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: RCOO Na / RCOO K R is an group which contain to carbon atoms.
Babylonians made soap around 2800 B.C.
The history of soap manufacturing.
Purifying oils is recorded on Hebrew Tables around 4000 B.C. Ash + Lime – Caustic potash Caustic Potash + fats – soap
Process of making soap ashes or sodium carbonate from common salt is patented by Nicholas Leblane (French).
Michel Chevreul (French) discovered animal fats are cmposed of fatty acids and glycerol ( Causes rapid development of soap & candle.)
Sodium carbonate Na CO is produced cheaply & used for glass making , soaps and detergent.
After 20 years, Ernest Solvay ( Belgian Chemist) developed Solvay process.
Later on, vegetables oil is used to replace animal fats.
Solvay Process ( obtained from heating CaCo ) is passed into concentrated NaCl solution which is saturated with ammonia . NaCl +NH +H O + CO – Na HCO +NH Cl - NaHCO is then heated to obtain soda. 2NaHCO – Na CO +H O +CO .
C H COONa 2) Sodium oleate. (Fats.III) Preparation of Soap by Saponification Saponification is a process whereby It is also the alkaline of using alkaline solutions. C H COONa 3) Sodium stearate. Properties of soap depends on a) type of used for saponification b) type of or vegetable oils used 2 . colouring matter and antiseptic.tallow from cow) ( Vegetable oils – palm oil or olive oil) For example. Example of soap. Production of soap can be precipitated by adding common salt to the reaction mixture in order to reduce the solubility of soap in water.additives are used such as perfume.Glyceryl tristearates is a naturally occuring esters found in fats or oils. . 1) sodium palmitate. C H COONa To enhance the soap’s marketability.
The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions which consists two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ 1. Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions. charged 2. IV) Structure of soap molecule. is ( like to dissolves water) b) the ‘Tail’ 1. When soap is dissolved in water. it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and ions. There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion. Example : R – O – SO Na Divide into two types: ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring) R- . charged chain ( do not like to dissolves water) 2. milder than sodium soap which can be used for bathing.S – O Na R SO 3 . It is a kind of . is a long 3.Potassium soap are softer. is I ) Definition of Detergent Detergent is a . contains the – C – O – ion 3. a) Detergent.
.can be prepared from alcohols with chain Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates Starting materials . the cracking of petroleum. obtained from lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms. RCH = CH .Sodium alkyl sulphate ( without a ring) R – OSO b) Detergent Head of the detergent particle contains a positively charged ion.long chain alkene.Step 1: Reaction with Concentrated Step 1 : ( introduction of the alkyl group to Step 2 : Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution an organic molecule) Step 2 : ( introduction of the sulphonic acid group to an organic molecule to form sulphonic acid) 4 . Example : R – N(CH ) Br c) detergent Example : R –O –CH CH OH II) Preparation of Detergent Sodium alkyl sulphate .
. neutral 2.The part of the soap/ detergent anion dissolve in grease while the hydrophilic part is attracted to molecule. Process of the cleaning action of soap and detergent. 4. the hydrocarbon (hydrophobic)soluble in oil/ grease.III) The Structure of Detergent Molecule When a detergent is dissolved in water. agitation during scrubbing helps the process of emulsfication occurs whereby the grease is broken into small droplets. . The droplets is rinsed and washed away and leave the surface clean. . It consists of two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ ( group.Because of the forces of attraction between molecules and -charged heads.SO) 1. Anion consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylate group on one end. These droplets are suspended in water to form . the grease begins to be lifted off the surface when the water is agitated slightly.A piece of cloth is stained with grease and then dipped into soap/ detergent water.OSO / group . Oil cannot be washed away from clothing with water only as it is a covalent molecule which is insoluble in water.The droplets do not and on the surface of the cloth due to the repulsion between the charges on the surface. Thus. 2. it dissociates to form and ions. sodium soap dissolves in water to form soap (-ions) and sodium (+ions). carboxylate group (hydrophilic) soluble in water. hydrophobic ( hates water) ions Thecleansingactionofsoapanddetergent The cleansing action of soaps and detergent results from the ability to the surface tension of water. to oil/ grease and to hold them in in water This can be occurred due to their and the . . 1. . 3. ( like water) b) the ‘Tail’ ( long hydrocarbon chain) 1. the ability of water increases. . the surface of cloth is wetted thouroughly. 5 . charged 2.Through this.
proteases. A grey scum (Magnesium stearate & calcium stearate) will be produced in hard water 3. To convert stains into substances. Example 7 . To control in detergent. Do not cause pollution as soaps are made from fats and oils and can be decomposed by the action of bacteria. To add to the bulk of the detergent and enable to pour it at ease.Additives Builders Function Example Drying agents Fragrances Foam control agents Optical whitener Suspension agents Biological enzymes Whitening agents Sodium tripolyphosphate To enhance the efficiency of detergent by the water.H ion from rainwater (acid) will react with soap ions to produce carboxylic acid molecules of large molecular size that are insoluble in water.( water does not contain Mg & Ca ions) 2. Ineffective in hard water. Sodium sulphate To ensure that the detergent in powdered form Sodium silicate is always in condition. Fluorescent dyes To add and whiteness to white fabrics. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) V) The effectiveness of soaps and detergents as cleansing agents Cleansing agents Soap Advantages 1. To increase the value of water. To remove stains such as blood. Sodium perborate To make the fabrics whiter and more beautiful. Carboxymethylcellulose To prevent dirt particles removed from (CMC) onto cleaned fabrics. Amylases . 2.( exist as molecules & do not have hydrophilic ends) . Disadvantages 1. To break down and protein molecules cellulases and lipases in food stains. Not effective in acid water. To add to both detergent and fabrics. very effective in soft water to wash clothes.
1. Additives (sodium hypochlorite ) releases chlorine gas that is highly toxic and kills aquatic life. 8 . non-biodegradable 2. effective in soft water and hard water. effective in acidic water as H ions is not combine with detergent ions. Decrease in oxygen content in water and the aquatic lives are given the harm. ( magnesium salt and calcium salts are formed aand soluble in water) ( scum is not formed) 2.structure of hydrocarbon chain can be modified to produce detergent. Synthetic cleansing agents . 5. fish and other aquatic lives face the death. 3. a lot of foam will be produced in water that prevent oxygen from dissolving in water. 3. water pollution occurs.Detergent 1.As a result.( phosphates in detergents) 4.
To preserve sauces. To maintain the colour of meat.B) FOOD ADDITIVES . . Maintain the colour and freshness of vegetables. Antioxidants. To make the meat look fresh.salts. sausage. Preservatives Salt sugar Vinegar Sodium nitrite NaNO Sodium nitrate NaNO Molecular Formula Uses water out of the cells of microorganisms the growth of microorganisms. . To prevent thr growth of . vinegar and sugar have been used for centuries to preserve food. C H COOH C H COONa Sulphur dioxide Sodium sulphate SO Na SO Used as to prevent browning in fuits. fruit juice.food containing fats or oils are oxidised and become rancid when exposed to air. 9 . Th rancid products are volatile organic compounds with 4 odours. To the meat. – substance added to food to slow down and prevent the growth of microorganisms in order to kepp the lasts longer. Provides condition that the growth of microorganisms. jams and margarine. . cheese and dried fish. This makes the food unpalatable. To prevent food in canned food.Type of Food Additives and Their Functions 1. 2.added to food to i) pevent oxidation that causes fats and foods ii) to slow down the process.Definition of Food Additives – are natural or synthetic substance which are added to food to: i) ii) iii) iv) v) .
. odourless powder. .Flavourings are the largest group of food additives. It exists as solid fine white crystal. approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar.Function : to improve the taste of food restore taste loss due to processing. C H COOH) Antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) Sodium citrate Vitamin C Uses Stimulates the immune systems. MSG is not allowed in baby foods and less used for the adults. 10 . .salad dressings .Exp : monosodium glutamate (MSG) MSG is a sodium salt of .Flavor enchancers are chemicals that are added to food to bring out the flavours/ to enhance the tastes of food.There are 2 types of flavourings : i) . It is added to savoury prepared and processed .canned and dry soups .meat and fish based products In order to protect the public health.frozen foods . . Preserve the colour of friut juice. Vitamin E 3. Reduce the risk of heart diseases and cancer.It is used in a variety of foodstuffs.spice mixes .( exp : butanoic acid.Aspartame is a . Flavourings . ii) Aspartame .
. Thickeners . 5.a substance which helps to prevent on ( oil /water droplets suspended in water/oil droplets) from separating out.It is used in margarine. o Exp :pentyl ethanoate.Many of compounds are used to produce artificial flavours belong to the homologous series of esters. Is not digested.are chemicals that are added to food to the liquid and to prevent the food from .Exp : diet drinks and soft drinks .Synthetic Essences o contain which are made to resemble natural flavour. Stabilizers . 6. Forms a firm jel when there is sufficient sugar in a mixture. butter.They are natural . Used in jams and jellies.exp : lecithin.. .It is when dry or frozen but breaks down and loses its sweetness over a time when stored in liquids at temperature above 30.enhance its visual appeal . To thicken yogurt. Dyes . . mono. 4. ice cream and salad cream. To thicken chewing gum. . CH COOC H – give banana flavour and is cheaper to use. Can be considered as a beneficial and dietary fibre. .and di-glycerides of fatty acids. .is used to add or restore the colour in food in order to .chemicals that are added to food to give the colour so as to improve the appearance of food.match consumer expectations 11 . jelly and wine.They absorb water and thicken the liquid in food to produce a jelly-like structure.Exp: Thickeners Explanation Used in instant soups and puddings. .
. custard powders.give colour to food that have no colour. Caused by tartrazine (additives) Difficul to sleep or relax and felt restles. BHA and BHT .they are more uniform.artificial food dyes are oftenly used . ( Brain damage Hyperactivity The Rationale for Using Food Additives To prevent food spoilage. Cancer Caused by (sodium nitrite) Nitrite reacts with amines to produce cause cancer) Caused by excessive intake of . sweets and apricot jam.5). red cabbage sweet potatoes * have antioxidants properties. less .yellow) . Effects Explanation Allergy Caused by Sodium sulphite.many food dyes are i) compounds ( red .main trend in colour of food towards the use of natural colours is * found in red grapes. Cause an diseases named ‘ (giddiness. orange.orang drinks.. MSG and food dyes( yellow No. Effect of Food Additives on Health. . chest pain and difficulty in breathing) Cause ‘ diseases occuring on babies which iits synptoms is lacking of oxygen and the presence of sodium nitrate /nitrite. Advantages To improve nutritional value Medical reasons 12 . green) . iii) compounds( blue-brilliant blue FCF.
Can be obtained from and animals.it is classified as i) traditional medicine is a medicine derived from natural resources without being processed chemically.medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure or to reduce pain and suffering due to . Some of it interacts with medications resulting in serious side reactions. Any medicinal plant containing is potentially toxic to liver. .Life without food additives Food spoilage always occur Diseases will occur oftenly Malnutrition will occur particularly. C) MEDICINE . Exp : garlic capsules combined with diabetes medication can cause a sudden decrease in blood sugar 13 .
ii) Modern Medicine they usually contain a mixture of active ingredients prepared in different forms such as capsules. nausea. o Acts as an Cause allergy anticoagulant – reactions. prevent clotting blood. citric acid and aspirin to neutralises the excess stomach acid. Exp: (used as antacid) contains sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo ). depression. Cause liver damage. Codeine Cause addiction. period pains) o Does not irritate the stomach to bleed. solution and suspensions. Paracetamol neutral o To relieve mild to moderate pain (headache. can be classified as follows based on their sffect on the human body : a) (painkillers) medicines that relieve pain without causing numbness or affecting consciousness. skin rashes. muscle aches and joint aches. backache . Causes skin rashes. Analgesics Uses Side effect Aspirin o Reduce fever Cause brain and liver damage of illed o Relieve headaches. pills. o Reduce the risk of heart attack and strokes. blood disorders and acute inflammation of the pancreas. children. Cause bleeding in the o Treat arthritis stomach.muscle and joint pain. asthmatic attacks. drownsiness .
• Is a strong analgesics. .• Is a nacortic drugs.
b) antibiotics Cemicals that destroy / prevent the growth of infected microorganisms. Cause Streptomycin whooping cough nausea. streptomyces Loss of hearing following long term use. Side effects Cause addiction . naturally occuring stimulant found in coffee. iii) Amphetamines Strong synthetic stimulants Increase alertness & physical ability. ii) caffeine weak. mould penicillium Cause daeth for gonorrhoea. Antibiotics Uses Side effects o Treat diseases Penicillin Cause allergic caused by bacteria Derived from the reactions such as oneumonia. syphilis notatum people who and tuberculosis. Obtained from bacteria/fungi. Produced by soil and and some forms dizziness. Broken down by acid in the stomach. Will not cure the infection caused by viruses such as cold and flu. o Treat tuberculosis.vomitng. Uses i) Adrenaline A need in demanding energetic activities. tea and cola drinks. c) psychotherapeutic medicines. and fever. A group of dugs for treating mental / emotional ilness. rashes bacteris at the genus of pneumonia. allergiuc at it. Increase the heart *repiration rates & blood pressure. Psychotherapeutic medicines Stimulants A medicine which activates the level of arousal and alertness of the central nervous system to reduce fatigue and elevate moon in most people.
Avoid rewarding children with junk food . calm and relax individual in low doses. However. schizophrenia (loses touch with reality) blurred vision. urimary retention. Use appropriate amounts of detergents. coma and death if overdose. ! Drug Abuse – taking drugs excessively and without a doctor ’s prescription. Medicines No self medication . Avoid foods with additives which you are sensitive to . i) tranquilizers to clam down a person reduce tension & anxiety cause drowsiness. Food additives Be wise when we consume the food with food additives. detergents . poor coordination and light headedness.the examples of drugs are ectasy and ice. food additives and medicine play an important role in our life . D) THE EXISTENCE OF CHEMICALS The chemicals for consumers such as soap. tremor and less rrest as well as sedation(more clmer/sleepy) i) Barbituarates To sedate. Some proper management of these chemicals :Detergents Wear gloves when working with strong detergents to protect your hands . To treat psychiatrie illness such as Cause mild. Do not take medicine prescribed for someone else . sleeplessness. Use biodegradable detergents . respiratory difficulties. . constipation. Avoid consuming too much salt and sugar .Antidepressants Medicine used primarily in the treatment of depression. they can contribute negative effects to our health and the environment if these chemicals are not used wisely . Antipsychotic i) chlorpromazine ii) haloperidol iii) clozapine Cause sleep (high dose) Cause addiction and habit forming Cause death. dry mouth.
Do not overdose . Keep away from children . Follow your doctor ’s instruction for taking medicine . Intensive scientific research must be carried out to produce new substances and this takes more time . . Check for expiry date . Scientists must patient and persevere for their research and development to produce new chemicals in future .
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