pes. door track@>
, __ /pc. .. .. . .. . . .. ... .. .. .. . '----
6.
___ pes. friction catches @
, __ /pc . ............ ........ .
'---- -
7.
___ pes. door stoppers@
, pc . .. : ................. .
, ____ _
IX. ROOFING .............. , .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . P _ __ _
A. Corrugated G.t. Sheet G.A. 26
--- pes. 32• X 6'..()"@
, __ fpc. .. . .. ..... .. ......... , ___ _
- -- pes. 32• X 7' ..()" @
, __ /pc. ........ .. ......... ..... , ____ _
- - - pes. 32'" X 8' ..()"''@
, pc. ·· ················· · · , ____ _
--- pes, :Jr X 12'-0"'@
, __ / pc. ..................... ,. _ _ _ _
321
322
B. Plain Galvanized Iron Straps GA. 26
_ _ _ pes. as· x a· -o· @
, _ _ / pc . .... :. ..... ....... .... ,
C. G.l. Roof Flashing$, ridge
rolls and Valleys
__._ _ _ pes. 36" X 8'-0'"@
For 2" x 3"' cut
into 1" x·s·
, __ /pc. .. ... .. .. ..... .... . .. , ___ _
0. G.l. Gutter
___ pes. 8' -0" length @
P _ _ lpc. .. ... .... ............ P ____ _
E. downspout -
- - - pes. 2" X 4" X 8' -0" @
, __ lpc. ..................... , ____ _
F. G.l. Rivets
_ _ _ kilos rivets@
, __
G. G.l. Washer
___ kilos washer@
, ____ _
P __ /kilo .. .. ... .. . .. .. ....... P ___ _ _
H. Lead Washer
_ _ _ kilo lead washer@
P _ _ / kilo ..................... ' --- --
I. ___ kilos roofing nail @
P _ _ /kilo ............... .... ..
, ____ _
J. Nicolite Bar
___ pes. nicolite lead@
, __ l pc. ....... ...... . .. ..... ' --- --
K. Muriatic Acid
_ _ _ bottles@
P _ _ / bot. ..................... ' - ----
L. Copper rivet for copper
rivets @ P box '-- - --
--- box copper rivets@
P __ /box . .. ...... . .. . ..... .. . ' ---'----
ESnMATING GUIDE
Guide the sloped Section of the roofing, with a 0.30 (12.) overlap. Count the number of
pieces of roofing using corresponding lengths 1ess If 8' -()" length is used, effective
length is 7' .()". To get the number of pes. sidewise, divide the total width in inches by V"
(effective width) using a 32" corrugated sheet.
Iron Straps- one 36 .. x 8'-0" ·plain G.l. can produce 380 pes. of 1" x 9'" strap for 2" x 3"' pur-
lin and 340 pes. of 1" x 10" for a 2"' x 4 .. purlin.
Roofing Nail - 102 pcs. /k.g
Rivets - 180
a . 6' -0" corrugated roofing wiU use 6 rivet/sheet
8'-0·· corrugated roofing wit! use 9 rivets/sheet
12' -o· corrugated roofing will use 12 rivets/sheet
Nicolite bar-count the number of joints to be-soldered 1 joint will use 1/ 4 of a bar.
Muriatic acid-use 10 cc per nicolite bar.
B. Tegula Cement Tile Roof
_ __ pes. 16 1/ 2 .. x 13 .. @
, __ lpc. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . '-----
- - - pes. 10 1/2" x 15 3/4* ridge
roll @ P __ /pc. .. .. .. .. . .. . '-----
C. Spanish Tile Roof
· pes. 31 em x 31 em @
, __ / pc. ..... .... .. ..... .... . '--- --
- -- pes. top ridge 29 x 27' em @
, __ /pc. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .... , ____ _
D. Wood Shingles
- - - pes. - 3/8 .. X 3,. X 18 .. @
, __ /pc. ....... ... ........... , ___ _
___ sq.m. asphalt felt paper@
P __ /sq.m. .. ... .. . .. .. . .. .. . '-----
---kilos 11/4" G.l. Nail@
P __ / kilo .. .. . . . . .. . . . . ... .... ft ____ _
E. Long Span Colored Roof
___ pes. 32" x any length @
P __ / L.M. ............. ..... P ___ _
___ kilos rivets@
P __ /kilo ........ .... ... :. .... '---- -
--- kilos washers@
, __ /tube .. ..... .... .. .... . '-----
--- sealant@
P __ /tube .............. .... '-----
--- L.M. gutter@
P __ / L.M. .................. P ___ _
___ L.M. ridge roll@
fi __ / LM ....... .... .. ........ P ___ _
ESTIMATING GUIDE
Tegula: 11 tiles/Sq.m. (5 kilos/pc.)
Spanish Ti/e-16 tiles/sq.m. (2.75 kg./sheet}
Long Span- effective width is 2B 1/2'"
length up to 60 feet
Wood Shingle-.approx. 50 pes. of 3•·x 18. / sq.m.
comes from 3" to 14" width
and 16" and 18 .. length
Use 6 .. exposure.
X. SPECIAL TREATMENTS . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. P ___ _
___ liter soil poisoning liquid @
P __ /liter . . .. .... .. .. .. . .. . '-----
--- liters wood preservative @
, -Itt. . . . . .. .. .. . .......... , _ __ _
323
324
'
___ liters silicone clear for
covering of brick wat•
and/or synthetic watt @
P _ _ /liter ................ ..
___ rolls cemvattlene water-
proofing asphalt sheets @
, _ _ !roll ................. , .. .
or total sq.m. @
p __ / sq.m .................. .
___ sq.m. polyethylene sheets
for damprooflng stab on fitl
and basement wall touching
the soil@
P_/sq.m . ....... ... ....... .
___ liters fire retardant@
, __ / gal. ................. .
--- liters coal tar@
• P __ lliter .... ....... ..... . .
' - - ~ - -
, __ __,_ __
, ___ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
XI. PLUMBING
1. FIXTURES
a) Water Closets
1. Master elongated W.C. Colored with
Tank@P_/pc. ..................... '----
2 pes. children's W.C. colored@
, __ /pes ...... ...... ..... ·...... ........ , ___ _
1 pc. guest w.c. colored @
, __ / pc .. .. .... .. .... .. . . .. ... .. .. . .. , ____ _
1 pc. maid's w.c. white@
, /pc. .... ....... .... ........ ...... . , ____ _
b) Lavatories
1 - lavatory for master's @
p __ /unit .... ...... ....... ... ......... .
, ____ _
1 - lavatori for boy's @ ·
P ....---.:-/unit ..... .... ................... ..
, ____ _
1 - lavatory for girl's @
P /unit ............................ ..
, ____ _
1 - lavatory for guest @
P __ /unit ............ : ......... ..... .. .
, ____ _
1 - lavatory for maid's @ .
P / unit ............................. .
, ____ _
c) 1 - Bathtub for masters@
, __ /unit . . ..... .. .... .. . .... .. .. .. . .. . '--- --
d) Kitchen sink
1 - stainless k.s. double bowl @
, __ / unit .. . .. ... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . '-----
1 - 16• x 24'" enamel type k.s. @
P ___ /unit .............. ...... .......... '-----
~ .
, ____ _
e. Shower Heads &f'!d Values
1 - 3 way diverter value and U. S.
multi-adjuster shower head for
master's@ ft __ · /unit ........ ....... · ' -----
3 - hot and cold shower valve and
· head for children's guest @
P __ /unit .............. .. .............. p
1 - single .cold shower valve and
head @p __ /unit .................. ' - - ---
2. G.l. PIPES AND FITTINGS
pes. 2" + x 6.00 m sch. 40@
P __ /pc . .................... .
,
___ pes. 1" + x 6.00 m sch. 40@
p __ / pc ..................... .
,
___ pes. 3/4" + x 6.00 m sch. 40
@P _ _ /pc ........... ....... .
,
___ pes. 1/2" + x 6.00 m sch. 40
@ f' __ /pc .. ................. .
,
___ pes. coupling 2" +®
p __ / pc ... .................. .
,
___ pes. coupling 1" +®
p __ /pc . . : .................. .
,
___ pes. coupling 3/4" +®
P __ /pc . ... .... .... : ........ .
,
_ __ pes. coupling 1/2" +®
, __ /pc .................... ..
,
_ __ pes. Tee 2 .. +®
P __ / pc ... ........... ...... ..
,
_ __ pes. Tee 1" +® .
P __ /pc .... , ........ ........ .
,
_ __ pes. Tee 3/4"@
p __ /pc ... ......... .......... .
,
___ Tee 1/2" +®
, __ / pe ..................... .
--- pes. elbow r · +® .
,
p __ /pc . .............. ..... ..
___ pes. elbow 1,. •®
,
, __ fpc . ............. .... ~ ..
,
___ pes. elbow 3/4* +®
' pc . ................. ... .
- -- pes. elbow 1/2" +®
,
P __ /pc •. ; .................. ..
,
___ pes. street elbow 2" +®
p __ /pc ................ ..... .
,
_ __ pes. street elbow 1"'+@
p _ _ /pc . .. ........ : ......... .
,
___ pes. street elbow 3 / 4 ~ +
p __ / pc ............. ... ..... ..
,
___ pes. street elbow 1 12• +®
, __ /pe., ............. ....... ..
___ pes. bushing 2,; +®
,
'-· __ fpc ........................ ..
,
325
_326
___ pes. bushing 1• +@
, __ lpc. ............ ..... . . .. , ____ _
___ pes. bushing 3/4" t@
, __ /pc. ..................... '-----
--- pes. bushing 1/2" +
p _ _ /pc. .. ......... ... ....... '-----
NIPPLES- 2", 3", 4", 5", 6",
___ pes. short nipple 2" + x 3", @.
p _ _ / pc. . . ...... .. .. .. ... .. .. '-----
--- pes. short nipple 1" + x 3", @
p _ _ /pc. . .... .. .. .. .. ... ..... '-----
- -- pes. short nipple 3/4 + x 3",
@ p __ /pc. .. . .. . . . ... .. .. .. . '----
- -- pes. short nipple 1/2" + x 3",
@ , _ _ l pc. . . .. . .... .. .. . . ... , ___ _
___ union patented 2" @
p /pc. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . p ____ _
--- union patended 1"@
. P __ /pc . ........... :... ... ... '-----
- - - union patented 3/4"
, __ / pc. .. ............ .. ..... '--- --
- - - pes. union patented 1 /2"
P __ / pc. .... .... ..... ... .. ... '-----
- - - rolls teflon tape @
P __ /roll ............. .. .... .. P
or _ _ oz. white lead@
, __ !oz. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . , ___ _ _
3. VALVES
___ stop cock 1 /2" USP @
p _ _ /pc. ........... .. .. . .. .. . '-----
--- check valve swing type 1 /2"@
p _ _ /pc. ................. .. .. '-----
--- gate valve 1" USP@
p __ / pc ................. ... . : '-----
--- gate vavle 3/4" USP @
p __ /pc . ............ :......... '--- --
4. SOIL PIPES AND FITTINGS (05. and .10 x 1.5 em)
___ pes. 4" x 5'-0" Double Hub
Pipe@ P _ _ /pc .. , .........
___ pes. 4" x 5'-0" Double Hub
Pipe@ P __ / pe ........ ..
___ pes. 2" x 5'-0" D.H. Pipe@
P __ lpc ............... .... .. .
___ pes. 4"' x 4" wye@
P __ /pc .................... ..
___ pes. 2" x 2" wye@
p _ _ / pc . .. .... ... .... .... .. ..
___ pes. 4• x 4" Sanitary Fee @
, __ /pc: ..................... .
_ __ pes. 4"' x 2'" Sanitary Fee @
, _ _ /pc ..................... .
___ pes. 1/4bend ··
, /
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, ____ _
, __ l pc.... ... ..... ... .. . . ... , _ _ __ _
___ pes. 1/ 4 bend @
, __ /pc. .................. ... '-- ---
--- pes. 1/8 bend@
P _ _ /pc. .. . .. .. ... .. . . . .. .. . . ' - ----
--- pes. 1/ 16 bend @
, _ _ / pc. .... ...... ..... ...... ' --- --
--- pes . 1/ 16 bend @ .
P _ _ / pc. ..... ...... ... .. .... . '-----'
___ kilos Oakum@
P _ _ /kilo... ... ... ...... ...... P _ ___ _
___ kilos pig lead@
, _ _ / kilo .. ... .... .. . ..... ... . P _ ___ _
or _ _ liters A and 8
epoxy adh,"$ive pipe caulking@
, __ ! lit. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . , _ ___ _
5. SUBSTITUTE MATERIAL OF PVC
Plastic Vinyl Pipes
(. 05 and . 10 x 3.00 m)
___ pes. 4H x 10' " pvc. pipe @
, __ /pc ...... ·· ··· · ... . .. ..... '-- - -
--- pes. 2" x 10' "0" pvc pipe @
, __ /pe. .. ..... .. ......... ... '-- - --
---pes. 1/ 4 bend pvc 4" @
, _ _ / pe. . . . . . ..... ... ..... ... , _ _ _ _
___ pes. 1/ 4 bend pvc 2" @
P _ _ / pc. ....... ........ ... ... '-- ---
--- pes. 1/8 bend pvc 4'' @
P _ _ /pc.-.. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . '-- ---
--- pes. 1/8 bend pvc 2" @
, _ _ / pc. .... . . . . . . . .... .. . . .. ' -----
--- peS. 1/ 16 bend pvc 4"@
, _ _ f pc. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ' - ----
--- pes. 1/16 bend pvc 2" @
,. _ _ /pc. .... .. ...... .. ....... ' - ----
--- pes. 4" x 4" wye pvc@
,. _ _ /pc. .. . .. . . .... .. .. ... .... ' - - ---
---· pes. 4" x 2" wye pvc @
, _ _ l pe. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. ... .. .. , _ _ __ _
___ pes. 2" x 2" wye pvc @
, _ _ /pc ... .... .... ... :. .. ... . '-- ---
--- pes. pvc elbow 4" @
P _ _ /pc. .. . . . .... . . . .. ... .... '-- - --
--- pes. pvc elbow 2" @
, __ / pe. . . .. .... .. .. .. . .. .. .. , _ ___ _
___ pes. pvc sanitary Tee 4"@
, __ / pc. .................... . ' -----
--- pes. Sanitary Tee 2"@ ·
, __ /pc ........... : .... . .. . .. ' - - ---
--- pes. P-Trap 2"@
, __ fpc. .. ...... .. .. ..... . .. . ' - - ---
327
328
<:· ,"": .(" .. .. .
___ pes. pvc plug 4"'@
P _ _ / pc. . ............... .. ... ,_. _ __ _
___ pes. pvc plug 2"@
P _ _ lpc. ........... .... .. . .. . '-----
_ _ ....;\·....;· liters solvent cement sealant @
P __ lliter .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . '--- --
6 •. OTHER ITEMS
1 pc. water meter@
p __ /pc. .. .... ........... ...... .......... '-----
1 unit 30 gallons water heater @
, _ _ /pc ......... ................. .. ·.... .. '-- - -
1 unit 1,000 gal. G. I. #16 water
tank @ P _ _ / tank ............ ... , . .. .. '--- - -
1 unit urinal @
P _ _ /item .... ... ......................... . '-- ---
- -- units bidet@
P __ lunit ............ ..... . P _ _ __ _
_ _ _ pes. Toilet paper holder @
, __ · /pc. .. .. .... .... .... .... . , ___ _
___ pes. soap holder@
p __ /pc. .............. ....... '---- -
--- pes. curtain rods @
, __ /pc ................... . ·... , - - --
--- pes. towel rack@
, __ /pc. ................. .... '-- - --
- -- pes. medicine cabinet@
, __ / pc. ... .. ....... ... ... ... , ___ _
___ pes. toothbrush holder &
Tumbler@ , __ /pc. . .... P
7. SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE
- -- unit septic tank hollow
blocks steelbars, cement,
sand gravel formworks,
etc .................... .'.... .... .. '---- -
- --pes. 0.60 + x 1.00 m
concrete pipe @
, _ _ / pc. ....... .. .. .. ... .. . .. '--- --
--- pes. 0.45 + x 1.00 m
concrete pipe @
, __ /pc. .......... .... .. .. .. . '----
--- pcs.0.30+ x 1.00m
concrete pipe @
, _ _ /pc. ................. .... , ___ _
_ __ pes. 0.20 + x 1.00 m
cement pipe @
, _ _ /pc .. ... ..... .... .... . : . , _ _ _ _ _
_ __ pcs.0.1S+x 1.00m
cement pipe@
, __ /pc. .. .. .. .... . .. .. .. .... , _ _ _ _
_ __ pcs. 0.10+x1.00m@
, __ /pc . .. ;·........ .... .. .... , ___ _
XII. ELECTRICAL ....................................................... .. · ......... ....... .
A. FIXTURES
_ _ _ pes. chandelier @ ft_ _ '-----
---· pes. pintights @ • P_ _ P ___ _ _
_ _ _ pes. ceiling lights @ P__ p. ___ _ _
_ __ pes. light switch single gang@
, __ /pc. .... .. ..... .. ........ , ___ _
___ pes. -convenience outlets@
, __ /pc. .. .. ...... .. ......... '-----
- - - pes. weatherproof conv.
outlets @ P __ / pc......... '-----
- -- pes. twa gang light switch @
P __ / pc. ..................... '-----
- - - pes. three gang light switch @
,_. __ /pc. .. ................ ... '---- -
- - - pes. three-way light switch @
p __ /pc ..... ,.. ........... ... '-----
- - - pes. range outlet 3 prongs@
, __ /pc.. .... .. ..... .......... , ___ _
B. RIGID CONDUIT PIPES & FITTINGS
_ _ _ ~ - 1/2" + x 10' ·0" conduit
pipe@ P __ / pc. .. ... .. .. .. . '-----
- - - pes. 3/4" + x 10' -0" conduit
pipe@P __ / pc. ... ......... '-----
--- pes. locknut 1/2"@
p __ /pc. .... ... ... .... .. ..... '-----
- - - pes. 1/2" 0 coupling@
p __ /pc. ...... ... ........... p. ___ _ _
_ __ pes. 1/2N + coupling @
'f __ / pc. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . , ____ _
___ pes. 1" + x 10'-0" conduit
pi pe@ P __ /pc. .. .. ...... .. '-----
- - - pes. 3/ 4" +coupling@
p __ /pc. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. '----
- - - pes. 1" +coupling@
, __ /pc. ......... . .. .. . . .. . .. '-----
- - - pes. 1/2" Locknut@
, __ /pc .. ................. ·... , ___ _
_ __ pes. 3/4" Locknut @
p __ / pc. ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. p. ____ _
_ __ pes. 1· Locknut @
P_.lpc. ..... .. .... ........ .. '----
- - - pes. 1 /2" bushing @
p __ /pc. .. ...... .. ... ... .. .. . '---- -
---pes. 3/4" bushing@ ·
p __ /pc. ...... .. .. ........... '-----
- -- pes. 1" bushing@
p __ /pc. .. .. ... .. . ...... .. .. . '---- -
C. WIRING- Stranded
_ _ _ rolls No. 14' T.W. Wire@
p_· _ / roll .. ... ... .. .. .. ...... . P· ____ _
,. ____ _
329
330
___ rolls No.' 12 T.W. Wire@
'--· _ /roll ..... . ·-- ····. ... .. .. '--- --
--- rolls No. 10 T.W. Wire@
, _ _ /roll.................. .. ... '---- -
---rolls No.8 T.W. Wire@
, __ /roll ........... . . . . . . . . . '-----
--- rolls No.6 T.W. Wire@>
P __ /rot1 ... .. . .. ... ... .. ... .. '-----
--- rolls plastic tape M2@
P __ /roll .. . .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. . '--- --
--- rolls rubber tape M2@
, __ /roll...... .. ...... ... .... '-- --
D. PULL BOXES
~ - - pes. 4" x 6" x 6" with cover
@P _ _ /pc. ................. '----
- --· pes. 4" x a· x 10" with cover
@ P __ lpc. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . ' - - ~ -
E. JUNCTION BOXES
___ pes. 2" x 4" x 4" with 1/2"
knockout @ P __ /pc. . .. . ' - - ~ - -
_ __ .. pes. 2" x 4 .. x 4" with 3/4"
k.o.@P __ /pe...... .. ..... '-- ---
- -- pc. 2" x 4" x 4" with 1" k.o.@
, _ _ / pc. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. , ____ _
F. UTILITY BOX
_ __ pes. 2" x 2" x 4" with 1/ 2"
k.o.@ fl _ _ /pc. .... .. .. .. . '--- - -
G. OTHERS
_ __ pes. service entrance cap
2 1/2@ P __ l pc. .. .. ..... . '-- - -
- -- pes. secondary rack 3 poles
with 3 spools @
P __ tpc .... . ........ .. · .. ... :. '-- - - -
H . . CIRCUIT BREAKER
Example:
70 at main 3 poles with panel board
6 branches-2 at 15- AT -2 p .
2 at 20- AT -2 p
1 at 20- AT -2 p
1 at 40- AT -2 p
or alternative Fuse Cutouts
J. Substitute Alternative PVC electric pipes
XIII. PAINTING ...... ...... .... ....... ... .. . · .. ....... .. ................................ · 5'------
_ __ pes. sandpaper@
P _ _ /pc. .. ... .. ... . .. .. .. ... . '-- ---
- -- pes. sandpaper@
, _ _ /pe .. . . , .· .. :·.. .... . ... . . '-----
___ liters red lead @
, __ /lit............ ...... .... , ____ _
___ liters neutralizer@
, __ /lit. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . , ___ _ _
___ kilos concrete putty fillers @
, __ / kg . ....... ·.. .. .......... , ____ _
___ kilos wood paste filler@
, lit. .. .. .. .. .......... ... , _ ___ _
_ __ liters sanding sealers @
, __ / lit. . . . . . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . ·' - ----
_ __ liters lacquer thinner
_ __ liters turpentine
___ liters spar varnish
___ small cans tinting colors@
, __ lean................ ..... ' - - ---
- -- liters roofing paint
liters exterior wood paint @
, __ /lit. ·············· .. ... .. . , _ ___ _
_ __ liters .exterior concrete paint @
P __ /ltr. ................. .. .. P _ ___ _
_ __ liters steel window paint @
P __ /ltr. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ' - ----
- -- liters interior concrete paint @
p_._/ltr. .... ................. ' --- --
- -- liters textured paint @
P __ /ltr. ..... .. ..... .. ... .... ' -----
ESTIMATtNG GUIDE
Solve area in sq . meter to be painted
It is safe to use 25 to 30 sq. m. coverage per 4 liters or 1 gallon to a 250 to 300 sq. ft.
area.
For textured paint-from 5 to 12 sq. m. coverage per 41iters for sealers, putty,etc. -from 10
to 20 sq. m. coverage per 4 liters.
XIV. PERMITS AND LICENCES
a. Zoning . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ' - --- -
b. Fire departments@ P1.00/P1 ,000 cos . . .. .. P· _ ___ _
c. Building Officials . .. .. . .... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . P· ____ _
• Electrical@ P1.00/per outlet .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ' --- - -
• Plumbing @ P3.00/ per fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . ' - --- -
• architectural@ P3.00/sq.m. .. .. .. .. .. .. ' - ----
• mechanical@ P30.00/ Ton A. C. .. .. .. P· _ ___ _
• elevator@ 3,500 .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. p_· _ ___ _
• excavation@ 1.00/ cu.m. .... ...... .. ... P· ____ _
• Fencing@ 1.00/ 1 in. meter ... ... ..... . ' ---- -
331
. ··- '•
-. . . '\ •' ..
. .-·. ·., .· ·
SUMMARY
I. MOBILIZATION ........................ ...................................... .
,. ___ _
II. EARTHWORKS .. ..... ... ..... ........ .... ..... .... .... .... .. ....... ........ .. .
,. ___ _
Ill . CONCRETE WORKS ....................................................... ..
, ___ _
FORMWORKS .. ..... ... ...... .. ..... ... ...... .. ...... ... ...... . ... .... ..... .

tV. MASONRY WORKS .......................... ..... ·· .. ········ ·······' · ·····
, ___ _
VI. WOOOWORKS ................... .. ................ ... ...................... .
, ___ _
. .
VII. ARCHITECTURAL FINISHES ..... ... ..... .... ..... ... .... ..... ... ..... .. .
, ___ _
VIII. HAROWARES ............................................ .... : .... .. ....... .
, ___ _
IX. ROOFING .... .... ... ..... .... ... · .. ... .... ..... ... ...... .. ..... ... ...... .. ... ..
, ___ _
X. SPECIAL TREATMENTS .... ............................. : ... ............. .
,. ___ _
XI. PLUMBING .. ..... ... .. ....................... .............................. .
, ___ _
XII. ELECTRICAL .... ...... .. ...... .. ..... ... ....... .. ..... .. ....... ... .. : .... .... .
,. ___ _
XIII. PAINTING ............................. : ....................................... .
, ___ _
XIV. PERMITS AND LICENSES
, ___ _
TOTAL .. .... .. ... ...... ....... .................... .
, ___ _
XV. PLUS 5% CONTINGENCIES ..... .. ... .. . .. .. ... ... ....... . .... ... .. : . .' ..
, ___ _
PLUS LABOR Approx. 40% ...... : .. .............. .. ..... '====
SUB-TOTAL ...... ;....................... P ___ _
PLUS Approx. ;2% PROFIT .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. '====
SUB-TOTAL ...... .. ....... .. ............. P _ _ _ _
PLUS3% CONTRACTORS TAX .......... .... . P _ _ _ _
TOTAL APPROX. COST .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. '== = =
332
OUTLINE SPECIFICATIONS
333
334
SUBJECT
OWNER
ADDRESS
PROJECT
LOCATION
ARCHITECT
LICENSE NO.
PTA
ADDRESS
SPECIFICATION
MR. and MRS. JOHNNY BALANGCOD
NO. 69 ClAMOR STREET
SUYAT GARDENS, BAGUIO CITY
TWO-STOREY RESIDENCE
NO. 2 ASSUMPTION ROAD
BAGUIO CITY
GEORGES. SALVAN
1939
NO. 30 MASINI STREET
BAGUIO CITY
OUTLINE. SPECIFICATIONS
I. SITE WORK
A. WORK INCLUDED
1. Staking out of building, establishment of lines, grades and benchmarks.
2. All excavation work including all neceSsary shoring bracing, and drainage of storm
water from site.
3. All backfilling, filling and grading, removal of excess material from site.
4. Protection of property, work and structures, workmen, and other people from dam-
age and injury.
B. LINES, GRADES AND BENCHMARKS
1. Stake out accurately the lines of the building and of the other structures included in
the contract, and establish grades therefore, after which secure approval by Archi-
tect before any excavation work is commenced.
2. Erect basic batter boards and basic ref_!!rence marks, at such places where they will
not be disturbed during the construction of the foundations.
C. EXCAVATION
1. Structural Excavations-Excavations shall be to the depths indicated bearing
values. Excavations for footings and foundations carried below required depths shall
be filled with concrete, and bottom of such shall be level. All structural excavations
shall extend a sufficient distance from the walls and .footings to allow for proper
erection and dismantling of forms, for installation of service and for inspection. All
excavations shall be inspected and approved before pouring any concrete, laying
underground services or placing select fill materials.
The Contractor shall control the grading in the vicinity of all excavated areas to pre-
· vent surface drainage running into excavations. Water which accumulates in exca-
vated areas shall be removed by pumping before fill or concrete in placed therein.
· D. FILLINGS AND BACKFILUNG
1. After forms have been removed from footings, pi_ers, foundations, walls, etc. and
when concrete work is hard enough to resist pressure resulting from fill, backfilling
may then be done. Materials-excavated may be used for backfilling. All filling shall
.be placed in layers not exceeding six (61 inches in thickness, each layer being tho-
roughly compacted and rammed by wetting, tamping, rolling.
E. PLACING AND COMPACTING FILL
1. Common Fill-shall be approved site-excavated material free from roots, stumps
and other perishable or objectionable matter.
2. Select FUI -shall be placed where indicated and shall consist of crushed gravel
crushed rock, or a combinations thereof. The material shall be free from adobe, ve-
getable matters and _shall be thoroughly tamped after placing.
335
3. Before placing fill material, the surface upon whiCh it will be placed shall ·be cleared .
of all brush roots, vegetable matter and debris, scarified and thoroughly wetted to
insure good bonding between the ground.
F. DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS MATERIALS
1. Any excess material remaining after completion of the earthwork shall be disposed
of by hauling and spreading in nearby spoil areas designated by the OWNER. Exca·
vated material deposited in spoil areas shall be Graded to a uniform surface.
II. CONCRETE AND REINFORCED CONCRETE:
336
A. GENERAL
1. Unless otherwise specified herein, concrete work shall conform to the requirements
of the ACI Building Code. Full cooperation shall be given other t rades to install em-
bedded items. Provisio'ns shall be made for setting items not placed in the forms.
Before concrete is placed, embedded it ems shall have been inspected and test ed for ·
concrete aggregates and other materials shall have been done.
B. MATERIALS
1. Cement for· the concrete shall conform to the requirements of specifications for
Portland Cement (ASTM C-150) .
2. Water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from other injurious amounts
· of oUs, acids, alkaline, organic materials or ot her substances that may be deleterious
to concrete or steel.
3. Rne Aggregates shall consist of hard, tough, durable, uncoateq particles. The
shape of the particles shall be generally rounded or cubicle and reasonably free from
flat or elongated particles. The stipulated percentages of fines in the sand shall be
obtained either by· the processing of natural sand or by the product ion of a suitably
graded manufactured sahd. '
4. Coarse Aggregate shall consist of gravel , crushed gravel or rock, or a combination
of gravel and rock, coarse aggregates shall consist of hard, tough, durable, clean
and uncoated particles. "'fhe sizes of coarse aggrega.tes to be used in the various
parts of the work shall be in accordance with the following:
Size - 3/ 4" f or all concreting work
5 ~ Reinforcing Bars shall conform to the requirements of ASTM standard specifica-
tions for Billet Steel Bars for concrete reinforcement (A 15-625) and to Specrtication
for minimum requirements for the deformed steel bars for concrete reinforcement
(A 3()5.56).
All secondary ties such as stirrups, spirals and inserts may be plain bars. The main
reinforcing bars ·shall be as follows:
No. 4 (1/ 2") 12 mm
No. 3 (3/ 8") 10 mm
No.5 (5/ 8 .. ) 16 mm
No. 6 (3/ 8'") 20 mm
No. 7 (7/8") 22 mm
No. 8 ( 1"') 25 mm
..
fy - 33,000 psi
fy - 40,000 psi
C. PROPORTIONING AND MIXING
1. Proportions of all materials entering into the concrete shall be as follows:
Class "A" Cement Sand Gravel
1 2 4
Class " 8" 1 · 2 1/2" 5
Class "C" 1 3 6
2. Class of Concrete-concrete shall have a 28-day cylinder.strength of 3,000 psi, for
all concrete work, unless otherwise indicated in the plans.
3. Mixing-concrete shall be machine.mixed. Mixing shall begin within 30 minutes
after the cement has been added to the aggregates. In the absence of a concrete
mixer, manual mixing is allowed.
D. FORMS
1. General- Forms shall be used wherever necessary to confine the concrete and
shape it to the required lines, or to insure the concrete of contamination with mater-
ials caving from adjacent, excavated surfaces. Forms shall have sufficient strength
to withstand the pressure resulting from placement and vibration of the concrete,
and shall be maintained rigidly in correct position. Forms shall be sufficiently tight to
prevent loss of mortar from the concrete. Forms for surfaces against which
backfill is not be shall be lines with a form grade plywood.
2. Cleaning and oiling of Form•-Before placing the concrete, the contact surfaces
of the form shall be cleaned of encrustations of mortar, the grout or other foreign
material, and shall be coated with a commercial form oil that will effectively prevent
sticking and will not stain the concrete surfaces.
3. Removal of Forms-forms whall be removed in a manner which will prevent
age to be concrete. Forms shall not be removed withqut approval. Any repairs of
surface imperfections shall be performed at once and airing shalt be started as soon
as the surface is sufficiently hard to permit it without further damage.
E. PLACING REINFORCEMENT:
1. General-Steel reinforcement shall be provided as indicated, together with all ne-
cessary wire ties, -chairs, spacer1, supported and ou.r devices necessary to instaH
and secure the (einforcement property. All reinforcement, when placed, shall be free
from loose, flaky rust and scale, oil grease, clay and other coating and foreign sub-
stances that would reduce or destroy its bond with concrete.
Reinforcement shall be pieced accurately and secured in place by use of· metat or
concrete supports, spacers and ties. Such supports shall be of sufficient strength to
maintain the operation. The supports shall be used in such manner that they will not
be exposed or contribute in any way, to the discoloration or deterioration of the con-
crete.
F. CONVEYING AND PLACING CONCRETE:
1. Conveying - concrete shall be conveyed from mixer to forms as rapidly as practi-
cable, by methods which will prevent or loss of ingredients. There wifl
be no vertical drop.greater than 1.5 meters except where equipment is pro-
vided to prevent segregation and where specifically authorized.
337.
2. Placing -Concrete shall be worked readily into the corners and angles of the forms
and around all reinforcement and embedded items without permitting the material
to segregate. Concrete shall be deposited as close as possible to its final position in.
the forms so that flow within the mass does not exceed two (2) meters and conse-
quent segregation is reduced to a minimum near forms or embedded items, or else-
where as directed, the discharge shall be so controlled that the concrete may beef-
fectively compacted into horizontal layers not exceeding 30 centimeters in depth •
within the maximum lateral movement specified.
3. Time interval between i mixing and placing. Concrete shall be placed before initial
set has occuted and t>etore it has contained its water content for more than 46
minutes.
4. Consolidation of Concrete-Concrete shall be consolidated with the aid of me-
chanical vibrating equipment and supplemented by handspading and tamping. Vib-
rators shall not be inserted into lower coursed that have commenced initial set; and
reinforcement embedded in concepts beginning to set or already set shall not be dis-
turbed by vibrators. Consolidation around major embedded parts shall be by hand
spading and tamping and vibrators shall not be used.
5. Placing concrete through reinforcement . In placing concrete through reinforce-
ment, care shall be taken that no segregation of the coarse aggregate occurs. On
the bottom of beams and slabs, where the congestion of steel near the forms makes
placing difficult, a layer of mortar of the same cement-sand ratios as used in con-
crete shall be first deposited to cover the surfaces.
G. CURING:
1. General: All concrete shall be moist cured for a period not less than seven (7) con-
secutive days by an approved method or combination applicable to local conditions.
2. Moist Curing-The surface of the concrete shall· be kept continuously wet by co-
vering with burlap plastic or other approved materials thoroughly saturated with
water and keeping the covering wet spraying or intermittent hosing.
H. FINISHING
1. Concrete surfaces shall not be plastered unless otherwise indicated. Exposed con-
crete surfaces shall be formed w;th plywood, and after removal of forms, the sur-
faces shall be smooth, true to line and shall present or finished appearance except
for minor defects which can be easily be repaired with patching with cement· mortar,
or can be grounded to a smooth surface to remove all joint marks of the form work.
2. Concrete slabs on Fill. The concrete slabs on fill shall be laid on a prepared founda-
tion consisting of subgrade and granular .till with thickness equal to the thickness of
overlaying slab except as indicated otherwise.
Ill. MASONRY WORKS
'338
A. MATERIALS
1. Concrete Hollow Blocka shall have a minimum face shell thickness of 1" (.025).
Nominal size shall be o x 8'" x 16" minimum compressive strength shall be as
follows:
I
Class A - 900 psi
Class B - 750 psi
All units shall be stored \for a period of not less than 28 days (including curing .
'period) and shall not be delivered to the job site prior to that time unless the
equal or exceed those mentioned il'l these specifications.
2. Wall Reinforcement shall be No. 3 (3/8") or 10 mm steel bars.
3. Sand shalt be river sand, well screened, clean, hard, sharp sillicious, free from loam,
silt or other impurities, composed of grains of varying sizes within the following
limits: ·
Sieve No.
9
16
100
Passing
Retained
Retained
Percent
100
5
95
4. Cement shall be standard portland cement, ASTM C- 150-68 Type 1.
5. Mortar-Mix Mortar from 3 to 5 minutes in such quantities as needed for im-
mediate use. Retampering will not be permitted if mortar stiffens because of pre-
mature setting. Discard such materials as well as those which have not been used
within one hour after mixing.
Proportioning: Cement mortar shall be one 11) part portland cement and two (2)
parts sand by volume but not more than one 11) part pbrtland cement and three (3)
parts sand by volume.
B. ERECTION
1. All masonry shall be laid plumb, to line, with level and accurately spaced
courses, and with each course breaking joint with the source below. Bond shall be
kept plumb throughout; corners and reveals shall be plumb and true. Units with
greater than 12 percent absorption shall be wet before laying. Work required to be
built in with masonry, including anchors, wall plugs and accessories, shall be built in
as the erection progresses.
· 2. Masonry Units Each course shall be solidly bedded in portland cement mortar. All
units shall be damp when laid units shall be showed into place not laid, in a fun bed
of unfurrowed mortar. All horizontal and vertical points shall be completely filled
with mortar when and as laid. Each course shall be bonded at corners and intersec·
tions. No cells shall be left open in face surfaces. All cells shall be filled up with mor·
tar for exterior walls. Units terminating against beam or slab soffits shall be wedged
tight with mortar. Do not lay cracked, broken or defaced block.
3. Lintels shall be of concrete and shall be enforced as shown in the drawings. Untels
shall have a minimum depth of 0.20 (8") and shall extend at least 0.20 (8"') on each
side of opening.
C. WORKMANSHIP AND INSTALlATION:
1. Plastering: Clean and evenly wet surfaces. Apply scratch coat with sufficient force
to form good keys. Cross scratch coat upon attaining its initial set; keep damp. Ap·
ply brown coat after scratch coat has set at least 24 hours after scratch applica-
tion. Ughtly scratch brown coat; keep moist for 2 days; allow to dry out. Oo not ap-
ply finish until browr:t coat has seasoned for 7 days. JuSt before applying coat, wet
339
340
brown coat again. Aoat finish coat to true even surface; troweJ in manner·that will
force sand particles down into· plaster; with final traweling, leave surfaces bamished
smooth, free from rough areas, trowel marks, cheeks, other blemishes. Keep finish
coat moist for at least 2 days; thereafter protect against rapid drying until properly,
thoroughly cured.
2. Pea Gravel Washout: Before start o1 work, provide Qesired pitch for drainage.
Roughen concrete surface with pick or similar tool. Clean off looSe particles and
other materials which may prevent bond, keep surface wet for at least 4 hours
before applying. Scratch coat of mortar. Coat not more than 3/4" thick. Apply
ture of pea gravel and portland cement .with pressure to obtain solid adhesion.
Trowel pea gravel to hard, smoot h, even plane and rod and float to uniform surface
of even texture. When surface is semi-dry evenly spray surfaces with clean water
with spray machine to wash out loose cement to part exposed pea gravel . Remove
and wash down remaining cement paste with soft brush, to leave pea gravel in its
natural texture and appearance. Before applying pea gravel finish, sut.lit samples
to owner for approval.
D. SCAFFOLDING
Provide all scaffolding required for masonry work, includi ng cleaning down on comple-
tion, remove.
E. VITRIFIED FLOOR TILE INSTALlATION:
1. Do not start floor tiling oceuring in space requiring both floor and wall tile setting
has been completed.
2. Before spreading setting bed, establish border lines center wires in both directions
to permit laying pattern with minimum of cut tiles. Lay floors without borders from
·center line outward. Make adjustment at walls.
3. Clean concrete sub floor moisten jt without soaking. Sprinkle dry cement over
Spread setting bed mortar on concrete and tamp to assure good bond over
the entire area then screed to smooth, level bed. Set average setting bed thickness
at 3/4'" but never less than 1/2".
F. WALL TILE INSTALLATIONS:
1. Scratch coat for application as foundation coat shall be at most 1/2". While still
plastic, deeply score scratch coat or scratch and cross scratch. Protect scratch coat
and keep reasonably moist within seasoning period. Use mortar for scratch, float
. coats, within one hour after mixing. Retempering· of partially hardened mortar is not
permitted. Set scratch coat shall be cured for at least 2 days before starting tile set-
ting.
2. For float coat use one part portland cement, one part hydrated lime (optional), 3 1/2 ·
parts sand.
· 3. Setting Wall Tiles: soak wall tilll thoroughly in clean water before setting. Set
· wall tile by trowelling neat portland cement skim coat on float coat or apply skim
coat to back of each ti!e unit. Immediately float tile in place. Make joints straight,
level and perpendicular. Maintain vertical joints plumb. -
4. Grouting: Grout joints in wall tile with neat white cement immediately after suitable
area of tile has been Tool joints slightly concave, cut off excess mortar and
wipe from face tile. Roughen interstices of depressions. In mortar joints after grout
been cleaned from surface. Fill to line of cushion tile bases or covers with mor-
tar. Make joints between wall plumbing and other built in fixtures with light co·
lored caulking. Immediately after grout has had its initial set, give t ile wan surfaces
protec1ive coat of non-corrosive soap.
IV. CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORK
A. MATERIALS
1. Quality of Lumber: Lumber shall be the approved quality of the respective kinds
for the various parts of the work, well seasoned, thoroughly dry, and free from
large, loose, or unsound knots, sups, shakes, and other imperfections impairing its
strength, durability or appearance. All finishing lumber to be used shall be complete-
ly dried and shall not contain more than 14% moisture. All flooring, tongue and ·
grooved shall be kiln dried.
2. Treatment of the Lumber:
a. All concealed lumber shall be sprayed with. anti-anay or bukbok liquid.
b. Surface in contact with masonry and concrete coated with creosote or equiva-
lent.
3. Door Sashes: All door sashes shall be well seasoned, flush type, semi-hollow core
and solid core, tanguile plywood veneers on both sides. Exterior doors shall be of
kiln dried Tanguile panel doors. ""'
4. Kind of Lumber:
All unexposed lumber for framings shall be of Apitong.
All window and door jambs shall be of Apitong or Tanguile.
Balcony railings, flooring, girder and joints shall be of S4S Yacal.
All interior flooring shall be of Kiln dried T and G Tanguile.
Living room wood panels at the second floor shall be of 1,. thick pinewood.
Eaves shall be of kiln dried T and G Tanguile S4S.
Exterior sidings shall be seasoned sun dried V-Cut Tanguile.
B. WORKMANSHIP
1. Execute rough carpentry in best, substantial, workmen like manner. Erect framing
true to line, levels and dimensions, squared, aligned, plumbed, well-spliced and
nailed, and adequately braced., properly fitted using mortise and tenon joists.
2. Millwork-accurately milled to details, clean cut moldings profiles, lines, scrape,
sand smooth; mortise, tenon, splice, join, bl.ock, nail screw, bolt together, asap-
proved, in manner to allow free play of panels; avoid swelling, shrinkage, ensure
work remaining in place without warping, splitting opening or joints. Do not install
mill work and case until concrete and masonry work have been cured .and will not
release moisture harmful to woodwork .
. 3: Secure work to grounds, otherwise fasten in position to hold correct surfaces, lines
and levels. Make finished work flat, plumb, true.
V. ARCHITECTURAL FINISHES SCHEDULE
A. FLOORING
1. All n t e r i ~ r flooring shall be 1" x 4'" tongue and groove (T & G Tanguile, kiln dried) .
. 341
2. Toilet floors shall be vitrified 4 1/4" x 4 1/4,. white or beige in color, rnariwasa
brand.
3. Balcony floors shall be of 1• x 4" Yacal set on a 1/4" open joint and nailed on Yacal
Floor joist. All balcony railings shall be Yacal.
4. Concrete Floor fronting the street shall be finished with 12" x 12" Vigan tiles with
black pebb!e washout as border aft around.
B. WALLING:
1. All interior partitions shall be of 1/4" x 4' x 8' plywood. Joints of partitions shall have
a V-Cut Joint.
2. Interior paneling of second floor living room shall be ,. .. x 8'" pine wood:
3. Exterior walling shall be 1 .. x 6" V-cut tanguile.
4. CHB Walling shall be plastered and lined with 1/4• nail strip.
5. Toilet wall finish shaM be of 41 / 4" x 4 1/ 4" white glazed tiles.
C. CEILINGS:
1. AJI interior ceilings shall be of 1/ 4" x 4' x 8' plywood with mouldings.
2. Outside ceiling eaves shalt be of 1" x 4* T and G Kiln dried tanguile, with ai r Vents
covered with screen.
D. DOORS
1. All interior, bedroom doors shall be hollow core flushed door using plywood veneer.
2. All toilet doors shall have one side using waterproofed plywood facing inside. Bring
float coat flush with screeds or temporary guide strips placed to give true and even
surface at proper distance from the tile finished face. . ·
3. All exterior doors shall be solid panel. doors.
E. WINDOWS:
1. All windows shall be steel windows casement and awning type with simple· 1/2"
square wrought iron railings and secured with screen. ·
2. Other windows as indiCated in the plan shall be glass jalousie.
3. Glass and glazing: All windows shall be glazed on the outside with steel casement
· putty. Glass Shaft be puttied and ·face.:puttled in neat trim line manner, with steei ·
glazing ships. Use 3/16" thick cleaner gJasa.
4. Provide louvers below the ceiling and wall partition of bedrooms withoot exterior
window access.
F. FINISHING HARDWARES:
1. Butt Hinges-unless otherwise approved, Use brass, polished and finely finished,
mortise ball bearings 5 knuckles, non rising loose pins as manufactured by Stanley
or corbin for aU interior wood doors .
Use one and one-half pairs (3 pes.) of hinges per leaf of doors more than 1.8> m·
high, loose pin butt for room doors, fixed pin butt for closets.
C. LOCKSETS:
1. Cylindrical locks-all interior doors shall be equipped with high grade heavy or
standard duty Cas required) cylindrical locksets. The mechanism shall be heavy
gauge, cold rolled steel contained in sturdy cylindrical housing with all parts zinc
plated and dichromated for maximum resistance against rust and corrosion. Exposed
parts shall be brass heavily plated as manufactured by schlage, yale or approved
equivalent.
2. Keying and Keys-locks shall be keyed in sets ·and sub sets to provide maximum ex-
pansion. All sets shall be grand master keyed, and all entrance locks shall be great
grand master keyed per unit.
H. RIM BOLTS-Rim bolts and keeper shan be chrome f inish.
I. DOOR BUMPERS-where vvooden doors shall strike an object during opening, pro-
vide door bumpers.
J . Cabinet hinges shall be 'Washington" type or piano hinges heavily chrome or nickel
plated.
K. Cabinet and Closet catches shall be plastic roller types.
L. Provide Yale door closets for all swing exterior doors.
M. Provide heavy-duty head and foot bolt for the three (3; main entrance doors.
VI. ROOFING AND TINSMITHING WORKS
A. MATERIALS:
1. Roof Sheethlng -shatl be COfTUgatad galvanized Iron sheet guage 26.
Gutters, downspouts and Flashings shall be of guage .26 plain G.l. sheets ••
343
344
8. INSTALLATION WORKMANSHIP:
1. Sheathing - layout the roofing sheets in a manner that the side overlap faces away
from the prevailing wind. Provide less than 0.30 m develop on ends and not less·
than 1 1/2 corrugation on side laps on both sides. Secure the roofing sheets to pur-
fins by using G.l. rivets and 1" wide G.L Ties.
2. Gutter -a connection of gutters shall be made by using brass rivets and fully
jointed by nikolite lead. Provide a minimum of 1% slope towards the downspouts.
3. Oownspout-shail be 2" x 4'" plain G.l. sheets or colored pvc pipe as approved by
the Architect. ·
4. Flashing -shall be plain G.l. sheet over corrugated roofing of not less than 0.30
overlap extend G.l. Flashing until it covers the top portion of the firewall . .
VII. PLUMBING WORKS:
A. GENERAL:
1. All work shall be done under the direct supervision of a licensed and in
strict accordance with these specification and of the methods as prescnbed by the
National Plumbing Code of the Philippines.
B. MATERIALS:
1. Cast iron soil pipe for sewer and cement drainage pipes T and G ASTM C-14 and
ASTM-75 respectively.
2. Cast. iron sewer pipes and fittings-ASTM A-74 for soil, waste and vent pipes.
3. Caulking lead-Federal spec. OQ-56 or epoxy mix· A and B.
4. Bronze gate values- Federal spec. WW-V-58 . .
5. Galvanized iron pipes and fittings- Schedule 40·for all hot and cold water lines.
6. Water Closet-Saniwares brand. All toilets shall be of ventura model or compton
except the second floor owners toilet which shall be saternina or cadet type.
Vitreous china " price pfister" angle valves. White in color.
7. Lavatories- Saniwares Ventura and Diana (or new comrade) vitreous China, com·
ptete with all chromard finish ''price pfistor". Fittings and accessories.
8. Kitchen Sink-Northern Hill Classic cast iron acid-resisting enamelled finish inside.
With back complete with chromard finish U.S. fittings and accessories.
9 .. s·oap and Tissue holders-Vitreous China.
10. Towel bars and hooks-bras chrome plated.
11 . Drains: Ao0r drains shall be high grade strong, tough and even-grained metals with
adjustable screwed cover nickel plated.
12. Showerhead and Valve-
a. For owner's toilet, use P.F. with "marquis" 3-velve divester.
b. For other toilets-uSe shower head with plastic, -and 2-valve divester.
C. ALTERNATE MATERIALS:
1. Alternate material allowed, provided such alternate is approved by Architect such as
PVC pipes for sewer and drainage pipes.
2. Each length of pipe, fitting, trap, fixture and device used in plumbing system shall
have cast, stamped or indelibly marked on it, manufacturer's trademark or name
weight, type and classes or product when so required.
0. INSTALLATION:
1. Install plumbing fixtures free and open to afford easy access for cleaning.
2. Install plumbing fixtures as indicated on furnishing ali brackets, cleats,
plates and anchors required to support fixtures rigidly in place.
3. Install all fixtures and accessories in locations directed in accordance with manufac-
turer's instructions, minimizing pipe fittings.
4. Protect items with approval means to maintain perfect conditions. Remove work
damaged or defective and replace with perfect work without extra cost to OWNER.
5. All G.l. soil and drainage shall have a minimum slope of 1 o/o.
6. Vertical pipes shall be secured strongly by hooks to building framing. Provide suit-
able bracket or chairs at the floors from which they start.
Where an end or circuit vent pipe from any fixtures or line of fixtures is connected to
a vent line serving other fixtures, connection shall be at least four (4) feet 1.20 M
above floor in which fixtures are located, to prevent use of any vent line as a waste.
Horizontal pipes shall be supported by well secured strap hangers.
7. Connection of water closets to soil pipes shall be made by means of flanged Plates
and asbestos packing without use of rubber putty or cement.
8. Make all joints air and water-tight; for jointing pipes, the following shall be used.
a. For bell and spigot jointed cast iron and wao;te pipes, cau!k with oakum or jute
and soft pig lead.
b. Lead to cast iron pipes use brass ferrule wiped on lead side and caulked into ball
of cast iron soil pipe.
c. Concrete pipes: bell and spigot ot tongue and groove use yarning matorial and
cement mortar.
d. G.l. Pipes-Use Teflon Tape or white lead when tightening threaded joints.
E.
1. Provide correctly located opening of proper sizes where required in walls and floors
for passed of pipes. ·
2. All times to be embedded in concrete shall be thoroughly clean and free from all
rust, scale and paint.
3. All changes in pipe sizes on soil, wash and drain lines shall be provjded with reduc-
ing fittings or recesses reducers. For changes in pipe sizes provide reducing fittings.
4. High corrosive nature ground within site shall be taken into account by plumber.
Protective features shall be installed to prevent corrosion or all water pipes inStalled
underground.
5. Extend piping to all fixtures, outlets and equipment from gate valves installed in the
branch near the riser.
345
6. All pipes shatl be cut accurately to measurements, and worked into place without
springing or forcing.
7. Care shall be taken as not to weaker structural portion of the buildin9.
VIII. ELECTRICAL WORKS
346
A. SCOPE OF WORK:
1. The work consist of furnishing of all materials and labor, tolls and equipment and aH
necessary services to complete the electrical work ready for operation as shown in
the drawings and specified as follows:
a. Supply and installation of the main and sub-feeders from etectrical panelboards
up to service entrance.
b. Supply and installation of electrical panel boards, gutters, pull box and accesso·
nes box as required.
c. Supply of wiring devices porcelain receptacles, outlets, switches, etc. complete
with suitable cover plates as per specifications.
d. Supply and installation for all branch feeders circuits from panelboards up to all
outlets; swltches, or other loads; other wiring as shown in plan.
e. Installation of all owners fum,.hed materials such as lightings fixtures and elec-
trical control.
f. Grounding system as per EE requirements.
g. The contractor shall secure and pay for all electrical installation fees and permits,
but Owner shall pay for the necessary deposit.
B. CODES AND REGULATIONS:
The Electrical work shall be done in accordance .with .all the requirements of the latest
issue Philippine Eleotrical Code, with rules and regulations and Ordinances of the local
enforcing authorities of Baguio City and the requltements of the Local Power Company·
C. DRAWINGS AND SPECIFiCATIONS:
1. All installation shall be done in a work-manlike manner and shall include all neces-
sary works that may not be clearly indicated in the plans or schematic but necessary
to attain the purpose or intent of the design scheme.
2. The plan indicate the general layout of the system and the location of outlets are dia-
grammatic, and may be adjusted as required by the Architect before installation;
3. The contractor sha!l record all accomplishments as work progresses fn a set of ·
records plan. Three (3) sets of as built drawings shatl be duly signed and sealed by
the of construction shall be submitted for the owners and Ar·
chitect's references and maintenahce purposes.
D. MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP:
All materials to be supplied shaH be new and of high quality suitable for the location and
. purpose. Materials shaU be standard products of reputabte manufacturers.
E. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Power service: 115/230 volts, single phase, 3 wire solid neutral60 hertz._
. 2. Wiring methods: all power and control wiring shall be in rigid mild steei conduit.
3. Grounding:
Panelboards, raceways, gutters, metallic conduits and other non-current ·carrying
metal parts of .equipment, beaters, motor frames, shall be provided with effective
grounding connection to a grounded cold centef pipt,.
4. Main and Branch Feeders:
Conductors and complete conduit systems shall be provided as shown in drawings
and no change, in sizes shall be made without approval by the Architect or his
authorized representative.
5. Panel Board:
Furnish and installs the electrical panelboards as shown in plan. Disconnect switch·
es and magnetic starters shall be provided by motor equipment supplier.
6. Receptacles, swithces, Outlets:
a. Provide as indicated in drawings, the switches and receptacles with proper cover
plates. Switches shall be -of the quiet-matic type, -· " NATIONAL'' or approved
equal.
b. Receptacles shall be duplex with proper cover plates, rated 10 amp. min. 250
V.A.C., "Eagle" or approved equal.
c. Lighting outlet at ceiling shall be provided with 4" octagonal box ga. 18 min.
Connections from fixtures to boxe·s''be nade by using TW wire C.HB in flexibte
conduit.
7. Light Fixtures:
a. All lighting fixtures shaH be furnished by owner and installed by the Contractor.
Detail of fixture design when not standard shall be shown in the Architectural
Drawings.
b. Fluorescentifixtures if any shall be complete set with lamps and ballast ·of high
quality, Philips G.E. Philec or approved equal.
8. Wires and Cables:
a. Wires shall be Phelp Dodge, duraflex, Far East Wires or approyed equivalent.
b. No wires shal• be drawn into. a raceway until it is complete with all necessary fit-
tings, boxes· supports. Connections shall be securely fastened such as-not to·
loosen under vibration and normal strain. All connections, splices shall be made
with approved methods. '
IX. PAINTING WORK:
A. SCOPE c» WORK:
1. Consists of furnishing all items, articles, tools, equipment, labor scaf-
foldings, ladders, methods and other incidentals necessary and required fbr the sa-
tisfactory completion ·ot the work.
347
348
2. covers complete painting and finishing of wood, plasters, concrete, metal or other
surfaces exterior or interior of building.
B. GENERAL PAINTING and Surface Finishing shall be interpreted to and
sea,ers, primers, fillers, intermediate and finish coats, emulsions, varntsh, shellac, sta1n
or enamels.
1
. All paint and accessOI)' materials incorporated in or ? hpart thherdeoffb
subject to the prior approval and selection for color, ttnt, f1ms _or s a e Y t e r-
chitect.
2. In with the Architect's determination of color or

of
surface, the depth of any color or tint selected or required sha an no ms ance
subject for an additional cost of the owner.
3. Painting of all surfaces, except as otherwise specified shall be three (3) coat work,
one primer and a finish cost.
C. MATERIALS:
1. All paint materials shall meet the requirements of paint materials under classifica-
tion class as prepared by the institute of Science, Manila, use "BOYSEN" or
· "Fuller" Paints or equivalent.
2. All paint shall be recommended by the manufacturer for use intended and shalt
be delivered to the jobsite in original containers with seals unbroken and labels in-
tact.
3. Painting materials such as Linseed oil, turpentine, thinners, shellac, lacquer, etc.
shall be pure and of the highest quality obtainable and shall bear the manufacturer's
label on each container or package.
4. Except for ready mixed materials in original containers, ali mixing shall be done in
the jobsite. No materials are to be reduced, changed or mixed except as specified by
manufacturer of sa_id materials.
5. S.torage and Protection
The resident Architect shall designate a place for the storage of paint materials
it may be necessary to change this designated storage place, the contrac-
tor shall promptly more to the new location. The storage space shall be adequate
protected from damage and paint. Paint shall be covered at all times and safeguards
taken to prevent fire.
D. MATERIALS:
1. All surfaces to be painted shall be examined carefully before beginning any work
and see that all work of other trades or subcontractor's are installed in workmanlike
condition to receive paint, stain or particular finish.
2. Before proceeding with aoy painting or finishing, thoroughly clean, sand, and seal if
necessary by removigg from all surfaces all dust, dirt, grease, or other foreign sub-
Stances which would affect eithAr the satisfactory execution or permanency of the
work. Such cleaning of shall be done after the general cleaning executed under the
separate division of the work.
. .
..
3. No work shall be done l.lnder conditions that are unsuitable for the production of
good results, nor at any time when the plastering is in progress or is being cured, or
not dry.
4. Only skilled painters shall be employed in the work .. All wo!i(manship shaH be ex-
ecuted in accordance with the best acceptable practices.
5. Finish hardware, lighting fixtures, plates and other similar items shall be removed by
workmen skilled in these trades, or otherwise protected during painting operati<>.ns
and reposition upon completion of each space.
6. Neither paint nor any other finish treatment shall be applied over wet or damp sur-
faces. Allow at least two 121 days for drying preceeding coat before applying
succeeding coat.
7. Begin work only when resident Architect has inspected and approved prepared u r ~
face otherwise no credit for coat applied shall· be given. The contractor shall as8ume
responsibility to recoat work in question. Noti.fv Architect when particular coat ap-
plied is complete, ready for inspection and approval.
E. PREPARATION OF SURFACES:
1. For bricks, concrete, cement or concrete blocks; cut out scratches, cracks abrasion
in plaster surfaces, openings and adjoining trim as required. Fill flustl adjoining
plaster surface. When dry; and smooth and seal before priming coat application.
2. Tint plasterpriming coat to approximate shade of final coat. Touch up section spots
in plaster or cement after first coat application, before applying second coat, to pro-
duce even result in finish coat. Secure color schedules for rooms before priming
walls.
3. In cases of presence of high alkali conditions, neutfalize surfaces by washing with
zinc sulphate solution (3 pounds to a gallon of water). Allow to dry thoroughly,
brush free of crystals before priming.
4. Prime with mixture of equal parts by volume ot l & S Portland cement paint and
5244 improved Alkali proof. seal or its equivalent as may be approved by the Archi -
tect.
5. Brush one or more finish coats of l & S thinned if necessary with mineral spirits or
turpentine.
F. WOODWORK TO BE PAINTED:
1. Touch up knots, pitch, streaks, sappy spots with shellac.
2. Do necessary puttying of nail holes, cracks etc. after first coat with putty of color to
match that of finish. Bring putty with adjoining surface in neat, wotkmanlike a n ~
ner.
3. Wipe paste wood fillers, applied in open grain wood, when "set", across wood
grain. Then with grafn to secure clean surface.
4. Cover surfaces to be stained with uniform stain coat.
5. Tiny undercoats of paint and enamel to same or approximate coat shade.
6. Sand smoothly woodwork to be finished · with enamel or vamish·i clean surface
before proceeding with first coat application. Use fine sand paper between coats on
enamel or varnish finish applied' to wood to produce even .smooth finish.
349
350
G. VARNISHING:
1. Sand wood surfaces with fine grade sand paper.
2. ·Wipe duSt off with ct8an Cloth dampened with lacquer. ininner
3. Apply wood filler as per manufacturer's specifidations.
4. Apply approved stain in uniform .coats until desired shade is achieved.
5. Apply finish coat as per manufacturer's specifications.
X. FIRE CODE REQUIREMENTS
AU interior wooden structures shall be applied with resist·A-Fiame Fire Retardant solution
applied as per manufacturer's specifications. All other requirement as of the fire code of the
Philippines as far as they relate to this project shall likewise be complied with.
GEORGES. SAL VAN
Architect
' .
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Materials of ConstJuction . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . • . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . Smith, Ronald
E & V Far East Trading •• .. .. .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .. Brochure
Campos Rueda ................. ; . .. . . .. .. . . .. . ... . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
Republic Glass Corpc:ntion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
Milwaukee International Marketing Inc. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . Brochure
Johns Manville (Membranetype) .. .. . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . Brochure
Weatherkote-Shel .. .•. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .... .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . Brochure
Cemvathane Membnll1e ..... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
Chevron S.F. U.S.A. ............................................................ Brochure
Mutytan Paste ................................... :. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. Brochure
Metat Forming Corporation . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Brochure
Etemit Corporation ............................................................. . Brochure
Phitsteel Corp. .............................................. ....................... Brochure
Metal Forming Corporation .. . .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . Brochure
ERA Industries Inc. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .. Brochure
Sunset . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. .. • . . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . Magazine
Practical Electricity .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . . Audels
Mechanical and Electrical Equipments for Buildings 6th Edition . . . . . . . . . Me Guinness,
Stein, Reynolds
Sinclair Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product Catalogue
Sherwin-Williams . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . Product Catalogue
Boysen Paints .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. Product Cat8/ogue
Dutch Boy Paint . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . Product Catalogue
Fuller Paints . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . Product Catalogue
Stenrnan, A-8, U.S.A............................................................. Catalogue
EFCO Manufacturing Com. Pty. LTD. . . . . . ... ... ... . . . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . Catalogue
American Hardware Corp., California .. .. . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. Brochure
Shell Philippines ............... :. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. .. Brochure
3 5 ~
352
A
Accelerators .. .. . ... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. ........ ... , . . . . . . 5
Accordfon door ... ......... .. .. .. .. ............ .. . ... 162
Acoustical board . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Acoustical tiles . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . 274
Adhesion types .. .......... .. . ... ... , .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Acrylic floorfinish . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 128
Air drying .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . 36
Air-entraining agents . .................. ....... . ... 5
Aggregates used in concrete . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Aluminum . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .... ... . .. , .. . . . 83, 61, 298
Alkyd paints . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . ... . .. . .... . . . . . . . . . 133
Alloy Steels . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Aluminum shingles . . . . . . .. . . .. ... .. . . . . ... . . . . . . 290
Aluminum siding . . . . ... . ... . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . 260
"Anav" proofing . .. . .. .. ... . .. .. . ........ .... ... .. .. 117
AnchOJ type .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. 265
Animalglue ....... ....... ... .. .. ... ......... ......... 78
Architecturallamp.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 217
Ardex lightweight corrugated sheets . . . . . ... . ... 298
Artificial stone veneer . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Asbestos... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . 90
Asbestos-cement sheeuoofing . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . 298
Asbestos-cement-siding and
siding shingles .. . ...... ..... ........ ..... ... 259, ·289
Asbestos fittings . . .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. . .. ... . . .... . . .. .. 196
Asbestos pipe .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. ... ... . . .. . . ... . . ... . . 196
Aspt\alts .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 52
Asphalts, cement .. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. 78
Asphah paving ument ......... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Asphalt shingles ..... ....... . ......... ... , .. .. .. .. 288
Asphaltic mastic flooring .. .... ........ :.. .. .. .. . .. . 232
Asphal1ic tiles.............. .............. .............. 233
Automatic door closer ..... ....... .. ...... .. 178
B
Balloon type ceiling . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 255
Banauedesign .............. ....... ...... . ........... 304
Barrelbolt ...... ........ .............. ... ...... ........ 173
Batts ......... .... ..... ............ .... .... ... ........... 88
Bibrous loose fill . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 187
Bi-folding door .. ........ ". ... .. ... .... .. .. ........ 163
Blanket insulation .................... , .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 87
Block flooring.. .. ....... .... ...... .... . .. .............. 224
Block or rigid slab insulation .. ,.. .. ...... ...... . .... 88
Blood-aluminum gule ....... ·............ .. .. . .. ... . 78
Blow moulding process . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 72
Board and bettens ...... .. .. .. . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 260
Bolts and nuts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . 59, 170
Bonding agents ..... ................ ...... , .. .. .. . .. . 7
Bored lock .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 176
Bored latch........ ...... .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . 177
Bowl .. ......... ......................... ........ ........ 206
INDEX
Bracket ........ .... ... .. ... ........ .. .. ............ ... 186
Brick.. .... ...... ............... ..... .... 242,264, 229, 16
Brick veneer . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. 258
Brick bonds ... .. ..... .. . .... .. . .. ... .. .. .... . .. .. .. 17
Brick texture .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 16
Bright plate. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2fJ7
Building boards, stone ........... ...... .. , .. .. . 42, 24
Bullet latch .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 187
Built-up roofing .. .... .. ....... ....... ........ .... . .... 300
Bumpers........ .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Bush-hummer .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. ... ... .. .. .. .. . .. 266
Bush-hummer concrete ... .. ....... .. ... , .. .. .. . .. 268
Bush·hummerfinish ... ......... .. ..... ..... .. .... .. 268
But hinge .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 164, 181
By-passing sliding door ........... , .. .... .. ...... ..... 163
c
Cabinet doors. . . .. . ...... .. .. .... . .. .. ..... ....... . .. .. 100
Calendaring process ... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... ..... ... .. 73
Casein glue .. .. .... .......... . .. .. .... ............ 78
Cast iron pipes and fittings . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 190
Cast stone .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . 10
Casting ........ ..... ..... .. ......... . . .. .. ... .. .. ... 73
Cathedral and figured glass .... .... ... .. ... ..... .. . 65
Ceiling board .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. ...... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 278
Cellular glass insulation...................... ... . .... 89
Cellular concrete blocks .. ............... ,. ... . .... 11
Cellulose cement .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. ... 78
Cement tile .......... .. .. ............ ·..... .. . .. .. . . . .. .. 226
Cements......... .......... .. ............ .... .. ......... • 2
Cemvathene brand .. .. ....... . .... ... ...... , . .. .. . 101
Ceramic mosaic . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Ceramic veneer .. .. .. . .. .... . .. . .. .... . .. .. .. .. . 264: 21
Ceramic wall tile.... .... .... .... ... .. .... ........ ..... 244
Chain door fastener .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . 173
Chesterton descaler and chemical cleaner .... .. t'lfJ
Chesterton paintstripper .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. 12JJ
Chesterton urethane enamels ..... ....... .. ... ... .
128
Chipboard ........ ........ .................. . ...... ... .
46
ChiOi'inated-rubber adhesive ..... .. ............ ..
78
CIM ............ ....... ....... . ............ ........ ..... . 110
Clear silicone water repellant .. .. ....... . ... .. .. . .
li6
Clover design .. . .... .... ........ .. ...... .. .. ..... . ... . .
223
Coal tar pitch .. . .... .... .... .............. , ........ .. . .
52
Cold galvanizing compound ............. .... ...... .
124
Cold-rolled sheets . ............. .. ....... ... .... .. .. ..
56
Color coding . ..... ....... .............. .. ... ... , . .... .
195
Colored concrete floOJs ............... ......... .. .
22S
Colourless ...... .... ...... ... . ..... .... ...... ...... .. ..
1.20
COITIPI'essive molding ....... .. ........ . ...... .. .. . .
73
Compressive strength test ......... ............. ..
4
Concrete block ... .. ................... .. ........ . .. ..
9
Concrete colouring agents ............. . ...... .. ..
7
Concrete floor slab . .. .. . .. .. .. . . ........ .. .... .. .
224
Concrete form paper .. ... , .................. . ....... .
50
1 ~ .
Concrete roofing tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Concrete milces . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . 62
Concrete water proofers . ...... ....... .. ... . .... . :. 6
Conduit fittings . ... . . .. . . . .. .. . .... .... . ... . ..... .... . 215
Consuuction equipments .......... .... . .. 12
Control projectand manage .... ... . ... 129
Convenience outlet s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Copper . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . 56, 62, 297
Cork board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 47
Cone tile flooring . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 236
Corrugated asbestos (4-VI . .. . .. . . .. .. .. ... .. .. . 299
Corrugated glass . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Corrugated plastic sheet ... ...... . .. . . .. . . 303
Curtain wall . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .... .. .. . . .. .. ..... 273
Cushioning paper .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 49
D
Damproofers .. .. ............ ... .. ... .. .... ... ... ..... 6
Decorative or architectural glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Decking .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 286
Dispersal agents .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. 5
Door stoppers .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . . . . 188
Driers .... . . ........... . .. ....... .. ....... ...... . 132
Dry-standpipe system .. ............ .. ... .. .. .. . .. .. 122
Dutch door ............. .... ................... .. .... . ... 164
E
Elastomark product .... .... .. .. . ........ .... ........ 103
Elastomastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Elastomers .. ................... .... .. .. .. ...... .. ...... 82
Electrical wires ......... ................. ........ .. .. . 216
Enamels . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 136
End matching... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
English bond .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 243
Envelope paper ........... .... ... .. .. ..... ... .. ... .. .. 50
Epoxy-resin formulation .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .... . .. 81
EpoxyresinL . .. ........ : ............... .. ......... 79,235
Estimated qualities of material$ required . . . . . . 106
Estimates .............. .. ............ .. ... ......... ... 307
Expandable bead molding ........ ...... -.. .......... n
Exterior & interior painting .... .. .. .......... . ..... 145
Extefior painting .... .. ... ... ...... .. ......... .. .... . 139
Exteriorbrown ....... ............... ........... ,..... 120
Extrusion forming . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. ... .. .. 73
Eyeandturnbuckle .. .. . .... .. ................ ...... 172
F
Fastpinhinge ............... ..... .......... .... ........ 165
Ferrous ........... ............ ......... .......... ...... · 56
Fiber glass .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 273
Fire IJroofing .. ...................... ...... .. .... .. .... 121
Fire proofing paper .. . .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ...... ...... 50
Flemish bond ........ .... ... , ...... .. .. ..... .... ...... 243
Float glass .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . • .. .. .. .. .. 64
Flocculate .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. . .. . 5
Floorsealer.............. .. .. ........... ... . . . . .. . 121
Floor varnishes .............. ...... .. .......... ·....... 134
Fluid .. .. .. .. .... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. ................... !16, 102
Flush counter hinge .......................... ... _.. . 184
Flush bolt ....... ...... .... .. ..................... ..... 173
Flush door ................ ............ ·----.. .. ........ 18>
Foamed-in-place insulat ion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 90
Foamed plastics.......... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73
French door .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 164
Friction latch .. . ...... ................. -............. 184
Full surface . .. .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . 166
Functional blocks .... ..... .. ..... ..... .. ... ..... .... 68
Fuses ....... .......... .... ... ... ...... . .. ... ...... . ... . 214
G
Galvanized iron protection system .. .. . . .. 123, 125
Galvanized metal water tanks .. .. .. .. .. . .. 125
Galvanized sheet metal .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . 252
Galvanized steel pipe fittings .. .. .... ... ... .. . 199
Galvanizedsteel ..... ... .. .. .. ... ...................... 294
Galvestos .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. 298, 263
Garden wall . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . 243
Gas forming agents .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . 8
Glass.......... ..................... ...... ..... 64,251,268
Glass blocks .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 68
Glass roofing .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 303
Glazed tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Glazed tile accessories .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 244
Glue laminated lumber .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . 37
Glues .. ...... . .. .. ......... ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ........ 78
Glue uses In laminating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Grab bar .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. ... .. . .. 186
Grande series (vitrif ied tiles I ............ .... ........ 227.
Granules . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .... .. .. .. .. . . 87
Gypsum.. ............. ...... ......... . . ....... . 241 , 46
Gypsum .... ....... ................. :.. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 29
precast wall panels ...... . ... ..... .. ....... 31
GY!M!Um tile .. ... ........... ...... ........... ....... ... 30
H
Hand split and resawed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '1Jf7
Hard board ... .... .'........ .. ... ........ .. .. . .. .. 44, 248
Hard board siding . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . 268
Hardwood .. ... .. ......................... ...... . 248,34
Hardeners ..... ........ .......... ..................... . 5
Hasp ...................... ............................. 1n
Hasp lock ............. . ..................... .. .. ...... 1n
Heat absorbing plate glass . .. .. • .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 66
Heavy sheet glass . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 67
Hexagonal random . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 223
Hinges for cabinets ... .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 181
Hook and eves ..... ·.... .... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 187, 172
arm pull .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . 187
Injection molding process. ..................... .... . . n
Integral type ... : .......... ..... .. .... ... ..... . "...... 95 ·
Interior worl< (painting 1.. ...................... 147, 153
Intumescent paint ......... .. .. ......... . ........... .. 133
lnsutating fiber board ......... .. , .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. 46
Insulating fiber board siding.. .... ............... . 261
Insulating glass . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 67
Insulating paper.. ..... ........... .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 49
Invisible hinges .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. • .. .. . • .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . 183
J
Joinery brackets ........ ............ ........ ....... _ 171
Junction boxes .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 213
353
K
Kalantaa . . . • . • . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 299
Kev pedloctt .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. 1n
Kiln-drying .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . • . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . :rJ
Knobs .... ................ ............................... 185
L
Lacquers .. ... .. .... .. . ............ .. ,... .. ....... ....... 135
Laminating paper .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 49
Laminating process .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 73
Laminated safety glass . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 66
354
Latch ... .. .... ..... ...... .... .... .... ...... .. .. .. ..... .. 174
Lavatories .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 206
lead .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . '191. 62
lift latch . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. .... ....... .... .. ... 175
Ught diffusing block .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 68
light direction block .. ....... . .. ... .... . .. ... . .... .. 68
Lignin .. ..... ...... .... ...... .... . .... ..... ... .. ... ...... 44
Limplt $PT8Y .. . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 2n
Linoleum,.. .. ................ . .... ... ..... .......... .. .. 236
Linseed oil ..... ... .. .. .... .. .. .. :. :.. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 82
liquid asphalt. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. 80
Liquid fillet .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. 137
Liquid paving asphalt .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 53
Liquid plastic ............. . ......... ... .. ... .. .... ..... 303
Liquid silicones . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. . .
lockeet .. .. .. ....... ..... .. ... .. ...... .. .... .. .... ..... 174
logs ............ ...... ... ..... ..... ...... .... .... .. .... 269
Long span roofing .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . '194
Loose fill •. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . 86
Loose joint hinges .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. · 166
Loose pin hinge .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 166
luminescent paint.. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 133
M
Magnetic latch . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . 184
MaGnetic padlock .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . ... . . ... . .. . .. 1n
Magnesite flooring .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 235
Manganese steel . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . 16
Marble . .. ...... .. .. ... ... .. .. .... ..... .... ............... 237
Marine and spar varnish .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 134
Mariwasa products .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 231
Mas1ics .. .... ... ... . ...... ... ... ... .. .. .. ...... .. ...... . 82
Mastic compound .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . 82
Melamine resins .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 19
Membfane types ... .... ......... ..... ..... :.. . .. . .. . 96
Metal . .'. : .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 261
Metal wall . .. .. ... .. . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . 273
Metallic paint... .. .. ....... .... ..... .... ..... .... ...... 133
Melano design .... . .'.. ...... .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. 303
Mineral fiber .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 273
Mineral fibefground .. .. ...... , .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 48
Mocfrfied natural .................... ....... ......... 135
Moisture wood . ... ....... . . ...... .. .... .... . : .. .. .. .. 35
Monel mecal . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. Z!¥1
Mortar bond 18
N
Nails ......... ... ...... .. ...... .. .... .. .. ....... .... .. .. lEIS
Natural-resin varnishes ...... ... .. .. .. .... .. . . ....... 134
Natural rubbetadhesives ... ... .. .... .. ......... :: .. 18
Natural stone veneer.. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 258
Neoprane:.robber adhesive , .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . 19
Nidc.le stHI .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. 56
Night latch ...... ..... .'................... .... .... ....... 174
Nitrile or buna N rubber adhesive . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. 78
Non-ferrous metals .. .. . .. ..... :. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. . .. . 253
Non grain-raising stains ...... .. .. , . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 136
Non-skid .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 81, 235
Nuts ... ......... .. ........ .. .. .... . ..... .... .... .. ... .. 170
0
Offset hinges .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 181
Oil paint .. . ... . .. . ... .. ... . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. ... ... ... 132
Oils and turpentines .. ......................... ·.... .. 81
Olive knuckle hinge . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... . . . . .. . ... .. 166
Open web steel joints .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . 59
Ovemead rolklp garage door . .. . ... .. ... .. .. . .. . . 162
Overhead swing. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
p
Paints .. ..... .. .. .... .... . .. .. .. .. .. ......... 132, 157,254
Panel door ..... ... .. ..... .... ...... ... ....... .. . ...... ·. 161
Panic exit device . .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 187
Pans and domes . . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 60
Paper board . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. 47
Paper holder ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ....... ....... ... ..... .. 210
Parquet flooring .. .. .. .. .... :.. ... ..... .. .. ..... ...... . 2.23
Particle board....... .... ..... . .... ..... .... ...... .. .... 46
Paste fillers .. .... .... .. .. ...... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Pneumelle hinge .. .... . .. .. .. :.. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. 166
Pebble, washout .... . .. . .. .. .. .. . ............ 236, 247
Penetrating oil stains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Picture glass .. .. .. .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 87
Pigment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . 132
Pigment wiping stains . .. ... .. ... : .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. .. 137
Pitches .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 52., 284
Pivot hinges .. .. .. ..... .... .... .. .... ...... . .. .. 182, 167
Plain concrete wall . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. 246
Place ondula .. .... .......... .... .. ....... ... :.. .... ... 299
Plasters .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 29
Plastic$ . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 72., 253, 268, 82, 303
Plastic fittings .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. 196
Plastic foamboards .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 48
Plastic pipes . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 125
Plastic roofing .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 303
Plastic terrazo .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 235
Plate glass . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 64
Plywood . .. ... ... .... . .... ....... .. ....... .. ... ... 240,248
Plywood exterior finish .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 261
. Polybutylena fitting IP. e I .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 196
Polyvinyl chloride fittings I P .V .C.I ... .. . .. .. . .. 196
Polyvinyl-resin adhesives ....... . .. ... ....... ...... , 19
coatings .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 134
Polyethylene film .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 114
Polyerethanefloorvamistl .. .... .... .. .. ... :.. .... 12B
Polysutfide polyrned .... .. .. .. ....... .. .. .. .. .. ·.. ....
.. .. .... .... .... ............. ... . 213
admixtures .. ..... ... . ........... .. : .. .. . · 9
Pnenolic Resin glues........... .. .. .. .... .. .... ... ... 79
Precast facing slabs .. ... ... .. ...... ........ .. .. .. . .. 10
Precast concrete ..... ........... , .. . .. .. .. . .. . 266, 247
Precast n0081<id concrete .. .... .. .... : . .. . , . . . . . . . . . 225
Pre-1uated lumbef .. .. .. . .. . .. ..... . .. ... .. . .. .. .. . .. . 121
. -
Price list ............. . .. ..... .. . . .. . . . . . . 114
Products name interior and exteriof paint . .... . 138
Projection bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Prop8tler oupid&r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 223
Properties of wood .... .. .... ...... ·:·............... 42
Properties o'f caulking materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Plywood ... .... ....... .. .... ..... ... .... ... .. .... ... .. .. 42
' Pulls .. ............. . ..... ..... . ... . ............... ... . 186
a .
Quarry tiles ................. . .. ......... ..... ...... .. .. 228
R
Rabbeted lock .. . .. .. . ... .... . .. ...... ... . .. ... . .... . 175
Random design . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 223
Random finish .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 226
Rat-proofing .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . 123
Rattrap bond .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 243
Reflective glass .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 64
Reflective insulation .. . .. . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 89
Regular hollow blocks .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 246
Reinforcing steel . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 58
Rentc)l(il termite proofing ... ·.. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. . 119
Resilience .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 222
Resilient flooring . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 236
Resin ...... ....... ........ ........ .............. .. ...... 133
RMOI'cinol resins .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. 79
Retarders .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 5
Revolving door ..... ........... :.. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 163
Rigid insulation .. .. .. . .. .. . • .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 89
............. ..... .. ....... ..... ........ .... . .. . 162
Rolled roofing .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 302
Rolled and rough cast glau .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 65
Rolled structural shapes . .... .... .. .......... .. .... fil
Roller latch ...... ................................. . , . . .. 176
Root stylet; .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . 282
Roof slopes in run, rise .. .. . ..... ... .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 284
Roofing papers .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 48
Roofing tilts .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 96
Rotation of molding .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 72
Rubber flooring .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 236
Rust-proofing. ...... .. .... .. ............. .. . 123
s
Sandblasting ........ .. .. .... .. , .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. . 247
Saturated felts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Sawlli or chevron .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. . .. .. 224
Screws ...... .................... ..... ......... ........ 189
Screen door latch .. .... ........... : ................. : tn
Sealers .. .. ...... .... .... . .. ........ .. .. ...... .. ... . 79, 137
Semi-vitrified .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. 228
Sempura tile .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 300
Set-inhiting agents . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 7
Sheeting........ ..... . ........ ..... .... ........ ......... 285
S"-t glass ..... ..... .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . . . 64
....... roofing ........ ........ ...... .... ... .... 293
Sheet ping .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 57
Sheet steel .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . S>
Shellac ........ .............. ...... . ................ ... 135
Shop lumt. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. . .. 36
sna--...- .................... . : .. .. ....... .. ..... .. 210
....... ... ........... ... ...................... ..
Sliding cabinet doors ................... ......... ..
Sliding door ................ ......... ............... ..
Sliding door tracks ... .... .......... ........... ... ..
Sliding pocket door ......... .... .. ...... ........... .
Sopa holders ............... ........ ......... ........ ..
Sockets ....... ............ ................. .......... ..
Sodium silicate, adhesives .. .............. ...... ..
Soft wood ................... .. ... ...... :........ 34,
Solid glass brick . .. .. .... .... .. ... .. ... . .... .......... .
Solidwood ....... .... ....... .... .......... ........... .
137
184
163
UKI
164
210
214
79
222
68
240
Solignum .. .................... ....................... 120
Special cast iron fittings . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . • 194
Specifications when buying lumber .. .. .. .. .. .. 37 ·
Specifications sample form.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Speclticalions for 3-ply 15 lbs. asbest06
felt on asbestos cement for con<:rete
gutter .................. .. .................. ....... 98
Specification for
footing ........ ...... ............ : .. .. .. .. . 99. 100, 98
Specification tor concrete tank ........ ..... 101, 110
Sprayed-on acousticalt"l'l<lterials .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 276
Spraytex . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 251
Spring hinge$.... ...... ...... ..... .. .. ..... ............ 166
Spring door closer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
SprinldM syst"em .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 121
Stack bond....... .... ........ .. . .. .. .. .. .... ......... .. 243
Stains ......... _....... .. ....... .... ...... ... ...... ....... 136
Stainless steel .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . . 252, 273, 247
Staples .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 168
Starch and dextrin glues.... ........... ............ ... 78
Star diamond .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 224
Star red design .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. ..... • • 22;J
Steel ..... .. ............ . ....................... 252; 29i(W
Steeipipe ...... .............. ............. : ........... fil
Steel strapping ........ ... ..... . ... ................. .. ... ... 59
Steel studs .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. 60
Steel wire .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ·59
Stones .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 246, 25
Straight split shakes ... .... .. . .. .. .. ..... ............ 288
Straw board .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . 88, 48
Strip flooring ...... .. .... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. . 222
Stucco ......... ............ .... ... ....... ...... ..... .. 256
Structural insulation board .. .. . .. .... .. .. .... ... .. 88
Strucrurallumber ...... ... ............. ....... .... .. 36
Surface bolt . .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . 173
Surface sealing agents .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . · 8
SuSDended ceiling . ... ..................... ........... 272
Switches.. . ...... ... . .. ... ... ..... ... . ... .. .... . .. .. .... 212
Switch box .. .. ....... ...... ...... ............. . .. ... ... 216
Swinging door .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 161
Synthetic .... ................. , . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 247, 2fj}
Synthetic plastic products . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 181
Synthetic-resin varnishes ... . .. .. ........ ·.... . . . . . . . 136
T
Taper split ............................................. 'JH7
Tar .... .... ......... ...... .... .. .... .............. .... ... 52
Tempered plate glass .. . .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 66
Tennis Court surfacing ........... ................... 127
Temaplate .................................... .._ .... :.. 2fij7
T&rracotta .................. ........ .... 264,290,259
Terranoflooring .... ...... , ... ...... ..... ........... 233
355
356
Thermal insulation........ .......................... 86
Thermosetting plastics .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. 72
Thin solution ofanimal . .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. 81
Thinner .............................................. :. 132
Thoroseal .............. ,.............................. 113
Threaded rod .................... :.............. . . .. . . 188
Tile . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 18, 204
Tower. rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 210
transfer molding ................. :.. .. .. . .. 73
u
Unglazed1ile .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... .. . .. .. 226
Unit of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Urea formal-dehyde resin glues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
v
Vaporbarriers ............. ..
Vapor barrier paper .. .. .. . .. .. .... ..
Vitreous colored plate ............................ .
Vitrified clay pipes ............................. .
Vitrified floor tiles ...................... .
Vinyl ...................... : ................ 234, 235,
114
49
66
197
'27
303
w
Wallcovering .......................................... 249
Wallroof ................................................ 255
Wallpaper ....................................... 50,249
Washers ................................................ 170
Washout finishes .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 267
Water closets.......................................... 204
Water proofing treatment... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Water plug . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . 112
Water saver .... ........ ................ ... .. ......... 111·
Water soluble stains . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 136
Water reducing admixtures .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 6
Wax compounds .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... .. . 80
Wears creed . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 126
Weatherkote ............................... 103,105
Weathering steel . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 56
Welded wire fabric .......................... •....... 58
Windowglass ....................................... 67
Wired glass . ......... ............ . . ......... 65,301
····'··td .................. .. ......................... 34
Wooapreservation ............................. 119
'.•·,od shakes, -.. 262, 286, 287
·,.·._. : '·' ·. ;; :·'· .. .. .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. . '240
i;r;-.r: ............ -.. .. .. .. . 260
. -: ..... !'' -.-...... •. • . . . . . .. ... 248
Wrought iron...... ........ .... ....... .... 56