ARCHITECTURAL

UTILITIEs· 1
PLUMBING AND SANITARY
• THE NEW LADDER
TYPE CURRICULUM
GEO'RGE SALINDA SALVAN ... fuap
• ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
College of Engineering and Architecture .
Baguio Colleges Foundation 1980-1988
• First and lone graduate of B.S. Architecture, 1963
North of Manila, St. louis University Baguio City
• Former instructor 1965-1969 at St. louis University
• Recipient of various ACE certificates. Architects Continuing
Education Program
• A licensed Architect, active practitioner and
a licensed building constructor, inventor and a board topnotcher.
• Past president of United Architects P ~ . · • s . Baguio Chapter 1982 and 1963
• Elected National Director; UAP, Regionc..· District I for the year 1987.
• Conferred the title of "FELLOW" United 1-. ·-:hitects Phils.
College of Fellows, October. 1988
JMC PRESSY INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Copyright © 1986 by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
and
GEORGES. SALVAN
All rights reserved.
No part of this t>ook may be reproduced in any
manner without permission of the publisher.
FIRST EDITION
ISBN: 971-11-0322-2
Published and Printed by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
Distributed by:
GOODWILL BOOKSTORE
Main Office: Rizal Avenue, Manila
P.O. Box 2942. Manila
Dedicated to all future
Architects and Engineers
The hope for a functional, comfortable
and convenient designs for better living.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of this book was made into reality through the patient and hardworking
artist and graduate of architecture. Johnny T. Camsol who spent most of his time with the
illustrations and all the layouts of the dummy.
Special thanks and mention is also acknowledged to the Artists who helped in the illustrations
notably, Clamor C. Lecitona from NU, Fermin Balangcod, Jerry Jun Suyat, Roy Pagador,
Frederick Palasi, and Aey Puna, all from Baguio Colleges Foundations.
To those who lent unselfishly their books, like Dean Aveline Cruz of BCF. Engineering
Department, also to to Mr. Val Gutierrez, and to the BCF library through Ms. Macabior. for
mderstanding my late returns of books.
To Mr. Luis V. Canave who guided me on the complete process of publishing and printing of
books and to Mr. Francisco C. Malicsi, Teresita G. Espinosa, Eduardo C. Villanueva and
Enrico P. Gomez for their untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts typewritten by
Ms. Thelma T. Villareal , in computerized typesetting. The many students of architecture
whose curiositY about and interest in the Plumbing and Sanitary its realization in book form
have been a source of inspiration and lastly the writer wishes to acknowledge his heavy
indebtedness to the authors listed in the bibliography.
GEORGES. SALVAN
Baguio City, Philippines
v
PREFACE
The Architect as the prime professional; functions as the creator, coordinator and author of
the building design with which a project will be cQnstructed.
Architects has to be knowledgeable in a number of fields in addition to those that are con-
cerned mainly with building design for him to properly assist and serve his client.
It is not expected that the Architect will actually perform all the services, Rather he is to act
as the agent of the client in procuring and coordinating the necessary services required by a
project.
After the design is approved, the complete construction drawings and specifications are
prepared. It is here where the specifications and detailed construction drawings setting forth
in detail the work required for Plumbing/ Sanitary and other service-connected equipment is
done.
Since the curriculum for B.S. Architecture was revised, there is a need for a more Compre-
~ e n s i v e Study of this subject in Plumbing and Sanitation.
This book is intended for Architectural and engineering students but nevertheless offers in-
formation and reference materials for Practicing Professionals. It is arranged in 'a sequential
manner so as to guide the reader from the Water Supply, Fire Protection, Storm Water Sys-
tem to Sanitary drainage systems. To make this book more complete is the addition of the
chapter on RefLJse handling and Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling, from here recycling of
Sewage Water is also included.
Finally the specifications of the different Plumbing Fixtures for each room is included.
Each subject matter is accompanied immediately with the corresponding illustrations for
clarity and the excerpts from the plumbing code is also included.
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 WATER SUPPLY ....... .................. ............. ............ ............ ......... .
Water, 2
Water Supply, Equipment, Pumps, 4
Water Tanks, 8
Household Water Supply, 14
Water Pipes and 15
of Pipes, 26
Flanges, 29
Valve and Control, 30
Hot Water Design and Zoning, 35
Water Tank Capacities
Chapter 2 FIRE PROTECTION .. ...... ................................. ............ .. ........ ...... 43
Chapter 3
Planning, 44
High Rise Fire Safety, 44
Stand Pipes and Hoses. 46
Sprinklers, 49
STORM WATER SYSTEM
Drainage, 54
Roof Leader, 59
Chapter 4 PLUMBING SYSTEM .... ..... ....... ......... .. ... ... ........... .... .. ...... ....... .. .
Sanitary Drainage System, 64
Elements of the Sanitary System, 65
Pipes Fittings and Accessories, 68
National Plumbing Code, 73
Traps, 84
Vents, 90
Air Gaps and Vacuum Breakers, 87
Sanitary Drain, 100
House Sewer, 101
Inspection and Test, 101
53
63
Chapter 5 SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM ............ ......... .. ..... ....... ................ 103
Several Types, 104
Septic Tank, 106
Sewage Disposal, 110
Sewage Treatment, 113
ix
Chapter 6 REFUSE HANDLING AND SOLID WASTE ... ..... ................ .. ....... 117
Chapter 7
Management in Buildings, 118
Recycling Solid Waste, 121
Waste Disposal, 121
Solid Municipal Waste."123·
Liquid Municipal Wastes, 128
Septic Tanks, 128
Industrial Waste,
RECYCLING OF WATER
Sewage Treatment Works, 131
Recycling at N.Y. Institute of Technology, 134
Santee Water Reclamation Plant, 136
Biological Compost Toilet, 138
1 ~
Chapter 8 PLUMBING FIXTURES .. ....... .............. ,. .. . .. .. ..... .. .. ........... ............ 143
Water Closet, 144
Lavatories, 157
Bidets, 166
Urinals, 167
Bath Tube, 1®
Bathroom Accessories, 171
Kitchen Sinks. 172
Chapter 9 SANITATION, INSECT, RODENT AND
X
VERMIN CONTROL ......... .......... ..... ......... ........... ..... ..... .. .. ,....... 177
Control Method Against the Mosquito, 1 7 ~
The field for drainage, 178
Ditching, 178
Filling. 179
Oil as a larvicide, 179
Oil used, 180
Application, 180
Rodent Control, 181
General Methocis of Control, 181
Poisoning, 181
Trapping: 181
Fumigation, 182
Ratproofing, 182
R ~ t stoppage, 183
Pest Control, What You Should Know, 1afi
APPENDICES ...... .. .. .. .. .. ... ........ .... .. ...... .... ... ... ..... , ... , .. ..... .. .... ..
191
BIBLIOGRAPHY .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .... . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .... .. .. . .. . . . .. . 201
INDEX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
' I
0
;
0 0 0 0 0 0
' ' '
0
I
0 0 0 0 0
' '
0 0
' ' '
0 0 0 0
' 0 ' o o '
0 0
o • I • • • o • • • o o ~ I o I o o o o o o 1 , 0 o • o o , , 203
,.,. .
! .····
k --· Y
- .
WATER SUPPLY
WATER
Water is a combination of two elementary substances hydrogen and oxygen. It appears in its
natural state as:
Liquid
Solid
Gas
Weight of water in Liquid form:
3.778 kg. per U.S Gallon
1.000 kg. per cubic meter
There are.three sources of water:
a. Rainfall
830 times heavier than air .
ice
vapor or steam .. . 133 times
lighter than air
b. Natural Surface; water from streams, rivers and lakes, ponds.
c. Underground water-deep and shallow wells
FROM THE RAINFALL
Advantages
Obtained from roofs and waterstleds. It is
soft pure and good on places where there
is an abundant rainfall.
Disadvantages
Hard to store for a long time as it will be a
breeding place for mosquitoes, requires big
containers for storing big quantities for
long uses, roofs may not be clean, bad for
places that receives a little amount of rain-
fall.
FROM THE NATURAL SURFACE
Advantages
Obtained from ponds, lakes, rivers easiness
of procurements and good for locality near
such bodies of water.
Dissdvantages
Dangerous because it containes large
a·mounts of bacterias, organic and inorgan-
ic substances of varying quantities.
FROM UNDERGROUND
Advantages
Obtained from below ground surface by
means of mechanical and manual equip-
ments.
More water can be obtained depending by
equipments used and locality.
Disadvantages
Because of various organic matter and
chemical elements present, it requires treat·
ment of various nature, such as sedimenta·
tion, chemical, fi ltration, aerations.
METHODS OF PURIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF WATER
1. Sedimentation -articles of matters that are suspended in the water are allowed to
stay in a contai ner so that they will settle in the bottom, then drawing the water out,
leaving these sediments in the container.
SEDIMENTS
IN
6RAVI!L
INTeRMITTENT
CONTINUOUS
SEDIMENTATlDN
2. Chemical Treatments - water are given chemical treatments to kill the harmful
bacterias present and to cure the turbid taste or mudtaste, remove clay, salts, iron
etc. commonly used chemical is chlorine.
3. Filtration - water are filtered on various processes, so as to remove the particles of
vegetable matter, mud, and other particles of matter present in the water, most
commonly used materials are sand and gravel.
Two Processes
a. Slow Process
,-----SAND
'
b. Mechani cal or rapid process
~ N O
, . , : : ~ ..
.. . · · ·
GRAV!!L
OUT
BY. ffiES5URE
BY: GRAVITY
4
4. Aeration- r11w Is made to pass on plp88 of tlrw sieves and exposed to air of
tiM mi8t .
,
..
f


·-'

L*;
..

-.: .
......


WELLS


...
·---

PlpQ

...
-
I
I
eo
hOI's per to d1
a. When excavated by hand are called dug wells-for shallow water.
b. When sunk by machine are called Deep Wells and are classified as Driven -when
t he water is obtained from loose formation above solid rock such as sand and gravel
and drilled ·wells - when the water is tapped from the fis50res.
WATER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT
PUMPS: arr. used whenever the water supply at its natural pressure cannot be directly
pi ped to a building, tank or reservoir.
3 Cl asses:
a. Lifting water by suction to the level of a pump situated above the source.
b. Raising the water by forcing it to an elevation above a pump situated in the
source.
c. Both lifting the water to the pump by suction and in addition forcing the water
to an elevation above the pump.
TYPES OF APPARATUS TO ACHIEVE THESE ENDS.
1. Lift pump
2. Force pump
3 Reciprocating
4. Rotary
5. Centrifugal
6. Hydraulic Rams
OTHER TYPES
a. Deep well reciprocating pump
b. Turbine pump
c. Deep well ejector
d. Submersible pump
b
Uft Pump-Consist of a piston traveling up and
down within a cylinder which is connected with a i ~
extendinq down into the source. The piston and the
bottom of the cylinder are each proviqed with a valve
opening upward. UPOA the piston
1
S upstroke, ·valve a
closes and valve b opens. Upon the piston's down·
stroke valve a opens and b closes.
FORCE PUMP PLUNGER
Force Pump- used to deliver
water at a point higher than the
~ i t i o n of the pump itself. when
the plunger descends; the valve 8
is closed and the ·Nater in the cy-
linder is forced out through the
valve b and up to the storage.
When the plunger is raised valve
b is closed and 8 open to admit
water to the cylinder.
1
5
SUCTION

6
Reciprocating Pump - include that class
of pumps in which the piston moves· to and
fro. either horizontally or vertically.

1. Pumps
a. Horizontal ReCiprocating Pumps-
known as dottble or single acting
piston pumps. Adapted to all pur-
poses where the suction lift, is not
over 22 ft. (6. 70 mts) at sea level.
...
b. Vertic<ll. Reciprocating Pump-for suc-
tion lifts of less than 22 feet (6. 70 mts)
are composed of 3 vertical cylinders
placed side by side.

DISCHARGE
sing
2. Direct Acting-Steam Pumps
Deep Well Plunger Pumps - are used when the
water level of the source is more than 22 feet (6. 70
mts) below the ground, they consist of a cylinder in·
stalled below the water level and connected to the
driving mechanism at or near tf'le ground level by a
wood or steel rod.

,.b-or-'\l\11""- I
l'il:llr::-/-1...-J- E
Pumps - posses moving parts
without valves, revolving around an axis and
centrifugal action is utilized in delivering the
water under pressure. The curved blades re·
valve around an axis and traps the water that
enters and hurls it outward by centrifugal
force.
7
8
Check valve
Hydraulic Rams-are au-
tomatic and require no mo·
tor since they depend for
operation upon water ham-
mer that is the surging back
forth in a pipe when
suddenly brought to rest.
Tanks - rnay be used either
for the collection of water
without consideration of
pressure, or for storing
water under air pressure or
under a static HEAD for
future distribution by pneu-
matic or gravity means.
Materials Used
HeAD at- WATeR-
from the. SOUYC4
outlet .
wood, steel, galvanized
iron I G .I. l reinforced
concrete, polyvinyl chlo-
ride (PVCl.
FIXTURE USED FOR TANK
1. Cylindrical G.l. Tank
2. Spherical PVC Tank
3. Rectangular Reinforced Concrete
4. Rectangular Steel Tank Riveted
5. Pneumatic Tank (pressurized)
6. Stainless Steel Tank
6. Suction Tank - are constructed of riveted or welded
steel plate; the larger tanks often being divided into
two compartments. ·They should be large enough to
contain at least one days' supply for the entire build-
ing in case the City main is temporarily shut off.
The suction pipe from the pump to the tank should
be across connected to the City main so that the
water may be pumped directly from the main in case
of Fire.
Suction Tanks are used so that the pneumatic tank
or other pumps sucks the water f.torn this suction
tank and not f rom the Public Main so that, it will not
deprive. The neighbor of water due to pressure.
Suction II ne
toftre PUmp
~ HOUSE SUPPLY
Nonnal pressure J
Cross Conntd.Jon
SUCTION TANk
9
t

10
THE THREE WAYS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION
1. Upfeed System-from normal water pressure from public water main for low rise
buildings.
WATER MAIN
tneur
2. Pneumatic Tank -from air pressure from suction tank for tall buildings which cannot be
reached by normal water pressure.
FLOAT ""LYE
an
automat1c SW\td1
PNI!UMATl' TANK
pump
TO 8lJIWN6
PflJ:
motor
SUC:TIOI'f TA*
valve plun_ger shuts
ofT wh112n float arm
rc; honzontal
marker

I
--
...___
---
--
-.....;....
.__,.
-
-
-.
1,1100
2,0011


5,001l
flo,OOO
This is usualty bek>w the fixtures
to be supplied. When water is
called for by the opening of any
device like a faucet, air pressure
in the top portion of the tank de-
liver water into the system. A
FLOAT VALVE operates the
pump to make up this water
when the level has become low
enough to actuate the starting
switch. A high level switch turns
it off when ttw water is up to
level. In big water tanks, the
water level is seen on a marker as
made by the f loat valve which
rise or descends.
11
12
3. Downfeed System-by gravity
from overhead tanks and are sup-
ported either by structural frames
or on the roof decks. Fixtures are
below the gravity Tank. These
elevated Tanks are installed when
normal supply of water from
main public service pipes is not
frequent. It is also used when
normal pressure from the City
main is not enough to force the
water to the h;ghest fixtures.
Plptt
float
·to ,th floa-
to 1-th floor
to 3 rd floor
to znd floor
UP
Pump
gatevalw
from City MAIO

HOT
HEATER
SUPPl. Y' PtPE
FROM 'iOOSE
PUMP]

OVERFLOW

CLE;ANOUT
TO DRAIN
, I
I f
I I
I I
I I
I 1
I I
I I
I I .
It
I I
I I
I I
'•
:I
I
l I
11
' I
II
l I
I l
I I,.
I I
I 1
:I
I I
I I
:I
I I
:I
t t
P PAN
HOUSE TANK IN ELEVATED POSITION FOR DOWNFEED IN GRAVITY
A. Sediment in Tank is drawn off through clean-out pipe and is prevented from enter-
ing house supply by pipe projection.
B. Humidity on the air condenses on the cold sides and bottom of metal tanks and
must be caught in a copper drip pan.
ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES:
A. Normal Water pressure
Advantages
1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps and
tanks.
B. Air Pre••ure
(Pneumatic)
1. Compact pumping unit requires limited
space.
DiSIIdvantages
1. Pressure from water main is inadequate
to supply tall buildings.
2. Water supply is affected during peak
load hour.
1. In case of power interruption, water sup-
ply is greatly affected by the loss of
pressure inside the tank.
13
14
2. Water chamber being air tight makes
the system a sanitary one.
3. Compressed oxygen air tend to purify
the water and make it more palatable.
4. The system is efficient and economical
as it requires smaller diameter pipe and
has few working parts.
5. less initial construction cost and main-
tenance.
6. It is adoptable to all types of buildings.
C. Overhead Feed System
1. Because of the water stored inside the
tank, water supply is not affected by the
peak load hour even if the pressure at
the water main becomes considerably
low.
2. Power interruption does not affect the
water supply inside the building.
3. When the pumping unit breaks down,
the time involved to replace the parts
does not affect the water supply of water.
HOUSEHOLD WATER SUPPLY
" In large tall buildings. a standby gene-
rator is installed to operate in case of
power failure.
1. Water inside the tank exposed to the at-
mosphere is subject to contamination.
2. The water distribution unit is very expen-
sive because it has so many working
parts thus increasing maintenance cost.
3 The pumping unit including the entire
installation throughout the building oc-
cupies valuable space.
4, It requires stronger Foundation and
other structures to sustain the heavy
load of the tank and water.
Water is conveyed to the plumb-
ing tixtures by means of PIPES.
Materials commonly used are gal-
vanized iron (G.I.I and Plastic
pipes, IPVC) or polyvinyl chlo-
ride. Others are brass, copper,
wrought and cast iron.
The pipe from the public water
main or source of water supply to
the building served is called
HOUSE SERVICE or SERVICE
PIPE. The vertical supply pipe
which extends upward from one
floor to the next is called a riser
and the horizontal pipes that
serves the faucets or fixtures are
called BRANCHES.
Water Main refers to the public water system laid undernround along the streets where
house service is connected. ·
(Orpor.atlon
Stop (Coc.!c)
GOOSENECK -one end is 0.30 and the
other end is 0.90 long this prevent the
pipe from ·snapping when the soil set-
tles.
Galt. valve
CORPORATION COCK -a stop valve placed
in a service pipe close to its connec-
tion with a water main.
PIPE FITTINGS -include the equipment required for the joining of the various lengths
of pipe, such as couplings for connections in a straightline, elbows for connections at
90° or 45°; Tees for 45° or 90° branches from one side, and crosses for 90° branches
opposite each other.
Five Types of Fittings:
1. Threaded or screw connection
2. Flanged
3. Soldered or welded
4. Compression
5. Glued or cement-
(adhesive)
Kinds of Malleable Fittings
)
)G.I.
:copper or
brass
for PVC
Commonly in G.l. (Galvanized iron pipe Fittings)
••

ZS TO ·IS' rmt
15
IRON PIPE up to 6 -0 (zof\) lDng


STRA16Hi C.OUPI.INc;
./"? -to JQ&n two pipes
V mshlled

.
., .
··..
I '
-
CROSS lreDU,IN6 SOCKET
RETURN BEND
16
. .•
Thia is and
disengage& by and tJlen sliding
away to permit uncouping of pipes.

Use for Ordinary shower head.
UNION-used when a pipe has already
been installed but dismantling is dif-
ficult.
BU$H !f:.!G ::-:- if ?.14" tQ l /2"
pip@.
Connections of galvanized iron pipe are
done by placing TEFLON tape on the
threads or white lead liquid.
TO C.l..OSE A PIPE
17
18
PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS
Fittings:
There are three Types:
1. Polybutylene or IPB)
size 16 mme (5/8") to 63 mm0 (2 1/2") lengths
from 30m for a (2"'0) to 300m for a (1 /2"'0) comes in
coils used for HOT and COLD in-House water piping
systems.
2. Polyethylene {PE)
Used for service connections, in-house plumbing,
distribution mains, sewer, waste disposal.
3. Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVC)
...
"
\
' ' \
. .I
\ ,,
. '..\
'· '
'r f
'• '·
. \, ~ ,,
a. uPVC pressure mains-used for waterworks and
irrigations.
Nominal Sizes: in mm
50 (2"), 63 (2 1/2") 75 (3")
100 (4"'), 150 (6") 200 (8")
zz.s• BEND
b. uPVC potable water pipes and fittings.
Nominal Size mm Equivalent Thickness Length
Outside Diam in inch (mm) (mm)
20 112" 2.0 3000
25 3/4" 2.5 3000
32 1" 2.5 3000 3.00 m
40 1 1/4" 2.5 3000 length
50 1 1 /2" 2:7 3000
63
2 ..
3.4 ·
3000 ,...
Connections of Joints are done by using SOLVENT CEMENT.
( WITH 6.1· PlPE6)
MAL.E. TltR'EADE.D ADAPTOR C.AP ELBOW '30• eQ.JAL..
SOCKET FE MALE n+Fn!AOJ::O ADAPTOR
WITH G-1.
19·
Dram
20
W4TER Ct..OS!:.T
l{;Hrt:I!!Ar:ETJ ELSIJW
{ I G. l. N I PPL..C
G. I. 8l.ISHINGr Ji'JSDU<I:R
P.UMPING CIRCUIT SYSTEM
This is the process of circulating hot water to the plumbing fixtures by means of a mechanical
device. This type is generally adopted on large buildings where 0f provirlin!=J
natural circulation of hot water is impossible.

PUm
Heater
Hol Wllto"
StorZJge 16nk
1. The pump is installed to the circulating return main pipe closer to the Mating unit.
This type of hot water circulation is dependable it having e w ~ r J)&tt• to function and
maintain.
2. The circulating return pipe is connected to the inlet side Of the j)ump and the outlet
side of the pump is connected into the return pipe to the heater.
3. A gate valve is installed on each side of the pump.
4. The. pump is provided with a by-pass line and a valve. In case of trouble the control
valve is closed and the hot water circulate around the pump Into the return of the
heater.
HOT WATER TANK
This is one of the essential requirements for a domestic hot water ·system. It ·should be
strong enough to resist the high pressure of boiling water stored in it :
Two Types:
Ul
.,.
.
1. Range boiler - small h'ot water tank.
2. Storage Tank- large hot water tank.
D
1 The Range Boiler is made of galvani1ed sheet,
steel or capper, built into cylinder shape with con-
cave ends either welded or riveted. The range
boiler varies in size from 0.3(>-to 0.60 meter india-
meter with a length of not more than 1.80 meters.
Standard Press
Extra Heavy
Tapping
SIZE COMPUTATION OF HOT WATER TANK
"DEPENDS ON"
1. Kind of building served
2. The expected number of occupants
3. The heating capacity of the supply devices.
The water heater must be of sufficient capacity to
replace the discharged water in a reasonable inter-
val. If a Tank installed is required to serve 50 gal-
lons of hot water in any one hour of the day, the
heater must be able to replace this quantity in one
hour. The rating or capacity of water heater is
specified by the manufacturers.
= 378 Newtons (85 Psi)
= 6fi7 Newtons (150 Psi)
= 25 nvn or 38 mm
(1'" or 11/2'")
21
22
Problem:
Determine the size of a residential boiler tank to serve 6 persons in the family: refer to
the Tables below.
f<IND OF BUILDING GALLONS PER PERSON PER HOUR
OFFI(E. BUILDING
410 5
SCHOOL 2 to 3
_ .....
. ·-
. ...
APARTMENT
8
- - ~ ·
.....
HOTEL 8 to 10
8to\O
--
- .. .
FACTORIES 4 to 6
4 to6
---- -
...
·-···- ·-.--.
RESIDENCES
KIND OF Bw.DING
OFFICE, SCHOOL
INDUSTRIAL TYPE
4PARTNENTS
.. --REStO ENCE S
HOTELS ,RESTAURANTS
Solution:
6 person x 10 gals.
35% X 60 or .35 X 6()
AVERAGE
"
60 gallons
21 gallons
working load
lO ..
WORKIMG L.OAD
25%
3!5%
50%
.,.
Since 1 cu. m. of water ,\s 264 U.S. gallons 21 + 264 = .08 cu. m. volume.
The formula for finding the size of a Cylindrical Tank is
d2 x 0.784 x height == Volume
d2 X. 0.784 X 1.00 M = .08
height is assumed as 1.00 m.
d2 = - - - ~ ~ - - - -
0.784 X 100
d =..f.l02
= 0.32 m or 32 cnl.
Size of Tank is referred in Table below which is 18 gallons or if you wish a 25 gal.
GAlLONS
TOR
DIAMETER IN METER
H (M)
.30
1
AO . 45

. 60
-- --- -- - -
· -- -- -·
0 18 33 42 52 74
-· I
-
0 22 lO I 40 I so 62 89
··- -
1--·-
!
1.4 0
I
2& 35
1
46 58 72 ! 104
I
- --··t-
0 .l--- 30_ ..
40 Sl 67 83
i
119
i
I
I
I I. 6

'· 80
__ . __ __ l
45 60
j
75
I
93
I
134
I L__ ___ ..
The Storage is made of heavy duty metal sheets with rust proof paint. The size also
varies from 0.60 to 1.30 meters diameter and its length is up to 5.00 meters long.
manhole - 275 mm x 375 mm
Standard Press = 289 newtons (65 psi)
Extra - Heavy :::o 49 newtons ( 100 psi)
Tappi ng in each Tank = 6 pes.
HOT MTriR
S'R>U.I! TANK
(A""lTY tM
U.S.
__
.7o · . eo .90 1.00 1.10 1 1.2oj : 1.30
- - -- -+--1-----·--+----i
_ ___ 265 335 414
1
501 1 597 1 100
2.50 254 331 419 ; 51& l 627 l 7461 876
::: -7,: ::::
- . ·-- ·--+-- ----+
4.00 406 530 671 829 1003 P94 1401
4.50 457 597 77& 933 1128 1343 1:,7&
t----- - - --+-- --- -
5 .oo soe 6&3 139 to:ss 1254 t492 17&2
- -- ____ __._ __ __.
2.3
24
TANK TAPP1N6 S'll! Of= HOT WATER STORA(;E. TANK
TANK OlAMETn (•)
TAPPIN8 DIAMETER ti'NI)
o.so 33mm 11,.2
0.80 38mm
--
0.7!5
50••
(2 .. )
---- - - - ·-·
o.eo !SOmm
f - . - · - - - - - ~
1.00 so ....
....
1.20 751nll'l
( 3 .. )
MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR PLUMBING INSTALLATIONS
1. Galvanized iron (G.U or Steel Pipes made out of a Mild Steel drawn through a die
and welded cast into 6.00 meters long. Its usual life span is from 15 to 20years. However
steel pipe is subject to deposits of salts and lime which gradually accumulate and even-
tually choke the flow of water. This type of pipe is corroded by alkaline and acid water.
That is why when used fot hot water line, it deteriorates faster than cold water supply
pipe.
2. Plastic or Synthetic Pipe
There are two types
a. Rigid Type
b. Flexible Type
Rigid Type can be:
1. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
2. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (cPVC)
3. Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVCI
4. Polypropylene (PPl
5. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABSI
6. Styrene Rubber Plastic (SR)
Flexible Types are:
1. Polyethylene (PEl - Coil Form at 30 meters
2. Polybutylene (PB) up to 150 meters long in coil Form
3. Cast Iron Pipe-This is durable and is conveniently installed in most of the plumbing
needs in building which are less than 25 storeys high because water usually leaks at joints
due to vibrations.
Cast Iron is also affected to a certain extent by corrosion caused by the action of carbon
dioxide, sulphur oxide and methane gases forming a solution of carbonic acid and sul-
phuric acid which attack the metallic materials, causi ng a slow chemical reaction or
oxidation to take place forming ferrous oxide, called rusts.
Two Types:
1. SV- For building installations.
2. XV -For underground installations this are extra heavy.
Spigot. -z..t[ _____ q
1. STANDARD
2. DOUBLE HUB
[J.._i ___ ___.
3. SINGLE HUB
HUBLE:SS P\PE
4. Acid Resistant Cast Iron Pipe-Made of an alloy of cast iron and silicon. It is com-
monly installed in chemical laboratories where acid waste are being discharged.
5. Pipe - made of asbestos fibers and portland cement. The thickness is twice
that of standard cast iron. Most suited for embedment on concrete structures.
6. Bituminous Fiber Sewer Pipe- Cheapest light in·weight, recommended for house
sewer and septic tank installation. It could take slight soil movement without danger of
cracking or pulling out of its joint.
7. Vitrified Clay Pipe- made from clay and with· a length of 0. 75 n:aeter treated with
ed compound. This is highly resistant to most acids and is well suited in underground
installations working either as public or house or storm in drain. Being made of
clay. The physical property of this pipe is brittle. It easily cracks when laid on unstable
ground or base.
8. Lead Pipe-one of the oldest plumbing materials. Lead is highly resistant and is very
suitable to underground installation. But because it is poisonous and injurious to human
health, it is never recommended to convey water for human consumption.
9. Gatvanized Wrought Iron Pipes- this is better than steel pipe for plumbing installa-
tion, because it is more resistant. to acid waste than the steel pipe. ·
10. Brass Pipe - The most expensive of all types of pipe. Made of an alloy of zinc and cop-
per mixed at a proportion of 15% and 85% respectively. The brass pipe is a superior
material for waste and water installation because ot' its smooth surface aside from its
high resistanc.e to acids.
11 . Copper Pipes-A durable material which is extremely corrosive resjstant-easiestto in-
stall. -_ .. -·
Type K - heaviest for underground installations
Type L - Lighter than type k comes in flexible and rigid type
Type M ...:. thinner and available only in rigid form.
25
26
SIZE OF PIPE:
The size of the service pipe connecting the main and the house being served is governed by
the:
a) maximum demand and the
b) probable demand or peak load
MAXIMUM DEMAND-refers to the maximum water discharge for plumbing fixtures in
terms of unit. The maximum demand of water supply is equal to the total fixture units in the
plumbing system wherein one unit is approximately'valued at 8 gallons of water discharge
per minute.
Example:
One urinal has 5 Fixtures Units {See Table Below)
5 x 8 gals = 40 gallons-the maximum demand of water supply per minute.
FIXTURE UNIT VALUES
Kind of Fixture Fixture Unit
15 sq. m roof drain 1
Lavatory or Wash Basin 2
Floor Drain
Residential Sink 1 %
~ ~ ~ 2
Kitchen Sink 2
Laundry Tub 2
Shower Bath 2
Sink, Hotel or Public 2
Slop Sink 3
Combination Fixture 3
u ~ 5
Water Closet 6
One bathroom group consisting of Water Closet, Lavatory.
BathTub and Overhead Shower 8
PROBABlE DEMAND OR PEAK LOAD
Is another factor considered in determining the size of the water service pipe. The question
of how many fixtures will be used simultaneously is difficult to ascertain. but according to
survey.
a. The Fewer the number of Fixtures installed the higher the percentage or probability
of their simultaneous use.
b. The greater the number of'Fixtures installed, the lesser the percentage or possibility
of simultaneous use.
ON tOm•
1
/a ..
PROBABILI,TY OF SIMULTANEOUS USE Of FIXTURES
Number of
Fixture Units
1 to 5
6 to 50
51 or more
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
Percentage of
Simultaneous Use
50 to 100%
26 to 50%
10 to 25%
Determine the maximum and the probable demand of water' for the f.QIIowing fixtures in- .
stalled:
3 water closets; 3 lavatories; 1 kitchen sink; and 3 shower baths.' What size of the servrce
pipe is required to serve the above fixtures?
SOLUTION·:
Solving for the total fixture units as based on the Table above.
6 x 3 Waterclosets = 18 units
2 x 3 Lavatories
2 x 1 Kitchen Sink
2 x 3 Shower
Total .. ....... ........ .. .... ...... .. .... ........ ... ... . .
Solve for the Maximum demand
32 units x 8 Gallons = 256 Gallons
Refering to the Table of Probable Use.
= 6 units
= 2 units
= 6. units
32 Fixture Units
32 is between 6 to 50 Fixture Units and between 25 to 50%.
Assume that 30% is safe for 32 units
0.30 x 256 gallons = 76.80 say 77 gals, per minute.
Refer to t he Tables below. particularly the
Table for 25 mm under 6 r:n length with 178 newtons pressure, the size of pipe is 25 mm
(1"} and could supply 80 gallons per minute.
GALLON'S OF WATER PER MINUTE GALVANIZED IRON OR PLASTIC PIPE
PRESSURE OF WATER
LENGTH
AT MAIN OR TANK
OF PIPE IN METERS
POUNDS NEWTONS e
l
l 2
•• I 2.4
30 16 42 48 84
10 44.5
~ . :
I
e 1 4 : 1 J 3 2 2 2
I
. - n - - · ~ - 4 --
1---- '--- l
!
20 ... 0
i
4 i ! I 3 i 3 3 I
r-;T 4 I
I
30 133.4 10
e e 1 5 4 I
3
I
3
-
I
40 171.0 10 I

7
I
e 5
J
4 4
I
4 3
•ol
!
eo 222.4

7
I
6 6 s
I
5 4 4
27
eo
2
2
3
J
4
ONISmm
PRESSURE OF WATER
LENGtH OFPPE 14 METERS
AT MAIN OR TANk
~ - - - : - f-
1/2 ..
POUNDS·
NEWTONS
8 12 18 24 ~ 36 42 46 54 60
..
lO 44.5 10 8 5 5 4 3 :5 3 3 3
20 89.0 14 10 8 6 .' 6
5 5 4 4 4
30 133.4
18 12 10 8 7 7 0 6 5 5
40' 1.78.0 20 14 II 10 8 8 7 .7 6 6
50 222.4
20 16 13 ll
-
.....
10 9 8 7 1 1
ott 20inlll
PRESSURE OF WA,-ER
AT MAIN OR 1MK
L!N8TH OF PIPE IN METERS
:s;. PQJNDS
NEWTONS
6 12 18 24 30 :56 42

54 60
10 44.5 22 l4 12 10 8 8 7 6 6 6
r
20 89.0 30 22. 18 14 12 12 10 lO 10 ·e
30 133.4 38 26 22 18 16 14 t4 12 12 10
.
40 r71.o 38 30 24 22 19 t7 18 18 15 13
..
50 2a,2.4 38
34 28 24 22 .. 18
,.,
18 15
ONZBIM
PIESSURE OF WATER
LENGTH OF PIPE IN METERS
AT MAIN ORi TAIIK
I" PeutDS NEW TOM 6 t2 18 24 30 38 42 4.8 54 4$0
10
44.5 40 28 22 18
,.
15 14 IS &2 ..
20
89.0 55 40 32 27 24 22 20
,,
18 18
30 133.4 10 eo 40 34 3Cl 27 25 23 22 20
/
40 178.0 80 sa 45 40
• •
29 27 215 24
50 222.4 60 65 51 45 40

33 a 29 Z1
I
PRESSURE OF WATEJ
··"'·
ON 52•
AT MAIN OR TANK
LENGTH OF
PIPE IN METERS
' '"
POUNDS NEW'R>NS 6 12 18 24 30
'36
4 ~ 48 54 60
10 44.5 80 55 45 :57 35 30 27 28 2& 24
20 89.0 no 80 65 55 50 45 41 38 36 34
'•
30 133. 110 100 80 10 60 5$ so 47 45 43
-
40 178.0 no no 95 80 72 815 60 56 52 50
50 222.4 1.10 110 107 92 82 73 88 83 80 .58
2S
ON
··-
t
1
h
ON
·a·o-
2.
.
PRESSURE OF WATER
AT MAIN OR TANK
LEfteTH Of' PIPE · 1 N N!TERS
POUNDS NEWTONS 6 12 18 2-4
30 36 . 42 4e
10
44. 5 120
90 70 60 45
«)
40
20 ee.o
'
170
130 100 90
75 70 6S 80
30 133.4 170 l80 IS) 110 100 to eo 7S
70
40 178 .. 0 170 170 ISO 1!0 Ito 100 90 80
.,
' •
so 222. 4 170
170 170 140 130 120 110 100 90
I
PRESSURE OF WATER
AT t.tAIII OR TANK
LEN 8TH OP
'" MBTERS
POUNDS NEW TONI 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54
10 44. 5 240 160 130 110 100 80 eo 80 80
20 89. 0 300 240 200
ISO 140 130 120 uo
30 133. 4 300 30o 240 200 l8l 180 ISO
't«)
MO.
40 178.0 300 300 210 240 220 200· 180 180 180
so 222. 4 300 300 '!00 280 240 220 200 20( 180

NOTES
a. Doubl ing the diameter of a pipe line increases its capacity up to ·4 times.
b. A 20 mm service pipe can supply 2 branches at 13 mm diameter each it could deliver
up to 10 gals/ min. Sufficient enough to serve UJ> to 10 fixtures.
c. A 25 mm service pipe can supply 2 branches at 20 mm diameter . It can deiiver up to
18 gals/ min and serve 20 fixtures.
FLANGES
Consists of Fitting$ _provided with projecting rims or flanges wFiich are screwed over the two
pipe;! .ends to be joined. {The Ranges are then bolted together with a gasket of rubber, metal
or cork between the Fla'nges.
GASKET
Usually used for pipes
bigger then s·0 (0.15 m).
29
60
3S
ss
65
eo
80
eo
70
100
1!0
150
180
S C ~ E W Fl...ANGE.
SLIP FLANGE
.... .
VALVES AND CONTROLS:
a. GATE VALVES-- Consists of a weclge-shapefl
plug which is screweci flown to seat between two
brass nngs surrounrling the inlet pipe so that a
double seal1s obtainerl. The inlet and outlet are in
a straight line. This valve is used when a normal
fully open or closefl pos1110n IS rlesirerl. E1ther end
may be userl as inlet.
tt
BRASS RING
b. GLOBE VALVE - are operated by screwing
down a disk with soft packing until it presses
tightly upon a metal seat. When the disk is raised
and the valve is open, the course of water is
deflected up through the opening in the seat and
the Flow is restricted. Used when it is desired to
throttl e the water supply. Same end must always
be used as inlet.
30
SWING CHECK VAlVE -has a pivoted
flap which is readily pushed open by the
pressure of water from one side but is tightly
closed by the force of a reverse flow.
CHECK VALYES-are used when it is desired
that the flow ·through a pipe be always in one di-
arid there is a possibility of a flow taking
place in the opposite direction.
a.ose.o


LIFT C.HEGK VALYE
Consist of a loose disk which closes by gravity
when the pressures on both sides are equal.

.
d. ANGLE VALVE-changes the direction of the
flow of water as well as control it. Acts somewhat
lik& globe valve but are usually used for a right
angle turn.
FAUCETS
. b. COMPRESSION COCK-operate by
the of eoft upon
a metat aeet. Thctv close agaii11t the
flow of w•tr tnd c:an be U8ed uPOn
high"· pressure pipes without cauling
water hammer.
e. KEY COCK - operate by means of a
round, tapering plug, perforated in
one direction perpendicular to its axis
and ground to fit a metal seat. The
faueet it open when the perforation is
in line with the pipe and is quickly clos·
ed by turning the plug so that the per·
foration is across the line of flow •
PRESSURE REGULATORS:
c. HOSE BIBB -similar to a compres·
lion cock but has a screw outside for
connection of water hose.
d. $ELF CLOSING FAUCETS-arranged
to discharge water while they are held
open by the hand and to close by a
spring inside the soon ftS the
pressure of the hand i$ ·181'Tloved.
Devices for limiting the pressure of the water discharged frQm o pipe to • fpttd tmount , ·
whatever may be the pressure of the water suppiMtd to the pipe. Usod to reduce the ·
upon the piping wfthin a building when the prttsure In the street mains is too high and to
dliCrease the preuure upon the eranch piping to fixtures on the lower floors of tall buildl.,gs
using a down t.d system. ·
33
CAP
34
l
AIR 0.90
CHAM E . ~
STAGK
ltz.O SUPPLY
LlHE.
Excessive pressure produces a rumbling sound
called the Water Hammer and to reduce. this, an
additional 0.30 to 0.90 m length of pipe is added to
the riser to give air pressure which absorb it.
The normal water pressure for residential houses
ranges f rom 133 to 178 newtons 130 to 40 psi).
Lower than this value may result in insufficient
flow of water particularly during simultaneous use
of fixtures. Likewise, water pressure higher than
222 Newtons (50 psi) may cause pipe hammering
or even bursting of the pipe connection.
HOT WATER DESIGN
AND EQUIPMENT
INSTALLATION OF WATER SUPPLY
HOT WATER SUPPLY
Consist of a heater with or without a storage tank, piping to carry the heated water to the
farthest fixture and a continuation of this piping to return the unused cooled water back to
the heater. Brass or copper pipe should always be used although G.l. pipe is commonly used.
Two Methods of Distributing Hot Water Supply and Return Circulation Line.
MINIMUM OF
0-15 MT$
a- o
I
I
D
I
'


D

RcTI.JRN
SUPPLY
1. An Upfeed supply riser with the
return circulation taken off at a
point just below the highest fix-
ture connection. For building of
moderate height.
-2. For high structures, consist of a
main up-feed supply to a distri-
bution line (Over head) at the top
o.f the building from which Down-
feed risers are taken off to feed
the several stacks of fixtures.
35
' 36
Relief
v a l v ~
THI! UPFEED AND GRAVITY RETURN SYSTEM
This is commonly used in sman residential and
industrial installations. The main objectives are:
1. to provide constant circulation of hot water.
2. to draw hot water immediately from the fix-
ture at a ~ y time.
3. to provide • circulating return for economy.
4. to eliminate waste of water.
To Oram
Draw
Traps
Return
'1211Ye c.-,
HOI WAT'I!R SUPPLY
(Ro.turn

r
t
SJ
il
z

0
Si1
.,
0..

....
:.'" i
i

a
3
s
i
::s
::1
0

0
::l
"'

tvalw

1-tot wattr·

Ta.nk
l>AAIN
VtJive
Return
D.•'laal•••
THE OVERHEAD PfED AND GRAVITY RETURN SYSTEM
1. Water distribution is dependent on the expansion of hot water and gravity. In a cloeed
pipe system water rises to the highest point of the installation when heated and the
natural force of gravity retum it to .the tank.
2. Water will circulate even if there may be defect in its. mechanicaJ construction.
37
- - ---- ··---'11--
: HaJSe HEAPt=l?
HCAPER
r--+-
1
- ------ HeADER
-- - I t--- -------:--. ---
-. 1-t:' ---··t-+--- II
OOWN PEEO I -----.-·- ·-
1 · I
et.h floor 1-- -0 · l 1
I I : I I
I
: I : : I
r-- WATER I l
1
--- I I LINE'S I I l
---r-1- -aPANsiON LooP-sri
I

OR .JOINTS .:/'<
1
·-t 't1
1
i ·- 1-l
1 _ _ FEEtl TO 1 HOT UPFE..ED 'Tt> I
1
i I HoT WATER
·-· wA"':' VHEADe:l< ±----r
3rd flea--..+-+----- HEAT>!R U-' ! -·- -- f-L
IE - I I
......... Th'l
I I I ·- --o
• --r--i-' - I l : I
! f=b· - ..... ..0
I I I :
I . I
: j I C::IRt::ULATION I
- + - -
I !'I 0 fi:; l a H£AnN6
I I . . > I ti()T STORA"E
\.-- -*- J . HEATl:R
10'\.h f1 CQ"
9i..h f\ar
4th floor
..... r- CHEQ( VALVE
I
sLJC.i10)J TA-NK_ Of1tn · HOuse PumP
desirable when pump
tnl4!t IS ( -•o odarg4.r)
38
CAPACITY OF CYLINDRICAL WATER TANKS-TOTAL GALLONS
·····-·· · ... ···-·····
DEPTH
DIAMETER
OF
LfNGlH 12" 18" 24" 30" 36"

48" !S4"
&Cf
66" 72"
0 .30 0 .4!S
0.60 .
0.7!5 , 0.90 I. OS 1.20 1.35 U50 1.65 1.80
ozs
...
0 -49 1.10 LH 3.06 4.41 !5.98 'ZU 8.91 12.24 t4.11 f'.U
0.30 t"O" 5.88 13.22 23.50 36.72 52.88 71.37 84.00 118.97 146.18 IT7.7'2
,,,_,,
0 ."5 1! a" 8 20 35 S:U)I 71 108 I-A 178 220 287 $17
o.eo 2'·0"
12 2e 47 73 106 144
••
238 214 S58 423
0 .75 2'-8" 15 33 58 92 t32 180 23!5 297 H7 444 "529
0.80 3'-o" 18 40 7t ItO 159 218 282 357 441 533 ess
!
1.05 3!.6" 21 ... 82 128 185
i
2!2 329 418 1514
82.2
74)
1.20 4'..0" 24 55 94 212 288 378 476 588 711 848
1.35 4'-6" 27 60 •oe 238 324 423 535 661 800 852
---.
I .SO 5'-0" 29 66 184 264 380 470 51!5 734 889 10.58
1·6&- !5'-8" 32
'73
!29 202
291 I
396 511
854 801 871 1183
1. 80 1'-0 35 78 • 220 317
[
432 564 714 ... 1066 l289
..
2.10 7'-D"' 4! 93 ! 6 e 2157 370 !504 4158 833 1028 1244 1481
2 .4(1 8'-Ci' -47 106
' 88 2H 423 sn. 7!52 eaz 117!5 1422 ltl2.
2 . 70 g'.;.o" 53 ll9 212 331 476 648 846 107! ! 522 1600 1804
3. oc !O!.O' 58
1
32 367 529 720 MO 1190 ' 148e 1717 au a
3.60 12' -0" ?: !59 282 44! 635 884 '12e
1428 !763 2133 2838

-4.20 14"-0" 82 185 329 514 740 1008 1316 !888 2058 2481 2M I
---1--
480 18!..0" 94 212 376 588 !346
!504 l l9_04
2350 2844 1114
- -·
5 .40 ll'..o" !06 238 423 &61 9!52 1269 2!42 2Q44 31W ll07
-----
r-· ·-- · ··- --
--- ··-1--- ·-
6 .00 20'-0 118 2 .. 470 734 !058
14!9 ' 1880 2!80 21!1 155!5 4l10
-- - - - ·-.--·-·
.. --. '---·· _ __.J.._.,
39
"'"
.0
CAPACITY
WIDTH
OF
TANK
2'-0" 2'-6"
a•. o•. a.t2 37.40
2'- ...
445.75
3
1
- 0
3' • 6"
4' - 0"
4'- 6"
t;i'
l5.- 6"
6'- 0"
6'- 6"
7'- oi•
7 6
8' 0
8'- 6"
0"
9' - 6"
10'- 0"
10'· 6"
II' • 0"
II • fr

12' -0"
OF
3'-d'
........
58.10
67. 32
RECTANGULAR WATER TANJ<S- GALLONS per ft. of IMnght
LEMe·TM
0, TANK
:S!.I" 4'·0" 4'- fll' 5'-.0"
......
e•.o•
··-··
1:..o" 7'-8" •• - Cl' 8'-8" fl-o· t!-.8" 10'-4" 10'-8
'
52.341 sta4 67.32 74•• 8Ut ••. 7'1 t7.25 04.73 112.21 ...... 127.17 134.'5 142.11 ........ 157.ot
85.45 74.eO 14·18 e&SI 121.54 130.11 1«).28 ••. 81 usa ... let.. II 177 ... 187.01 .....
78.54 8t.77 oo.tt lt2.2t 123.43134.85 4S.8,
15 7.<» f8S.31 '"·"
to.75 il!Q( .. 7 ll!.lt
91.64 104.73 117.82 130.91 144.0 57.09 70.18 18!.27 '19fU6 209A5 222.$4 235.63 2-48.73 26L82 214.90
119.69 1!4.65 149.81 184.!57 179.53 94.!f9 208.-45 22•US4 2Stt.37 254.34 26t.30 284.26 2tt.22 1314.18
1151.48 168.31
••u4
.ta.aa 23:\63 289.30 !l88J3 502$6 331S2 353M
182.()1 2(15.71 aeu 2e1aa 210.5 218.22 317.t2 35»2 574.0:
226.2t 246.84 287. .. 288.CX 1()8.51 328.!4 .4t.71

411.43 432DC
2.3( 2tl.74 JI4J8 33U2 381..50 f4o1M
44883 471.27
311.05 3..0341
,...,
saa.te i4t3.JO 4et.t2 488.2'! 510.14
338.5<4 D27:1 ......

487.45 !23.&4 548.11
420.78 448..1! 47$ .. SS2M Hl.04 18841
.78.75

AUt !lUI 1 ...

17225 604.0! 635.&4 E67.63
I&C5.92 63958 706.8C
I
6115.11 710.65 74&17
78S.«!
824.-n

I
- --- - - ---
.___ __ j
u•-o•
184.57 '72.0! 179.53
20&.71 215.06 224.41

a or
-.10

329.14 544.10 iJst.oe
37021 M7.11 f4as.M
411.43 430.13
foMUS
452.57 473J4
48J:n 514S.B
---
SM.as 5Sel6 581A7

eo2J8 828.!.
117.14 MS. en.24
t5821 888.1CI 7ll.t2
75.21 183.00
71M)!J6 774.2! 807.8t
78t71 817.24 852.71
822.8e aoo.a
884.00 to'5a

905.14
!946.27 18'Z43
9ft2t t032.3

PRIMER
DRAIN
"'»
BOOSTER PUMP- PRESSURE TANK
( Wben .teroo• water 11 uftclerorounct >
INSTALLATION tN TALL BUILDINGS:
In buildings of more than 20 stories, zoning is generally more
----- -24ttl
economical for hot and cold water supply and for fire lines. The roof __ --- __ 2!rd
and intermediate tanks are situated on the top floors of their respec-
tive zones and are fiHed by pumps in the hot water _ _____ ztnd
heaters are located at the bottom of their respective zones and are
supplied from the zone tanks.
.------211t
The cold water distribution line of each zone is carried in a loop
Heater
around the building concealed In hung ceilings, the down-feed risers .___ -
being taken off the loop as required. Each loop is just below its cor-
responding tank.
The hot water system is arranged in the same manner with distribu-
tion loops and down feed risers, but the ends of the risers in each zone
are connected back to the heaters at the bottom of the zone are con-
nected back to the heaters at the bottom of the zone thus providing
complete circulation for the hot water required for flow.
41
,."_ .. -····
ZONING
When the water supply of very tall buildings is designed as a unit, the required capacities 01
tanks, pumps and pipings become unduly large and excessive pressures are developed ir'l
iower portions of tne downfeed risers. Tfie bUildings therefore is divided 1nto horizontal sec-
tions or zones and to design the hot and cold water supply systems separately for each zone.
VAF\:)ft
RE.Lil!F
---.... -···-.
TA
c.o

40
.so
.ao
.. .
t
--
-+
-+z
3
+:S. - -··- -· ·· ,._...:,..::::;.:.:......,,...=;tdrT----'
•b
l
2 0NE.. i.

-J..L---1H--+t
42
C.IRCULATION
WATER
------ 1-\DT WATER
,.,.. .
FIRE PROTECTION
PLANNING
The preservation of the structure and its contents against fire damage or :destruction,
though secondary in importance, is nonetheless, of serious concern to ownei'S and others
having a fi nancial interest in property.
Although inclusion of Fire-fighting equipment in buildings is always desirable and in-
creasingly mandatory, good practice begins with the design of the structure. This is neces-
sarily affected by the permitted, building density in the locality and by the. flammability of
the building and its expected contents.
Some of the materials and equipment that must be considered are:
a. Fire resistance of the selected structural type and material and the contents of the
building.
b. Limitations of Volumes within Fire-resistant barriers in otherwise vulnerable build-
ings.
c. Precautions against perforations of approved and required barriers.
d. Exits and Fire Tower Stairs.
e. Protection against fires caused by electrical systems.
f . Protection against fires caused by lightning.
g. Detection and alarm system.
h. Standpipe and hose systems within and near buildings.
i. Automatic sprinkler systems.
j. Automatic smoke and heat venting.
k. Smoke <md heat shafts.
I. Control of air-conditioning ducts.
m. Communication in high-rise buildings.
n. Elevator Control.
o. Fire command station in high-rise buildings.
HIGH-RISE Fl RE SAFETY
Definition of a high-rise building in terms of Fire Protection.
1. Too tall to be completely accessible to fire-fighting equipment from the ground. This
prot»em occurs anywhere from 6 to 12 stories. but usually 8 to 10 stories. depending
upon the reach of aerial ladder equipment available. It means that the fire must be
fought internally above the levels.
2. Too tall to make complete evacuation of occupants feasible. This occurs at about 25
stories, where complete evacuation would take five minutes theoretically and about
50 to 150 percent longer than this· in reality. It means that provision for safety and
life, support for the occupants must be made within the building.
3. Tall enough to make possible chimney or stack effects for air and smoke flow. This is
to some extent true in all buildings, but it becomes especially pronounced in build-
ings about 8 stories high. This means that provision must be made for the control of
air flow and products of combustion.
For all office Buildings occupied by 100 persons above or below street level or more than a
total of 500 persons in the entire I building: ·
FIRE SAFETY PLAN
1. Plan for Fire Drill and evacuation including appointment of Fire Safety
Director, Fire brigade and Floor Wardens.
2. Signs required at elevators and stairs.
For buildings 100 feet (30 meters) or more in height:
FIRE STAIR DOORS
Door to interior stairs shall not be locked except:
1. On street floor to prevent access to stairs.
2. On stair si de if every four stories or less, door is openable.
3. Where failsafe electric door lock, activated by any detector, is provided.
CLASS E FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
1 . Combination Fire Alarm signal system consisting of fire alarm and two-way voice
communication system (direct wire radio, or carrier current). With at least one sta-
tion per floor. Activation of alarm station will identify its floor location at the Fire
command station, mechanical control center, and the regularly assigned location of
the Fire safety director, sound alarm and notify automatically Fire department.
2. Fire Command Station, located in lobby of building containing communication capa-
bility (two-way voice) between Fire command station and floor warden stations, me-
chanical control center elevators, air handling control rooms. Audible alarm signal,
visual display system to i ndicate activation location on each floor.
DETECTORS
1. On each elevator landing. Activation shall stop all fans, activate smoke exhaust or
stair pressuri zati on fans, return affected elevators to terminal landing, and automa-
tically_ sound alarm and notify fire department.
2. At the return air shafts at each floor.
COMPARTMENTATION
(Applies to Floors located more than 12 meters above grade served by multi·floor air condi-
tioning system)
1. Areas to be compartmented by one hour separations, into spaces not to exceed 750
sq. m.
2. Sub-division of area may be increased to 1500 sq. m., provided such area is com-
pletely protected with space detectors.
3. Where total area exceeds 1,000 sq. m. at least one fire separation _shall be two hour
rated and create areas of refuge.
45
46
SMOKE AND HEAT CONTROL
(Applies to buildings served by multi-floor air conditioning system).
1. Smoke shaft to exhaust heat and smoke to outdoors.
2. Systems to be activated automatically upon activation ot any detectors.
ELEVATORS
1. Elevators serving fire floor to be recalled and retained at terminal floor by activation
of landing detectors or command station control.
2. Three elevators servicing each floor shall be equipped with Firemen's service.
3. Interlock wiring for elevator hoistway doors will be required to be resistant to high
temperatures .
...
SPRINKLERS
1. For show rooms exceeding 750 sq. m. located more than 12m. above grade shall be
sprinklered. Use of domestic water permitted.
2. When floor is completely sprinklered, compartmentation and smoke shaft and stair
pressurization is exempted.
WATER AND STANDBY POWER
A very large industrial plant may settle in a suburb or in a small community where the local
company cannot entirely cope. In such cases a reserve underground storage of several
hundred thousand of gallons or an adjacent artificial lake would not be unusual.
When such reserves must be delivered by pumping during a fire, and electrical power outage
could be a tragedy; then standby power must cut in. Diesel-powered pumps take over.
These units and their fuel storage should be separately housed in fire-resistant enclosures.
remote from the possible locations of fire in the main buildings.
A. STANDPIPES AND HOSES
Fire companies with their apparatus find difficulty in fighting fires from the street in tall struc-
tures. Standpipes and hoses with a separate water reserve or upfeed pumping are extremely
valuable in any building but become highly essential in tall buildings. The figure drawn here
shows such a ·system, which is intended for use b\ !building personnel until the fire engines
arrive and thereafter by the trained staff of the fire department.
It is not practioal to store enough water on the roof for a protracted fire-fighting period and it
is usually assumed that a half-hour's supply will be more than enough to provide for the
short period it takes the fire engines to arrive.
PENTIWU.sf
·zs -ro
:>7 FT
ero ISM
I 1
·cttr=CK VALVE:
HI:AOER
F----._
FIRE HEADER


4th
I
3rd
zna
1st
50-100FT M)
200 G PM FLON UNDER
S'( FIRE rn
. I
OROFic..e WHa-t
rE IS EXG.E.$61 YE

l 1
S:UCTION TANK
SlAME.sl: <:
IDN R>R BY
fiE A PPAJC:b. TllS _t- MPS
f F
·""- J CAN D£L.-
.__ ______ ----,L.or---------L--- ; , IVER
MAXIMUM aEt.K IOO
PRI::5SURc BALL PI? 9PM.
eo f'S\ . IP
J13rit
LOWesT HOSE
a· . J . -
PUMP..S
When· the system is used by the Fire department its pumps are attached to the street
siamese to deliver water from street hydrants or the building's 'secondary source' .
47
SIAME'..sJ:! CDNNECTJON
SIAMES"E
CONNeCTll>N
11
(·10M) tiALVAN12EP
Pl.PE'
liE gy r-:liZE OEPAfl.iMENT
PIN\SKeP A.OOJit.
'--------

,.. ..........
e

\
HOSE FIRF.:
SXTINGULUU:Ff lN.
CABlNE,- Ft>R
SY pure DJ:PARrME •
, NT ..
The cbew;k valve closest to the &iamese In use opens and the check valves at the tank closes to
prevent the Wl!Jter from rising in the tank to no avail.
TANK
CHEC.W VALVE.
GLOSS POSITION
VALVE
OPeN PO S')TION

After the engines are disconnected from the Siamese, the water between the siamese and
the adjacent check valve drains out through the ball drip. ·
The overhead tank is considered a most dependable source, but it sometimes requires a
height that is architecturally undesirable. In this case upfeed fire pumps operating automa-
tically to deliver water to higher stories from lower suction reserve tanks may be used.
Another alternate in this case is a pneumatic tank used to deliver water by the power of the
air that is compressed in the upper portion of the tank.
The water zones as shown in the Figure of Hot and cold water Zoning are also generally fol-
lowed in planning for fire protection. Fire standpipes, and their hoses are usually located at
or near fire stairs from which personnel or Fire Fighters can approach a Fire.
B. SPRINKLERS
Automatic sprinkler systems consist of a horizontal pattern of pipes placed near the ceilings
of industrial buildings, warehouses JtQr88, theatres, and other st(_uctures where the Fire
hazard requires their use. These pipes are provided with outlets and sprinkler heads so con-
that temPeratures of 135-to 160°F--(55°to.Jo°Cf'ceiSius Wiil cause· them to open
automatically and emit a series of fine water sprays.
Two Systems of Sprinklers:
1. Wet System -ordinarily with water constantly filling both mains and distribu-
tion pipes.
2. Dry Pipe Systsm -gene_r.ally confined to unheated buildings. There is no water in
the distributing pipes of the dry-pipe system except during a fire. Remote valves, may
be actuated by sensitive elements to admit water to sprinklers heads.
50
:HEAT SEN.Stn'-l't:
BR'EA KABLE BUl-B
1 1
Spacing of Sprinkler Heads
Is governed by several factors:
r
a. Type of occupancy and total area.
b. Fire rating of the building 11 or 2 hrsl.
c. Construction of the Ceiling.
d. Spacing of Joists
·sprinkler Heads-These are of the
quanzoid bulb type. The bulb is transpa-
rent and contains a colored liquid. At
136°F the bulb breaks and releases a
water stream.
Two Types:
1. Upright- This type is used above pip-
ing when piping is exposed. It is safer
against damage by workers.
2. Pendent- This type projects through
a finished ceiling when piping is con-
cealed.
The coverage of one sprinkler head varies from about 20 sq. m. (200 sq. ft.) per sprinkler for
light hazard occupancy (like hospital, residences) to about 9 or 10 sq. m. {90 sq. ft.} for extra
hazard conditions (like chemical, woodworking, aircraft hangars)
Nozzles are set about 8 to 12 feet 2.40 m to 3.60 apart on the supply pipes that, in turn, are
spaced about 10 to 14ft. apart (3.00-4.20 ml and are usually run at right angles exposed
beams or panels.
Special Installation Requirements:
a. At least one fire department connection on each frontage.
b. A master alarm valve control for all water supplies other than the department con-
nections .
. c .. Special fire walls between protected areas and unprotected areas.
d .. Sloping waterproof floors with drains or scuppers to carry away waste water.
3.oo
!
t
+
l
I
REFLECTED SPRINKLER PLAN
51
NOTES
STORM WATER SYSTEM
54
REASONS FOR DRAINAGt:
I
I
Rainwater collecting on roofs, if not diverted, will run down walls
and can cause wall and window leaks, spill on people who are ap- ...
preaching entry doors, cause settlement by washing the soil away
from under foundations, subject basement walls to unnecessary
groundwater pressure and possible leakage, and erode surrounding
ground, often disfiguring areas.
For buildings and houses with flat roofs, leaders can be interior and
concealed by the structure or partitions. Sloping roofs usually re-
quire gutters and leaders. Functionally, they can be omitted some-
times in low, basementless, one-story structures with wide over-
hanging roofs. A gri)vel-filled trench skirting the perimeter and di-
rectly below the edge of the eaves catches the water flowing off
the roof.
I
FL.AT RooF PlTCHE:O ROOF
Reasons for keeping paved areas clear of water are obvious. Pud-
dles are avoided and contiguous areas of earth and grass are not
subjected. to erosion and a soft saturated condition. Areas to be ·
drained- including roofs, balconies, terraces, and pavements-are
usually connected into a storm drainage system and the water dis-
charged to a stream, dry well, nearby gravel bed, recharge basin,
or storm sewer.
NO GUTTER
Glil"AYEL


PI
STORM DRAIN
WITH GUTTER BUT WITHOUr LEADER
GRAVEL F ILLED TRENCH
WHEN SOIL 15 AB.SORPTIVE
PIPE IS
USED vv;.tEN THE SOIL
I.S NOT PERMEABLE.
AND NEEDS
PREVENTION OF WATER ENTERING
THE WITHOUT use: OF
ANY WATERPROOFING.
This is that portion of the plumbing system which cpnveys rain or storrr water to a SUitable
terminal. This is usually discharged into a street gutter conveyed by a publi c drain syst em
and carried to some natural drainage terminal such as lakes or rivers.
55
56
Three Locations:
tNSICE OUTSIDe
... .
OVeRHEAD
SIZE OF A STORM DRAIN
The following factors should be considered when determining the size ·of a storm drain.
1. Gauging the rainfall, constant, short duration or
heavy shower.
2. The varying roof area and its slope including the dis-
t<fnce of water travel before it reaches the conduc-
tors or downspouts of the roof.
3. Water drain is faster on higher pitched roof hence,
requires a larger drainage pipe than that of a flat
roof.
4. The height of the- building contributes to the high ve-
locity of water in the vertical condus;tor (pipe) and
accelerate the flow of water entering the storm
drain.
Sl-ORT
NOT RECOMME.NIED
5. Short offsets and indiscriminate use of fittings affect
the flow of water.
As per safe estimate the maximum rainfall in the Philippines is about 20 mm in a 5 minute in-
terval. Using this data an estimate of the approximate volume of water that will be ac-
cumulated on the roof in one minute can be computed.
SIZE OF STORM DRAIN
DIAMETER OF PIPE MAXIMUM OBTAINED ROOF AREA (SQ. M. I
(mm) inches 2% Slope 3% Slope
75 3"' 114
100 4'" 242
125 5" 438
150 6'" 700
200 8" 1,463
250 10"' 2,563
300 12" 4,100
350 14" 5,576
PROBLEM:
Determine the size of a storm drain necessary to
drain a roof graded 2% ~ l o p e with a general di-
.mension'of 20.00 x 30.00 meters.
142
315
566
903
1,888
3,309
··5,290
7,203
4'16 Slope
170
388
694
1,105
2,313
4,055
6,480
8,830
.------------
ROOF LEADER
20 x 30 = 600 sq. m. roof area refer to tabht above
under 2% slope 600 is near 700 roof area which is
served by a 150 mm (6'") pipe.
size - 150 mm (6"')
This is commonly known as conductor or downspout. It connects the roof terminal to the
storm drain either insider or outside leader.
SIZE OF ROOF LEADER AND GUTTER
Area of Roof Gutter Top Downspout or
sq. m: Dimension Roof IHder
(mm) Diameter (mm)
1 to 10 75 38
11 to 25 100 50
26 to 75 100 75
76 to 166 125 90
166 to 335 150 100
336 to 510
D)
125
511 to 900 250 150
59
60
Area of roof 10 x 20 = 200 sq. m.
refer to table above,
200 is within 166 to 335
Therefore specify 100 mm W'l downspout
However si11ce water is to travel20.00 m.
The gutter might over load and there might be a danger of clogging with dirt and
leaves and so divide 2<f = 100
100 is within the limit of 76 to 165 sq. m. therefore specify 2 pes of 75 mm (3") pipe
The gutter top dimension is 150 mm (0.15 m)
C::ONCRETE FLOOR SLAB
...
" ~
___ ____ __.
AI ROOF ORAlN (STEEL)
SOME PLAIN GALVANIZED STEEL GUTTER DESIGNS:
61
PLUMBING LAYOUT

WC WA"reR CLOSET
pro FLOOR ORA'N
L.AV LAVATORY
SD SHOWER DRAIN
kSK t<IT,HEN SINK
('.() C L,.J!!!AN OUT
L T LAUNDRY TUIS
WH WATl!R HI!.ATER
WM MeTER
62
GV GA.'fE VAl-ve'
C V 'HECK VALVE
VSTie 1lfRU ROOF
5tt0 SHoWeR HeAD
----HOT WATI!R SUPPLV
---C:OLD WATI!'R SUPPLY
PLUMBING SYSTEMS
There are three degress or grades of WASTE WATER
1. Storm Water - from the rain.
2. Grey Water - wastes from laundries, wash basins, sinks, showers, bath tubs).
3. Black Water - water plus human waste solid and liquid, urine, that is flushed out of
toilets and urinals.
SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEM
sotl
stacl:
nt s t ~ ~
ELEMENTS OF THE SANITARY SYSTEM
1. Soil Pipe- any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closets, urinals, or fixtures
having similar functions.
2. Stack- a general term used for any vertical line of soil, waste, or vent piping.
3. Soli Stack Pipe-a vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid waste.
4. Stack Vent-an extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain
connected to the stack.
5. Vent - a pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system
and for reducing to pressure exerted on trap seals.
6. Unit Vent-an arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will serve two 12)
traps.
7. Wet Vent-that portion of a vent pipe through which liquid waste flow.
8. Branch -any part of a piping system other than the main_, riser or stack.
9. Main- the main of any system of continuous piping is the principal artery of the system
to which branches may be connected. ·
10. Branch Vent - a vent pipe connecting from a branch of the drainage system to a vent
stack.
11 . Waste Pipe '-a pipe which conveys only liquid wastes free fecal matter.
12. Drain-a sewer or other pipe or conduit used for conveying ground water, surface
water, waste sewage.
,-'
13. Sewer-A pipe or' conduit for carrying sewage and waste liquids.
14. Sewage- the liquid wastes conducted away from buildings/structures, also of the
storm water.
15. Sewerage-a comprehensive t&rm, including all construction for collection, transpor-
tation, pumping, treatment and final dispOsition of waste.
65
66
16. Cteanout Ferrule - a metallic sleeve, calked or otherwise, joined to. an opening in a
pipe, ir.to which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or
examining the interior of the pipe. - .
17. frap- A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of air, gas, and some
vermin through a pipe without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water
through it.
18. House Drain -that part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which
receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside of a building and
conveys it to the house sewer. It should have a slope of at least 1/4" to a foot or .006 for
every .30 meter . . (6 mm for every 300 nvn).
19. House Sewer-the house sewer is that part of a plumbing system extending from a
point about four (4) or five t5l feet from the inner face of the foundation wall of a
building to the junction with another sewer.
20. House Trap - a trap connected to loyvest horizontal piping or House Drain.
21. Relief Vent - a vent the primary (Fresh Air Inlet) functiOn of whrch is to. provide circula-
tion of air between drainage and vent system.
22. Public Sewer-a common sewer directly controlled by public authority to which all
abutters have equal rights .of connection.
23. Slpitonage- a suction caused by the flow of liquids in pipes.
24. Spigot-The end of a pipe 'Nhich fits into a bell. Also a word synonymously with
faucet.
25. Seql- The vertical distance between the dip and crown wire of a trap.
26. Roughing-In-The installation of all pipes in the plumbing system that are in partitions
and under floors.
27. Finishing - The setting of Fixtures.
'28. Sump-a pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid wastes are drained.
29. Shaft-a vertical opening through a building for elevators, dumbwaiters, light, ventila-
tion, etc.
30. Sleeve-a sheet metal placed when concrete is poured to accomodate future plumb-
ing pipes.
31 . Pipe Chase-an opening or space to accomodate a group of pipes .
.-r-- PIPE CHASE
PIPE sLEEVES.
fjOUCT
32. Duct -Opening for ventillation circulation of air.
67
68
PIPING. FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES
The principal materials used for soil and waste piping and for venting are cast iron, copper
and plastic. For vents galvanized iron (G.I.) pipes is sometimes chosen.
CAST 1RON FITTINGS:
[J WASTE PI!'!! (QlUBU! HUe)
0
(1"xsLd)

(z.,x s!..o") .l;&xa.so
• r'Or' WAS 1"E
:...,•)( '1-qY (.•ox.10)
2"X Z" Y (.OSX-05)

'f (-10)
2." ( .05)
4"X 2 (-IOX.OS)
y
4 12.5
HUS(BeLL)
4"'A.f {-IOX.IO)
:zull2"' ( .CSIC.o5)
"+"I< (.aox.os)
Tef!.

"'t.,X 2"
TAPPI!O Tl!E
2"'X2H
CROSS TE'E (SANITARY) DOUBLe WYE BRANCH
4"X .....
CROSS TeE (TAPPED)
:z"'xz"
S-'TRAP
t:::ROSS TEE

4"'x z''

FSRRUL...E
l-EAD P TRAP
GROSS TEE (TAPPEq
4"'X 2'"
OOUBLE W.'<E BR'ANCH
--.i(:
11
XZ"
, .
INVERTED WYe

BRASS P. TRAP
69
70
RUNNIN6 TRAP
5 • TRAP WITH Vi:.NT
TRAP
LEAO
muM TRAP
STRAINER
(n.c:kll ptlt-.4}
(
(
Cf?aNF'OOT
CUTTING OF PIPES AND CALKING OF JOINTS
Is done by marking with a chalk then with a cold chisel and hammer, strike all around the
scored line.
OAKUM -Hemp or old hemp rope soaked in oil to make it water proof.
This is drived around the hub connection,, compressed to at least 3/4" (20 mm) to 25 mm
( 1 "J clearance then the joint is sealed with molten lead.
CALK lN6 -· an
w1th oakum, Llad
pounded
1nto plaa.
Another method of calking fcaulkingl is to use an EPOXY ADHESIVE.
Wh2n a honzontJSL
Jo1nt., an
Jomt runner IS used to KHp
tM lcPad from outof
tht hub.
M42thod of Jo 1mnc; no
hub 1rcn ptpe.
71
72
This pipe jointing epoxy adhesive is an epoxy based fonnulation which will work wonders
when trowelled into pipe joints of cast iron, concrete clay. Asbestos, ceramics ancfrigid PVC
pipes. This adhesive comes in two 121 components. The GRAY resin compound and the
BEIGE colored hardener component B which combined forms a highly infusib4e materials
and highly resistant to water, acids, alkalis,· fuel oil, sewer gases and other solv8f'lt when
cured. (Advantage is that it eliminates the expensive and hazardous melting of lead).
....
-
~
+ @
•.·
PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS
Color Coding
PotatHe Water
Electric Conduit
Industrial System
Communicatin Cabfe
Sewage System
0
SO<::KET
I'Ft-\Nl:.H SIN&Le
.:t•• WYE
3"X.z", 4-4'X.2: 4f"')C J""
-Blue
- Orange or light Gray
-Gray
-Yellow
- Orange brown
P TRAP
WITH FlJ.J(1
REDUGeR
3..,)(2"
1-'x z"
.... )(.a*
-'INQ.e
ta7.SO TEe
TeE
2
111
X IY4N
2" x ' Yl'
-
nt; ,.. .. )(z•x ... ·x3•
Q ___ ____.l
- so,75 an4 uomm
z.ooN and aooro
NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE
GENERAL REGULATION:
SECTION 164. GRADES OF HORIZONTAL PIPING
All horizontal piping shall be run in practical alignment and at a uniform grade of not less
than twO 12%1 percent 20 mm rise per meter length, and shaN be supported or anchored
at intervals not exceeamg 3.000 m 110 feet). All stacks shall be properly supported at ·
their bases and all pipes shall be rigidly secured. Two (2 inches) rise per every one
hundred (100 inches) length.
I
(.02ml
(2 em)

l.OOm or 100cm or 1;000 mm 1
73
74
A soil branch having a pitch of more than 2% has the tendency of waste separation.
The water flow faster and the heavy suspended materials are left and deposited at the
bottom of the pipe.
SOLID WA5TE
EXCESSIVE PITCH WASTf:.
IS LE.FT AT THE PIPE.
NORMAL PITCH Zfr
SECTION 157. CHANGE IN DIRECTIONS
All changes in direction shall be made by the appropriate use of forty-five (45°) degree
wyes, half wyes, long sweep quarter bends, except that single sanitary tees may be us-
ed on vertical stacks, and short quarter bends may be used in $Oil and waste lines where
the change in the direction of flow is from the horizontal to the vertical. Tees and
crosses may be used in vent pipes.
L O N 6 S ~ P
)4. BEND
sHORT RADIUS (PROHl 6 JTED}
SECTION 158. PROHIBITED FITIINGS
No double hub, double T branch shall be used on horizontal soil or waste line. The drill-
ing and tapJ)ing of house drains, soil waste, or vent pipes and the use of saddle hubs
and bends are prohibited.
OOUBLE TEE
SECTION '\59. DEAD ENDS AVOIDED on all drainage system installation
SECTION 1/3. LEAD PIPE
Joints in lead pipes between lead pipes and brass or copper pipes, ferrules, soldering
nipples, bushings or traps, in all cases on the sewer side of tne trap and in concealed
joints or the inlet side of the trap, shall be full wiped joints, with an exposed surface of
the solder to _each side of the thickness at the thickest ;>art of the joint of not less than one
fourth( Y. " ) of an inch.
BRASS

LeAD .JaN'[
SECTION 174. LEAD TO CAST IRON, STEEL OR W.l .
(Wrought Iron) - The joints shall be made water tight by the use of copper, lead, or
galvanized iron plates on flashings.
SECTION 175. ROOF JOINTS-
The joints of protruding pipes thru roofs shall be made water tight by the use of copper,
lead or glavanized iron plates or flashings.
75
76
r<= ---+-
I
I rcirllt- iF1
1
.._._
,"lr
.
I l
I I
l I
I I



W·' ·
\) \)

;:."j'i -L .. • SOIL PJPI! SloPe
...,. LOOP "I'ISNT lot
... ..,.
}'INK
r ]
W<. W ·G
,..
-
'
VENT STA:JC
SECTION 176. SliP JOINTS AND UNIONS
Sltp Joints will be permitted only in tJap seats,or in the inlet side of the trap. Unions on
the sewer side of me trap shall be ground faced, and shall not be concealed or enclosed.
SECTION 182. TRAPS WHERE REQUIRED
Each fixture shall be separately trapped by a water-seal trap placed as near to the fixture
as possible except that a set of similar fixtures consisting of not more than three (3)
wash basins, or a set of three 131 sinks may connect with a single one and one hatf ( l
1 / 21 inches trap. In no case shall the waste from a bath tub or other fixtufJ discharge in-
to a wat8f closet trap. No fixture shall be double trapped.
.t..AVA TORY T
------
SUP JOINT
SECTION 184. TRAP CLEAN OUTS
Etch trap, except those in combination with fixtures in which the trap seal is plainly visi-
ble and inaccessible, shall be provided with an accessible brass tap screw of ample size.
' n Cw:ANOUT
SOIL ( Q FERRI.t.E
CLEAN OUT SHALL. ee Qll HEAvy RE.O BRASS
SECTIOH 187. PIPE CLEANOUTS WHERE REQUIRED
A clean out easily accessible shall be provided at the upper end of every horizontal
waste or sot! pipe. Also at every change of horizontal direction, unless said change of
directiOn iS made at an angle of not more 1f'lan twenty twCl half (-22 l/2°) degreeS
and Is ·e8iifv r88ch8d eonveniendy with sewer rod Wire.
There shall be a clean out within five feet inside the property line before the house
.....,... connection, connected from a fullized branch, except for lhe clean-outs
shall be of the same nominal siZe as the pipes. The distance be"t'Ween-clean out in hori-
zontal waste or soil lines shall not exceed, fifty (50t feet. ·
77
I.SOm
I
,.J. Pl'fOF'eRTY'
41 L.INf!
I
I
GROUND
zz)l• C::HANGE OF OfREC..TtON
C.O IS NOT NECESSA:RY.
PLAN VIEW
OF DIREX:llON
c.o IS NEEDED
SECTION 189. GREASE TRAPS
.!SINK
78
Grease traps of adequate capacity must be installed wherever greasy wastes from
hotels, restaurants, club houses,. or similar public eating places are discharged into the
sewer, or septic vault said grease traps shall be placed as near as possible to the fixture
from which it receives the discharge and sl:lall have an air-tight cover, easily removable
to permit its cleaning .
VEI-4r PIPE
PIPE
SECTION .190. GARAGE TRAPS
. i
Garages, auto repair shops and greasing rack drains shall be intercepted, fo;ce entering
the sewer or septic vault by a suitable garage trap. Similar establishment -shall also be
provided with such trap, when so required by the proper authority.
VSNf .
'
WASTE
79
80
IECTION 11/1. FIXTURES PROHIBITED
Pen and Vllw plunger, offlet Wllhout M'-.r1S'-* ,.vinl·inYiMit Nil or
unvtntilt*IIPIC41 or Mtle not thoraughty wuhect t.lt!h lflll' not M ueed.
t,opper Qf elm"'-r !htlll Jmt M
211· ANP WAIT'- §lA@-§ "rnlftl OONNitmftNI
Allaofl and waste stacks and branches tat witt. G@R'ttltly ftetd inletl for
fixture connections.
HP9F
reef gf fRII W""' ,ucb shtlt be run full size at lea•t ont fpot
roof: If #tt. fer Rmtn' wetthetr prmec:tfQn, sueh axtena•on
lhalt not be 1111 tNr 1m !evel.
... .
Tf'API
fl*"'FI na !ffl!lt tif F.ff·
9f t1° 00
§l: FRQM
Net m9f8 ttw1 five (5) feet, (horizontally developed length) from i1s

Of!@NIN6
"16MB" 'llii\N PtP·
Clfl 'T"RAP
LSO(S'Ft)
PR:lw TRAP
Ul, CIRCUIT AND LOOPVENTS
ctr lo9p vant wfM be permitted IS follows: A branch soil or waste pipe to which
flW. fit flOt more than eight {8) of the following fixtures: Water cloeets, pedestal
standard trap. slop sinks or shower stalls are connected in series, may be vented
tJv FiFF!-lit er !pop vent, which shall be taken of, in front of the first fixture connection.
IIOfiON AND RECEIVING TANKS
Afl hQYH §hell ;mo an •ir-tight sump or receiving tank so located
"@ t{) rtP-8iW by from which sump tank the sewage shaH
bt ftftld -'itffihtrge ints th@ ....- by pump: ejector, 01 any equaltv ·efficient
mothld, 3utth tMmpa Nil M! be of sufficient
MPteity to rwMt thiJ mN!@ for not less than twenty four (24)
. hourt
81
SECTION 243. DRAINAGE BELOW SEWER LEVEL
5EC.OND FI.CC>R
AUTOMA"J"It.:.
S::..J Ec. 1t"'R
.$VVITC..H
.,
82
In all building's in which the whole or part of the house drainage and plumbing system.
Thereof is locateq the crown level of the main sewer, sewage pr have wastes
shall be lifted by an approved artificial means and discharged into the house sewer.
SOI L. VeNT
PIPE
SUMP AND
REC.EIVI N6
SECTION 244 . . EJECTORS VENTED ·
-J" SOU ... PIPE;: SLOPE
SUMP - A PIT OR RECE:PTA.:;:LE
AT A LOW FOINT TtlWP'llt:H
TliE Ll QUI 0 WA51E ARE
DRAINED
The soil or waste pipe leading to an ejector or other appliance of raising sewage or other
appliance of raising sewage or othe.r waste matter to the street sewer shall, where a
water closet or water closets are installed, be provided with a vent pipe not less than
four {4) inches in diameter and where fixtures other than water closets are installed, thE'
vent pipe shall be of the same diameter as the waste pipe-:-
SECTION 250. BAR, SODA AND DRINKING FOUNTAIN WASTE
No plumbing fixture waste except a bar sink, soda fountain sink and a drinking fountain
waste, shall be installed or set up with an indirect connection to a home drain, soil, or
waste pipe. The waste from every bar sink, fountain sink or drinking fountain, if not
directly connected, shall discharge ovet a property vented and .trapped floor drain
located as near its practicable to the fixture. ·
Woterlenl
LAVATOAY
..,., (b)
,, .. ,Dr-
.... So.t Stoc•
car....-,,._
WATE- CL08£T
· · ----- •• Yflftt ,,.,.. root
83
84.
IICTION 111. RI!FRIGIRATOR WASTES
The Witte pipe from 1 refrlgttatot, 18 box floor drain, or receptacle where food are kept
for ttorege pUtpOielthall not connect directly with any houee drain, soil, or waste pipe.
Such wuttt pipe shall ln atl caeea empty into an open aink or floor drain that ia property
IUpptied with water, connected, trapped, and vented, as that of any other fixture.
Refrigerator waste piP'Ithall not be lets than one and one fourth ( 1/4) inches (32 mm,
for one (1) opening; one and one halt U 1/2, inches 38 mm for three (3) openings; and
for four (4) or twelve (12) openings must not be less than two (2) inches 50 mm and shall
have It ita opening a trap, and a clean-out angles arranged properly to flush and clean
ptpe.
TRAPS. VENTS and AIR GAPS
a. TRAPS-The only aeparation between the unpleasant and dangerously unhealthy gases
in a senitary drainage system and the air breathed by room occupants is the water caught
in the fixture trap after each discharge from a fixture. Traps are of steel, cast iron, cop-
per, plastic, or brass except in water closets and urinals which is an integrated vitreous
china.
A mtnimum depth of 2 in. (.05. and a maximum of .10 (4") are common standards for
water seal. AIR
An exception to the rule that each fixture sh04Jid have ita own trap. Common
include two taundlrv trays and a kitchen link connected}to a single trap (not more thin 31
When fixtures are not always uled, the water in traps can evaporate Into the alt, bt'elking
the seal • of the trap. eepecfdy tn floor dtalnt connected to toil piping. !tool odor wt61
emanate in the atr. (alway& fill with waterl
TRAP SEAL LOSS
This il due to an inadequate ventilation of the trap wherein the atmospheric minus or plua
preteure affect the instalfetion.
Trap &eel-is the vertical distance betWeen the dip and the crown weir of a trap. Aleo it 11
the water in the trap between the dip and the crown weir.
011'11..-T
TRAP SEAL may be LOST under the following ways:
1. Siphonage-
a . direct self-siphonage
b. indirect or momentum
2. Back presaure
3.' EvaporaUon
4. Capiftery action
1. SIPHONAGE- the resutt of a minus Pf881Ute in the drlinage system. (Preaure is a force
.required to mQV8 gas or liquid) when a large' amount of water flow rapktly through the
trap, self siphoning is automaticalty developed and the water content of the trap (aeal) Is
absolutely discharged. This is knoWn aa a· trap aeallosa. When the aeal is lost, back floW
of gases from the sewer line or septic tank will pass rnto the trap, funds its way to the
fixture drain oudet and spread into the room.
MINJS
85
86
INDIRECT OR MOMENTUM SIPHONAGE
This type is the result of a minus pressure in the
pipe created by heavy discharge of water from a
fixture installed on a _linQ,serying an.other fixture at
a lower floor.
2. BACK PRESSURE- This condition is caused by a plus pressure which blows the water
out(of the fixture. It usually when a large flow of water drop and form as slug
and compress the air inside the pipe. The compressed air will find its way out through a
weather point. The trap seal will give way and blow out of the fixture.
3. EVAPORATION....,. process is a minor prob-
lem and less probable to drain the water inside the
trap. Evaporation happens only on floor drains not
regularly used to admit water but is to
extreme temperature.
NO WATER g;.PL
4. CAPILLARY ACTION- Thi s kind ot trap seal loss seldom happt:n wrfl ts t<ltety ex
perienced by homeowners. The conditi on is caused bv a • ol <i o iJJ(!Cl
such as a string, rags, strands of hair extended over the outlet arm of the lt i.!p.
b. AIR GAPS AND VACUUM BREAKERS
STRINGS
OR R.-665
The proximity of sewage to potable water at tixt ures is inescapable. It is possible that
sewage could acci dentally be si phoned into a pipe carrying potable water.
finm f"rtJall
.-------"'---... \Nil ter wole1 J i.Yit.e .
Un9.1ntt:ary wh!O'n
.anti full , blntatmn4te1
t"..ctJILl De! .dr..a.'-.!n Py
mtc the W<Jter

POTABLE WA n: r,
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LENGTH OF
VENTS FOR SOIL AND WASTE STACKS
(METERS}
··---------
SIZE OF SOil. OR NO.OF FIXTURE DIAMET!R Of THE VENT PIPE t IIUR)
..----·- -·-··-.
WASTE STACk: UNITS 32 31 so 83 75
14)0
- --· -·- -· ·-·--
3 2 "'"'
I I
1
14") 13.S
Jamm I I Y2") up to 8 18 .0
&0 "'"'
(
2"l
up to 18 15.0 27
63rnm ( 2
1
12·) liP to 36 13-S 22.5 SIJS
- - -------.......... , ___ _ _ ~ .. - - · · · - · .. ···-
7!S "'Ill
( 3''} up to 12 10.2 38.0 540 83.8
7S
up to 18 !5 .4 21.0 S4.0 83.a
75 up to 24 3.8 1!5-0 39.0 83.8
7!5 up to 38 2 .4 10 .5 28.0 83.8
75 up to 41 2.1
•••
24.0 63.6
75 up to 72 1.1 7.5 19.S 63. 6
- ·-··---······-----··------- ·---- · ....... -··-- ·-
........... - -
100111111 14" I
,.,
to 24 7.5 33.0 ao.o
90.0
100 liP to 48 4..7 19.!5 34.!5 90.0
too .. to 96 3.6 13.5 252 9<\.0
100
up to 144 27 108 21. 8
900
100
.. ,
to 182 2.4 9.0 ... 2 84.a
100 up to 264 2J 6.0 1a.a 73.S
100 up to 384 ~ &.4 14.1 61.8
- -----·-·-······· ................. ·------·--··-··-----.. -
125
''""
Ul" l ., to 72 12.0
•.a
75.0
125 liP to 144 9.0 14J 54.0
125 up
'0
.. &4
•••
S7.2
l2S up to 432 4. 'l2 2.1.2
l2S
liP
to 721 3.0 .... 2LO
12S up to 1020 2.4
~ ·
17. 4
. ·--· ··. ·- .... -·· -·-···-· · -··-- ..............
·· ···· ...... ... -.................. _,
. .. --·· .. -... ..... ···--·· ····- ·- ..
... ,...., __ ____
88
125 ISO
-···-··· .. ··-
102
102
102.
102
Kl2
1(2
102 _____ ...___
117 132
117 132
117 lJIZ
••
132
67.5 132
54 132
ISO ....
( .. )
· ~
ISO
ISO
· ~
150
;!!()() •• ' •• ,
200
200
2 00
200
200
200
up to
144
8.1 32..4 102 ISS
up to tn
~
21 4S8
1153
.,
to 57&
3.0 12.1 u 121.5
up ~ 8&4
2.1 9.9 17.5
-.o
"'
to 1294
••
7.5 27 .. 72.0
...
to 2070
L2 e.a 22.5 sa.e
., to aao
12.8 43.2 120
., to 840
a.cr
...
...
78.0
up to 9to
... 11.0 ....
...
..
1100
4.8 12.0 H .O
.,
-
2100
a .. 1.4 21.0
.,
te .tlto
2.1 ... ....
., to 5<'00
1.11 &I ....
PROBLEM:
How large is the main vent required tor fixtures consisting ot 4 water closets. 4 lavatories 3
showers and 2 kitchen sinks installed on the first floor ot a two storey building 6.00 meters
high?
Solve for the total fixture Units.
6 X 4 W.C.
1 x 4 LAV.
2 X 3 SHO.
2 x 2 K.A.
24units
4
6
4
38 units
Refer to Column 1 (use a 100 mm or 4" pipe)
a 100 mm soi l or waste stack can accomodate a maximum of 48 units (sate).
Under Column, diameter of Vent Pipe a 63 mm pipe could ventilate 48 fixture units as high as
19.50 meters very safe for a 6.00 m problem ..
Therefore; specify 63 m (2 1 / 2) Vent Pipe.
PROBLEM:
Determine the size of the main vent required to vent a drainage installation serving 90 fixture
units installed on the first floor of a 5 storey building with a height of 19.00 meters.
refer to column 1
A 100 mm stack could serve 96 units
under column diameter ot vent
A 75 mm 13") pipe could ventilate 96 fixture unit as high as 25.2 meters (sate) for a
19.00 m height.
fheretore use a 75 mm (3") Main Vent Pipe.

i c.>VENTS-For the admission of air and the dis·
.}/ charging of gases, soil and waste stacks are ex-
tended through roofs, and a system of air vents,
largey paralleling the drainage system is also pro-
vided.
fhc Introduction of air near the fixture (and in the
case of loop venting, at the branch soil (line) breaks
the possible siphonage of water out of the trap.
Loop venting which permits an air and gases to
pass in and out of the soil or waste branch instead
of at its fixture, is fully effective in preventing the
siphonage of trap seals.
TWO TYPES OF VENTS
1. MAIN SOIL AND WASTE VENT
.
.
'

.. '
•:,
.
21 wtth
only Dne hole
no
V<;;!nl t<> balana
.atmosphenc.
pressune.
This is the portion of the soil pipestack above the highest installed fixture branch extend-
ed through the roof. It serves as the te;minal for the main vent and other vents of the
plumbing installations.
2. MAIN EVENT
Is that portion of the vent pipe system which serves as a terminal of the smallest forms of
units and grouped fixture trap ventilation. The main vent is connected full size at their
base to the main soil or waste pipe at or below the lowest fixture branch and should ex-
tend undiminished in size above the roof or should be reconnected with the main soil vent
at least 1.00 meter above the highest fixture branch.
The main vent also serves as a relief vent for any back pressure. It must be free from off-
sets to allow free movement of air. Under this main vent are other different types of vents
such as:
MAI N ::OIL
AND WASTE VENT
F1..00r'
-·- - - 7
. -------"
STACk· thiS 1$ .a
for .any
hi'\€ of .sti I, t.v a S1e or
Plf'ln9·
HOUSE DRAIN
91
3. INDIVIDUAL VENT
Sometimes ref erred to as back vent. It IS that portton ol the vent pipe which serves a
single trap. It should be connected close to the ftxtuw uap as possibl e, 11 should be
located underneath and back of the fixture and 11 must be connected to the main vent
above the overfl ow line of the fixture.
INDI VI DUAL VENT ABOVE
OVERFl-OW AT LEA.S.T 0.15 fJ1
Ov-ERFLOW LINE.,_
AI
SIZES:
Lavatories, drinking fountains . . . . . . . . . 1 Y2
Sink ...... . ........ ... . . .. . .. . ..... ... ... .... 1 %"
Shower, laundry, slop, sink . . .......... . 1"
Water Closet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3"
PERMISSIBLE NUMBER OF FIXTURE OF UNIT
WASTE PIPE
TRAPS SHALL NOT
!3E MORE THAN J.SO
Mr.S FROM Tl-IE' MAIN
VENT.
Size of Pipe A Number of Fixture
(mml tJnits allowed
33
( 1
38
(l %")
8
50
(2")
18
63 (2%")
36
75 (3"J 72
100
(4")
384
BATH
TUB
4. UNIT VENT
This is that portion of the vent p1pe wh1cll vent1late two .:ixture traps. Usually used in
apartments arranged bact.. to back.
SOIL
PIPE.
DRUM TRAP
MAIN VENT
tNOIVIOUAI... VENT
'= WA;iTe
\
WALL HUNG
DRUM TRAP
BAT/-1
rue
93
./
5. CIRCUIT OR LOOP VENT
This is employed where two or more fixture traps are installed on a hori zontal soil or
waste branch. The use of circuit vent generally reduces the cost of the plumbing installa-
tion.
CIRCUIT VENT FOR A BATTERY OF FIXTURES
VENT
CIRCUI T ~ N T
C I ~ U J T VENT
Battery of Fixtures-Any t wo or
.nore similar adjacent Fixtures
which discharged into a common
horrz.ontal or soil branch.
w.c:. w.c.
94
SIZE OF CIRCUIT VENT FOR A BATTERY
o·F WATER CLOSETS
Number of Water Closets Diameter of
Installed in a Series Circuit Vent
2 ~ mm (2"1
3 to 6 75 mm (3" )
7 or more 100 mm (4")
CIRCUIT VENT FOR A BA I I tHY Ut- t-I X I UKt::;
OF WATER CLOSETS
Fl-OOR_
6. RELIEF VENT
Is installed to ventilate the soil and waste pipe and the connecting branches other than
the fixture traps.
Relief vent is provided when waste branches are circuit vented.
so mm ( 2") neue F Vi:! NT - Aru=.AsT )i a::
11\E. DIAMETER
SOIL. PIPE IN NO
CA$E 6e l-E$
3e rnm
75 mm (3..,)

VENT
The base of the soil pipe stack on tall building installations is susceptible to back pressure
due to the large volume of water rushing down inside the pipe, therefore, a relief vent in
this portion is necessary.
111
FLOOR LINE!.
lUl
RELIEF VENr
111111
HOUSE DRAIN 95
9t-i
Where change of directions are made, relief vent is a must .
MAIN VENT
Yf!NT
SOIL APe
WASTE PIPE..

OT LeSS "TW\N
SO Mm
ANP SHOULD !IE THE
.sAME DIA.AS' TI-fE
tvtAIN
VENr
7. YOKE OR BY-PASS VENTILATION
On a long vertical soil pipe a relief vent is installed at 3 to 5 floor intervals. In this case, the
relief vent is referred to as the YOKE or by-pass ventilation.
97
98
8. WET VENTILATION
Refers to the vertical pipe of the plumbing system used as ventilation of the plumbing, in·
stallation and fixture traps which at the same time receives and convey liouid waste dis-
charge from the fixtures. Widely used for small groups of bathroom fixtures particularly
on a one or two storey residential houses.
M A l ~ SOIL .t LAY.
WASTE VENT
9. LOOPED VENT
Used on Fixtures in a room away from partitions. Common to beauty parlors, barbers
shops and dental clinics and surgical rooms.
LOOPED
FLOOR
N
-·-· -
-010
.0 13
. 020
.0 25
.032
.038
.050
.063
.0 75
.088
. 100
.12S
.I SO
.2 00
.250
. 300
SIZE OF THE WASTE PlPE
PROBLEM:
Determine t he size of a horizontal branch waste pipe for one lavatory, one residential sink
and a slop sink.
FIXTURE UNIT VALUES
Lavatory, Wash Basin
15. sq. m. roof drain, floor drain
residential sink
Bath Tub, Kitchen Sink, Laundry Tub Shower Bath
Slop Sink, Combination Fixture (water Closet, Lavatory,
Bath Tub with Shower)
Urinal
Water Closet
Referring to above table,
1 lavatory
1 res. sink
1 slop sink
Total
1Y2
3
unit
5 Y2 units
1
1Y2
2
3
5
6
Referring to the Table below size of Pipes 5 1/ 2 units is nearest to the value of 6 under col -
umn 1 diameter of pipe a 50 mm pipe is satisfactory.
Tf 1erefore A. 50 mm (2" J pipe is required.
SIZE OF PIPE
--·· -- .... -- -- -· - ·- - - ·- - -
OtANETER
Of
PIPE
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURES UNITS THAT MAY BE CONNECTED
- - · ·--- · ·-.. ·-·--- · - - ·-·· - ---- - ------- -- ··- -
ONE HORIZON
BRANCH
T08lACk WITH 3 OR NOR! BRANCH
NOT OVER INTERVALS
- - - ·-- - - ·--· ·- - ·· - -· ·--
a BRANCH IN I BRANCH TOTAL IN
.... tnch
STACJ(
- · - -· - - · ·-
- --· -
- ·
- ·
10 3/8 "
13 1/ 2"
20 314" .
25 I"
32 Jl/4 '
1
2
38
,.,2
3 4
I 2
8
2"
6 10
63 21/2"
12 20
6 24
9 o4 2
75 3"
20
30 eo 6 0
88

100
....
1$0 240 Ill

125 S" 360
S40
200
1100
150 e" 6 20
960
200 8" 14 00
2200
2 50

2500 3800
3SO 1900
aeo
3600
1000
5600
300
12' •
3800 6000 ISOO

99
SIZE OF
SA·NITARY DRAIN
DIAMI!T!R OF PIP! MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS
....
32
••
so
63
71
100
125
ISO
200
210
300
too
anoh11 2% a1ope a% a lope
4% elope
I l l ~ · I I I
I
1
12" 2 2.S 3
2" s 7
... 8
2'Ja .. 12 13 14
3" 18 19.0 21
4" 96 20!5 114
15" 216 240 264
...
~ 5 0 S25 800
...
1392 1806 2200
10" 2520 3200 3aoO
t2'• 4320 S818 8912
SANITARY DRAIN -receive the discharges of sanitary and domestic waste only.
a. Industrial drain -this house drain receives the discharges from industrial
equipments. Due to some objectionable acid wastes, this usually terminate into a
separate drainage basin.
b. Storm drain-this receive the discharges of all storm. Clear water or surface water
washes except sanitary wastes this usually terminate into rivers, lakes, etc.
PROBLEM:
Determine the '-size of a Sanitary House Chain for a plumbing installation consisting of 20
water closets, 10 urinals, 5 shower baths 12 wash basins, 4 floor drains and 6 combine fix -
tures.
Referring to table Fixture Unit Values.
20 W.C. x 6 120 Units
10 urinals x 5 50
5 sho. baths x 2 10
12 wash basins x 1 12
4 floor drains x 1
6 combination x 3
Total
4
18
214 Units
Referring to above Tabl e, column·2 under 2% slope a 125 mm could serve 216 Fixture units.
Speci fy a 125 mm diameter pipe (5").
M
HOUSE SEWER
This is that portion of the horizontal drainage aystem which starts from the outer face of the
building and terminate at the main sewer in the street or septic tank.
SIZE OF HOUSE SEWER
For ordinary residential installation, a minimum size of 150 mm (6") diameter for vitrified clay
pipe. If cast iron or pipe, a 100 mm 14") can be used.
INSPECTION AND TESTS
SECTION 252. All WORK TO BE INSPECTED
All pipes, fittings, traps, fixtures, appurtenances and devices of a plumbing, drainage
and gas piping system shall be inspected and approved by the Plumbing Inspector to in-
sure compliance with all the requirements of this Code.
SECTION 253. NOTIFICATION
It shall be the duty of the Master Plumber doing the work authorized by the permit to
notify the Plumbing Inspector, in writing that his work is ready for inspection. Such
shall be given not less than eight (8) working hours before the work is to be
inspected.
SECTION 254. MATERIAL AND LABOR FOR TESTS
The equipment materials, power and labor necessary for the inspection and test shall be
furnished by the Master Plumber.
SECTION 255. SYSTEM OF TEST
All the pipings of the plumbing system shall be tested with water having a pressure head
of at least fiye (5) feet, or by air as herein after provided.
SECTION 256. TESTS
Upon the completion of the entire water distribution system including to
appurtenances, devices, tanks, apparatus or fixtures, it shall be tested and inspected,
101
102
and proven to be tight under a water pressure not less than the maximum pressure
under which it is to be used.
Upon the completion of the setting or installing of the plumbing fixtures, devices, ap-
paratus, appurtenances, or appliances having waste and/ or water connections, and
prior to the general use thereof, it shall be the duty of the Master ·Plumber doing such
work to notify the Plumbing Inspector that such work is ready for inspection.
SECTION 2S7. METHOD OF TESTING
All pipings of a sanitary plumbing and/or drainage system shall be tested with water in
the following manner; ( 1) WATER TEST: The water test shall be applied to the plumb-
ing system and/ or drainage system in its entirety or in sections. It applied to the entire
system, all openings in the piping shall be tightly closed except the b.ighest opening
above the roof or other highest point and the entire system filled with water to the point
of overflow. All dead ends shall be relieved of air during the process of filling. whether
the rest is by sections or in its entirety. If the system is tested by sections, each opening
shall be tightly closed except the highest opening of the section under test, and each
section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with no less than five (5)
feed head of water or two and one-half (2 Yz} pounds pressure of air test applied.
House's sewer shall be subjected to a water test identical to that of the above except
that the pressure need not exceed that imposed by a five (51 feet head of water.
Under any test, the water of air pressure shall remain constant for not less than ten (101
minutes without any further addition of water or air or showing of leaks.
AIR TEST: The air test shall be made by attaching the air compressor or test apparatus
to any suitable opening, and closing all other inlets and outlets of the system, then forc-
ing air into the system until there is a uniform pressure sufficient to balance a column of
mercury five (5) inches in height or two and one-half (2-1 / 21 pounds per inch on the en-
tire system. This pressure shall be maintained for ten 110} minutes without any show of
loss in the pressure.
Water or other liquids shall not be used to test gas piping for thightness.
SECTION 258. COVERING OF WORK
No drainage or plumbing system or part thereof shall be covered until it has been in-
spected, tested, and approved as provided in this CODE.
SECTION 259. UNCOVERING OF WORK
If any house drainage including septic vaults or plumbing system or part thereof is
covered before being regularly inspected, tested and approved, as herein provided, it
shall be uncovered upon the order and direction of the Plumbing Inspector.
SEWAGE DISPOSAL
SYSTEM
SEVERAL TYPES:
1. CESSPOOL-is a hole in the grolmd with stones and bricks·laid in such a manner as to
allow raw contaminated sewage to leach into the undersurface of the ground. (now
...
obsolete).
2. PRIVY -is a concrete vault constructed for the collection of raw sewage sealed with a
wooden shelter. (obsolete)
3. SEPTIC TANK-is a receptacle or vault used to collect organic waste discharge r t ~ m the
house sewer.
4. PUBLIC SEWER LINE -is a public sewage disposal system consisting of a sewage
treatment unit which conveys the raw sewage to the disposal system.
a. Combination public sewer-it conveys storm water and sanitary waste.
b. Sanitary Sewer-only carries sanitary waste to a modern sewage disposal plant rain-
water is prohibited.
c. Storm Sewer-this carries storm water and terminates jnto a natural drainage such as
lakes & rivers.
MANHOLE-serves as a
clean-out and an access for
inspection and repair. In-
stalled on a public sewer line
at an interval of 75 to 150
meters diameter from 0.90
to 1 .20 meters and provided
with iron rungs as ladders
to the bottom. A well fitted
steel cover is provided in
level with the road.
Catch Basin-a recep-
tacle in which liquids
are retained for a suf-
ficient period to the
deposit settleable ma-
terial.
MANHOLE
104
PROBLEM:
Prepare the bill of materials required to con--
struct the sewer line of a 100 meters length,
connected to two 1.00 meter diameter man-
holes. The size of t he sewer pipe is . ~ .
100 wrs
SOLUTION:
100 tess iD + i o = 99.0 M
1
-:fu- (length of one pipe) = 99 pipes
• Subtract 3%
99 - 2.97 = 96.03 pipes
3% to take care of GAPS 25-50 mm (1" to 2") if there are 96 pipes only 95 wifl be grouted
referring to the Tabl e below, a concrete pipe of 0.90 will need 0.198 brags cement and .0247
cu.m. sand.
95 x .198 = 18.81 bags cement say 19
95 X .02<7 = 2.35 cu.m. sand
105
106
QUANTITY.OF CEMENT AND SAND PER PIPE JOINT
CONCRETE PIPE SIZE BAGS CU.M.
IN METER CEMENT SAND
0.60 .132 .0165
0.90 .198 .0247
1.20 .266 .0330
1.50 .320 .0400
1.80 .376 .0470
2.10 .443 .0554
2.40 .496 .0620
2.70 .558 .0695
3.00 .616 .0770
SEPTIC TANK
A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a plumbing system or part th.ereof,
and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest the organic
matter through a period of detention, and allow the effluent to discharge into a storm drain;
or directly to the ground outside the tank through a system of open joint or perforated pip-
ing.
r-- --- -- -·---
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
, '
I
: tl I
MANHOLE:
I I
L _ -- _ ... _ _ _,
~ - -- -....... ----,
I I
t I
I I
n :
;MANHbL.E :
L-- -- _____ J
I i
I 1
I I
I '
I j
I I
I I
I I
I l I
- --- ------ --- - --- ----J L--------- - -----J
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~ - - - - - - - - ---------- ----
_ _ __ _ __ _ _ _____ __ _ _____ _ _ ___ _ _ _ J
L
PLAN
SECTION A T ~ A
107
108
SECIJON BB
SUGGESTED SIZE OF SEPTIC TANKS IN METERS
NUMBER OF PERSON
SERVED
INSIDE DIMENSION OF DIGESTION CHAMBER
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
LOCATION/ FEATURES
0 = Depth
1.20
1.20
1.20
.1.20
1.30
1.30
1.40
1.40
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.60
1 . ~
1.00
w =Width
0.90
1.10
1.25
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.66
1.75
1.80
1.95
2.00
2.20
2.30
2.50
L = Length
1.80
2.20
2.50
2.80
3.00
3.20
3.30
3.50
3.60
3.90
4.00
4.40
4.60
5.00
1. Septic tanks should be located not less than 15 meters away from potable wat9f to
prevent contamination.
2. Where there is public sewer pipe, septic tanks are not allowed.
3. No septic tank shall be installed within or under a house.
4. The inlets and outlets are submerged and arranged so as not to disi.urb the sludge or
SCUM.
5. The bottom of the Tank should slope (1:10) minimum towards the manhole in the
center to facilitate cleaning.
6. The top cover and the manhole are usually extended 15 em a b o ~ the surface of the
soil to overcome surface water infiltration.
TECHNICAL DATA IN DETERMINING VOLUME OF SEPTIC TANK
1. Minimum Width = 0.90 meters
2. Minimum Length = 1.50 meters
3. Minimum Depth = 1.20 meters
4. For = allocate 0.14 to 0.17 cubic meter of liquid per person.
5. To serve 12 persons == not more than 2.0 cu.m.
6. For school industrial establishment :::: Volume shoud not be less than 0.057 cu.m.
nor more than 0.086 cu.m. per person.
PROBLEM:
Determine the size of a septic tank to serve 200 persons in a commercial building.
200 x 0.057 = 11 .4 cu.m
Assume 1.00M width for 100 persons
2.00M width for 200 persons
l == ?
l X 2.00 X 1.50 = 11 .40
L .. 11 .40
3.00
L = 3.80 meters
109
!
r
§
LL ·
u..
w
1 P O O ~
110
SEWAGE DISPOSAL
j iJ\S"TRIBUTING BOX
!. F'OOLS
'
!5 POOLS
4 POOLS (or3)
KEEP CESSPOOLS 30.00 METERS AWAY FROM WATER SUPPLY
PLAN ( lt.''siONE)
Mfflu.Qttt ~ W ¥
rYJ=.;;;;;;--:-- dl!ft nb.rh
l ~ · 1
max.
I S.OOH'I.
1
LEACHING CESSPOOL DISPOSAL
_...
t
f.--..\
Of1 ba<---'
I
(J
-.1-tn
~ mar. t&.oo m.
FOR FLAT .AND .SLIGI1TL.Y SL.OPING GRADES
FOR STEEP GRADES
111
earth
fme
or .gravel
co.ars:e
or 4ravel.
l1Je wtth Jfor--""'
( 'JlliT1) JOint
Jomts (6\4!1rlrl
w1th o.lo(1") of
tar pap42r wtrtd

DRAIN TILE TRENCH
112
TANK
--=: T-r-------r-
C- - tp.!. --t--
- '"'"
_____ _.. .. JCt" PLanK
" ,,
lXt
01 gpoGAL FIEL.D
a. Not the best Way to Clean
and recYcle Water.
S O ~ -
'.
---dra111 fu1/d
113
114
b. Better method but more
to install.
c. Fast .becoming illegal be-
cause it puts raw sewage in
direct contact with the
earth.
d. Used in low and marshy
ground adjacent to a stream,
requires careful design and
frequent inspection and
servicing.
i9Jl'Ur:E
CJSTERN FOR RAINWATER STORAGE
..
'.( :L-----
Di.a1r1 ... __) _
1 I 1 1 :I I
1 M6nl1ol e
1
1 1 Flltu
11
1
1 : l :Box 11 :
f I I I l l
I I I
I I I I I I I
I I I : I: :
I I I
1
1
I t f'latform Dr-a 1n 1 1 1
1
L
1
Pump
:i - ·)c E)- -·· · ·- - --·- !- J=-...-=-4 o-= ..... qr -
V " Mtt.il Pump.s\et.ve L __ _ _ l ___ __ l __ l
i.o Prtvtnt c1t!movable. 1
1
sp1a.sh of f!lt.er Box Top :
, _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - .J.
Stuffing Box
PLAN
To N tnc:rtcs.sed ui
l«Ahon .lnd

AVERAGE DAILY HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF WATER:
pper Valvt .>c.r4en
WHERE EN"TIJZE
OSTEflN AAO F1L
ARE PLAc:E.D BELoW
MAN+tOlE SHAll.
I3E BRc116H T TD
AND SEALED.
50 to 100 gallons (189.51iters) per day per person each from 12 to 35
gal. each 100 chickens- 4 gat. each goat - 2 gal.
each hog - 4 gal.
115
TANKS AND CISTERN CAPACITIES IN GALLONS
Multiply by 3.79 to get Liters equivalent
DEPTH IN SQUARE TANKS
METERS 2.40M 3.00M 3.60M
1.20M 1,920gal. 3,000 4,320
1.80M 2,880 4,500 6,480
2.40M 3,840 6,000 8,640
3.00M 7,500 10,800
3.60M
12,960
EXAHP\..1
~ - - > ¥
PER TABLE
VOL
AVE
= 6 000 gallons
: 22,760 liters ( eooo a a. n)
:3.00 X 3.00 IC 2. 40
= 1,050 Utera/cu.m V
= 2 77 gallons /cu.m
CIRCULAR TANKS
2.40M 3.00M 3.60M 4.20M
1,50(} 2,350. 3,380 4,610
2,250 3,520 3,070 6,420
3,000 4,700 6,76& 9,220
3,760 5,870 8,460 11,520
4,510 7,040 10,150 13,830
+
1.eo
f
PER TABLE
VOL
= 7, 040 oonons
= 26,681.60 litera
=U ,2 X h
• 3.14{1.50}
2
)( 3.60
:c 25.434 cu.m
25. 434 X I. 050 : 26.70!)
21.6cu.mxi.O!SO = 22,680 litera = 26,68f.60
1: t 22, 740 liters
21.6 cu.rn lC 277 ~ 5,983.2
as per toble : 6, 000 901fona
f DRUM
= 53 gallons )
= 0.19 cy.m
6000
-
53
= U3.2 drums
(i GALLON :. 0036 e)c:v.m
116
I (6000}: .0036(6;000)
6,000 = 23.16 cu.m
70441
!S3
2!S.43o4 X 277 = 7044.1 gallons
= ! 133 drums
7044.1)( • 0036 c 25.358 cu.m
... .
rF QJJ rE !Nl [OJ [LJ
t WMllES
6 t=:=:::. NAGlE
lUJ
REFUSE HAND.LING AND
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN
BUILDINGS
118
RECYCLING SOLID WASTE
This is another energy conservation influence to which the Kitchen is special!¥ sub}ect. The
separation of dry organic garbage (paper), wet organic garbage, and inorganic wastes such
as glass, plastics, aluminum, and other metals is encouraged by community recycling efforts
in many locations. In the home, wet organic garbage can be composted for garden use, and
dry organic garbage might fuel the fireplace. Thus the kitchen needs direct access to a com-
post pile, as well as a place {which is cool and dry, to discourage odors) to store various
metals, plastics, and glass until recycling time.
The Clivus Multrum is one built-in way to deal with wet organic waste from both kitchen and
bathroom, but typically where a clivus multrum has not been installed. a place for food
wastes awaiting composting is also required. Since these wet wastes are particularly odor-
ous, they also need cool temperatures and isolation from the kitchen. In addition to being
roomy, easily accessible, closed off and cool , these spaces must be able to be cleaned. The
energy consuming and ar:Jtirecycling garbage compactor is clearly an easier approach for the
designer as well as the user, but it fails the challenge of resource conservation.
The outdoor compost pile has its own characteristics to challenge the designer. At its best, it
is a frequently turned, quite warm, damp, well-aired source of rich humus (and red worms)
for gardens; odors are noticeable only while the pile is turned. At its v:v-orst, it is a source of
unpleasant odors and a breeding place for ·vermin. (Any disease carrying insects, bugs or
small animals). Where odors are not objectionable, the heat generated in a fed
and tended compost pile could be welcome against the exteriOr. walls of residences. Clearly.
these walls must have inorganic exterior materials. .
In larger buildings, solid-waste collecting and processing systems are often installed to deal
with volumes of 'specialized' wastes, paper from an office building is one example.
There are 2 basic approaches to these systems:
1. Utilize the waste to recycle both organic and inorganic materials and to recover
heat from nonrecyclable materials.
2. Ship the waste elsewhere as quickly as possible.
The first approach includes composting systems which are available for multistory buildings;
an obvious problem in urban areas is the distribution of compost from so many families to so
.few gardens.
Another example of the first approach is the "INCINERATOR" -(a furnace or other device
for incinerating trash or burning into ash) a potential source of both heat and air pollution.
A major problem is the need for separate waste storage, collection and processing for
various categories of garbage. At best, without separation otherwise recyclable materials are
utilized only for heat, as when paper is incinerated. At worst they become part of our socie-
ty's growing solidwaste disposal problem.
The second approach, of quickly· shipping these wastes elsewhere, is particularly likely to
generate large quantities of unrecoverable solid waste. Garbage disposal units in apartment
kitchens feed the sewer, which le8eena the buildings' solid-waste collection problems, but
not those of the municipal sewage treatment plant . For the wastes that cannot be
compacters are often used to reduce the volume (therefore the cost) of shipped wastes,
once compacted, later separation to recover the material is more difficult. Yet the amount of
space taken up by the collection and storage of unseparated wastes is typically less than that
required for separated wastes, and space becomes more precious as density increases.
Storage and k>ading areas for a downtown apartment toWer are likely to be far smaller than
for a suburban apartment complex.
An example of the second approach to waste handling is shown in the figure below, where
pulping of waste is used to greatly reduce its volume. systems grind waste into pulp in
the presence of water, making a readily transportable SLURRY (a thin, watery mixture of a
fine, insoluble materials, as clay, cement or soil). At the loading docks, this slttrry enters a
water press where about 90% of the water is squeezed out, reducing the volume to about
one·fifth of that of the original wastes. This water is reused and replenished as required.
A PULPJNG INSTALLATiON "'R AMRTMENT
Such pulping systems are used not only for general refuse, as illustrated, but also for the
destruction of documents and for food service wastes. Pulping systems have limitations:
They should not. be used to handle metal or plastics, so that the recovery of at least these
materials remains a possibility .. Pulping systems are replacing incinerators in urban areasj their
advantages in reduced air pollution must be weighed against the possible heat contribution
from incineration.
Once shipped from buildings, unsorted garbage must undergo energy-intensive processing
if its resources are to be recovered. This procedure.typically involves shredding the mixed
garbage then blowing it through massive "air classifiers" that separate the organic (burn-
able) wastes from metals and glass. Burnable wastes can then be used, under controlled
combustion. to generate electricity, and the glass and metals (which have been further mag-
netically separated into ferrous and · non-ferrous metals) can be recycled.
119
120
SOLID WASTE RECOVERY PROJECT
(Clean Communities Corp. Mass.)
WASTE DISPOSAL .... by Corlias G. Karasov
Every day we throw away countless fonns of waste -from gum wrappers and banana peels
to used car oil, old refrigerators, and an occasional battered car. Add to this the millions of
tons of waste generated by agriculture, industries, mining and oil and gas extraction, and
you have about one million tons of solid waste generatEtd every day in the United States
(about four kilograms for every person 1. Anothef 315 biUion liters of waste-water are poured
into the sewers and septic tanks each day (1370 liters per person).
So much solid and liquid waste is generated that it would be impossible for natural processes
to handle it all. Also many forms of modern waste are treatment
they .do not break down in the environment for many years.
What happens to this waste? Mismanaged waste eventually shows up as pollution in our .
lakes, streams, drinking water, and air, even as an unsightly pile cluttering our view of the
environment. Industrial and municipal wastes are the main source of groundwater contami-
nation (half of our drinking water supply comes from groundwater sources). Waste manage-
ment is a major nationwide problem today.
SOLID MUNICIPAL WASTES
A. Collection
Modern communities can collect liquid wastes in sewers with ease and with lit-
tle expense per person. But there is no similar method for collecting solid wastes. Collec-
tors still have to go each home or place of business and gather the solid wastes, -largely
QY hand. This of course, is expensive.
However, the work today is more sanitary than it was in the past. SPECIAL Sanitation
Trucks have closed watertight bodies as well as special machinery that presses down the
refuse into a small place.
B. Disposal
Once collected, a satisfactory method of disposing of solids is needed. The two most
commonly used methods are incineration and sanitary landfills, though many other dis-
posal techniques are available: .. -
Open dump, hog feeding, grinding and discharge to sewers, milling, compacting,
dumping and burial at sea, reduction composting, pyrolization (destruction with high
heat), well oxidation, and annaerobic digestion.
a: Incineration, or controlled bu'rning of combustible waste, can be an effective
reduction method for 70 percent of all solid municipal wastes. If an incinerator is
operated properly, it can reduce bulk by 90 to 95 percent. Ash left over is generally
disposed off in a landfill - (soft courses can be estabiished this way).
Environmental laws require specialized pollution control equipment such as scrubbers
and electrostatic precipitators to remove fly ash (fine ash particles that would other-
wise rise from chimneys and pollute the air. In the past the heat generated in incinera-
tors went to waste. Today the heat is often channeled to heat boilers.' pro-
duces steam, either for heating buildings or for generating electricity.
121
HOUSEHOl:-0 WASTE foadll4
· tntc:=> trod that
tt be10re haulln.:1 •t t() d dump
or tnane.r.ra tor.
122
b. Sanitary Landfills -are not open
dumps. In this process, refuse is
dumped at a pre-planned site, com-
pacted, and covered with a layer of
earth. There are two basic ap-
proaches in making a sanitary land-
fill. The trench method and the area
method.
6A.RBA6'= TRUCK · With.
21rm to lift tr.ash

1. Trench Method-a tractor digs a
trench with a bulldozer blade
and trucks. Dump the refuse in-
to it. Then the tractor compacts
the refuse thoroughly and co-
vers it with earth that was dug
up earlier. The. trench method is
primarily used on level ground.
SOL.. I 0 WASTE tnto
ane
almost l,so:> k•lagrams.
Tht.S W.dS'te IS
ttum G1ffeh fa- .s:a mtar.y
Landfall .
2. Area Method -is generally used
on rolling terrain where the exist-
ing slope of the land be used
as a basin. In this method,
trucks deposit refuse over a se-
lected area. Huge, heavy trac-
tors with special compacting
wheels press down the refuse.
Then the refuse is covefed with
earth hauled in from elsewhere.
The tractors make the fill so firm
that it later settles only slightly.
Once a landfill has been compacted and covered the land cannot be used to build
homes or other buildings because of the danger of heavy objects sinl<ing as the fill
settles. However, many fills are used for golf courses and other light uses.
LIQUID MUNICIPAL WASTES
A. COLLECTION
In some underdeveloped areas of the work, open sewers are used. In parts of Asia, peo-
ple go to home at night to collect human wastes and carry it away in carts. In some parts
of China and Japan, human waste is used as a fertilizer . Today, elaborate sewer systems
are used to carry most liquid sewage to waste treatment plants. When no sewage system
is available, however septic tanks and other subsurface systems are generally the next
choice for homes and business.
SEWERS -are designed to carry sewage from residences, business, and industries
lar!;Je C()nduits to treatment plants where the sewage undergoes a series
of treatment steps to remove polluting materials. Once treated, the wastewater is released
to rivers and lakes to become part of our water resources. Sludge removed from the
wastewater is treated and disposed of in landfills.
123
Most older sewer systems are designed to carry all forms of wastewater together, in-
cluding both storm water and sanitary sewage. A disadvantage of this "combined"
sewer system is that most treatment plants are not designed to receive the large volume
of sewage that comes through after rainstorms. Rather than damage the treatment plant
with the excess waste after a. storm, wastewater is often allowed to bypass the treatment
plant and enter our waterways untreated.
Newer sewer systems often carry " Blackwater" (Toilet Water) and " Greywater" (any
other water) separately. In the event of any rainstorm, greywater can be released if
necessary while the more concentrated blackwater is treated. A second advantage of se-
parated sewer systems is that greywater can in some cases be released after fewer treat-
ment steps.
41- 6l.A.CKWATER
GRE.YWATE_R

OLD SYSTEM
124
R.Af4T
q
BY PASSING "eAt:YWATER .. . 9>
an.d R.o\IN WAlER
B. DISPOSAL
wat42r-
. ways
At the sewage treatment pJant, sewage is put through a series of treatment steps to
remove any biological and chemical contaminants that can harm human health or ecolo-
gical systems; to remove final traces of suspended solids; to remove undesirable growths
of algae; to remove taste, color and odor; and to reduce nutrient content then the
treated sewage is released to rivers and lakes to become part of our water resources.
The three standard Treatment stages are:
Primary -this is almost always used. Primary treatment is used to remove large floating
or suspended particles, heavier particles such as sand or gravel (called grit) and any ex-
cessive amounts of grease or oil from the sewage. A series of screen grit chamber, and
sedimentation tanks is used for this step.
If no further. treatment is performed, the wastewater is disinfected by the addition of
chlorine and discharged into a stream or a body of water. If further treatment is needed.
the wastewater goes to secondary treatment.
SCREENING
TRAPS COARSE
MATrER
GRIT CHAMBER
LIGHT ""RT1G.U!S 1"1..0\T
HJ:AW 6"1T t=MT1a..SS SINK
.. .
2. Seco41dery Treatment-is the use of aerobic microorganisms (bacteria that thrive in
air) to break down organic matter left in the sewage. The process-called biological
oxidation-involves the use of trickling activated sludge and stabilization
ponds. Unless tertiary treatment is used, the wastewater is disinfected with chlorine
and discharged. '
125
126
rRlGKLIN6 FtLTER
A tnc.l<hn4 i'ttUr: wh•Lh blologtully punflfS U'til4l of •
matt4!!r ThiS proas& IS )(nown 4K
or .au· dcriroy 1tw c::njaruc
•tta s,ray 1lw'OUgh (»ppni"9 m'four .Arms.
thL¥ • w1th an; lM t'hfn iloWiy 1br"OU9h a
of 'oarul)t uusb.N whf,. c..arryn19 'lirats
Mlwn Uw rnat.tful mto humw
SLUDGE left over the primary and secondary treatment processes is sent to a sludge
digester for further processing. The sludge digester uses aerobic bacteria to break
down volatile matter in the sludge over the course of two to three weeks. Methane, a
by-product of this step, can be used as a fuel source. The remaining sludge can be us-
ed as a fertilizer or soil conditioner, incinerated, or deposited in a landfill.
SETTL.IN6 TANK
3. Tertiary Treatment, also called advanced wastewater treatment, is used to get
drinking-quality water. At this stage, chemical treatments are used to remove unde-
sirable constituents that remain after Secondary treatment. These includes nitrates,
which can cause public health problems and nitrogen and phosphorus, which encour-
age the growth of algae. The specific treatment methods used in tertiary treatment
depend oh the source of wastewater being treated. For example, carbon absorption
reverse osmosis, or distillation processes are used to remove organic materials. To
eliminate heavy metals from wastewater, lime treatment or coagulation. and sedimen-
tation treatments are used. {Please refer to Chapter 7 seW'age treatment and
recycling of water).
P r ~ ~ r . a t1on
ao4
6nt Tani\S'
127
SEPTIC TANKS
In area& without sewer pipes to cerry sewage to treatment plants, septic tanks and other
subsurface absorption systems are- the mOst commonly used means of treating wastewater.
A septic tank is a watertight tank In which sewage is purified by anaerobic bacteria. Solid
wastea settle to the bottom of the tank, where the anaerobic bacteria aid in their decomposi-
tion. Sludge left over is periodically collected from septic tanks and treated or disposed of in
landfills.
The sewage effluent-wastewater-passes out of the tank through perforated pipes and into
the surrounding soil. However, if the. soil is too clayey or clogged with too much waste, the
wastewater will not be able to leave the tank and be purified. Proper use of septic systems is
purified before it reaches nearby lakes, streams, rivers, or underlying groundwater. (Please
refer back to Chapter 5, sewage treatment.)
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
128
Agriculture, mining, -chemical and metal industries, and paper manufacture are responsible
for a big chunk of the waste generated in the United States, and countries with big indus-
tries. Industrial mining and agricultural waste amount to more than 380 million metric tons of
solid and liquid waste generated in the.United States each year.
Industries generate most hazardous wastes. The two largest-hazardous waste generators are
the chemical industry (60 percent) and the primary metal industry (10 percent) crude estl·
mates of the hazardous waste disposed of in the United States each year run from 100 to 275
million metric tons.
Industries are now responsible for disposing of their own waste. This is often extremely cost-
ly. In response to rising costs for waste disposal, many companies have attempted to reduce
. the waste generated and recycle and reuse waste materials. Many industries have success-
fully reduced both non-hazardous and hazardous wastes. Almost 35,000 chemicals are etas
sified as either potentially or definitely liazardous to human health. Some of these chemicals
are toxic; the most commonly known can, in certain concentrations, cause birth defects,
cancer, irreversible health problems, and cteath. Other types of hazardous wastes are corro·
sives, such as acids; flammables; explosives; irritants that can cause incapacitating short·
term chronic allergic response reactions.
THE RECYCLING
OF WATER
130
"Today's water supply is tommorow's sewage problem" is a slogan of officials of municipal
Public works department. With great effort and expenses, millions of gallons of potable
water where delivered to a City, only to be continuously polluted by human wastes. Trans-
formed into sewage, it was then run to foul the nearest river or, in more recent times, it was
purified -also at great effort and expense.
Adequate sources of water are now in short supply. Fresh water lakes, deep wetls, and some
less-polluted rivers now often yield insufficient water for this extravagant and wasteful cycle.
We face the scheme of making the purified sewage effluent quite a lot purer and drinking it.
Thus, the slogan is reversed and becomes "Today's Sewage flow can be tommorow's water
supply". Terms such as "Sewage Disposal" are used less often and are replaced by "Water
Reclamation" and "Recycling of Water". However, human sensibility is such that we are re-
luctant to think that we are drinking purified sewage effluent.
Reclaiming sewage for drinking water is a change that will affect the practice of architects
and planners. It wil1 change the nature of buildings, their mechanical systems, and their
plumbing fixtures. Regional planning will also be affected, since the recycling may take place
in small, newly planned communities and even on college campuses. Space for local treat-
ment plants may be required in the master plans now on the drawing boards or those soon to
be contemplated .
In this fast-moving development, the possible, complete digestion of sewage at an individual
house or even directly at an individual toilet fixture has been seriously considered. At our
present time of writing, the speed of change is so great that any appraisal of the current situ-
ation must be considered to be $Ubject to additional changes.
Effluent - the outflow of a sewer, septic tank.
Sludge-any heavy, slimy deposit, sediment or mass, as the waste resulting from the
precipitate in a sewage tank, oil refining or mud brought up by a mining drill.
THREE KINDS OF WATER
As discussed earlier, the descriptive terms· are:
1. Storm water
2. Area water-wastes from laundries, wash basins, sinks, showers, bath tubs.
3. Black water - the water plus-hul)"lan waste that is flushed out of toiletS and
urinals.
FOUR DISTINCT OBJECTIVE STATEMENT IS NEEDED about the planning that should
apply to new buildings in new communities. :_This planning should include: ·
1. Storm water to be recharged to the earth.
2. Grey water to be collected separately and given the lighter treatment sufficient for its
purification.
3. Black water to be collected separately and then treated in city plants, locally or at
each building site.
4. Eliminating the incidence of black water by the use of composting processes.
SEWAGE TREATMENT WORKS
WARD'S ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY
(ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
GRJT CHAMBER
(MANHATT.

:'?.- -:-U

.. .
PRELIMINAR'Y

.SL.UD'-E
S'UH .• I N6
FINAL

CHAMf5CRS
I::Sl
Tratment wortc"s", W.rtis Island. New Ycrk Ad•vattd Proc..ess.
[AJManhatt:an .c:::hamber [8] Manhattan E:] {ew31}1 tunnel
[qJ Labor'atory .and Admtn1strat.m. [E:] Power plant (T] t:\Jmp and t=0w1r •
fHJ • tharrtP€1:S [IJ Fmal bet'>
pJ l>u •ld1ng [}:] ..:11'14 [':] <::bsatar4e [MJ Dec:t. ·1br .Slu4ge boaii.
132
PU8LIC

-------iAWm CHLORI DE.
· ..:: .··•----. SETTL..IN6
, ..
·(FERRIC SUL..FATE
· L..fMe:!
CHLORINE.
$OM A.SW
··!1---- FL..OCCUL.ATION
- ---· FILT'llATION
. .
A CITY WATER TREATMENT USING RIVER WATER AS A SOURCE
133
134
GENERAL:
The individual sewage disposal facility is a system designed to treat sewage from one build-
ing plot and dispose of it on the site, itself, usually by some type of soil absorption system
consisti ng of a septic tank followed by either leaching pools or tile fieldS. The individual
disposal system cannot be considered a satisfactory permanent method of sewage disposal
as compare to a connection to an approved public sewerage system.
RECYCLING AT NEW YORK
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
A new method of sewage treatment, known as the Pasveer Oxidation stream {using the ele·
ments for effective sewage digestion- sunshine and turbulent flow that creates the water
and provides an adequate oxygen content) has been adopted at N.Y. Institute of Technolo-
gy. Serving the new 450-Acre Campus at old Westbury, Long Island, N.Y., it provides an
on-campus sewage treatment, which returns the purified effluent to the ground through 48
leaching wells located under the athletic field. The groundwater thus restored, aids in
providing a contributing source of water for 400-ft. (1 20 m. ) deep wells, distantly located,
that furnish part of the water supply for the campus buildings.
1. PROCESS
The oxidation stream process is a modified form of the activated sludge process and may
be classified in the extended aeration group. It is not a mechanically aerated lagoon. The
biological removal and conversion of organic solids occur simultaneously in the aeration
basin under aerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions are always maintained by induction of
oxygen into the liquid with a highly efficient mechanical aerator. The surface aerator also
has excellent propulsion capabilities which keep all solids in suspension.
OUIET
LA(!;()ON
2. OPERATION
The oxidation stream is operated as a closed system and the net growth of volatile sus-
pended solids will increase so t hat it will periodi cally be necessary to remove some sludge
lowers the concentration in the stream and keeps the metabolism more active. The ex-
cess sludge formed in the process is sufficiently broken down so that the water bi nding
properties, present in sludge produced from other processes is not present. The surplus
sludge may be discharged wi thout offensive odors for direct dryi ng on open sludge dry-
ing beds. (The designs according to its designer, Mr. Bogen had provided for a 4,330
equivalent population and a 340,000 gallons per day flow).
t.eAt::HING FEILD UNDER
FOOTBALL. FEILD
STORWf DRAIN
LEGEND
A. SUMP PUMP PIT
F
B- S L U ~ E . PUMP PIT
C-CHLDR'INE GONTAC.T CHAMBER
0. INFLUENT STRUCTURE
E. LABOAATORY BUILDING
F.CLAF?lFlER
6- ROTOR BRI D6E
H- SL.UD6E ORYI NG BEDS
135
SANTEE WATER RECLAMATION PLANT
and PARK/RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
PADRE [)AM MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT
1. Raw Sewage from the community of SANTEE enters the treatment plant, (top of dia-
gram I.
2. The process then proceeds southwards to the point where reclaimed water is pumped to
customers.
3. Sludge does not enter the San Diego River but is pumped to the San Diego Metro Sys-
tem/or can be aerobically treated at the plant. ...
OPEN
CHANNEL
CHLDRINA"f10N
SlAT ION
S"EVEN
lifCEE\'\ 110NAL
LA!<E5
75 WAIER' SURF.Al:E
ACRES
[l
IM\TEI'c: D 0
.::'HLORINA110N ANO J
PUMPING F.A::IU11E5
136
Ill PERCOLATIDN 6E.05
.st.UDGE TO SAN Dl56()
METRO GYSTEM
WATER USED IN FLUSHING TOILET
When considering reduction of waste water flows, the biggest water-wasting device that
first come to mind is the water flush toilet. Almost everyone has participated in the use of
about 5 gallons (18.92 liters) of drinking-quality water to flush out of sight, objects of no
more than a cigarette butt. Altogether, water wasted in flushing toilets approach almost half
of all water used in a household:
LOSSES:
When the flusher rubber is faulty, water escapes through the water closet tank at a rate of 20
gallons per minute. This adds to 120 gallons per hour, so that in 10 hrs, a 1,000 gatlcn
tank is emptied.
A leaking faucet will result to loss of water. As an example, the illustration below will explain
the average loss· of water for a period of one month.
i



lDdrt:lps/ mmutt
2 ~ L r ~ r ! ;morrth
'
'

'
'






'




137
BIOLOGICAL COMPOST TOILET
or MULLBANK TOILET (Formerly Ecolet)
This is an aesthetically acceptable toilet. That do not use water at all. Its function, appear-
ance, and adaptibility are shown in the illustration.
FUNCTIONS:
1. A toilet with a controlled humidification process.
2. Developed in Sweden and marketed by Recreation Ecology conservation of the
U.S. Inc. 9800 West Bluemound Road, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226. ..
3. ODOR-FREE, it can be used continuously without discomfort.
4. It has a continuous, uniform, biological decomposition when in operation and is
mainly activated by mesophilic microorganisms.
5. Organic kitchen refuse can be received, as well as torn up newspaper and waste-
paper.
5. The mullbank enables the hygienic handling of waste at the source. No discharge of
waste or chemicals to the earth.
7. It produces a fertilizer and a soil amendment.
8. Domestic water consumption is reduced which implies reduced treatment of
sewage water.
• 9. It will operate in a wide variety of temperature ranges .
.A VEt.JTILATING FAN ANO eXHAUST
A MOULDED HI..;H rrTO EVAR)I?A"l"E LIQUID WASTE AND ODOR.
GLOSS LAMINATED AN!;
RESISTANT
POt..YSl"ERENE HOUSINEo A DISTRIBUTOR Pa'f
SEAT I
A TRANSR>R'MER:
AND $WITCH-
A COLLECTION TRAY IN
SPREADING INRJT IN
,· 20 POUNO.S ( 9·07 J<IL.LG) t.iF
PEAT MDSS WHICH IS SPREAD
CVER THE HEATING GDILS
TCJ PROVIDE SOIL BACTERIA
TO INlER'AC.T WITH

WHICH DECOMPOSeO (POWDER OW'(]
ARE FOR REMOVAL
A HEATING WITH THERMDSTAT TO
INSURE lliAT A TEMPERATURE 1DEAL FOR
DEC.OMR?.SITlON IS MAINTAIN
A TOILET YOU CAN'T FLUSH
138
THE CLIVUS IVIULTRUM (U.S.)
(Inclining Compost Room)
METHOD OF ORGANIC WASTE TREATMENT
This method for the treatment of organic wastes is self-contained. It uses no water. Pro-
ducts ofthe toilet and kitchen are retained in a impervious container from which there is no
effluent. It preserves nutrients by conversion to a rich humus suitable for gardens. No
nal supply of energy or chemicals is needed to .effect the decomposition.
In the Multrum, the bottom of which is sloped, the organic wastes slide down at a rate slow
enough to be thoroughly decomposed before reaching the storage chamber. A draft main-
tained by natural convection, ensures that there is aerobic action in the process and that kit-
chen and bathroom are odor free.
Bath, dish and laundry wash waters are not handled by the multrum. It is disposed of in such
a way as not to endanger human health or water quality. With toilet wastes eliminated from
the effluent leaving the house, this danger is greatly reduced.
Invented 30 years ago in Sweden, commercially available in the past decade in Scandina-
via, and adaptable to all types of buildings.
- - GARBA6E CHUTE
' .. -·--·· ··- - _,., _.,_.
the MULTRUM .at a m- .21
house
139
\
EXHAUST VENT
I!IXHALJST AIR OUT
c:;oz , H,o
'- ...
.......
'
\
\
\
I
GOUNTJ!.R ToP
UNIT
WASTES
CHAMBI!R
...
STARTER LAYER OF
f'EA T }- TOP SOIL
140
TOI&.ST WASTE
CHAMI5&R
COMPOST CHAMBER USING 1.20 x 2.40 Floor space by 2.10 high that receives garbage
and human waste under controlled conditions. The end product is a humus, which is only 5
to 10%·of the volume originally put in. This end product is safe for gardens because of the
long retention in the container (2 to 4 years).
THE MICROPHOR FLUSH TOILET
The recycling of water from sewage is not the only way to ease the water supply problem.
Obviously the use of less water at fixtures also helps. This reduces the volume of sewage
produced. The microphor flush toilet for use in conventional plumbing systems is a notable
item for this purpose. It only tlusl)es 2 quarts ( 1.892 liters) as against 5 gallons fl ush for the
ordinary water closet.
HOW IT WORKS:
The microphor low flush toilet is activated by pressing the flush lever. Water and waste are
immediately deposited into the Lower Secondary chamber which is built into the structure of
the toilet.
The toilet has a complete water wash of the bowl refills to form a seal. At this point, the se-
condary chamber is pressurizec1 with compressed air and the waste and water is deposited
into the normal sewer line.
FINISHE=O WALL.
Savings = 2/5 used
3/5 saved
For conventional - say 1,000 gals.
only 400 gal . tor microphor
600 gal. saved.
RIM FLUSH
FINISHEO FLOOR
CXJTLET
USE: WAX B"OVVL. R I N ~
WHEN INSTALLING TOILET
141
NOTES


PLUMBING FIXTURES
.PLUMBING FIXTURES
144
Plumbing fixtures are tq liquid, @r water wastes
and discharge them into the
1. WATER CLOSET
A plumbing to. ttl the plymbing system.
Dtt:fign-:-This come in the follpwing
a. less expe.nsive, b1,.1lging frqnt.
b. Reverse Trap-more expensive than
washdown. Flushes through a siphon
action created in the trap way, mode-
rately noisy.
.. ---... t ..
Wlt1'8" tieAL.
.... ..

m<>re efficient. larger amount
gf Stlfpdi!"9 water, larger trap-
way clog and
action is greater.
d. Siphon Vortex- very effi-
cient, less, noisy and must ex-
fi!:J.§hirg l:}y whirlpool
action. It hcts amount of
cover-
ing !he 1;)911¥1
DlffJQt FIYJh Vf/Jftf- ln places where
water is and the pressure is
high, Flyshing tt{::tiQn can be obtained di·
rectly from iJ fh:l§h value connected into
the bowl. in commercial and insti -
tutional installations.
I-lEAC
SE'Al...
145
146
TDP .SPLJD DESt&l'l

MARINA (most expensive)
Flush valve model No. PE-3530 · wall
mounted elongated siphon jet.
$79
<1>----· -------
1
!
415
.. -----

I
:w""
VENTURA (cheapest)
Flush valve PF-3534-FV Siphonic Wash-
down.
VALVE (6} SHOULD SHUT" OFF
INTAKE WHEN
ARM RAISES Ar g.)
TUBE REFILLS
_ SEE TOILAT BOVVL
DE:TAIL-S BELOV-/ WHit....E TANK

it.]

VALVe
PLUNGER
fVILt...
COGK
WATER
SUPPLY
I /BE
TUBE:.
R'EFILLS

I
I
LIFT ARM AND 1-tFT
WIRES SHOUl-D NOT
JAM AT ANY TIME- WHEN
JAMMED THEY PREVENT
VALVE FROM RE)EATIN&
PROPERLY
$"EAT
PLUNGER
FLOAT
UFT
WillE
STOPPEl? BALL
SHa-lLD aDSE S:MOOTHLY
5CREW
- TO BOWL REALL TU6E

TANK 1<E FlLL
DETAIL OF A TYPICAL BAL..LCOCK
147
t-
1
l
. . . , _ . - ~ , . . _ ........ .a.
I
"i
1:-1'
t\4i
!
148
CARMELA (Less Expensive)
Flush Valve PF3531-FV
Siphon Jet
Recommended for
Institutional/ Commercial
Common/Lobby Toilets
_,.g,
Concealed P-Trap
Flush Valve Bowl
elongated Siphons
Model No. PF 3631-FV
Philstandard - Saniwares
"MARINA"
New Madera - '.'CARMELLA"
Compton FV - "VENTURA"
t
Ill
t
VICTORIA PF 2000
Most Expensive, Luxurious, one piece de-
sign- Flushes at only 13 liters.
Recommended for
Expensive Master's. toilet
Expensive suites
Elongated Siphon vortex bowl and Tank in
one piece.
Philstandard -
Car1yte "VICTORIA"
149
748
CARMELA
PF 2102
Free standing toilet combinauon PF 3531
elongated bottom outlet siphon jet bowl
with extended rear shelf - P F 4145-01 closed-
couple tank.
Recommended for
Master's Toilet
150
Concealed P-Trap
W.C. PF 2103
Floor Mounted, back outlet Toilet combi-
nation PF 3631 elongated siphon jet bowl
same tank.
Phi lsta ndard
elongated compact
elongated Yorkville
Concealed P-Trap
- Saniwares
- Carmela PF 2102
- .carmela PF 2103
.. 2.9(, -
.524
s

SABRINA PF 2600
t
Free Standing Toilet Combination PF 3536
round front bottom outlet siphonic reverse
trap bowl with extended rear 4145
close coupled tank with cover .. · ·
Recommended for
Masters toilet,
Children toilet,
Hotel rooms.
r;78
7
Model PF 2601
Floor mounted, bacl< outlet toilet combina-
tion - PF 3636 round front siphon jet bowl
same water tank.
Philstandard
new cadet
round front Yorkville
Saniwares ,
Sabrina 2600
Sabrina 2601
151
.5 91
.5.14
t
VENTURA PF 2400
Free standing combination PF 3534 Round
Front bottom outlet siphonic washdown
bowl with extended rear shelf PF 4145 close-
coupled tank with cover.
(Recommended for children's room
Guest Rooms
lower budget toilets)
t
Model
REGINA PF 2XlO
t I
Free Standing Combination PF 3533 bottom
outlet siphon action washdown bowl with
jet-round front with extended rear shelf-
PF 4145 close coupled tank with cover.
Philstandard
Compton regular
Perfect 2113
- Saniwares
- Ventura
- Regina
SYLVANA Model PF 2800
Free standing Toilet Combination PF 3538
round from bottom outlet Siphonic wash-
down bowl with extended rear self-PF 4144
close coupled tan!( with cover.
Recommended for Driver's maid's care-
taker's toilet also for small restaurants.
oe
Sylvana Backspurl Bowl
Model PF 3538 BS
Floor Standing toilet round front bottom
outlet siphonic washdown bowl with 51 mm
back spud.
Philstandard
Perfect 2113
Back Spud
Perfect 3280
Saniwares
S y l v a n a ~
Sylvana
Back Spud PF 3538
154
400
~
~
~
i ~
7 ~ 8
~
.65.5
rr
FERNDALE PF 3535-
Full Flush washdoor bowt with open and
self-draining riverback outlet 95° slope
P-Trap PF 3535 ST) table for high or low
leud cistar.
Recommended for
budgeted toi'let
rooms
BIANCA PF Z700
Floor mounted toilet combination- PF 'S1
round front washdown bowl with extended
rear shelf and backoutlet.
Philstandard
Coronet PF 440
Coronet P F 441
Saniwares
Ferndale PF 3535
Bianca PF Z70
"'

4-97
~ I
430
DIAMANTE BOWL
No. PF 3430
Floor standing bottom outlet pan flush
toilet.
Recommendation tor
Rural: areas
,low cost houses
Public Toilet
4-81
PER LAS
SQUAT BOWL
Model No. PF 3431
..
Pail Flush squat toilet for recess installa-
tion.
Philstandard
Bolton
Silangan Squat
PF 3444-S
Saniwares
Model PF 3430
Perlas Squat
PF 3431
Oriental PF 3446
155
156
ORIENTAL
SQUAT BOWL
Model No. PF 3446
Washd.own Squat Bowl with integral f ~ t
treads for loose P or S- Trap instaUation-
suitable for high or low level cisterns
Recommended for low cost and rural hous-
ing Public Toilets.
LAVATORIES
LAVATORV. is a bowl or basin for washing the face and hands. The basin maybe of the
following forms:
0
D
1. Rounded
2. Square
3. Oval
D
The elevation of the sides could either be any of the two types:
1. shallow or deep
...
4. Rectangular
5. Trapezoidal
6. Triangular
2. Nearly vertical or gradually sloping side.
157
158
The materials could also be any of these:
1. porcelain 3. enameled cast iron
2. formed steel 4. vitreous china
Another types is the molded one-piece lavatory with an integral countertop having the tollow-
ing varieties.
1. Built-In installation Self-rim-
ming- the lavatory fittings are
installed througl1'1! hole drilled at
the counter top.
2. Fitting ledge installation self
rimming- the lavatory fittings
are installed in a hole provided
within the lavatory itself.
3. Under the Counter-the lava-
tory is placed below the built-in
counter top.
FAUCET
TYPES:
1. Washer-type faucet
2. Cartridge- faucet
3. Diaphragm faucet
pop JJ p .>TOPPER
i10N
SEPARATE FOR 13UIL T IN
t:OJJNTE.RS
AN6LE. VALVE/
SUPPLY PIPE
ASSEMSl.Y
LAVATORY FITTINGS (millimeters)
LAVA lORY SUPP1. Y
ASSEM6LY.
t..l - IOmm A'fltjt
- Whffl ttaNJ ...

P.O PUJG WITH
CH.A\ IN AND RUBBeR
STOPPER CHFI'OME
PLATED F"INISH.
P TRAP ASSEMBLY
3L mm P 1'21\P WITf-t
LLEANOUT
IYI • 10 mm
ntREA.DeP.
• ESeutdl£on A..elU-
ns.tr.
159
160
PULL UP
ORA IN

ANO l.EVER

HOW A TYPICAL LAVATORY
TO CLOSE DAAIN
Fa'· UP
,..._ ORAlN
BOOY
WJTH A POP UP OMJN or.eRA115.
HOW A TYPICAL LAVATORY FAUCET WITH POP-UP
DRAlN
THE LSFT COUPLING PIVOT ROD
MUST 5E l.OOSENeD TO RE:MOVe THE
TYPES a-
CARMELA f'F-()()10
Wall-hung lavatory with fitting ledge for
102 or 204 holes or with PF 9671 Floor pe-
destal or Trap cover
CARMELA PF-()011
Recommended for
Expensive suites
Master's Toilet
Philstimdard Saniwares
Avalon
161
162
MELISSA LAV.
Model PF 1008
Self rimming Oval shaped Lav. with front
Overflow for bu11t -in installation.
. 5 0 ~
Recommended for
Master's Toilet
Hotel Rooms
Lobby Toilets
Philstandard
Ovalyn
Avalon
Saniwares
Mellissa
Katrina
· SOB
rr4.
\
!
I h:z;o---.f

SABRINA
Model PF- 1005
Wall-hung lavatory with rear Overflow and
cast -in soap dishes pocket hanger and in-
tegral China brackets.
l
I
i i

DIANA Model 1006
Wall -Hung lavatory
Recommended for
Boy's Room - Sabrina
G1rl' s Room - Diana
Philstandard - Saniwares
New Comrade - Sabrina
Copacabana - Diana
163
164
VENTURA
PF 1002
Wall-hung lavatory with rear Overflow and
cast in soap dishes- pocket hanger with
integral China brackets
Recommended for
Guest Rooms
Other Rooms
Low budget toilets
SYLVANA
PF 1003
Same specifications as Ventura.
Philstandard - Saniwares
Laverne
American
-Ventura
-Sylvana
f
0
0
©
~
REGINA
Model PF 1007
Wall-hung Lavatory with Minor back skirt
hanger and 10 mm Chain stay hole.
Recommended tor
low budgeted rooms
()
U)
Philstandard
Granada
*
(,8
'
Saniwares
REGINA
165 .
166
BIDET
A fixtures that appears like a water closet, since a person sits down on it. But it is designed
as a combination lavatory which can plug t he drain and collect Hot and Cold water, with an
inverted water sprayer to clean the most delicate and well-guarded parts of the body.
Suitable for Expensive
Master;s Toilet
CONTESSA PF 5106
FLUSHING RIM AND SPRAY
Philstandard - Luxette
Saniwares - Contessa
I
COMMODORE
PF 6600
URINAL
WaU-hung washout Urinal with flushing rim
and integral trap- 19 mm0 top spud.
0
r - - ~
I I
I
ADMIRAL PF 6610
Wall -hung washout urinal with extended
shields and integral flush spreader concealed
wall-hanger pockets 19 mm0 top spud.
Philstandard - Saniwares
Washbrook - Admiral
Mural - Commodore
For Men's Toilet Suitahle for Hotel s and Offices.
1G7
BATHTUBS
Tubs are now designed not only for one person but large enough to accomodate couple
bathing together. Some one-person bath tubs are equipped with seats, shelves for soap and
shampoo with non-skid surfaces. Others have built-in water pressure pipes and sprayers for
soothing the muscle pains.
NIPPLE. FOR
SPRAY ,\-lo>E
CONNECT10N
STUD
RUBBER -71
GAS.KJ:T.
9/1" /e
NUT
168
,_? l:.LOSED
OPeN
STOP FOR Pf..lJ6
PROPS TO C.L05E DRAIN

c::.o PPISR
G.OPPF..R EL.BO\N
M TRAP
TYPICAL TUB FIITINGS
SHOWER VALVES, HEADS AND TUB
FIXTURE ARRANGEMENTS
DlVERTER
, l
II
,,
II
I
II
II
I I
1
I
TeE

SPOUT
I

I I
I I
I I
,
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
: I
k1
,- ----l
'T:
, l I 1 I
•- .J I I
1
I

rr:J TUB
u;;r--Ottt::RA.OW
PLU6
169
F l t-llSHEO WALL.
i
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MOSQUITOES-CONTROL METHODS
CONTROL METHODS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO
Malaria control involves a complex organization requiring the services of physicians who are
malariologists, entomologists who obtain information of the vectors and their habits, public-
health nurses who make contacts with the infected persons, and the public in general, is re-
quired. Not the least important is the work of the sanitary engineer and sanitarian in control-
ling the mosquito vector. ...
Mosquito control is applied against the aquatic forms by means of drainage, filling, and the
use of oil and other Larvicidal agents. These procedures may be grouped under the term
"Larvicidal" methods. Other methods, which we may call "adulticidal" methods, are
directed against the mature winged mosquito and include the use of sprays under various
circumstances and mosquito proofing of occupied buildings.
LARVICIDAL METHODS
THE FIELD FOR DRAINAGE
178
Drainage improvement includes installation of open ditches, subsurface drains, vertical
drains, filling low areas, the cleaning and draining of natural streams, and control of im-
pounding reservoirs. In tidal areas it may also include construction of dykes and tide gates.
Since the malaria mosquito breeds only in waters containing vegetation, it is obvious that
elimination of such waters by drainage or otherwise will prevent the production of
anophelines. Drainage frequently makes it possible to eliminate permanently some large
breeding area as a swamp or many small temporary or permanent pools. However, drainage
is costly and therefore it cannot be justified unless it will protect a large number of people.
DITCHING
The first step in drainage is to make a tentative layout of the system of ditches. If the pro·
blem is to drain a swampy area formed by seepage at the bottom of a hill, the main ditch
should parallel the bottom of the hill and the deep enough to intersect all the ground-water
flow before it appears on the ground surface. Flat swampy areas and ponds will require a
main ditch leading from the deepest point of the area. The main ditch should always be dug
first and drainage allowed to occur. After a few days the lateral ditches may be dug, and it
may be discovered that not so m ~ n y will be required as was first supposed. Frequently they
will be smaller ditches connecting holes with the main ditch.
Ditches should have clean sides sloped as steeply as the earth or other material will permit.
The bottoms should be as narrow as possible to confine the stream. Wide ditches are unde-
sirable as they permit pools of water to stand and breed mosquitoes. Where a very wide
ditch is necessary, this danger may be eliminated by constructing a small ditch in the bottom
of the large one so that the small flows wil be concentrated and kept moving. Sharp bends
should be avoided when making changes of difecUon, and branch ditches should join the
main ditch at acute angles or with a curve. The grade of an unlined ditch should be great
enough to give a cleaning velocity but not so great that erosion will occur. A grade or fall of
0.05 foot per 100 feet is the minimum (approx. 1.5 em or .015 m per 31 m) for an unlined
ditch, while 0.6 to 0.8 foot per 100 feet is the maximum (approx. 0.18 m to 0.24 m or 24 em
per 31 m is the maximum}.
Side slopes of earth ditches are usually 1 horizontal to 1 venicat in firm loam or sand clay. In
soft loose soil it should be 1.5 horizontal to 1 vertical. In hard rocky material it may be steeper
than 1 to 1.
FILliNG
Areas that cannot be drained can sometimes be economically and adequately kept from
breeding mosquitoes by filling. This may be done with shovels if the hole is small, with
scrapers if the hole is larger and if there is earth available nearby, Large fills along water fronts
• may be done with hydraulic dredges. In some cases it is possible to fill low areas on the out-
skirts of towns with rubbish. This, if properly done, is satisfactory, but care should be taken
that cans, buckets, and other containers are covered with earth, ashes, cinders, or sawdust
so that they will not hold water and breed mosquitoes or cause other nuisances.
Sanitary fill differs from ordinary dumping in that the material is adequately covered with
earth at the end of the working day.
If possible, sites should be chosen so that the prevailing winds will carry occasional odors
away from built-up areas. Generally it is believed that odors will be unnoticeable more than
300 feet from the dumping area. Low areas such as ravines, abandoned borrow pits, and
swamps, are particulary suitable provided the fill will not obstruct natural surface drainage.
Springs are also to be avoided. Water that ~ a i n s through the fill will. of course, show con-
siderable pollution and effect adversely near-by bathing beaches and water courses.
OIL AS A LARVICIDE
The larvae and pupae of the common varieties of mosquitoes are air breathers and must
come to the water surface to renew their air supply by means of their breathing tubes. Oil
when applied to the water surface forms a film over the water surface, and some of it will
enter the breathing tubes. The oils used have a poisoning effect rather than mere clogging
or choking. Experiments have shown that if the larvae once obtain a dose of kerosene and
then are removed to clear water they will die in about 15 minutes, practically the same length
of time as reQuired to kill those remaining beneath a kerosene film. With the heavier crude
oils 3 hours may be required before· the larvae die. Pupae seem to be somewhat more resis-
tant than larvae.
179
OILS UIED
KetOMNA Is a vttV tlpid destrovor of thelitvat. It alto has the advantage of good spreading
tbilltv ovet thlt watttt surface, ·Itt dllddvanttgel 1r1 higher COlt compared with some other
olli; QUIOlt Wflpotatlon from tnt 8utfaoe t)f the wttet, particularly In hot weather; end a lack
of cotor which makM It dlffloult for tht oiler to be certain that a complete film has been
pllU)IKJ thO Wltet.
Ctude lind fuol oils vary eomewhl!t In toxic: power 1nd tpreading ability. The latter quality is
the governing factor. Proper spr.adlng can be obtained by diluting tha heavy oil with
a suffioltnt amount of ketosette. Tlw crude oils have the advantage of being easily inspected
for continuous film and in addition Will remain On the water surface for several days thereby
Increasing the Intervals required betWeen application&.
It Is oftlfn l)ostlble to obtain from ger1ges west• oil Which has been drained from crankcases
and 11 therefore a mixture of oil, kerosene and gasoline. Its efficiency is not so
great as that of the lighter crude oils, it being somewhat deficient in spreading and toxic
power. Objections are sometimes raised to the oiling of some waters, such as ornamental
ponds and areas where fish and water fowl are raised or encouraged to congregate.
APPLICATION
180
Oil is applied by means of spraying apparatus that will produce an even thin film over the
water surface. The knapsack spray can is widely used. It holds about 5 gallons of oil and is
strapped to the back of the laborer. It has a pump located in the can which is operated by a
lever to force the oil through a flexible hose to a nozzle.
The amount of oil require will depend upon conditions. If the oil spreads well and there are
no obstractions, it is possible to cover a 1/2 hectare of water surface with 10 gallons (38
liters) of oil, but in actual practice losses cause by vegetation and uneven application figures
of 20 to 60 gallons of oil (76 to 2281iters) of oil per 1/2 hectare of water surface covered. The
amount of oil applied by one man in an 8-hour day will also be variable but should be within
the limits of 40 to 80 gallons (152 to 3041iters) per day with knapsack sprayers.
In large bodies of water, oiling is necessary· only along the edge or in patches of vegetation
where the larvae are protected from wave action and natural enemies. In ornamental pools
where there may be objection to use of heavy oils, kerosene will be useful and will not be in-
jurious to vegetation. Oiling should be done at close enough intervals to prevent emergence
of a crop of mosquitos.
RODENT CONTROL
RODENTS AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Rats and other rodents are I"8S8fYYirs « • number of important diaeases. End6n'llc or
Murine Typhus fever and plaque are • • • from domestic rats and other rodent• to
man by fleas. Ratbite f ever is transnctl8d bv baa ot rata and mice to man. Well's dis&ald ot
infectious j aundice may be contracted by eecmg food contaminated by the urine of rats.
GENERAL METHODS OF CONTROL
The chief means of rodent control are through I'M\nl enemies, by poiSoning, trapping,
fumigation, viruses, ratproofing, and elimination of food, if poasible coordinated Into
organized community campaigns. To these has recet•ttv been added the use of DDT as a
means of killing the rats f leas which are the vehicles oM infection. This, however, Is not ro-
dent control. Natural enemies of rodents, among which mB'f be counted cats, dogs, snakes,
and birds of prey, mice, will not usually suffic:ienttr effective to exterminate these
pests from a given area without human aid.
1. POISONING
In general, poison has proved one of the most effective methods of destroying rats, where it
can be used without danger to man or domestic animals. The poisons commonly used in the
past were arsenic, strychnine, phosphorus, red squill and barium carbonate. Of these f ive
poisons, powdered barium carbonate is generally found the most satisfactory for ordinary
use. It is odorless and tasteless, and its action is slow enough to allow rats to leave a building
in search of water before they die.
Meats, vegetables, fruits and cereals or meal are recommended as baits, and are mixed with
barium carbonate in about the proportion of 1 part poison to 4 parts of the bait, divided int o
portions the size of a walnut. Untaken baits should be removed the following morning, as
they will sour and cause an acid condition which results in a taste so bitter than the rats will
not take them.
2. TRAPPING
This is an effective method of freeing premises from rats when properly done. Among the
many traps on the market advertised for this purpose, the simple inexpensive "snap" or
" guillotine" trap is usually found best adapted f or all - round usage. Cage traps are some-
times used if it is desired to capture rats alive for inspectionaf purposes in regard to their
fleas. Among the baits found effective for use in traps are cheese, bread, raw and cooked
meats, fish, apples or vegetables. Traps should be set in runways, behind boxes and cans,
along walts, and in any sheltered rat is liketv to enter in order to hide. Traps plac-
ed in the open are not generalty so effectNe as thole placed in the manner mentioned above,
as rats usually seek sheltered places wtae conc:aalment is easy. The tfaps may be concealed
· or camouflaged with leaves, grass or hay, or scraps of paper. For good restuls
·plenty. of traps are necessary. A dozen or more trapS for a heavily infested dwelling and 50 to
181
182
100 or more for a large building or farm. The trapping campaign must be short and decisive,
or the rats become wary and avoid the traps.
3. FUMIGATION
This is the application of disinfectants in gaseous form, although the meaning of the term
has been extended to include use of gas as an insecticide. Fumigation affects surfaces only
and will not exercise any germicidal effect within fabrics. For buildings, the safest and most
effective method in general usage is fumigation by sulphur dioxide. A drawback to the use of
fumigants in buildings is the possibility of unpleasant odors resulting from dead rats in the
walls.
Approximately fumigation is the use of calcium cyanide, which is sold under the name of
Cyanogas. When exposed for the atmosphere it slowly gives off hydrocyanic acid gas which
will spread through any enclosed space. The poison can be obtained in granular or
powdered form, and it can be sprayed into burrows by means of a sprayer. Old vacant
houses have been deratted by using an average of about 5 pounds per house. Houses so
treated should be tightly closed, with door and window cracks sealed with paper, for at least
4 hours. Doors and windows may then be opened without danger to neighbors, but the
house should not be occupied for 24 hours, and bedding, clothing, etc. should be aired.
During actual applications the workman should use a gas mask.
4. RATPROOFING
Rats tend to breed and increase in numbers up to the food supply available for them. Trapp-
ing and other measures, therefore, unless carried on continuously, are of only temporary
benefit unless the rats are starved out by being excluded from food. The rat proofing of
buildings is, therefore, the most effective means of rat control. It is a simple matter to make
buildings of rat proof construction and an ordinance requiring such construction, properly
enforced, will. in the course of time, result in a rat-free city.
Buildings in which food is handled or stored should have floors of rat proof material or of
concrete not less than 8 em. or 3 inches thick, in addition to the top and the floor
must rest directly upon the ground or filling of earth, cinders, etc. The floor must be sealed
into walls surrounding it, and the walls must be of ratproof material or of concrete, stove, or
brick laid in cement mortar, and not less than 6 inches thick. To prevent burrowing beneath,
this wall must extend at least 60 em. into the ground to a horizontal offset of 30 em or 12 in-
ches, and must extend at least 0.30 em or 1 foot above the floor.
Other buildings lacking cellars must be rat proofed by elevating on pillars at least 45 em or 18
inches above the ground and the ground surface beneath kept free of rubbish or other rat-
harboring material or a curtain wall may constructed at least 10 em or 4 inches thick and
extending at least 0.60 m or 2 feet into the ground, with a 30 em. or 12 inch horizontal offset,
at the margin of the ground area of the building such a wall may have ventilation openings
with gratings having a 1 em or 3/8 inch openings or hardware cloth of 1 em or 3/8 inch open-
ings with wire not less than 12 gauge thickness.
In all classes of buildings all unnecessary spaces and holes, ventilators, and openings other
than doors and windows must be closed. Spaces between inner and outer walls are required
to be closed with cement mortar or ratproof material, and such closing material must extend
for at least 30 em or 1 foot above the floor level. Cellar and basement walls must also be of
materials as specified above but not less than 23 em or 9 inches thick with no openings ex-
cept for doors, windows, ventilators, or plumbing, and these must be protected as specified
below. Cellar and basement floors must be of the specified wall material, be at least 3 inc.hes
thick, and be sealed to the walls.
SlUDS



,.--- - - f'L.Q:)R. j;)IST

.----PIER
In this figure, when buildings are supported on posts or piers, they are made ratproof by rais-
ing them 0.45 m or 18 inches or more above ground l.evel and by placing concrete between
inner and outer walls above sill.
5. RAT STOPPAGE
This is a method applicable to all buildings, especially old ones. It is a modified method of the
orthodox ratproofing procedure. It consists of closing all the openings of the outside walls
and the roof of a building or block of buildings through which rats may enter.
It is accomplished in part by sealing with bricks or Portland cement mortar all holes or cracks
in foundation, walls, or around pipes passing through walls. Holes in wood floors or walls
are stopped with sheet metal. The lower edges of doors, the door casings, and threshol ds
are covered with 24-gauge gatvanized sheet iron. Preferably this should be " channeled" or
bent around the edge of the door. The channels or plates at the vertical edges should extend
at least 15 em or 6 inches above the door bottom. Cellar and basement windows and other
windows or ventilators, both cellar and roof, allowing access by rats from the ground, roof,
or trees are protected with 16-gauge metal screen of 1 em or 3/ 8-inch or smaller
mesh securely fastened.
183
(WQDO)
OF HOUSE
.r------iv EA.TlGAL. WDOO .$'llJD
. Or £XCLU01Nw RA-rs FROM WAU..S
184
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Metal guards or other means are used to prevent rats from climbing pipes, rain spouts, or
wires and using them as a means of entrance. Sheet aluminum is not satisfactory for stop-
ping rats as they are able to gnaw through it. Attention should be given to points where
plumbing and other pipes pass through walls. If openings have been left, they should be fill-
ed with good concrete mortar or covered with metal plates. If the foundations are less than
60 em or 24 inches deep, a curtain wall is installed outside and in contact with the original
..._.,an to a depth of at least 60 em or 24-inches with a 12-inch (0.30) horizontal extension as
shown in the figures below. The curtain wall may be of good concrete, 3 to 4 inches thick
(0.08 to 0.10 ml or of 24-gauge galvanized metal.
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building without a basement. This type of
construction should be u s e ~ for building
where food will be stored.
__ CoNCI:tETE FLOOR.
t .SL.AB ON FILL)
Old building made ratproof by placing cur-
tain walt around old foundation.
185
After all the vents have been stopped, trapping, poisoning, or fumigation should be used to
kill the rats already within the building. These measures should proceed for about 6 weeks
and should be accompanied by precautions to exclude rats from food inside the building.
Maintenance of the rat stoppages will be required oUhey are to retain their efficiency.
PEST CONTROL
What You Should Know
(by Carol Duval, source, Reader's Digest 1988)
186
Insect pests have plagued mankind since the dawn of history. Until recently, efforts to con-
trol them met with little success. Most of the insecticides used liberally only a generation
ago, such as arsenic and cyanide, endangered the people and pets they were intended to
protect. More recently, however, newly developed insecticides and increased scientific
knowledge of pest physiology and behavior have enabled us to control pests much more ef-
fectively with less-toxic chemicals. Many modern insecticides are safe for householders to
use. Here are some hints to get the most out of the products you choose. But remember, all
pesticides can be dangerous. The key to safety is correct use. Always carefully read and
follow the instructions on the label.
ANTS
Although they do little damage, ants can carry disease, and some species give painful bites
or stings. For effective tong-term control, first locate their nesting sites by following ant
trails. Saturate the nests, usually found in the garden, with liquid containing
chlorpyrifos or diazinon. Use a surface spray on all paths the ants can use to reach their food
sources. Ants usually enter over windowsills, door jambs, under skirting boards or through
cracks and crevices in walls. Treating only the paths already in use isn't sufficient, as ants
will quickly find new routes. Insecticidal dusts can be used instead near electric wiring or in
inaccessible spots, such as behind the fridge or in the cavities of walls.
To prevent reinfestation, remove all the food sources you can. Wipe kitchen benches and
sweep floors regularly, wash dishes and utensils immediately after use, and dispose of opeO-
ed soft-drink cans.
SILVERFISH
These nocturnal animals eat almost anvthing that contains glue, paste. starch or sugar, in-
cluding fabrics and paper. They can live in any dark and relatively undisturbed spot, but are
common in ceiling cavities. Store books and papers in light. airy conditions to
prevent damage. If you discover a silverfish infestation. spray surfaces over which the in-
sects travel, such as wardrobe sides and bookcases. Ousts can be used in ceiling voids and
in places where wet surface sprays might cause damage, such as around valuable books.
Space ·sprays can be used as a backup treatment. But remember that inhaling such sprays
can be dangerous; leave the house for four hours after use.

.. / ,/ I ··'. ' ·, ,
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I
BEDBUGS
Although they do not damage household goods or carry serious diseases, bedbugs can keep
you awake all night and itchy all day. To eradicate these pests, first try to discover their
davtime hiding places. The likeliest spots are in the seams and under the buttons of mat-
tresses. but they also inhabit cracks and crevices in skirting boards and architraves, fur-
niture, picture frames and shelves. Thoroughly clean and vaccum infested rooms, then app-
ly a surface spray to all harborage areas, and around bed frames, skirting boards and fur-
niture to prevent further infestation. If the problem is severe. spray mattresses with a
pyrethrin-based insecticide, but air them for at least four hours before reuse. For fast. effec-
tive results, use a space spray as well. Before spraying. open all wardrobe doors and remove
mattresses from beds to maximize exposure to the spray.
187
COCKROACHES
W8
Only a few of the couple. of thousand cockroach species infest homes. The commonest pest
varieties in Asia are the German cockroach (pale brown, up to 2/3 Inch long) and the
American cockroach (a reddish-brown insect between one and two inches long}. All species
hide by day in warm, dark spots. The German cockroach can often be found beneath the
sink, behind the stove, fridge, dishwasher and near the hot-water heater. The American spe-
cies usually prefers subfloor areas, grease traps, drains and rubbish dumps. At night, cock-
roaches seek food and water, carrying germs from garbage and sewage to food.
Perhaps the most despised of household pests, cockroaches are also among--the hardest to
control. Absolute cleanliness is essential in cockroach prevention and eradication. Clean all
dirty dishes and utensils immediately after meals (don't forget pets' dishes); store food in
sealed containers or the refrigerator; keep garbage in a tightly closed bin; r&gu Ia rly wipe ben-
ches, cupboard shelves and the spaces near the stove and fridge to remove food particles
and grease.
The most effective insecticides against cockroaches are surface sprays and dusts, used
where the insects hide or walk. Before using surface sprays inside cupboards, remove all
food and utensils; never spray bench tops or areas where food is prepared. In rarely disturb-
ed spots or spaces where spraying is awkward, such as inside wall cavities, use a light ap-
plication of dust. Cockroach baits and traps are of limited use.
Cockroaches are sensitive to the smell of many insecticides, so don't use more than there-
commended amounts. The pests will avoid treated areas if alternatives are available, so
make sure you treat all possible hiding paces. Keeping treated areas free of dirt and grease
will also maximize the amount of poison the cockroaches pick up. If you don't follow these
rules, a few cockroaches are likely to survive your attacks; their offspring may be more resis-
tant genetically to the chemicals you used, and thus harder than ever to eradicate. To pre-
vent reinfestation, fill in all cracks and crevices, particularly in warm places such as around
hot-water pipes.
CLOTHES MOTHS
Clothes moths lay their eggs in dark, undisturbed areas on clothing, carpets and blankets.
Since the developing larvae prefer materials of animal origin such as wool, silk and fur, in-
creasing use of synthetic materials has lessened the damage these moths cause. However,
many modern fabrics contain at least a proportion of animal fibers or carry residues of
perspiration or spilled food, and are thus susceptible to attack.
Moths will not attack clothes regularly exposed to light and air. To safeguard you
won't wear for months, clean them thoroughly and then wrap them tightly in plastic.
Clothing already infested should be placed in a tightly sealed black plastic bag and left in
direct sunlight for about three hours to kill any larvae. For further protection, use an insec-
ticide that gives off toxic vapors such as naphthalene balls or flakes or dichlorvos-im-
pregnated resin strips. Hang mothball containers or pest strips in cupboards where the
vapors will build up and penetrate atl stored articles.
To ensure complete eradication, vacuum all carpets and apply surface spray to all possible
feeding sites, such as cupboards, carpets and the folds of upholstery.
CARPET BEETLES
• Like clothes moths, these breed in quiet, protected places among clothing, beneath fur-
niture, around carpet edges and in the crevices of upholstery. The larvae eat materials of
animal origin and seeds, pollen, nectar, grains and cereals, leaving sandlike droppings, and
small castoff skins.
To avoid carpet-beetle infestation, protect furniture, stored clothing and blankets as for
clothes moths. If carpet beetles infest rugs or carpets, shake or vacuum the affected items to
remove eggs and spray with a surface insecticide. To check that the insecticide won't stain
your carpet, first spray a spot normally hidden from view. Also apply insecticide to cracks
and cervices along skirting boards, under furniture and inside cupboards. Regularly check all
stored food, disposing of any that is infested.
FLEAS
Fleas in a house usually arrive on a dog or cat. They lay their eggs in the animal's fur or bed-
ding. The eggs hatch out as larvae, which feed on organic debris such as dead skin flakes in
carpets or between floorboards. When the larvae grow into adult fleas, they hop back on to
your pet, or infest places like the creases of upholstery. From here they go to work on you.
1H9
The key to flea eradication is control of the larvae. First, thoroughly vacuum your carpet to
remove as many· eggs as possible and to pull the pile upright so t h ~ t insecticide can
penetrate it fully. Vacuum your pet's bedding and places where it sleeps, then incinerate the
vacuum dust and treat the vacuum bag with insecticidal spray. Vacuum or sweep and wash
uncarpeted areas thoroughly. Next, treat all floors, soft furniture and the pet's bedding with
a surface spray to destroy larvae. (Always spot-test to check that the spray won't stain.)
Wash your pet with an anti-flea shampoo and, for long-term protection, attach an insec-
ticidal collar. Regular sweeping and vacuuming should prevent reinfestation of fleas.
DO PESTICIDES POISON PEOPLE?
190
Any substance that will kill an insect can be dangerous to humans. In sufficient quantity,
some can be lethal. When properly used, however, pesticides are not dangerous. Important
safety rules to remember are:
1. Follow the directions included with the product you have chosen.
2. If you use a spray, cover all food utensils as well as surfaces where food is prepared·
or served.
3. If you spray or dust for any length of time, wear protective gloves. Always make sure
you wash thoroughly after using any insecticide.
PROFESSIONAL PEST CONTROL
If you find you can't control pests yourself, consult the experts. How can you tell if you're
getting skilled service? Says Stephen K. H. lp, deputY managing director of Flick Pest Con·
trol Limited and president of the Hong Kong Pest Control Association: "A good pest-contol
serviceman does a thorough survey of the client's premises, which may include the roof,
ceiling and every room so that he will know where and how to apply the chemicals." As well
as chemical treatments, a reputable company should offer what professionals call "in-
tegrated pest management" - a program including hygiene hints, pest-proofing (locating
and mending pest-entry points, such as holes in the roof and gaps around pipes), furniture
and carpet treatment protection and follow-up services. Ask whether these services are in-
cluded in the quoted price. If they are, you should get the treatment best suited to your re-
quirements- as. well as your money's woah.
APPENDICES:
_METRICATION
120
2
2 1 2 ~
LOOt
BOILS
90
80
70
f ohrenheit l 40
50
40
30
20
10
·slF
WATER
f reezes
0°C
-10
-20
-3o
40
Temp. at -40°F and -40°C:
15 the same
-5o
·so
CONVERSION, FAHRENHEIT
DEGREES TO CELSIUS DEGREES.
FORMULA
9 )( °C
------- + 32
5
oc = 5 (°F - 32)
---g- --
RULES AND GUIDES FOR USAGE OF Sl
EXAMPLES OF Sl DERIVED UNITS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF
THE BASE UNITS AND OTHER UN.ITS
Expressed in Expressed in
Quantity Description terms of terms of Base or
other Units Supplementary Units
area square metre m2
volume cubic metre m3
speed-linear metre per
second m/s
-angular radian per
second rad/s
acceleration metre per
-Linear second
squared m/s2
-angular radian per
second
squared rad/ s2
wave number

1 per metre
m-1
density, mass kilogram per
density cubic metre kg/ m3
concentration mole per cubic
(amount of metre
substance) mol / m3
specific cubic metre
volume per kilogram m3/kg
luminance candela per
square metre cd/ m2
dynamic pascal second
viscosity Pa.s
m-1.kg.s-2
moment of force newton metre N.m m2.kg.s- 2
surface tension newton per
metre N/m kg.s- 2
heat flux water per
density, square 1./>J® m2
kg.s- 2
irradiance metre
heat capacity, joule per
entropy kelvin J / K
m2.kg.s- 2. K -1
specific heat joule per
capacity, kilogram J/(kg.K) m2.kg.s- 2.K-1
specific kelvin
entropy
specific energy joule per
kilogram J/kg
m2.s- 2
1 9 : ~
194
thermal
conductivity
energy density
electric field
strength
electric charge
density
electric flux
density
permittivity
current density
magnetic field
strength
permeability
solar energy
molar entropy
solar heat
capacity
• radiant intensity
watt per metre
kelvin
Joule per cubic
metre
Volet per
metre
coulomb per
cubic meter
coulomb per
square metre
farad per metre
ampere per
square metre
ampere per
metre
henry per metre
Joule per mole
Joule per mole
kelvin
watt per
steradian
W/(m.K)
J/rrtJ
V/m
C/m3
Clm2
F/m
H/m
J/mol
J(moi.K)
W/sr
m.kg.s-3.K-1
m-l.kg.s-2
m.kg.s-3.A-1
m-l.s.A
m-2.s.A
m-l.kg. -1.S4.A2
A.m-2
A.mt
m.kg.s-2.A-
m2kg.s-2.mol-1
m2.kg.s-2.K -l.mol-1
m2.kg.s-3 .sr-1
* The wave number is the reciprocal of the wave length, expressed in metres, of an
electromagnetic radiation.
NOTE: The values: of certain so-called dimension less quantities, such as ref-
ractice: index, relative permeability or relative permeability are expressed by pure
numbers.
MOW TO CONVERT COMMON MEASUREMENTS
FROM ENGLtSH TO METRIC UNITS
FOR ORDINARY USE
TO English Units Metric Units
MEASURE TAKE THE NUMBER OF MULTIPLY BYl EQUALS THE NUMBER IN
Length inches (in) 25.4* millimetres (mm)2
inches (in)
2.54* centimetres (em)
inches (in) 0.025 metres (m)
feet
(ft) 0 .. 305 metres (m)
feet
(ft) 30.48* centimeters (em)
..
yards {yd) 0.914 metres (m)
miles
(mi)
1.009 kilometres (km)
Area square inches (in2) 6.45 square centimetres (cm2)
square feet (ft2) 929.0 square centimeters (cm2)
square feet (ft2) 0.093 square metres (m2)
square yards (yd2) 0.84 square metres (m2)
square mil es (m2) 2.59 square kHornetres fkm2)
Volume cubic inches (in3) 16.39 cubic centimeters (cm3)
(solids) cubic feet (ft3) 0.028 cubic metres (M3)
cubic yards (yci3) 0.765 cubic metres (m3)
Volume fluid ounces (fl.oz.) 29.57 millilitres (ml)
Liquids) pints (pt) 0.47 litres (L)
u.s. quarts (gtl 0.95 litres (L)
gallons (gal) 3.79 Litres (Ll
English fluid ounces (fl.oz.) 28.41 millilitres (mil
pints (pt) 0.57 litres (l)
quartz (qt) 1.14 litres (L)
gallons (gal) 4.55 litres (L)
Mass or ounces (oz) 28.35 grams (g)
Weight pounds (lb) 453.6 grams (g)
A voir short tons (s.t.) 907.18 kilograms (kg)
dupois (2000 lb) 0.907 tonnes (f)
(16 oz - long tons (l. t.) 1,016.05 kilograms (kg)
1 lb) 1.016 tonnes (t)
Troy ounces loz) 31.104 grams (g)2
(12 troy
ounces

pounds (lbs) 373.341 grams (g)
1 lb; for
jewelers)
Tempera- degrees Fahrenheit (°F) 5/9 (after sub-degress Celsius (°C)
ture
Time Same units are used in both the Metric and English systems: second (s),
minute (min) and hour (hl.
Speed or miles per hour (mph) 1.609 kilometers per hour (km/hl
Velocity feet per second (f/s) 0.305 metre per second (m/s)
knots 1
Frequency
(Radio, cycle per second (c/s) hertz (hz)
FM,AM,
TV, etc.)
195
19(}
Power
Electric
Current
Energy
Force
Pressure
or Stress
Density
horsepower (hpJ 0.746 kilowatt (kw)
ampere (A) (Some unit in both Metric and English systems)
British Thermal Unit 1.055 kilo joule (kjl
(BTU)
calories, int'l table 4.187 joules (J)
(cal. ITI
calories, thermo-chemicai 4.184 joules (J)
leal.)
pound-force (lbf) 4.448 newton IN)
kilogram-force. (kgf) 9.007 newton IN) ....
pound per square inch 6.895 kilo pascal (kPa)
(psi)
pound per cubic inch 27.600 grams per cubic centimetre
(lb/in3) (g'cm)
1 Last figure was. rounded out, for ordinary uses, except those ma.rked* which are exact.
2 The letter and figures enclosed in parentheses under this tolumn. are the symbols of the
measurement units. Examples of use: 25.4 mm, 9m2, 32°C, 110 km/h, 7 g/<:m3.
RULES AND GU,DES FOR Of Sl
from to Units:
LENGTH OR HEIG.HT
ft(') in(") =em ft (') in(") =em
ft (') in{")
==em
ft (') in( ")
=em
1 1/8 0.3 4 40.6 3 2 99. 1 5 0 152.4
1/4 0.6 s· 43.2 3'· 99 .. 1· 1 152.4
3/ 8 1.0 6 45.7 4 101.6 ,2 157.5
1/2 1.3 7- 48.3 5 104.1 3 160.0
5/8 1.6 8 50.8 6 106, 7 4 162.6
3/4 1.9 . 9 . 53.3 7 109,1 5 165.1
7/8 2.2
10 ..
55.9 8 11 1.8 6 167.6
1 2.5 11 58.4 9 114.3 7 170.2
2 5. 1 2 0 61.0 10 116.8 8 -172.7
3 7.6 1 63.0 11 11-9.4 9 175.3
4 10.2 2 66.0 4 o. 12L9 10 177.8
5 12.7 3 68.6 1 124.5 11 180.3
6 15.2 4 71.1 2 127.0 6 0 182.9
7 17.8 5 73.7 3 129.5 1 185.4
8 20.3 6 76.2 4 132.1 2 188.0
9 22.9 · 7 78.7 5 134.6 3 190.5
10 25. 4 8 81 .3 6 137.2 4 193.0
11 27.9 9 83.8 7 139.7 . 5 195.6
0 30.5 10 86.4 8 142.2. 6 198.1
1 33.0 11 88.9 9 144.8 7 200.7
2 35.6 3 .0 91 .4 10 147.3 8 203.2
3 38. 1 94.0 11 149.9 9 205.7
6 10 208.3 7 8 233.7 8 6
259.1 .
9 4 284.5
11 210.8 9 236.2 7 261 .6 5 284.5
7 0 213.4 10 238.8 . ·. . 8
264.2 6 289.6
1 2·15.9 11 241.3 9 266.7 7 292.1
2 218.4 8 0 243.8 10 269.2 · 8 294.6
3 221.0 1 246.4 n 271.8. 9 297;2
4 223.5 2 248.9 9 0 .Z74.3 10 299.7
5 226.1
3.
251.5 1 276.9 11 302.3
6 228.6 4 254.0 2 279. 4 10 0 304.8
7 231. 1 5 256.5 5 281.9
To find the equivalent of height, length, width or thickness in metric unit, convert the
English units of feet (ftl and inches (i n) to centi metric (em). The figure under the column
"em" is the nearest metric equivalent of the corresponding figures under " ft" and " in".
Thus, 5 ft . 4 in would be equivalent to 162.6 em or, rounded out, 163 em or 1.63 meters
(1.63). 100 em = 1 m.
197
Conversion Table from English to Metric Units
for Uses
KNOW YOUR HEIGHT IN METRtC
ft(') in(") centimeters ft(') in(")
=
centimeters
ft(') in(=)
=
centimeters
(em) I (em I
6' 11" 211 em 4' 11"
=
150 em 2' 11"
=
89cm
6' 10" 208cm 4' 10"
=
147 em 2' 10""
=
86cm
6' 9" 206cm 4' 9"
=
145cm 2' 9"
=
84em
..
6' 8"
=
203cm 4' 8"
=
142cm 2' 8" 81 em
6' 7"
=
201 em 4' 7"
""
140cm 2' r 79cm
6' 6" -. 198cm 4' 6"
=
137 em 2' 6"
=
76cm
6' 5" 196 em 4' 5"
=
135cm 2' 5"
=
74cm
6' 4" 193 em 4' 4"
=
132 em
2' 4"
=
71 em
6' 3" 191 em 4' 3"
=
130em
2'
3"
=
69cm
6' 2" 188cm 4' 2"
=
127 em 2' 2"
=
66cm
6' 1"
=
185cm 4' 1" = 125 em 2' 1"
=
64cm
6' 0"
=
183 em 4' 0" 122 em 2'
0"
61cm
5' 11" 180 em 3'
11,
119 em 1' 11" 58 em
5' 10"
=
178em 3' 10" 117 em 1' 10"
=
56 em
5' 9"
=
175cm 3' 9"
=
114 em 1' 9"
= 53 em
5' 8"
=
173cm 3' 8"
=
112 em 1' 8"
=
51 em
5• 7"
=
170cm 3' 7"
= 109cm 1' 7"
=
48cm
5' 6"
=
168 em 3' 6"
= 107 em 1' 6"
=
46em
5' 5"
=
165cm 3'
!;"
..
=
104 em 1'
5" 43cm
5'
4"
=
163 em 3' 4"
= 102 em 1' 4'" 40cm
5' 3"
=
160cm 3' 3"
=
99cm
,.
3" 38cm
5' 2" 158cm 3' 2"
=
97cm 1' 2" 36cm
5' 1" 155 em 3'
,,
94cm 1' 1"
=
33cm
5' 0" = 152 em 3' 0"
=
91 em 1' 0"
=
31 em
NOTE: This' handy conversion table is designed to make it easy for a person to know his height or
measure the length of a baby in the metric unit, centimetre, which is used in most metric
countries for this purpose. A person 168 centimeters tall may conveniently say, in speaking,
that his height is One Six Eight See Em 1168 em). Once metric units are widely used and
English units are no longer used, there will be no need for conversion tables like this one.
Where greater accuracy is needed to the first decimal point.
198
Sl PREFIXES
Name Symbol
Factor by which the Meaning
Unit is Multiplied (No. of times multiplied)
exa•
E
1018
1 000 000 000 000 000 000
peta*
p
1015
1 000 000 000 000 000
tera* T
1012
1 000 000 000 000
giga G 109 1 000 000000
mega M 108 1 000 000
.,.
kilo K 101 1 000
hecto** h 102 100
deca**
da 10 10
deci* d
10-1
0.1
centi c
10-2 0.01
milli m
10-3 0.001
micro u
10-6
0.000 001

nano n
10-9
0.000 000 001

pi co p
10-12
0.000 000 000 001
femto* f
10-15
0.000 000 000 000 001

attom
a
10-18
0.000 000 000 000 000 001
* Rarely used, mostly in highly scientific work.
**Not preferred.
CONVERSION FACTORS
'
To Convert
Kip
lb
Kg
Kn
psi
ksi
Mpa
ft-Kip
Kn M
Kip/ft
Kp/ft2
psi
Kn/M
KN/M2
To
KN
N
N
Kip
mPa
MPa
psi
Kn-m
ft Kip
KN/m
KN/m2
N/nll
Kip/ft
Kip/ft2
M u l t i ~ y By
4.448
4.448
9.81
0.2248
0.006895
6.895
145.0
1.356
0.7376
14.59
47.88
47.88
0.06862
0.02()89
199
200
MPW FOAM NO. 77-CIO'I ..
! I l I 1
OF AWI.IUTIOII

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eo• liTO .... 10 , ., 111.\IIMI Il, IM '""Ill
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OATI IIIVIO
T JIIXT. 110.
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ljO, ""'"'
TIUotiO'IC 100.
-
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'

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. National Plumbing Code of the Philippines
2. Architectural Graphic Standard Ramsey and Sleeper
3. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Builclings 6th Edition MacguinG&s, Stein,
Reynold
4. Planning & Remodeling Bathrooms Sunset books & Sunset Magazine
5. Homeowners Guide to Plumbing Robert Scharff
6. Philippine Standard Product Catalog
7. Saniwares Product Catalog; "Plumbing Fixtures"
8. Popular Science-Grolier Inc.
9. Parade Magazine-1979
10. How to Design and Install Plumbing-A.S. Mathips, Jr. and Smith, Jr.
11. Building and Subdivision Regulations in the Philippines-Adolfo B. Bencividez and An-
tonio S. Gabriel
12. Municipal and Rural Ehlers and Ernest Steel
13. Moldex Product, Inc •.. : ••.• uPVC ptpes
14. Att.nta tndustlres, Inc ... . •.•. uPVC pipes
I
201
I
A
A£id Resistant Cast ln:ln ,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . 25
Adaptor . .......... ... ...... ... . .. ... . .... .. .. .. ...... 15
... . ................ 4
.. .. . .. ..... .... , .. ff1
» CNmber Stack .. .. . ... .. . . . .. ...... .. .. 34
......................... .. .. _ ...... ....... .. . 102
B
.... .... ............. ---.. ··--··
······· ··········----- -·-· _____ .. _
a...rv af F'JXtures .... ... ......... ... . --- - -· .. - -
s..ic .... .. ................ - --- - ·
..... Tut. .. .... .. ...... .. ............. .......... .... .
... .... .. ........ .. .. .......... ................ .......
... ca.; ............................................ .
.......... .... ... ....... .. ... ................ .... .. ..
c
88
147
M
m
168'
166
138
25
25
14
17
Calking ............. ........ .......... ............ ..... 70
Cap. .............. .. .... .. ... .... ................ ... ... .. 17
Capillary Af;;fii:Jn . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . .. • . .. . . • . • .. . . . .. • '"
Cast Iron .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ..... 2lt
Cast & Fiaing. ..... .. ... .... .... .. .... .. . .. •
Catch Basin ... .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. ..... •
Centrifugal Pump ..... .... .. ... .... .. .............. , . 7
Ce.pool.... .. .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. • . .. .. .. .. . . 110
Check Value .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. . .. 31
ChemicafTI'881J'nllnt .. ..... .... ....... ... .... .. .. ... . 3
Circuit Vent . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 94
Cistern tor Watet' .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 116
Clean Out .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. . ... .. . . .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . 66
Continuous Sedimeo•r.tian ........... .. ......... .. 3
Compartmentation .. ..... ... ....... .... .... ... .. .. . 46
Corporetion Cock .................................... 15
Coupling . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. ..... .. .. .. . .. . .. . . 11
CUrb Cock .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. ...... . .. .. . .. 15
C\lindrical G .I. Tank .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ............. 8
D
Deep Well Plunget' Pumps .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 7
..... .. ........... .. ..... ........... ......... 46
DiNct Aultl Valve . .. . .. . . .. .... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 144
OoM.-ct ....... ..... ........... 12
Distribution ..... .. .............. 12
Onlin Tie T rendh . .... ... · .. .... .. ... ...... .. ......... · 112
System . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. ... 70
Duct ........... .. .. ...... _..... ... ... ........ ... ........ fS1
INDEX
E
Effluent ............. ........ .. .. ..... .......... . .. .. .. .
Elevator& .. ... .. . ... .. .. .. ...... ... . ... .... . :': .......... .
EvapOration ..... .... .... ..... ........ .. ............ ..
F8u<:etl ...... .... .... ......... .. .. ............. ...... ..
Are Safety Plan ..... ..... .. .... .. .... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Fire Stair Door ................ ....... .... .... .. ..... .
Fire Extinguiahet' .. .. .... .. .. ... .......... .. .... . .. ..
Rtlingl .. .... .. .... ........... ............... .. .. .... ..
.... .......... ...... .... ..... ........ .. ....... .
.. ... ..... .. .... .. .... ........ ..
........... ... ................................ .
Force Pumps . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ............. .. .. ..
G
130
46
88
32
46
45
48
16
3
80
29
5
Galvlll'liz.ed Wrought Iron Pipes . .. .. .. .. . .. .. • .. . 25
Galvanized Pipe F'rttings .. .... . : .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. 15, 16
Galvanized Steel Gutter Oelign .. , . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 61
Gate Valve ........ .. ... ...... .......................... 30
Garage Trap .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . • . 79
Globe Vetve . .. . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 30
Gooteneek .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . 16
G1'81teTrap . .... ...... .... . .. .. .. .... ...... ... .. ..... 79
Gutter .............. ...... .. . .. ......................... . 58
H
Hange111 .... ... .... ........ .... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... ... .
HNd af Water .. . .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .... .. .. . .. . .... . 8
Heet Control .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 46
High Riee Fire Safety............ .... .. .... ........ ... 44
Hot Water Supply .... . ..... , . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. 36
Hot Water Tank .... ... ...... .. ....... .... .. ... ... ... .. 21
,.._ ............... ......................... .. ..... .. ... 48
..... Reck .. .... .... ... .. .... .. .... .. .......... .. .... .. 48
..... Bibb ...... ...... .. ........... ............ ..... ... 33
Hal-. Senrice .... ..... ...... ............ .......... ..
HaYIItSewer... .. .... .. ...... ......................... 86
.. .... .. .. ........ .. ......................... 66
.. .. ... .. ... ................ . ..... .. ...... 66
HOUIIIIIdd W.. Supply .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. 14
IncineratOr ....... ...... , .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. 110
lndiYidu8l Vent .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. 92
Indirect Siphouq ...... .. ....... ·.... ..... ......... 88
Industrial w-..... .... .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. ..... .. .. . 128
lnspec1ion aod T.a ...... ..... ... .... ... .. .......... 101
Kitchen Sink . .. ...... .. .... .. . 172. 173, 174, 176, 176
Key Cock .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 32
203
204
L
Lavatories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Lavatory Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
LavatorY witt. a Pop up Drain . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . 180
Lead Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
L.eaching Cet8POOI Oiapo681. .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1t 1
Lift Check .... .... ... .. .. 31
liftPump ........ .. ....... .......... .. . ...... ......... 5
liquid Municipal Waste ... ............... ......... 123
Looped Vent .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 98
M
Manhole .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . • .. . . 104
Mierophor Flush Toiiet ...... . , .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . 1<10
Momentum Siphonage .... .. .. . .. .... .. .. .... ....... 86
N
Siphon<lge ..... ...... ... ... .... .. .. ...... .. .. ...... .... . 86
Siphon Vonex ..... .. ........... .. .......... .. .. ..... 143
Size of Roof Leader and Gutter ...... .. .. ...... ..
Size of Sanitary Drain ·....... ................... .. .. 100
Size of Pipe .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 99
Sludge ......... ............. ......... .. .... .. .. ..... .. 126
Solid Waste Recovery Project .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 120
Solid Municipal Wa.te .......... .... ... .. .. ......... 121
Sources of Water .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . .. . 2, 26
Sprinklers ............. .. ... , .. . .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. . 49
Sprinklers Head . ........... .. . ..... .... . .. . ... ... ..... 50
Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Standby Power .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. 46
Storm Drain .......... .. .......... ........ 56
Storm Water System . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 54
Storage Tank . .. . .. . .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ...... 8
Suction Tank .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. ...... .. .. . .. .. 9. 38
Swing Check Valve ... .. ... .... .. .. .. ... ... . .. ...... 31
National Plumbing Codes . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 73 T
0
Oakum .......... . .... .. .. .. ... ........................ 70
Offset Bend ................ .... ........ .. . , .......... 68
p
Peak Load .... ..... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... ..... .. .. ........ .
• Pendent ...... .......... . .. .. ... ..... ... .. ...... .. .. .. ..
Perforated Pipe .............................. ........ .
Pipe Fittings ....... .......... ............... .. ....... .
Pipe Chase .... .... ..... .. .......... .... . .. . ... ........ .
Plastic Pipes ... .... . ....... .. .... . . ...... ........ .. .. .
Plug .. .. ... .. . ... ....... .... , ........ ....... .. .. ..... ... ..
Plumbing System ......... .... ... ........... ........ .
Polyvinyl Chloride .. . .. .. .... ........ ....... .. ...... ..
Polyethylene ...... . .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. . .
Polybutylene . ......... ......... ................. .... . .
Pressure Regulator .. . .. .......... ..... ....... ... .. .
Privy ......... ... .... ... . .......... . .. . .. .... ....... .. .
Pumps ....... ..... .... .. ........ .. .. ...... ... ... . .. .... .
Pumping Circuit System ... ... ... ................ . .
R
Recycling of Water .. ... ............ .. ............ ..
Reciprocating Pump ........... ...... .. .. ........... .
Recycling Solid Waste .......... ........... ..... ... .
R11flected Sprinkler Plan ........ .. .. .. .. ....... .. . .
Refuse Handling .. .. ...... .. ... .... ........ .... ..
Roof Drain . .. ....... .......... ...... .. .. .... ......... ..
Roof leader .. .. .. .... ........ .. .. .............. ... . ..
Roof Leader and Gutter
s
Sanitary Drainage System . . .......... ........... .
Sanitary Systems .. .. .... ....... ....... ........ .... ..
Sanitary Landfills .. .. .. .. .... . .. ...... ....... ... . ... .
Sedimentation ....... .. ........................ ..... .
Septic Tanks ... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... .. .... . .. .
Sewage Disposal System ...... ........... ......... .
Sewage Treatment Work ...... .. .. ................ .
................ . ...... .. . .... ... .... . ..
Si'!mese Conn«:tioo .... ... . , .. . .. .... .. ... .... .. ... .
26
50
55
15
ffl
75
17
64
18
18
18
33
104
4-8
20
130
6
118
51
110
61
59
59
64
65
122
3
128
104
131
169
48
Tank and Ciatem capacities.. ............ .. ........ 116
Trap Seal Loss .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 85
Trap Seal .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 86
Tr.etment of Water . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. 3
Trickling Filter .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . 126
Tub Fixture Ammgement.. ........ .. ...... ......... 189
u
Upfaed System .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 310
Upfaed and Gravity Return System.. ... ....... . . . 37
Unioo .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .... .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 17
Unioo Vent............ ........... .. .. .......... ........ 93
Urinals.... ................ . ... .. .... .. .......... ... ...... lffl
v
v ..... ea .. .. ..................... ....... .... ............... 30
Vents ..... .... ........ ..... ... . .. .. .. .... . ... .. ... .. .. .. 90
....................... .. . .. ......... .... .. .. 90, 98
Vitrified Clay Pipe .. .. ..... .. ..... .. ..... .. .. ......... 25
w
Waste .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. . . ... .. .. 121
Water .... ....... ... .... .. ..... ......... ....... ......... 7
Water Treatment .. .. . . ...... ...... .. . .... .. .. .. ..... 3
Water Supply Equipment .. .... ......... .... . -..... 4
Water Re<:lamation Plant .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 136
Water Closet . .. . .... .. . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 144
Water Hammer . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 34
Waste Pipe Size.. ........... .. .......... . ........ .. ... 99
Waste Disposal .. .• .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. l21
Wells ......... ......... ........ .. ..... ........ ........... 4
Wet Pipe System .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
WetVent .............. ........ ............. ... . .. .... 98
y
Yoke Ventila1ion .... .. .. .................... .... .... 98, 97
z
Zoning ..... .... .. ..... ....... .. . .. ... ..... . .. .. .... .... .. 42

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